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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

On the small-scale stability of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a numerical model which allows us to investigate thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernova explosions. The model is based on a finite-volume explicit hydrodynamics solver employing PPM. Using the level-set technique combined with in-cell reconstruction and flux-splitting schemes we are able to describe the flame in the discontinuity approximation. We apply our implementation to flame propagation in Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia supernova models. In particular we concentrate on intermediate scales between the flame width and the Gibson-scale, where the burning front is subject to the Landau-Darrieus instability. We are able to reproduce the theoretical prediction on the growth rates of perturbations in the linear regime and observe the stabilization of the flame in a cellular shape. The increase of the mean burning velocity due to the enlarged flame surface is measured. Results of our simulation are in agreement with semianalytical studies.

F. K. Roepke; J. C. Niemeyer; W. Hillebrandt

2003-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

2

Small-scale Interaction of Turbulence with Thermonuclear Flames in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopic turbulence-flame interactions of thermonuclear fusion flames occuring in Type Ia Supernovae were studied by means of incompressible direct numerical simulations with a highly simplified flame description. The flame is treated as a single diffusive scalar field with a nonlinear source term. It is characterized by its Prandtl number, Pr << 1, and laminar flame speed, S_L. We find that if S_L ~ u', where u' is the rms amplitude of turbulent velocity fluctuations, the local flame propagation speed does not significantly deviate from S_L even in the presence of velocity fluctuations on scales below the laminar flame thickness. This result is interpreted in the context of subgrid-scale modeling of supernova explosions and the mechanism for deflagration-detonation-transitions.

J. C. Niemeyer; W. K. Bushe; G. R. Ruetsch

1999-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

3

Turbulence Effects at Small Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is most natural to assume that mysterious Small Ionized and Neutral Structures (SINS) indiffuse ISM arise from turbulence. There are two obvious problem with such an explanation, however. First of all, it is generally believed that at the small scales turbulence should be damped. Second, turbulence with Kolmogorov spectrum cannot be the responsible for the SINS. We consider, however, effects, that provide spectral index flatter than the Kolmogorov one and allow action at very small scales. These are the shocks that arise in high Mach number turbulence and transfer of energy to small scales by instabilities in cosmic rays. Our examples indicate that the origin of SINS may be discovered through systematic studies of astrophysical turbulence.

A. Beresnyak; A. Lazarian

2006-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

Small-Scale Energy Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Oregon Small-Scale Energy Loan Program (SELP) - created in 1981 after voters approved a constitutional amendment authorizing the sale of bonds to finance small-scale, local energy projects - is...

5

Method and system for small scale pumping  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

Insepov, Zeke (Darien, IL); Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL)

2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

6

Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Note: On July 10, 2013, the Clean Energy Development Fund Board approved changes to the Small Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program, effective October 1, 2013. Beginning in October, wind...

7

Transition from Large-Scale to Small-Scale Dynamo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The is governed by a generalized {alpha} effect, which includes both the usual {alpha} effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized {alpha} effect scales as O(Rm{sup -1}), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

Ponty, Y. [Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, B.P. 4229, Nice cedex 04 (France); Plunian, F. [Institut des Sciences de la Terre, CNRS, Universite Joseph Fourier, B.P. 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 09 (France)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production Breakout Session 2A-Conversion...

9

Small Scale Poultry Production Breed Selection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small Scale Poultry Production Breed Selection Cindy Sanders, Ph.D. ­ UF/IFAS Alachua County Extension #12;`Alternative' Poultry Production · Pastured Poultry ­ Access to pasture daily ­ Options include: open-bottomed pen moved daily, day-range, chicken tractor. · Free Range Poultry ­ Demonstrated

Jawitz, James W.

10

Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna n  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small-scale spatial variation of benthic algal assemblages in a peat bog Katerina Cerna n test Peat bog a b s t r a c t Spatial patterns on a very small scale (10 cm), and the effect microhabitat types were investigated. Samples were taken in a peat bog along linear transects on a scale of 10

11

Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

12

Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa A Technical Report Submitted@iastate.edu #12;2Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa April 2011 Overview of Findings Iowa;3Exploring Small-Scale Meat Processing Expansions in Iowa April 2011 Introduction Iowa is a national leader

Debinski, Diane M.

13

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

14

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Project Title: Small Scale Electrical...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map |...

15

Microsoft Word - Outdoor Small- and Pilot-Scale Research and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

regulations); conventional laboratory operations (such as preparation of chemical standards and sample analysis); and small-scale pilot projects (generally less than 2...

16

Evaluation of Niche Markets For Small Scale Forest Products Companies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of Niche Markets For Small Scale Forest Products Companies Jan J. Hacker Resource.....................................................................................................................49 2 #12;Evaluation of Niche Markets for Small Scale Forest Products Companies 1.0 Introduction companies might identify and exploit them. Strategies employed by various companies and organizations within

17

DESIGN OPTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE SHARED MEMORY MULTIPROCESSORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i DESIGN OPTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE SHARED MEMORY MULTIPROCESSORS by Luiz André Barroso Copyright 1996 Luiz André Barroso #12;ii to Jacqueline Chame #12;iii Acknowledgments During my stay at USC I

Barroso, Luiz André

18

SOLAR SMALL-SCALE MAGNETOCONVECTION R. F. Stein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR SMALL-SCALE MAGNETOCONVECTION R. F. Stein Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State 16 ABSTRACT Magnetoconvection simulations on mesogranule and granule scales near the solar surface- ing of the solar outer atmosphere: the chromosphere, corona, and heliosphere. Convective motions drive

Stein, Robert

19

Small Scale CHP and Fuel Cell Incentive Program (New Jersey)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The New Jersey Clean Energy Program (NJCEP) offers incentives for several types of small combined heat and power (CHP) and fuel cell systems that have a generating capacity of 1 MW or less and are...

20

The UNEP Project CD4CDM BUNDLING SMALL-SCALE CDM PROJECTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modalities & Procedures for small-scale CDM project activities 58 #12;Bundling Small-Scale Projects ­ ReportThe UNEP Project CD4CDM BUNDLING SMALL-SCALE CDM PROJECTS December, 2004 H V Kumar S V Kulkarni;Bundling Small-Scale Projects ­ Report, October 31, 2004 - 2 - Bundling Small-Scale CDM Projects Unep Risø

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Economic assessment of small-scale electricity generation from wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis was done to determine if small-scale wind energy could be economically feasible on a cotton farm with 1,200 irrigated acres, a house, and a barn. Lubbock and Midland were locations chosen for this model farm and the twenty-year analysis. A...

McAllister, Kristen Dawn

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Introduction Fracture at small length scales is a concern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Fracture at small length scales is a concern in many advanced technologies. Micro. These constrained geometries localize cracking so that fracture may not compromise the structural integrity functions. For example, lo- calized fracture of a dielectric film adjacent to a conducting line

Suo, Zhigang

23

Growth of small-scale inhomogeneities in photodissociation lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is found that interaction between radiation and small-scale optical inhomogeneities results in the growth of a transverse radiation and density structure as a result of stimulated thermal scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering processes in the active medium of a photodissociation laser. Perturbations having diffraction-limited transverse dimensions grow most rapidly.

Likhanskii, V.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

SMALL SCALE WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Claudine Ellyin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in operation. The investigation included both existing grate combustion plants and novel processes. The Energos grate gasification and combustion technology is currently in operation at six plants in Norway1 SMALL SCALE WASTE-TO-ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Claudine Ellyin Advisor: Prof. Nickolas J. Themelis

25

Streamers generation by small-scale drift-Alfvn waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Excitation of streamers by modulationally unstable small-scale drift-Alfvn wave (SSDAW) is investigated. It is found that the excitation depends strongly on the propagation direction of the SSDAW, and the ion and electron diamagnetic drift waves are both unstable due to the generation of streamers. It is also shown that zonal flows can be effectively excited by the SSDAW with the propagation direction different from that for streamer excitation.

Zhao, J. S. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China and Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

Whitehead, J.

1995-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

27

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNLs test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the relevant physical properties projected for actual WTP process streams.

Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities, is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations published in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials present in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty introduced by extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches in which the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are largely absent. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine the aerosol release fractions and aerosol generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents (AFA) was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of anti-foam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width length) 0.3 5 to 2.74 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. Two key technical areas were identified where testing results were needed to improve the technical basis by reducing the uncertainty due to extrapolating existing literature results. The first technical need was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where the slurry particles may plug and result in substantially reduced, or even negligible, respirable fraction formed by high-pressure sprays. The second technical need was to determine the aerosol droplet size distribution and volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, specifically including sprays from larger breaches with slurries where data from the literature are scarce. To address these technical areas, small- and large-scale test stands were constructed and operated with simulants to determine aerosol release fractions and net generation rates from a range of breach sizes and geometries. The properties of the simulants represented the range of properties expected in the WTP process streams and included water, sodium salt solutions, slurries containing boehmite or gibbsite, and a hazardous chemical simulant. The effect of antifoam agents was assessed with most of the simulants. Orifices included round holes and rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width length) 0.3 5 to 2.74 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for Organic...

32

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cultivation of maize landraces by small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador Meryl of small-scale shade coffee farmers in western El Salvador. We conducted household interviews and focus

Vermont, University of

33

A Review of "Small-Scale Wind Turbines Policy Perspectives and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ERG/200607 A Review of "Small-Scale Wind Turbines ­ Policy Perspectives and Recommendations of Engineering Mathematics at Dalhousie University. #12;Hughes-Long: A Review of Small-Scale Wind Turbines proposed changes to their municipal Bylaws to allow the installation of "small-scale" wind turbines (i

Hughes, Larry

34

SCALE-FREE AND SMALL-WORLD NETWORKS IN GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCALE-FREE AND SMALL-WORLD NETWORKS IN GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH: A CRITICAL EXAMINATION1 Laurent to examine how two recent models of networks (i.e. scale-free and small-world) have been integrated their influence in further works on networks. First, we propose a critical review of the ,,scale- free and ,,small

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Small scale turbulence and instabilities observed simultaneously by radiosondes and the MU radar.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small scale turbulence and instabilities observed simultaneously by radiosondes and the MU radar. R-French field campaign devoted to study small-scale turbulence and instabilities in the lower atmosphere for retrieving small-scale turbulence parameters from ST radars. However, the dominant sources

36

Efficient small-scale dynamo in solar convection zone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate small-scale dynamo action in the solar convection zone through a series of high resolution MHD simulations in a local Cartesian domain with 1$R_\\odot$ (solar radius) of horizontal extent and a radial extent from 0.715 to 0.96$R_\\odot$. The dependence of the solution on resolution and diffusivity is studied. For a grid spacing of less than 350 km, the root mean square magnetic field strength near the base of the convection zone reaches 95% of the equipartition field strength (i.e. magnetic and kinetic energy are comparable). For these solutions the Lorentz force feedback on the convection velocity is found to be significant. The velocity near the base of the convection zone is reduced to 50% of the hydrodynamic one. In spite of a significant decrease of the convection velocity, the reduction in the enthalpy flux is relatively small, since the magnetic field also suppresses the horizontal mixing of the entropy between up- and downflow regions. This effect increases the amplitude of the entropy pe...

Hotta, H; Yokoyama, T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

Brown, E.; Mann, M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IntroductionIntroduction The use of small scale vertical axis wind turbinesThe use of small scale vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using(VAWT) is being studied at McMaster University using a prototype wind turbine provided bya prototype wind turbine provided

Tullis, Stephen

39

Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

THE EXTREME SMALL SCALES: DO SATELLITE GALAXIES TRACE DARK MATTER?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the radial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos as measured in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by modeling their small-scale clustering. Specifically, we model the Jiang et al. measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function down to very small projected separations (10 h{sup -1} kpc {<=} r {<=} 400 h{sup -1} kpc), in a wide range of luminosity threshold samples (absolute r-band magnitudes of -18 up to -23). We use a halo occupation distribution framework with free parameters that specify both the number and spatial distribution of galaxies within their host dark matter halos. We assume one galaxy resides in the halo center and additional galaxies are considered satellites that follow a radial density profile similar to the dark matter Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile, except that the concentration and inner slope are allowed to vary. We find that in low luminosity samples (M{sub r} < -19.5 and lower), satellite galaxies have radial profiles that are consistent with NFW. M{sub r} < -20 and brighter satellite galaxies have radial profiles with significantly steeper inner slopes than NFW (we find inner logarithmic slopes ranging from -1.6 to -2.1, as opposed to -1 for NFW). We define a useful metric of concentration, M{sub 1/10}, which is the fraction of satellite galaxies (or mass) that are enclosed within one-tenth of the virial radius of a halo. We find that M{sub 1/10} for low-luminosity satellite galaxies agrees with NFW, whereas for luminous galaxies it is 2.5-4 times higher, demonstrating that these galaxies are substantially more centrally concentrated within their dark matter halos than the dark matter itself. Our results therefore suggest that the processes that govern the spatial distribution of galaxies, once they have merged into larger halos, must be luminosity dependent, such that luminous galaxies become poor tracers of the underlying dark matter.

Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 1807 Station B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Hogg, David W.; Jiang Tao [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Potential small-scale development of western oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle Development of an Efficient, Cost- Effective System to Recover Medium- Grade...

43

Microsoft Word - Indoor Small- and Pilot-Scale Research and Developmen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

regulations); conventional laboratory operations (such as preparation of chemical standards and sample analysis); and small-scale pilot projects (generally less than 2...

44

A feasibility study of Increasing Small Scale Solar Power in Sri Lanka.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The following report is conducted as a feasibility study, aimed to objectively uncover the advantages and challenges of increasing the amount of small scale (more)

Hagmar, Hannes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Griffith 4/2004 Small Scale His Tag Enzyme Purification with TALON Affinity Column Resin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Griffith 4/2004 Small Scale His Tag Enzyme Purification with TALON Affinity Column Resin Overview: This is a small scale method for purifying a His-tagged protein using commercial affinity resin. Materials: TALON rotor, at 18 K rpm) at 4 °C. 7. Save supernatant fraction for column purification. Supernatant can

Doering, Tamara

46

Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

47

Biodiesel Safety and Best Management Practices for Small-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The following gear should be on hand each time you produce biodiesel: Chemical-resistant gloves (butyl rubber is best for methanol and lye) Chemistry goggles (indirect vented) and face shield Dust mask or cartridge respirator Eyewash bottle with saline solution Small spray bottle with vinegar for neutralizing lye spills Access to running water Telephone in case of emergency and emergency telephone numbers Fire extinguishers (ABC or CO) 2

Noncommercial Use

48

Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program (SMART Scale) - 2014  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from the GridwiseSite Management Guide SiteEnergy SmallAssessment Report |ofFuel

49

Design of a small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration module  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new small-scale continuous linear motion pharmaceutical filtration prototype was designed, fabricated, and tested. The goal of this unit is to filter an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from a mixture of API ...

Wong, Katherine Wing-Shan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Georgia Power- Small and Medium Scale Advanced Solar Initiative (GPASI) (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: The application process for the small and medium scale solar programs began on March 1, 2013 and will continue through March 11, 2013. If completed applications exceed program capacity...

51

Indianapolis Power and Light- Small-Scale Renewable Energy Incentive Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

'''''Note: The Small-Scale Renewable Energy Program is currently closed for residential customers. Applications received during this time will be placed on a waiting list. Funds are still available...

52

Unsteady aerodynamic forces on small-scale wings: experiments, simulations and models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unsteady aerodynamic forces on small-scale wings: experiments, simulations and models Steven L for the unsteady aerodynamics. It is possible to obtain reduced order models by projective methods such as balanced

Dabiri, John O.

53

Limitations for detecting small-scale faults using the coherency analysis of seismic data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coherency analyzes the trace to trace amplitude similarities recorded by seismic waves. Coherency algorithms have been used to identify the structural or stratigraphic features of an area but the limitations for detecting small-scale features...

Barnett, David Benjamin

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

54

of SOHO `Waves, Oscillations SmallScale Transient in Solar Atmosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of SOHO `Waves, Oscillations Small­Scale Transient in Solar Atmosphere: A Joint from SOHO TRACE identified from SUMER Atlas Curdt (2001). studied shifts widths 703.87 ? 8 ? 4 coronal ## 706.02 ?(# 6

55

Thermal design of humidification dehumidification systems for affordable and small-scale desalination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is a carrier-gas-based thermal desalination technique ideal for application in a small-scale system but, currently, has a high cost of water production (about 30 $/m ...

Govindan, Prakash Narayan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Microsoft Word - 12-9127826-001 NGNP Heat Transport Small Scale...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will be used to identify Technical and Functional Requirements of a small-scale, high-temperature, high pressure helium test loop. 2.1 Major Tasks There are three major...

57

Microsoft Word - 12-9127825-001 NGNP Heat Transport Small Scale...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

will be used to identify Technical and Functional Requirements of a small scale, high temperature, and high pressure helium test loop. 2.1 Major Tasks There are three...

58

Radiation and dissipation of internal waves generated by geostrophic motions impinging on small-scale topography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations and inverse models suggest that small-scale turbulent mixing is enhanced in the Southern Ocean in regions above rough topography. The enhancement extends 1 km above the topography suggesting that mixing is ...

Nikurashin, Maxim (Maxim Anatolevich)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Comment on ``Power law catchment-scale recessions arising from heterogeneous linear small-scale dynamics''  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale dynamics'' by C. J. Harman, M. Sivapalan, and P. Kumar Jozsef Szilagyi1,2 Received 23 June 2009; revised 9 September 2009; accepted 20 October 2009; published 11 December 2009. Citation: Szilagyi, J. (2009), Comment

Szilagyi, Jozsef

63

Small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in a turbulent convection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field and nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in a turbulent convection. We show that the nonlinear drift velocities are caused by the three kinds of the inhomogeneities, i.e., inhomogeneous turbulence; the nonuniform fluid density and the nonuniform turbulent heat flux. The inhomogeneous turbulence results in the well-known turbulent diamagnetic and paramagnetic velocities. The nonlinear drift velocities of the mean magnetic field cause the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the turbulent convection. These phenomena are different from the large-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects which are due to the effect of the mean magnetic field on the large-scale density stratified fluid flow. The small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping can be stronger than these large-scale effects when the mean magnetic field is smaller than the equipartition field. We discuss the small-scale magnetic buoyancy and magnetic pumping effects in the context of the solar and stellar turbulent convection. We demonstrate also that the nonlinear turbulent magnetic diffusion in the turbulent convection is anisotropic even for a weak mean magnetic field. In particular, it is enhanced in the radial direction. The magnetic fluctuations due to the small-scale dynamo increase the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the toroidal component of the mean magnetic field, while they do not affect the turbulent magnetic diffusion of the poloidal field.

I. Rogachevskii; N. Kleeorin

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

64

Development of scaling rules for Rutherford type superconducting cables  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the R D phase of the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) program, LBL was responsible for establishing the parameters for cables used in SSC dipole and quadrupole magnets. In addition, the design and fabrication of a new cable for use in the Low Beta Quadrupoles. As a result of the development work on these and other cables, we have arrived a set of scaling rules which provide guidelines for choosing the parameters for a wide range of superconducting cables. These parameters include strand size, strand number, keystone angle, percent compaction, cable pitch and compacted cable dimensions. In addition, we have defined the tolerance ranges for the key cable manufacturing parameters such as mandrel size and shape, stand tension, and Turkshead temperature control. In this paper, we present the results on cables ranging from 8 strands to 36 strands of 0.65mm wire and from 8 strands to 30 strands of 0.8mm wire. We use these results to demonstrate the application of the scaling rules for Rutherford-type cable.

Royet, J.M.; Scanlan, R.M.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

From Nuclei to Micro-structure: investigating intermediate length scales by small angle laser light scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hard spheres are a well recognized model system of statistical physics and soft condensed matter. Their crystallization behaviour has been intensively studied at the structural length scale by Bragg light scattering and/or high resolution microscopy. We here present an improved light scattering apparatus capable to perform simultaneous measurements in the Bragg scattering regime and in the small angle regime. We give an account of its construction and demonstrate its performance for several examples of hard sphere and attractive hard sphere suspensions. Comparison of small angle to Bragg data allows a calibration of the sequence of events in time. We show how important complementary information can be gained from the small angle studies e.g. on the immediate environment of the growing crystals or the global scale crystallite distribution. We further demonstrate that processes occurring on larger length scales have a significant influence on the crystallization kinetics and the final micro-structure.

Richard Beyer; Markus Franke; Hans Joachim Schpe; Eckhard Bartsch; Thomas Palberg

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fractal Properties and Small-scale Structure of Cosmic String Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results from a detailed numerical study of the small-scale and loop production properties of cosmic string networks, based on the largest and highest resolution string simulations to date. We investigate the non-trivial fractal properties of cosmic strings, in particular, the fractal dimension and renormalised string mass per unit length, and we also study velocity correlations. We demonstrate important differences between string networks in flat (Minkowski) spacetime and the two very similar expanding cases. For high resolution matter era network simulations, we provide strong evidence that small-scale structure has converged to `scaling' on all dynamical lengthscales, without the need for other radiative damping mechanisms. We also discuss preliminary evidence that the dominant loop production size is also approaching scaling.

C. J. A. P. Martins; E. P. S. Shellard

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

67

Saturated State of the Nonlinear Small-Scale Dynamo A. A. Schekochihin,1,* S. C. Cowley,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Saturated State of the Nonlinear Small-Scale Dynamo A. A. Schekochihin,1,* S. C. Cowley,1,2 S. F with small-scale direction reversals. We propose a model in which saturation is achieved as a result `. Thus, the problem has two scale ranges: the hydro- dynamic (Kolmogorov) inertial range `0 ` ` Reÿ3

Hammett, Greg

68

EVIDENCE OF SMALL SCALE RECONNECTION IN A MOVING FEATURE Stephane Regnier1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar flares are often related to photospheric motions of magnetic polarities such as moving magnetic and the release of magnetic en- ergy in the solar corona and especially in active regions, we need to find what are the precursors of eruptive events and how the magnetic energy can be stored and/or re- leased even at small scale

Régnier, Stéphane

69

Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Contributed Paper Effect of Small-Scale Heterogeneity of Prey and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the Sustainability of Bushmeat Hunting NATHALIE VAN VLIET, E. J. MILNER-GULLAND, FRANCOIS BOUSQUET, MEHDI SAQALLI´e, Cameroon Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Buckhurst Road, Ascot plays a key role in the sustainability of hunted populations, the role of small-scale heterogeneity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Big Science, Small Scale Western University has made significant investments in nanotechnology in materials and biomaterials. Nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize and advance many vital sectors in nanotechnology and photonics · Houses state-of-the-art instruments, with tools for SEM capabilities and focused

Denham, Graham

72

Prevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Network Structures of the Solar Transition Region and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

furnace model Funnels from networks Tu et al. 2005 #12;Implication for solar wind origin (II) · Mass lossPrevalence of Small-scale Jets from the Network Structures of the Solar Transition Region-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics 2Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory 3Max Planck Institute

73

Geometry and scaling relations of a population of very small rift-related normal faults  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

normal faults within the Solite Quarry of the Dan River rift basin range in length from a few millimetres AND SCALING RELATIONS The small normal faults are present in quarries of the Virginia Solite Corporation outcrops and quarried boulders (Fig. 2). The fault traces are typically straight, although the fault tips

74

Small scale energy release and the acceleration and transport of energetic particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small scale energy release and the acceleration and transport of energetic particles Hugh Hudson1, and of their radio emission mechanisms. The RHESSI3 results are the most distinctive in this time frame observatory) 4 Very Large Array (Socorro, New Mexico) 5 Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (Nobeyama, Japan) 6

Hudson, Hugh

75

Ecological effects of small-scale cutting of Philippine mangrove forests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in cut forests: Sonneratia sp., A. marina and R. apiculata regenerate well by coppice regrowth the significance of small-scale cutting disturbance and coppice regeneration as biotic factors in mangrove ecology; Non-timber forest products; Canopy gaps; Coppice regeneration; Mangroves; Philippines 1. Introduction

Walters, Bradley B.

76

Experimental autonomous flight of a small-scaled helicopter using accurate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cost sensors; unmanned vehicle; data fusion; autonomous helicopter; embedded systems; Kalman filterExperimental autonomous flight of a small-scaled helicopter using accurate dynamics model and low of a successful reported autonomous hovering flight, the derivation of the model. We give numerous details about

77

AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SCALED AUTONOMOUS David Vissi`ere and Nicolas Petit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM FOR SMALL-SCALED AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES David Vissi`ere and Nicolas Petit D.vissiere@dga.defense.gouv.fr, nicolas.petit@cas.ensmp.fr Keywords: Embedded systems, autonomous vehicles, UAVs. Abstract: We consider and a control architecture for a group of hetero- geneous autonomous vehicles. To conduct this research, we

78

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces of DNA (about 3-5 kilobases in length on average) that  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biology Lab 3: Small Scale Plasmid DNA Purification (Minipreps) Plasmids are small, circular pieces. Plasmid purification procedures selectively enrich plasmid DNA over genomic DNA, which is present the small plasmids remain intact. Thus, when denatured, the plasmids remain linked to their complementary

79

Integrating Small Scale Distributed Generation into a Deregulated Market: Control Strategies and Price Feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small scale power generating technologies, such as gas turbines, small hydro turbines, photovoltaics, wind turbines and fuel cells, are gradually replacing conventional generating technologies, for various applications, in the electric power system. The industry restructuring process in the United States is exposing the power sector to market forces, which is creating competitive structures for generation and alternative regulatory structures for the transmission and distribution systems. The potentially conflicting economic and technical demands of the new, independent generators introduce a set of significant uncertainties. What balance between market forces and centralized control will be found to coordinate distribution system operations? How will the siting of numerous small scale generators in distribution feeders impact the technical operations and control of the distribution system? Who will provide ancillary services (such as voltage support and spinning reserves) in the new competitive environment? This project investigates both the engineering and market integration of distributed generators into the distribution system. On the technical side, this project investigates the frequency performance of a distribution system that has multiple small scale generators. Using IEEE sample distribution systems and new dynamic generator models, this project develops general methods for

Judith Cardell; Marija Ili?; Richard D. Tabors

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Inflation that runs naturally: Gravitational waves and suppression of power at large and small scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out three correlated predictions of the axion monodromy inflation model: large amplitude of gravitational waves, suppression of power on horizon scales and on scales relevant for the formation of dwarf galaxies. While these predictions are likely generic to models with oscillations in the inflaton potential, the axion monodromy model naturally accommodates the required running spectral index through Planck-scale corrections to the inflaton potential. Applying this model to a combined data set of Planck, ACT, SPT, and WMAP low-$\\ell$ polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, we find a best-fit tensor-to-scalar ratio $r_{0.05} = 0.07^{+0.05}_{-0.04}$ due to gravitational waves, which may have been observed by the BICEP2 experiment. Despite the contribution of gravitational waves, the total power on large scales (CMB power spectrum at low multipoles) is lower than the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of initial perturbations and no gravitational waves, thus mitigating some of the tension on large scales. There is also a reduction in the matter power spectrum of 20-30\\% at scales corresponding to $k = 10~{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, which are relevant for dwarf galaxy formation. This will alleviate some of the unsolved small-scale structure problems in the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology.

Quinn E. Minor; Manoj Kaplinghat

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Photovoltaic Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Project for Rural and New-Cultivated Areas in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AbstractThe problem of wastewater treatment in Egypt is a two-fold problem; the first part concerning the existing rural areas, the second one dealing with new industrial/domestic areas. In Egypt several agricultural projects have been initiated by the government and the private sector as well, in order to change its infrastructure. As a reliable energy source, photovoltaic pumping systems have contributed to supply water for local rural communities worldwide; they can also be implemented to solve the problem wastewater environment pollution. The solution of this problem can be categorised as recycle process. In addition, because of regional conditions past technologies are being reexamined to select a smallscale treatment system requiring low construction and maintenance costs. This paper gives the design guidelines of a Photovoltaic Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant (PVSSWTP) based on technologies that can be transferred. KeywordsRenewable energy sources, Photovoltaic, small-scale projects, wastewater treatment. I.

Fadia M. A. Ghali

82

Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

None

1986-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

83

Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIAL COGENERATION: DESIGN USING RECIPROCATING ENGINES AND ABSORPTION CHILLER Joseph R. Wagner Mechanical Technology Incorporated Latham, ABSTRACT This paper describes a packaged cogeneration system designed for light... industrial applications (i.e., situations where a user wants a maximum of 1 MW of cogenerated electricity). The design employs reci procating engines fueled with natural gas or liquid fuels. Waste heat from the engine exhaust and jacket water is used...

Wagner, J. R.

84

Summary Report on FY12 Small-Scale Test Activities High Temperature Electrolysis Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a description of the apparatus and the single cell testing results performed at Idaho National Laboratory during JanuaryAugust 2012. It is an addendum to the Small-Scale Test Report issued in January 2012. The primary program objectives during this time period were associated with design, assembly, and operation of two large experiments: a pressurized test, and a 4 kW test. Consequently, the activities described in this report represent a much smaller effort.

James O'Brien

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Reducing cosmological small scale structure via a large dark matter-neutrino interaction: constraints and consequences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cold dark matter explains a wide range of data on cosmological scales. However, there has been a steady accumulation of evidence for discrepancies between simulations and observations at scales smaller than galaxy clusters. Solutions to these small scale structure problems may indicate that simulations need to improve how they include feedback from baryonic matter, or may imply that dark matter properties differ from the standard cold, noninteracting scenario. One promising way to affect structure formation on small scales is a relatively strong coupling of dark matter to neutrinos. We construct an experimentally viable, simple, renormalizable, model with new interactions between neutrinos and dark matter. We show that addressing the small scale structure problems requires dark matter with a mass that is tens of MeV, and a present-day density determined by an initial particle-antiparticle asymmetry in the dark sector. Generating a sufficiently large dark matter-neutrino coupling requires a new heavy neutrino with a mass around 100 MeV. The heavy neutrino is mostly sterile but has a substantial $\\tau$ neutrino component, while the three nearly massless neutrinos are partly sterile. We provide the first discussion of how such dark matter-neutrino interactions affect neutrino (especially $\\tau$ neutrino) phenomenology. This model can be tested by future astrophysical, particle physics, and neutrino oscillation data. A feature in the neutrino energy spectrum and flavor content from a future nearby supernova would provide strong evidence of neutrino-dark matter interactions. Promising signatures include anomalous matter effects in neutrino oscillations due to nonstandard interactions and a component of the $\\tau$ neutrino with mass around 100 MeV.

Bridget Bertoni; Seyda Ipek; David McKeen; Ann E. Nelson

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

86

Magnetohydrodynamic kink waves in nonuniform solar flux tubes: phase mixing and energy cascade to small scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles for the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfv\\'en continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In ...

Soler, Roberto

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Public choice in water resource management: two case studies of the small-scale hydroelectric controversy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydroelectric issues have a long history in the Pacific Northwest, and more recently have come to focus on developing environmentally less-obtrusive means of hydroelectric generation. Small-scale hydroelectric represents perhaps the most important of these means of developing new sources of renewable resources to lessen the nation's dependence on foreign sources of energy. Each potential small-scale hydroelectric project, however, manifests a unique history which provides a highly useful opportunity to study the process of collective social choice in the area of new energy uses of water resources. Utilizing the basic concepts of public choice theory, a highly developed and increasingly widely accepted approach in the social sciences, the politicalization of small-scale hydroelectric proposals is analyzed. Through the use of secondary analysis of archival public opinion data collected from residents of the State of Idaho, and through the development of the two case studies - one on the Palouse River in Eastern Washington and the other at Elk Creek Falls in Northern Idaho, the policy relevant behavior and influence of major actors is assessed. Results provide a useful test of the utility of public-choice theory for the study of cases of natural-resources development when public involvement is high.

Soden, D.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Geographia Technica, Special Issue, 2010, pp. 90 to 95 AUTOMATED SMALL-SCALE RELIEF SHADING: A NEW METHOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the generalization of digital elevation models specifically designed to process digital elevation data visible at small scales. Small- scale shaded relief derived automatically from high-resolution digital are applied to digital terrain data, important ridges and valley edges are blurred, and their characteristic

Jenny, Bernhard

89

Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Inflation that runs naturally: Gravitational waves and suppression of power at large and small scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out three correlated predictions of the axion monodromy inflation model: large amplitude of gravitational waves, suppression of power on horizon scales and on scales relevant for the formation of dwarf galaxies. While these predictions are likely generic to models with oscillations in the inflaton potential, the axion monodromy model naturally accommodates the required running spectral index through Planck-scale corrections to the inflaton potential. Applying this model to a combined data set of Planck, ACT, SPT, and WMAP low-$\\ell$ polarization cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, we find a best-fit tensor-to-scalar ratio $r_{0.05} = 0.07^{+0.05}_{-0.04}$ due to gravitational waves, which may have been observed by the BICEP2 experiment. Despite the contribution of gravitational waves, the total power on large scales (CMB power spectrum at low multipoles) is lower than the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology with a power-law spectrum of initial perturbations and no gravitational waves, thus mitigating some of the tension on large scales. There is also a reduction in the matter power spectrum of 20-30\\% at scales corresponding to $k = 10~{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, which are relevant for dwarf galaxy formation. This will alleviate some of the unsolved small-scale structure problems in the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. The inferred matter power spectrum is also found to be consistent with recent Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest data, which is in tension with the Planck-favored $\\Lambda$CDM model with power-law primordial power spectrum.

Quinn E. Minor; Manoj Kaplinghat

2015-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

91

Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

2004-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

92

Spectro-Polarimetric Properties of Small-Scale Plasma Eruptions Driven by Magnetic Vortex Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly turbulent nature of convection on the Sun causes strong multi-scale interaction of subsurface layers with the photosphere and chromosphere. According to realistic 3D radiative MHD numerical simulations ubiquitous small-scale vortex tubes are generated by turbulent flows below the visible surface and concentrated in the intergranular lanes. The vortex tubes can capture and amplify magnetic field, penetrate into chromospheric layers and initiate quasi-periodic flow eruptions that generates Alfv\\'enic waves, transport mass and energy into the solar atmosphere. The simulations revealed high-speed flow patterns, and complicated thermodynamic and magnetic structures in the erupting vortex tubes. The spontaneous eruptions are initiated and driven by strong pressure gradients in the near-surface layers, and accelerated by the Lorentz force in the low chromosphere. In this paper, the simulation data are used to further investigate the dynamics of the eruptions, their spectro-polarimetric characteristics for the...

Kitiashvili, Irina N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Michigan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The first obstacle which any developer must confront in Michigan is obtaining the authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed, and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Michigan follows the riparian theory of water law. The direct regulation; indirect regulation; public utilities regulation; financing; and taxation are discussed.

None,

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

U.S. Department of Energy Small-Scale Biorefineries: Project Overview  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment ofEnergy.pdfApplications: Heating CoolingJanuarySmall-Scale

95

Introduction Large scale structure of the Earth Small scale structure Dynamics and evolution Conclusions and outlook Structure, dynamics and evolution of the core-mantle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Introduction Large scale structure of the Earth Small scale structure Dynamics and evolution Conclusions and outlook Structure, dynamics and evolution of the core-mantle boundary region Stphane Labrosse cole normale suprieure de Lyon Institut universitaire de France 14 mai 2012 1 / 63 Structure, dynamics

96

Market Assessment of Biomass Gasification and Combustion Technology for Small- and Medium-Scale Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a market assessment of gasification and direct combustion technologies that use wood and agricultural resources to generate heat, power, or combined heat and power (CHP) for small- to medium-scale applications. It contains a brief overview of wood and agricultural resources in the U.S.; a description and discussion of gasification and combustion conversion technologies that utilize solid biomass to generate heat, power, and CHP; an assessment of the commercial status of gasification and combustion technologies; a summary of gasification and combustion system economics; a discussion of the market potential for small- to medium-scale gasification and combustion systems; and an inventory of direct combustion system suppliers and gasification technology companies. The report indicates that while direct combustion and close-coupled gasification boiler systems used to generate heat, power, or CHP are commercially available from a number of manufacturers, two-stage gasification systems are largely in development, with a number of technologies currently in demonstration. The report also cites the need for a searchable, comprehensive database of operating combustion and gasification systems that generate heat, power, or CHP built in the U.S., as well as a national assessment of the market potential for the systems.

Peterson, D.; Haase, S.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

The Influence of Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining on Deforestation Rates: The case of Seguenega, Burkina Faso.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper investigates how Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems can be used to assess the influence of Artisanal Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) on deforestation rates in Africa. Using the department of Seguenega in Burkina Faso...

Palacios, Daniela

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

98

Protein Engineering vol.8 no. 11 pp.1177-1187, 1995 Large-scale expression, purification and characterization of small  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Protein Engineering vol.8 no. 11 pp.1177-1187, 1995 Large-scale expression, purification and characterization of small fragments of thrombomodulin: the roles of the sixth domain and of methionine 388

Komives, Elizabeth A.

99

Observations and HighObservations and High--Resolution Modeling of SmallResolution Modeling of Small--Scale FlowScale Flow--TopographyTopography Interactions Near Caribbean Coral ReefsInteractions Near Caribbean Coral Reefs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Small--Scale FlowScale Flow--TopographyTopography Interactions Near Caribbean Coral ReefsInteractions Near Caribbean Coral Reefs Tal Ezer Center for Coastal Physical Oceanography, Old Dominion University wave-induced mixing and dispersion, providing a possible explanation why many species of Caribbean fish

Ezer,Tal

100

Small scale thermal violence experiments for combined insensitive high explosive and booster materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small scale cook-off experiment has been designed to provide a violence metric for both booster and IHE materials, singly and in combination. The experiment has a simple, axisymmetric geometry provided by a 10 mm internal diameter cylindrical steel confinement up to 80 mm in length. Heating is applied from one end of the sample length creating pseudo 1-D heating profile and a thermal gradient across the sample(s). At the opposite end of the confinement to the heating block, a machined groove provides a point of rupture that generates a cylindrical fragment. The displacement of the external face of the fragment is detected by Heterodyne Velocimetry. Proof of concept experiments are reported focusing on HMX and TATB formulations, and are described in relation to confinement, ullage and heating profile. The development of a violence metric, based upon fragment velocity records is discussed.

Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Clare L [AWE, UK; Stennett, C [DCMT SHRIVENHAM, UK; Flower, H M [AWE, UK

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

None,

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Wisconsin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The initial obstacle that all developers confront in Wisconsin is obtaining the authority to utilize the bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Wisconsin follows the riparian theory of water law.

None,

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

The magnetic structure of surges in small-scale emerging flux regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims: To investigate the relationship between surges and magnetic reconnection during the emergence of small-scale active regions. In particular, to examine how the large-scale geometry of the magnetic field, shaped by different phases of reconnection, guides the flowing of surges. Methods: We present three flux emergence models. The first model, and the simplest, consists of a region emerging into a horizontal ambient field that is initially parallel to the top of the emerging region. The second model is the same as the first but with an extra smaller emerging region which perturbs the main region. This is added to create a more complex magnetic topology and to test how this complicates the development of surges compared to the first model. The last model has a non-uniform ambient magnetic field to model the effects of emergence near a sunspot field and impose asymmetry on the system through the ambient magnetic field. At each stage, we trace the magnetic topology to identify the locations of reconnection. T...

MacTaggart, David; Haynes, Andrew; Simitev, Radostin; Zuccarello, Francesca

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these conditions.

Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

108

Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Talmage, Mellisa J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

The Transfer of Evolved Artificial Immune System Behaviours between Small and Large Scale Robotic Platforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper demonstrates that a set of behaviours evolved in simulation on a miniature robot (epuck) can be transferred to a much larger scale platform (a virtual Pioneer P3-DX) that also differs in shape, sensor type, sensor configuration and programming interface. The chosen architecture uses a reinforcement learning-assisted genetic algorithm to evolve the epuck behaviours, which are encoded as a genetic sequence. This sequence is then used by the Pioneers as part of an adaptive, idiotypic artificial immune system (AIS) control architecture. Testing in three different simulated worlds shows that the Pioneer can use these behaviours to navigate and solve object-tracking tasks successfully, as long as its adaptive AIS mechanism is in place.

Whitbrook, Amanda; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Summary of the Midwest conference on small-scale hydropower in the Midwest: an old technology whose time has come  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A variety of decision makers convened to examine and discuss certain significant problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric development in the Midwestern region, comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The conference opened with an introductory panel of resource persons who outlined the objectives of the conference, presented information on small-scale hydro, and described the materials available to conference participants. A series of workshop sessions followed. Two of the workshop sessions discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The remaining two workshops dealt with economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model developed by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. A plenary session and recommendations completed the workshop.

None

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Estimating the fracture density of small-scale vertical fractures when large-scale vertical fractures are present  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When fractures are vertical, aligned and their dimensions are small relative to the seismic wavelength, the medium can be considered to be an equivalent Horizontal Transverse Isotropic (HTI) medium. However, geophysical ...

Liu, Yuwei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Executive summary: legal obstacles and incentives to small-scale hydroelectric development in the six middle atlantic states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The executive summary describes the relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities, highlighting important features of the constitutional, statutory, case law, and regulations of each of the six middle atlantic states (Maryland, Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia). Water law, direct and indirect regulation, and financial considerations for each state are presented. A flow diagram of regulation of small dams in each state is also included.

None,

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Magnetic reconnection between small-scale loops observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the high tempo-spatial resolution H$\\alpha$ images observed with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we report the solid observational evidence of magnetic reconnection between two sets of small-scale anti-parallel loops with an X-shaped topology. The reconnection process contains two steps: a slow step with the duration of more than several tens of minutes, and a rapid step lasting for only about three minutes. During the slow reconnection, two sets of anti-parallel loops reconnect gradually, and new loops are formed and stacked together. During the rapid reconnection, the anti-parallel loops approach each other quickly, and then the rapid reconnection takes place, resulting in the disappearance of former loops. In the meantime, new loops are formed and separate. The region between the approaching loops is brightened, and the thickness and length of this region are determined to be about 420 km and 1.4 Mm, respectively. During the rapid reconnection process, obvious brightenings at the reconnection site an...

Yang, Shuhong; Xiang, Yongyuan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small-scale heat exchanges have recently been modeled with resource theories intended to extend thermodynamics to the nanoscale and quantum regimes. We generalize these theories to exchanges of quantities other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d-majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from, and we bound the work cost of creating, a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

Nicole Yunger Halpern; Joseph M. Renes

2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

115

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled ??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

116

Non-linear numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in small-scale flux tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present results of non-linear, 2D, numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in the photosphere and chromosphere of small-scale flux tubes with internal structure. Waves with realistic periods of three to five minutes are studied, after applying horizontal and vertical oscillatory perturbations to the equilibrium model. Spurious reflections of shock waves from the upper boundary are minimized thanks to a special boundary condition. This has allowed us to increase the duration of the simulations and to make it long enough to perform a statistical analysis of oscillations. The simulations show that deep horizontal motions of the flux tube generate a slow (magnetic) mode and a surface mode. These modes are efficiently transformed into a slow (acoustic) mode in the vA propagates vertically along the field lines, forms shocks and remains always within the flux tube. It might deposit effectively the energy of the driver into the chromosphere. When the driver oscillates with a high frequency, above the cut-off, non-linear wave propagation occurs with the same dominant driver period at all heights. At low frequencies, below the cut-off, the dominant period of oscillations changes with height from that of the driver in the photosphere to its first harmonic (half period) in the chromosphere. Depending on the period and on the type of the driver, different shock patterns are observed.

E. Khomenko; M. Collados; T. Felipe

2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

117

Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in vacuum; however ignition by resistively-heated tungsten wire was possible. Thin films of thermite were fabricated using a dispersed mixture of aluminum and iron oxide particles, but ignition and propagation of these films was difficult. The only ignition and propagation observed was in a preheated sample.

Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Design and implementation of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for small-scale UAV helicopters q  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design and implementation of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system for small-scale UAV: Hardware-in-the-loop simulation UAV Helicopter Flight control a b s t r a c t We present in the paper constructed unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV) helicopter systems. Real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation is one

Benmei, Chen

119

Improvement effect of small scale recycled milled carbon fibre in DGEBA epoxy resin creating an improved matrix  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy [4, 5]. Also, till the last decade fibre reinforced composite materials were regarded as non, 10]. The reinforced material used in this paper is recycled milled carbon fibre (MCF). Addition1 Improvement effect of small scale recycled milled carbon fibre in DGEBA epoxy resin creating

120

SMALL-SCALE SPATIAL VARIABILITY 0F A m POLLUTION IN A COMPLEX ROADSIDE ENVIRONMENT: REPRESENTATIVENESS 0F MONITORING DATA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Row, London SE10 9LS, UK ABSTRACT Thé strong spatial and temporal variability of air pollution variability of trafïic-related pollutants in a complex urban site in central Paris, a combination of airSMALL-SCALE SPATIAL VARIABILITY 0F A m POLLUTION IN A COMPLEX ROADSIDE ENVIRONMENT

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Prediction of Small-Scale Cavitation in a High Speed Flow Over an Open Cavity Using Large Eddy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prediction of Small-Scale Cavitation in a High Speed Flow Over an Open Cavity Using Large Eddy- gether with the cavitation models predict that inception occurs near the trailing edge similar in cavitation. 1 INTRODUCTION The problem of cavitation has been widely studied owing to its influence

Apte, Sourabh V.

122

Design of a Small-Scale Biodiesel Production System Jeffrey Anderson, Jessica Caceres, Ali Khazaei, Jedidiah Shirey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Design of a Small-Scale Biodiesel Production System Jeffrey Anderson, Jessica Caceres, Ali Khazaei acreage and biodiesel output. Monte Carlo Simulation Objective: 1) Biodiesel Production Simulation: Determines biodiesel yield and Net Energy Ration of each crop alternative 1) Business Simulation: Determines

123

STUDYING LARGE- AND SMALL-SCALE ENVIRONMENTS OF ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOUS GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studying the environments of 0.4 < z < 1.2 ultraviolet (UV)-selected galaxies, as examples of extreme star-forming galaxies (with star formation rates (SFRs) in the range of 3-30 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), we explore the relationship between high rates of star formation, host halo mass, and pair fractions. We study the large- and small-scale environments of local ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs) by measuring angular correlation functions. We cross-correlate these systems with other galaxy samples: a volume-limited sample (ALL), a blue luminous galaxy sample, and a luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample. We determine the UVLG comoving correlation length to be r{sub 0} = 4.8{sup +11.6}{sub -2.4} h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 1.0, which is unable to constrain the halo mass for this sample. However, we find that UVLGs form close (separation <30 kpc) pairs with the ALL sample, but do not frequently form pairs with LRGs. A rare subset of UVLGs, those with the highest FUV surface brightnesses, are believed to be local analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and are called Lyman break analogs (LBAs). LBGs and LBAs share similar characteristics (i.e., color, size, surface brightness, specific SFRs, metallicities, and dust content). Recent Hubble Space Telescope images of z {approx} 0.2 LBAs show disturbed morphologies, signs of mergers and interactions. UVLGs may be influenced by interactions with other galaxies and we discuss this result in terms of other high star-forming, merging systems.

Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Heinis, Sebastien; Heckman, Tim; Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins' University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Overzier, Roderik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zamojski, Michel; Barlow, Tom A.; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl G.; Friedman, Peter G.; Martin, D. Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick [California Institute of Technology, MC 405-47, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ilbert, Olivier [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP8, Traverse du Siphon, F-13376 Marseille (France); Lee, Young-Wook [Center for Space Astrophysics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail: antara@astro.columbia.edu (and others)

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Mapping Function for Variable-Scale Maps in Small-Display Cartography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of presenting geodata for personal navigation using small-display mobile devices. Ideally, the user should have for personal navigation using mobile devices are discussed. #12;

Harrie, Lars

125

Digenetic Changes in Macro- to Nano-Scale Porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone:L An (Ultra) Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Backscattered Electron Imagining Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small- and Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS and USANS) provide powerful tools for quantitative analysis of porous rocks, yielding bulk statistical information over a wide range of length scales. This study utilized (U)SANS to characterize shallowly buried quartz arenites from the St. Peter Sandstone. Backscattered electron imaging was also used to extend the data to larger scales. These samples contain significant volumes of large-scale porosity, modified by quartz overgrowths, and neutron scattering results show significant sub-micron porosity. While previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior over many orders of magnitude, careful analysis of our data shows both fractal and pseudo-fractal behavior. The scattering curves are composed of subtle steps, modeled as polydispersed assemblages of pores with log-normal distributions. However, in some samples an additional surface-fractal overprint is present, while in others there is no such structure, and scattering can be explained by summation of non-fractal structures. Combined with our work on other rock-types, these data suggest that microporosity is more prevalent, and may play a much more important role than previously thought in fluid/rock interactions.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Jackson, Andrew [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Littrell, Ken [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Project Title: Small Scale Electrical Power Generation from Heat Co-Produced in Geothermal Fluids: Mining Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of small scale power generation from low temperature co-produced fluids. Phase I is to Develop, Design and Test an economically feasible low temperature ORC solution to generate power from lower temperature co-produced geothermal fluids. Phase II &III are to fabricate, test and site a fully operational demonstrator unit on a gold mine working site and operate, remotely monitor and collect data per the DOE recommended data package for one year.

Clark, Thomas M [Principal Investigator; Erlach, Celeste [Communications Mgr.

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

10January 1998 Small-Scale Gasification-Based Biomass Power Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are the technologies of choice today for gasification-based power generationfrom biomass(Fig. I). Fuel cells and micro-gas turbines coupled with biomassgasifiers will offer considerably higher efficiencies at small

128

Infrastructure investment and policy management of water resources for small-scale irrigated agriculture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the options for enhancing the welfare of small farmers in Thailand through subsidies of irrigation infrastructure. Enhanced water storage and irrigation can significantly improve yield and the welfare of the ...

Amornvivat, Sutapa, 1974-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or range of values generally associated with better dispersability, is provided in the Appendix. Special attention was given to characterization of several surface-modified carbon blacks produced by Cabot Corporation through proprietary diazonium salts chemistry. As demonstrated in the report, these advanced carbons offer many advantages over traditional dispersions. They disperse very easily, do not require intensive mechanical shearing or sonication, and the particle size of the dispersed carbon black aggregates is in the target range of 0.15-0.20 {micro}m. The dispersions in water and HMTA/urea solutions are stable for at least 30 days; in conditions of simulated broth, the dispersions are stable for at least 6 hours. It is proposed that the optimization of the carbon black dispersing process is possible by replacing traditional carbon blacks and surfactants with surface-modified carbon blacks having suitable chemical groups attached on their surface. It is recognized that the method advanced in this report for optimizing the carbon black dispersion process is based on a limited number of tests made in aqueous and simulated broth conditions. The findings were corroborated by a limited number of tests carried out with ADUN solutions by the Nuclear Science and Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). More work is necessary, however, to confirm the overall recommendation based on the findings discussed in this report: namely, that the use of surface-modified carbon blacks in the uranium-containing broth will not adversely impact the chemistry of the gelation process, and that high quality uranium oxicarbide (UCO) kernels will be produced after calcination.

Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

131

High Overtone Quasinormal Modes of Analog Black Holes and the Small Scale Structure of the Background Fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this paper is to build a foundation for, and explore the possibility of, using high overtone quasinormal modes of analog black holes to probe the small scale (microscopic) structure of a background fluid in which an analog black hole is formed. This may provide a tool to study the small scale structure of some interesting quantum systems such as Bose-Einstein condensates. In order to build this foundation, we first look into the hydrodynamic case where we calculate the high overtone quasinormal mode frequencies of a 3+1 dimensional canonical non-rotating acoustic black hole. The leading order calculations have been done earlier in the literature. Here, we obtain the first order correction. We then analyze the high overtone quasinormal modes of acoustic black holes in a Bose-Einstein condensate using the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We point out that at the high overtone quasinormal mode limit, the only term that is important in the linearized Gross-Pitaevskii equation is the quantum potential term, which is a small scale effect.

Ramin G. Daghigh; Michael D. Green

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

132

May, 2010DC/DC CONVERTER FOR A SMALL SCALE WIND HYDROGEN SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An electronic converter is designed for an isolated renewable energy system. In this system, energy produced by a small wind turbine is used to extract hydrogen from water. Unique aspects of this application that affect the performance of the converter will be defined. Design considerations of the individual components will be discussed. Calculations on performance and validation of those calculations are also presented.

Joel M. Jacobs; Joel M. Jacobs; Joel Michael Jacobs; Adviser Jerry; L. Hudgins

133

Dark matter scaling relations and the assembly epoch of Coma early-type galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Axisymmetric, orbit-based dynamical models are used to derive dark matter scaling relations for Coma early-type galaxies. From faint to bright galaxies halo core-radii and asymptotic circular velocities increase. Compared to spirals of the same brightness, the majority of Coma early-types -- those with old stellar populations -- have similar halo core-radii but more than 2 times larger asymptotic halo velocities. The average dark matter density inside 2 reff decreases with increasing luminosity and is 6.8 times larger than in disk galaxies of the same B-band luminosity. Compared at the same stellar mass, dark matter densities in ellipticals are 13.5 times higher than in spirals. Different baryon concentrations in ellipticals and spirals cannot explain the higher dark matter density in ellipticals. Instead, the assembly redshift (1+z) of Coma early-type halos is likely about two times larger than of comparably bright spirals. Assuming that local spirals typically assemble at a redshift of one, the majority of bright Coma early-type galaxy halos must have formed around z = 2-3. For about half of our Coma galaxies the assembly redshifts match with constraints derived from stellar populations. We find dark matter densities and estimated assembly redshifts of our observed Coma galaxies in reasonable agreement with recent semi-analytic galaxy formation models.

J. Thomas; R. P. Saglia; R. Bender; D. Thomas; K. Gebhardt; J. Magorrian; E. M. Corsini; G. Wegner

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

134

Small-Scale Low Cost Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress in tasks seeking greater cell power density and lower cost through new cell designs, new cell materials and lower operating temperature is summarized. The design of the program required Proof-of-Concept unit of residential capacity scale is reviewed along with a summary of results from its successful test. Attachment 1 summarizes the status of cell development. Attachment 2 summarizes the status of generator design, and Attachment 3 of BOP design.

S. D. Vora

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Numerical simulations of quiet Sun magnetism: On the contribution from a small-scale dynamo  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a series of radiative MHD simulations addressing the origin and distribution of mixed polarity magnetic field in the solar photosphere. To this end we consider numerical simulations that cover the uppermost 2-6 Mm of the solar convection zone and we explore scales ranging from 2 km to 25 Mm. We study how the strength and distribution of magnetic field in the photosphere and subsurface layers depend on resolution, domain size and boundary conditions. We find that 50% of the magnetic energy at the \\tau=1 level comes from field with the less than 500 G strength and that 50% of the energy resides on scales smaller than about 100 km. While probability distribution functions are essentially independent of resolution, properly describing the spectral energy distribution requires grid spacings of 8 km or smaller. The formation of flux concentrations in the photosphere exceeding 1 kG requires a mean vertical field strength greater than 30-40 G at \\tau=1. The filling factor of kG flux concentrations increase...

Rempel, M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A multi-scale approach to address environmental impacts of small hydropower development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Hetrick, Shelaine L [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Small-scale Specimen Testing of Monolithic U-Mo Fuel Foils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this investigation is to develop a shear punch testing (SPT) procedure and standardize it to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated fuels in a hot-cell so that the tensile behavior can be predicted using small volumes of material and at greatly reduced irradiation costs. This is highly important in the development of low-enriched uranium fuels for nuclear research and test reactors. The load-displacement data obtained using SPT can be interpreted in terms of and correlated with uniaxial mechanical properties. In order to establish a correlation between SPT and tensile data, sub-size tensile and microhardness testing were performed on U-Mo alloys. In addition, efforts are ongoing to understand the effect of test parameters (such as specimen thickness, surface finish, punch-die clearance, crosshead velocity and carbon content) on the measured mechanical properties, in order to rationalize the technique, prior to employing it on a material of unknown strength.

Ramprashad Prabhakaran; Douglas E. Burkes; James I. Cole; Indrajit Charit; Daniel M. Wachs

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Quantifying the Drivers of Star Formation on Galactic Scales. I. The Small Magellanic Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the star formation history of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) to place quantitative limits on the effect of tidal interactions and gas infall on the star formation and chemical enrichment history of the SMC. The coincident timing of two recent (driver of star formation, but is only near the SMC during the most recent burst. The poorly constrained LMC-SMC orbit is our principal uncertainty. To explore the correspondence between bursts and MW pericenter passages further, we model star formation in the SMC using a combination of continuous and tidally-triggered star formation. The behavior of the tidally-triggered mode is a strong inverse function of the SMC-MW separation (preferred behavior ~ r^-5, resulting in a factor of ~100 difference in the rate of tidally-triggered star formation at pericenter and apocenter). Despite the success of these closed-box evolutionary models in reproducing the recent SMC star formation history and current chemical abundance, they have some systematic shortcomings that are remedied by postulating that a sizable infall event (~ 50% of the total gas mass) occured about 4 Gyr ago. Regardless of whether this infall event is included, the fraction of stars in the SMC that formed via a tidally triggered mode is > 10% and could be as large as 70%.

Dennis Zaritsky; Jason Harris

2003-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

139

Relationship between EUV microflares and small-scale magnetic fields in the quiet Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microflares are small dynamic signatures observed in X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet channels. Because of their impulsive emission enhancements and wide distribution, they are thought to be closely related to coronal heating. By using the high resolution 171 {\\AA} images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the lines-of-sight magnetograms obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we trace 10794 microflares in a quiet region near the disk center with a field of view of 960 arcsec $\\times$ 1068 arcsec during 24 hr. The microflares have an occurrence rate of 4.4 $\\times$ 10$^{3}$ hr$^{-1}$ extrapolated over the whole Sun. Their average brightness, size, and lifetime are 1.7 I$_{0}$(of the quiet Sun), 9.6 Mm$^{2}$, and 3.6 min, respectively. There exists a mutual positive correlation between the microflares' brightness, area and lifetime. In general, the microflares distribute uniformly across the solar disk, but form network patterns locally, which are similar t...

Jiang, Fayu; Yang, Shuhong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Training and Certification OptionsTraining and Certification Options ocal, small-scale farmers are proud of the fruits and vegetables they produce and strive to offer products that are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Training and Certification OptionsTraining and Certification Options L ocal, small-scale farmers by small-scale producers because, depending on the situation, GAPs may be one of the least expensive and sanitize the sink and

Liskiewicz, Maciej

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Small-scale wind turbines in cities and suburbs S Tullis, K Aly, R Bravo, A Fiedler, S Kooiman, K McLaren S Ziada  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small-scale wind turbines in cities and suburbs S Tullis, K Aly, R Bravo, A Fiedler, S Kooiman, K wind turbines in the urban environment: Current Research at McMaster University Nominal performance #12;Horizontal axis small wind turbines Numerous suppliers of turbines for tower/field installation

Tullis, Stephen

142

A general mechanism for producing scale-invariant perturbations and small non-Gaussianity in ekpyrotic models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore a new type of entropic mechanism for generating density perturbations in a contracting phase in which there are two scalar fields, but only one has a steep negative potential. This first field dominates the energy density and is the source of the ekpyrotic equation of state. The second field has a negligible potential, but its kinetic energy density is coupled to the first field with a non-linear sigma-model type interaction. We show that for any ekpyrotic equation of state it is possible to choose the potential and the kinetic coupling such that exactly scale-invariant (or nearly scale-invariant) entropy perturbations are produced. The corresponding background solutions are stable, and the bispectrum of the entropy perturbations vanishes as no non-Gaussianity is produced during the ekpyrotic phase. Hence, the only contribution to non-Gaussianity comes from the non-linearity of the conversion process during which entropic perturbations are turned into adiabatic ones, resulting in a local non-Gaussianity parameter $f_{NL} \\sim 5$.

Anna Ijjas; Jean-Luc Lehners; Paul J. Steinhardt

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

143

Small scale laboratory studies of flow and transport phenomena in pores and fractures: Phase 2. Technical completion report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pore level laboratory experiments using microscopy permit the in situ visualization of flow and transport phenomena, that can be recorded on film or videotape. One of the principal tools for visualization is the etched glass micromodel, which is composed of a transparent two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. The spatial scale of interest in these models extends from the individual pore, up to a network of pores, perhaps with small scale heterogeneities. Micromodels are best used to help validate concepts and assumptions, and to elucidate new, previously unrecognized phenomena for further study. They are not quantitative tools, but should be used in combination with quantitative tools such as column studies or mathematical models. There are three applications: multi-phase flow, colloid transport, and bacterial transport and colonization. Specifically the authors have examined behavior of relevance to liquid-liquid mass transfer (solubilization of capillary trapped organic liquids); liquid-gas mass transfer (in situ volatilization); mathematical models of multi-phase pressure-saturation relationships; colloid movement, attachment and detachment in the presence of fluid-fluid interfaces, clay interference with multi-phase flow; and heterogeneity effects on multi-phase flow and colloid movement.

Wilson, J.L.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Parallelization of the SIR code for the investigation of small-scale features in the solar photosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic fields are one of the most important drivers of the highly dynamic processes that occur in the lower solar atmosphere. They span a broad range of sizes, from large- and intermediate-scale structures such as sunspots, pores and magnetic knots, down to the smallest magnetic elements observable with current telescopes. On small scales, magnetic flux tubes are often visible as Magnetic Bright Points (MBPs). Apart from simple $V/I$ magnetograms, the most common method to deduce their magnetic properties is the inversion of spectropolarimetric data. Here we employ the SIR code for that purpose. SIR is a well-established tool that can derive not only the magnetic field vector and other atmospheric parameters (e.g., temperature, line-of-sight velocity), but also their stratifications with height, effectively producing 3-dimensional models of the lower solar atmosphere. In order to enhance the runtime performance and the usability of SIR we parallelized the existing code and standardized the input and output ...

Thonhofer, Stefan; Utz, Dominik; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Jur?k, Jan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Effect of the large scale environment on the stellar content of early-type galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to study the influence of the environment on the stellar population of early-type galaxies we have analyzed the relations between the density of the environment (lrho) and the residuals to the Mg2-sigma relation, R_a, and between lrho and the residuals to the Fundamental Plane, R_f. Our sample of galaxies covers the range of densities, between field galaxies and poor clusters. We confirm the existence of a slight environmental bias on the mean stellar population and we show that this effect is due to a small fraction of galaxie s containing a younger stellar sub-population while the majority of galaxies, in any environment, are equally old. The galaxies which are likely to contain a young stellar sub-population (negative R_a and R_f) are preferentially found in the less dense environment. This segregation of the stellar population may reflect the morphology-density relation or may result from a higher rate of recent star formation activity in sparse environments. Using the rotational support to assess the presence of a disk and to parameterize the morphology, we subtracted the contribution of the morphological segregation to population segregation. It is not yet possible to rule out that the morphology-density relation is at the origin of the population-density relation.

Ph. Prugniel; V. Golev; G. Maubon

1999-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ich and J. Stein. On the thermonuclear runaway in Type IaSmall-Scale Stability of Thermonuclear Flames o in Type IaS. E. Woosley. The thermonuclear explosion of chandrasekhar

Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Making the Economic Case for Small-Scale Distributed Wind -- A Screening for Distributed Generation Wind Opportunities: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was an offshoot of a previous assessment, which examined the potential for large-scale, greater than 50 MW, wind development on occupied federal agency lands. The study did not find significant commercial wind development opportunities, primarily because of poor wind resource on available and appropriately sized land areas or land use or aesthetic concerns. The few sites that could accommodate a large wind farm failed to have transmission lines in optimum locations required to generate power at competitive wholesale prices. The study did identify a promising but less common distributed generation (DG) development option. This follow-up study documents the NREL/Global Energy Concepts team efforts to identify economic DG wind projects at a select group of occupied federal sites. It employs a screening strategy based on project economics that go beyond quantity of windy land to include state and utility incentives as well as the value of avoided power purchases. It attempts to account for the extra costs and difficulties associated with small projects through the use of project scenarios that are more compatible with federal facilities and existing land uses. These benefits and barriers of DG are discussed, and the screening methodology and results are included. The report concludes with generalizations about the screening method and recommendations for improvement and other potential applications for this methodology.

Kandt, A.; Brown, E.; Dominick, J.; Jurotich, T.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

PROSPECTS FOR CO-FIRING OF CLEAN COAL AND CREOSOTE-TREATED WASTE WOOD AT SMALL-SCALE POWER STATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If a small-scale clean coal fu eled power plant is co-fu eled with 5 % of cre o-sote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the de con tam i na tion by carbonisation at 500 C in an in di rectly heated ro tary kiln with the di am e ter 1.7 m and ef fec-tive length 10 m can be real ised. It should be in cluded in the 3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant sys tem, which pro cesses coal. It will im prove the heat bal ance of the sys tem, since the carbonisation of wood will de liver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint fur nace of the 3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant. Pine wood sleeper sap wood con tains 0.25 % of sul phur, but the av er age pine sleeper wood (sap wood and heart wood) 0.05% of sul phur. Most of the sul phur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the fur nace. Since the 3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant is equipped with a flue gases clean ing sys tem, the SO2 emis sion level will not ex-ceed 5 mg/m 3. The char coal of the sap wood por tion of sleep ers and that of the av er age sleeper wood will con tain 0.22 % and 0.035 % of sul phur, re spec-tively. The in crease of the carbonisation tem per a ture does not sub stan tially de crease the sul phur con tent in char coal, al though it is suf fi ciently low, and the char coal can be co-fired with clean coal. The con sid ered pro cess is suit-able for small power plants, if the bio mass in put in the com mon en ergy bal-ance is 5 to 10%. If the mean dis tance of sleep ers trans por ta tion for Cen tral and East ern Eu-rope is es ti mated not to ex ceed 200 km, the co-com bus tion of clean coal and carbonised sleep ers would be an ac cept able op tion from the en vi ron men tal and eco nomic points of view.

Janis Zandersons; Aivars Zhurinsh; Edward Someus

151

OECD MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) design report, Rev. 2 October 31, 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are planned to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. A description of the test apparatus, instrumentation, data reduction, and test matrix are the subject of the first portion of this report. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The introduction of a thermal gradient across the crust is thought to be important for these tests because of uncertainty in the magnitude of the thermal stresses and thus their relative importance in the crust fracture mechanism at plant scale. The second half of this report describes the apparatus for measuring crust strength. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength).

Farmer, M.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B.; Pfeiffer, P. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

Book Title Author(s) URL A Complete Guide to Quality in Small-Scale Wine MakingConsidine, John http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780124080812  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Book Title Author(s) URL A Complete Guide to Quality in Small-Scale Wine MakingConsidine, John http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780124080812 A Pharmacology Primer Kenakin, Terry http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/9780124076631 A Practical Guide to SysML Friedenthal, Sanford http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/book/14_NO_ISBN_101

153

Analysis of wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farmers in central Kenya  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study focuses on wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farm households in central Kenya. The specific objective were: (1) to determine how households had responded to specific wood-energy policies; (2) to identify factors associated with household adoption or non-adoption of the strategies. Different programs aimed at addressing wood-energy shortages in Kenya were initiated or strengthened during the 1980s: fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting; development and dissemination of improved stoves and fireplaces; promotion of increased accessibility to wood-energy substitutes. Household adoption levels for policy-supported strategies have remained low despite promotion. Survey data from two villages in Nyeri district were collected to determine the factors associated with adoption of the Kenya Ceramic Jiko, the [open quotes]Kuni Mbili[close quotes] stove/fireplace, kerosene stoves, electric cookers, and fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting. Adoption rates varied from as low as 1 percent for electricity to 43 percent for the Kenya Ceramic Jiko. Important policy variables included extension visits per year, income levels, years of formal education received by head of household, access to different fuels, area of farm-land owned, household size, and locational characteristics of the villages. Policy recommendations included: use of research results to direct policy; improvement of information flows between policy makers, extension agents, and technology-users; increased support of agroforestry; and better program coordination. Recommendations for further research included: examining more areas where efficiency gains in energy production and consumption can be made, extending the study to cover the drier parts of central Kenya, and conducting regular case studies in order to better understand the adoption process over time.

Mwangi, A.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Watch for typos. This is typed 2003 from handwritten text of 1995. Scaling [and exponent relations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

universal shapes. Example from Lec. 2.3D (Landau theory) Start from the Landau free energy density fL(m; t is probably chapter 11 of H. Eugene Stanley's book Introduction to phase transitions and critical phenomena developments: first for scaling of the thermodynamic functions (free energy, but also magnetization

Henley, Christopher L.

155

Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-6 test data report : thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure? (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx} {phi} 30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength is being addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus measures the fracture strength of the crust while it is either at room temperature or above, the latter state being achieved with a heating element placed below the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the sixth water ingression test, designated SSWICS-6. This test investigated the quenching behavior of a fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 15 wt% siliceous concrete at a system pressure of 1 bar absolute. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

Development of an efficient, low cost, small-scale natural gas fuel reformer for residential scale electric power generation. Final report for the period October 1, 1998 - December 31, 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the final report, we present results from a technical and economic assessment of residential scale PEM fuel cell power systems. The objectives of our study are to conceptually design an inexpensive, small-scale PEMFC-based stationary power system that converts natural gas to both electricity and heat, and then to analyze the prospective performance and economics of various system configurations. We developed computer models for residential scale PEMFC cogeneration systems to compare various system designs (e.g., steam reforming vs. partial oxidation, compressed vs. atmospheric pressure, etc.) and determine the most technically and economically attractive system configurations at various scales (e.g., single family, residential, multi-dwelling, neighborhood).

Kreutz, Thomas G.; Ogden, Joan M.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging not exceed the regulatory limits prescribed by 10 CFR 71 for non-exclusive shipments. The mass of each radioisotope presented in this paper is limited by the radiation dose rate on the external surface of the package, which per the regulatory limit should not exceed 200 mrem/hr. The results presented are a compendium of allowable masses of a variety of different isotopes (with varying impurity levels of beryllium in some of the actinide isotopes) that, when loaded in an unshielded packaging, do not result in an external dose rate on the surface of the package that exceeds 190 mrem/hr (190 mrem/hr was chosen to provide 5% conservatism relative to the regulatory limit). These mass limits define the term 'Small Gram Quantity' (SGQ) contents in the context of radioactive material transportation packages. The term SGQ is isotope-specific and pertains to contents in radioactive material transportation packages that do not require shielding and still satisfy the external dose rate requirements. Since these calculated mass limits are for contents without shielding, they are conservative for packaging materials that provide some limited shielding or if the contents are placed into a shielded package. The isotopes presented in this paper were chosen as the isotopes that Department of Energy (DOE) sites most likely need to ship. Other more rarely shipped isotopes, along with industrial and medical isotopes, are planned to be included in subsequent extensions of this work.

Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

2010-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

158

The significance of local water resources captured in small reservoirs for crop production A global-scale analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

modelling Food security Crop yield s u m m a r y Rainwater harvesting, broadly defined as the collection significance, rainwater harvesting in small reser- voirs has previously been overlooked in large data and other physical datasets to explore the potential role of small, localized rainwater harvesting

Douglas, Ellen M.

159

Effect of the large scale environment on the internal dynamics of early-type galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have studied the population-density relation in very sparse environments, from poor clusters to isolated galaxies, and we find that early-type galaxies with a young stellar population are preferably found in the lowest density environments. We show a marginal indication that this effect is due to an enhancement of the stellar formation independent of the morphological segregation, but we failed to find any effect from the internal dynamics.

G. Maubon; Ph. Prugniel

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

160

WAT ENVIRON RESEARCH (in press, final version may have small changes) ODOR AND VOC TREATMENT BY BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: PILOT SCALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Treatment Plant (HTP) in Los Angeles have been testing pilot- scale biotrickling filters and biofilters odorous waste gases. The waste gas from the Headworks at HTP (100,000 cfm) contains 10-50 ppm H2S

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Policy recommendations to improve the competitiveness of small scale farmers in Colombia through Information and Communication Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Half of the Colombian population lives in regions dependent on primary activities such as agriculture, livestock, and fishing. This sector is characterized for being a mix of two kinds of productive systems: large-scale ...

Maya, Natalia (Natalia Carolina Maya Ortiz)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/elecengtheses/6 DC/DC Converter for a Small Scale Wind Hydrogen System By  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An electronic converter is designed for an isolated renewable energy system. In this system, energy produced by a small wind turbine is used to extract hydrogen from water. Unique aspects of this application that affect the performance of the converter will be defined. Design considerations of the individual components will be discussed. Calculations on performance and validation of those calculations are also presented.

Joel M. Jacobs; Joel M. Jacobs; Joel Michael Jacobs; Adviser Jerry; L. Hudgins

163

Abstract--Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping and engineering bench test evaluation. The device provides 90 Nm of ankle torque and has an operating pressure

Durfee, William K.

164

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

Demouchy, Sylvie

165

Legal obstacles and incentives to the third development of small-scale hydroelectric potential in the six New England states: executive summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This executive summary describes the relationship of Federal law and regulation to state law and regulation of small-scale hydroelectric facilities. It also highlights important features of the constitutional law, statutory law, case law, and regulations of each of the six New England states. The summary may serve as a concise overview of and introduction to the detailed reports prepared by the Energy Law Institute on the legal and regulatory systems of each of the six states. The dual regulatory system is a function of the federalist nature of our government. This dual system is examined from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, i.e., the law of pre-emption, and the application of this law to the case of hydroelectric development. The regulation of small dams are discussed and flow diagrams of the regulations are presented for each of the six states - Maine, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Connecticut.

None,

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Self-Assembly of Arbitrary Shapes Using RNAse Enzymes: Meeting the Kolmogorov Bound with Small Scale Factor (extended abstract)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a model of algorithmic self-assembly of geometric shapes out of square Wang tiles studied in SODA 2010, in which there are two types of tiles (e.g., constructed out of DNA and RNA material) and one operation ...

Demaine, Erik D.

167

Loss of spatial coherence and limiting of focal plane intensity by small-scale laser-beam filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a nonlinear optical mechanism that leads to a decrease of the degree of (transverse) spatial coherence of a laser beam as a function of propagation distance. This prediction is in direct contrast with those of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem, which applies to propagation through a linear, homogeneous material. The mechanism by which coherence is lost is the growth of small phase irregularities initially present on the laser wave front. We develop a detailed theoretical model of this effect and present experimental results that validate this model. The practical importance of this result is that by being able to controllably decrease the spatial coherence of a laser beam, one can limit the maximum intensity that is produced in its focal region. By limiting the intensity, one can prevent laser damage to bulk optical components or to sensitive photodetectors. This mechanism thus provides an alternative to current approaches of sensor protection based on optical power limiting.

Schweinsberg, Aaron; Kuper, Jerry [The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Boyd, Robert W. [The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canda K1N 6N5 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Observation of Small-scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Direction Distribution of TeV Cosmic Rays with HAWC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is sensitive to gamma rays and charged cosmic rays at TeV energies. The detector is still under construction, but data acquisition with the partially deployed detector started in 2013. An analysis of the cosmic-ray arrival direction distribution based on $4.9\\times 10^{10}$ events recorded between June 2013 and February 2014 shows anisotropy at the $10^{-4}$ level on angular scales of about $10^\\circ$. The HAWC cosmic-ray sky map exhibits three regions of significantly enhanced cosmic-ray flux; two of these regions were first reported by the Milagro experiment. A third region coincides with an excess recently reported by the ARGO-YBJ experiment. An angular power spectrum analysis of the sky shows that all terms up to $\\ell=15$ contribute significantly to the excesses.

Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; lvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velzquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De Le, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Daz-Vlez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; Gonzlez, M M; Goodman, J A; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Harding, J P; Hntemeyer, P; Hui, C M; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H Len; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-Garca, R; Malone, K; Marinelli, A; Marinelli, S S; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martnez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; McEnery, J; Torres, E Mendoza; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostaf, M; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Prez-Prez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivire, C; Rosa-Gonzlez, D; Ruiz-Velasco, E; Ryan, J; Salazar, H; Greus, F Salesa; Sandoval, A; Schneider, M; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Woodle, K Sparks; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Discovery potential of xenon-based neutrinoless double beta decay experiments in light of small angular scale CMB observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has probed an expanded angular range of the CMB temperature power spectrum. Their recent analysis of the latest cosmological data prefers nonzero neutrino masses, with ?m{sub ?} = (0.320.11) eV. This result, if confirmed by the upcoming Planck data, has deep implications on the discovery of the nature of neutrinos. In particular, the values of the effective neutrino mass m{sub ??} involved in neutrinoless double beta decay (??0?) are severely constrained for both the direct and inverse hierarchy, making a discovery much more likely. In this paper, we focus in xenon-based ??0? experiments, on the double grounds of their good performance and the suitability of the technology to large-mass scaling. We show that the current generation, with effective masses in the range of 100 kg and conceivable exposures in the range of 500 kgyear, could already have a sizeable opportunity to observe ??0? events, and their combined discovery potential is quite large. The next generation, with an exposure in the range of 10 tonyear, would have a much more enhanced sensitivity, in particular due to the very low specific background that all the xenon technologies (liquid xenon, high-pressure xenon and xenon dissolved in liquid scintillator) can achieve. In addition, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC also features superb energy resolution. We show that such detector can fully explore the range of allowed effective Majorana masses, thus making a discovery very likely.

Gmez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martn-Albo, J.; Vidal, J. Muoz; Pea-Garay, C., E-mail: gomez@mail.cern.ch, E-mail: jmalbos@ific.uv.es, E-mail: jmunoz@ific.uv.es, E-mail: penya@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Fsica Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC and Universitat de Valencia Calle Catedrtico Jos Beltrn, 2, 46090 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

X-RAY SCALING RELATION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DARK MATTER AS A PRIMARY FACTOR IN RETAINING HOT GAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have revisited the X-ray scaling relations of early-type galaxies (ETG) by investigating, for the first time, the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} relation in a sample of 14 ETGs. In contrast to the large scatter (a factor of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3}) in the L{sub X,Total}-L{sub B} relation, we found a tight correlation between these physically motivated quantities with an rms deviation of a factor of three in L{sub X,Gas} = 10{sup 38}-10{sup 43} erg s{sup 1} or M{sub Total} = a few 10{sup 10} to a few 10{sup 12} M{sub ?}. More striking, this relation becomes even tighter with an rms deviation of a factor of 1.3 among the gas-rich galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} > 10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}). In a simple power-law form, the new relation is (L{sub X,Gas}/10{sup 40} erg s{sup 1}) = (M{sub Total}/3.2 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}){sup 3}. This relation is also consistent with the steep relation between the gas luminosity and temperature, L{sub X,Gas} ? T{sub Gas} {sup 4.5}, identified by Boroson et al., if the gas is virialized. Our results indicate that the total mass of an ETG is the primary factor in regulating the amount of hot gas. Among the gas-poor galaxies (with L{sub X,Gas} < a few 10{sup 39} erg s{sup 1}), the scatter in the L{sub X,Gas}-M{sub Total} (and L{sub X,Gas}-T{sub Gas}) relation increases, suggesting that secondary factors (e.g., rotation, flattening, star formation history, cold gas, environment, etc.) may become important.

Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

171

Small-scale hydroelectric power demonstration project: Broad River Electric Cooperative, Inc. , Cherokee Falls Hydroelectric Project: Final technical and construction cost report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to fulfill part of the requirement of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement Number FC07-80ID12125 of the Small Scale Hydropower Program and is submitted on behalf of the Broad River Electric Cooperative, Inc. of Gaffney, South Carolina. The project was initially studied in 1978 with construction commencing in January, 1984. The primary work elements of the project consisted of the renovation of an existing dam and a new powerhouse. The dam was rehabilitated and flashboards were installed along the top of the structure. The powerhouse was supplied with a single open pit turbine and a new substation was constructed. The project generated power in December of 1985 but has been plagued with numerous problems compounded by a flood in March, 1987 causing extensive damages. The flood of March, 1987 resulted in filing of litigative action by the developers against their project managers and engineers which has yet to reach settlement and will possibly culminate in court sometime during the fall of 1988.

Not Available

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Please cite this article in press as: S. Banetta, et al., Manufacturing of small-scale mock-ups and of a semi-prototype of the ITER Normal Heat Flux First Wall, Fusion Eng. Des. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2014.04.020  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Please cite this article in press as: S. Banetta, et al., Manufacturing of small-scale mock-ups homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fusengdes Manufacturing of small-scale mock-ups and of a semi the manufacturing development and fabrication of reduced scale ITER First Wall (FW) mock-ups of the Normal Heat Flux

Raffray, A. Ren

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

An alternative scaling solution for high-energy QCD saturation with running coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of approximate scaling compatible with the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation with running coupling is found, which is different from the previously known running coupling geometric scaling. The corresponding asymptotic traveling wave solution is derived. Although featuring different scaling behaviors, the two solutions are complementary approximations of the same universal solution, and they become equivalent in the high energy limit. The new type of scaling is observed in the small-x DIS data.

Guillaume Beuf

2008-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

174

OECD MCCI project Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 test data report : thermal hydraulic results. Rev. 0 September 20, 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

175

OECD MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-3 test data report : thermal Hydraulic results, Rev. 0 February 19, 2003.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the third water ingression test, designated SSWICS-3. This test investigated the quenching behavior of a fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% limestone/common sand concrete at a system pressure of 4 bar absolute. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

176

OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 final data report, Rev. 1 February 10, 2003.; Report, Rev. 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure; and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The test investigated the quench behavior of a 15 cm deep, fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% limestone/common sand concrete decomposition products. The melt was quenched at nominally atmospheric pressure. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and data reduction to obtain an estimate of the corrected heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool. A section of the report is devoted to calculations of the conduction-limited heat flux that accounts for heat losses to the crucible holding the corium. The remainder of the report describes post test examinations of the crust, which includes permeability and mechanical strength measurements, and chemical analysis.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

177

OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-2 test data report : thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0 September 20, 2002.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the second water ingression test, designated SSWICS-2. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

OECM MCCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-2 final data report, Rev. 0 February 12, 2003.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the second water ingression test, designated SSWICS-2. The test investigated the quench behavior of a 15 cm deep, fully oxidized PWR corium melt containing 8 wt% siliceous concrete decomposition products. The melt was quenched at nominally atmospheric pressure. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and data reduction to obtain an estimate of the corrected heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool. A section of the report is devoted to calculations of the conduction-limited heat flux that accounts for heat losses to the crucible holding the corium. The remainder of the report describes post test examinations of the crust, which includes permeability and mechanical strength measurements, and chemical analysis.

Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D.; Aeschlimann, B. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

179

Community small scale wind farms for New Zealand: a comparative study of Austrian development, with consideration for New Zealand's future wind energy development.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In New Zealand, the development of wind energy is occurring predominantly at a large scale level with very little opportunity for local people to become (more)

Thomson, Grant

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

EA-1642-S1: Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Lexington, KY  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts of DOEs proposed action of providing cost-shared funding for the University of Kentucky (UK) Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) Small-Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal-Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis project and of the No-Action Alternative.

182

DATA SUMMARY REPORT SMALL SCALE MELTER TESTING OF HLW ALGORITHM GLASSES MATRIX1 TESTS VSL-07S1220-1 REV 0 7/25/07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Eight tests using different HLW feeds were conducted on the DM100-BL to determine the effect of variations in glass properties and feed composition on processing rates and melter conditions (off-gas characteristics, glass processing, foaming, cold cap, etc.) at constant bubbling rate. In over seven hundred hours of testing, the property extremes of glass viscosity, electrical conductivity, and T{sub 1%}, as well as minimum and maximum concentrations of several major and minor glass components were evaluated using glass compositions that have been tested previously at the crucible scale. Other parameters evaluated with respect to glass processing properties were +/-15% batching errors in the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs) to the feed, and variation in the sources of boron and sodium used in the GFCs. Tests evaluating batching errors and GFC source employed variations on the HLW98-86 formulation (a glass composition formulated for HLW C-106/AY-102 waste and processed in several previous melter tests) in order to best isolate the effect of each test variable. These tests are outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to the Test Specification for this work. The present report provides summary level data for all of the tests in the first test matrix (Matrix 1) in the Test Plan. Summary results from the remaining tests, investigating minimum and maximum concentrations of major and minor glass components employing variations on the HLW98-86 formulation and glasses generated by the HLW glass formulation algorithm, will be reported separately after those tests are completed. The test data summarized herein include glass production rates, the type and amount of feed used, a variety of measured melter parameters including temperatures and electrode power, feed sample analysis, measured glass properties, and gaseous emissions rates. More detailed information and analysis from the melter tests with complete emission chemistry, glass durability, and melter operating details will be provided in the final report. A summary of the tests that were conducted is provided in Table 1. Each of the seven tests was of nominally one hundred hours in duration. Test B was conducted in two equal segments: the first with nominal additives, and the second with the replacement of borax with a mixture of boric acid and soda ash to determine the effect of alternative OPC sources on production rates and processing characteristics. Interestingly, sugar additions were required near mid points of Tests W and Z to reduce excessive foaming that severely limited feed processing rates. The sugar additions were very effective in recovering manageable processing conditions, albeit over the relatively short remainder of the test duration. Tests W and Z employed the highest melt viscosities but not by a particularly wide margin. Other tests, which did not exhibit such foaming Issues, employed higher concentrations of manganese or iron or both. These results highlight the need for the development of protocols for the a priori determination of which HLW feeds will require sugar additions and the appropriate amounts of sugar to be added in order to control foaming (and maintain throughput) without over-reduction of the melt (which could lead to molten metal formation). In total, over 8,800 kg of feed was processed to produce over 3200 kg of glass. Steady-state processing rates were achieved, and no secondary sulfate phases were observed during any of the tests. Analysis was performed on samples of the glass product taken throughout the tests to verify composition and properties. Sampling and analysis was also performed on melter exhaust to determine the effect of the feed and glass changes on melter emissions.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

183

New Switches for Utility-Scale Inverters: First In-Class Demonstration of a Completely New Type of SiC Bipolar Switch (15kV-20kV) for Utility-Scale Inverters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar ADEPT Project: The SiCLAB is developing a new power switch for utility-scale PV inverters that would improve the performance and significantly reduce the size, weight, and energy loss of PV systems. A power switch controls the electrical energy flowing through an inverter, which takes the electrical current from a PV solar panel and converts it into the type and amount of electricity that is compatible with the electric grid. SiCLAB is using silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors in its new power switches, which are more efficient than the silicon semiconductors used to conduct electricity in most conventional power switches today. Switches with SiC semiconductors can operate at much higher temperatures, as well as higher voltage and power levels than silicon switches. SiC-based power switches are also smaller than those made with silicon alone, so they result in much smaller and lighter electrical devices. In addition to their use in utility-scale PV inverters, SiCLABs new power switches can also be used in wind turbines, railways, and other smart grid applications.

None

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Atomic scale investigations of the thermal and electron induced chemistry of small molecules on platinum(111) as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work presented here can be divided into two parts: 1) an experimental and analysis section dealing with the investigation of small molecules such as methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, diatomic nitrogen, methane and methane?s photochemical derivative methyl radical adsorbed onto the Pt(111) surface, and 2) A detailed explanation of the current STM and chamber, with included designs and detailed instructions for operation and maintenance of both the STM and chamber. The investigations of the methyl bromide molecule show interesting dipole-dipole interactions on the Pt(111) surface. With a (6 x 3) lattice being described as the full monolayer that was created by overdosing and annealing to 104 K. The (6 x 3) lattice is shown to occupy top sites and three fold hollow sites on the Pt(111) surface giving rise to a very sharp and symmetrically split ?2 RAIRS mode, and the absence of the ?5 mode in RAIRS is indicative that the molecules are all aligned with their C-Br bond parallel to the surface normal. Additional sub-monolayer structures were observed that had components that were not aligned with the surface normal. The submonolayer lattices ranging from a structured 0.12 ML to a random coverages estimated at 0.20 ML, to a shift in the (6 x 3) lattice resulting in a high local line coverage of 0.33 ML. Analysis of the CO2 molecules adsorbed onto the Pt(111) surface shows that there is a preferred high temperature dosing that results in a thermodynamically stable system of a (3 x 3) lattice consisting of both horizontal and vertical molecules. The coverage of the (3 x 3) lattice of vertical molecules is 0.11 ML which can be assigned to the RAIRS peak of 2287 cm-1. The vertical molecules are seen to occupy the hollow sites within the horizontal (3 x 3) lattice. The low temperature dosage of multilayers and annealing, to 78 K, show that the (3 x 3) lattice is compressed into a lattice of (5 x 3) with some of the molecules in the unit cell that are incommensurate with the Pt(111) lattice. However, isolated unit cells of the horizontal (3 x 3) lattices remain after the compression which allows a single vertical CO2 molecule to occupy the hollow site resulting in the characteristic 2277 cm-1 peak in RAIRS. The resulting local coverage of the (5 x 3) lattice is calculated to be 0.40 ML. Methane was found to adsorb onto the Pt(111) lattice in a (?3 x ?3) configuration yielding a coverage of 0.33 ML in perfect agreement with previous coverage assignments. With a full coverage of methane adsorbed onto the crystal surface an ArF excimer laser was used to photodissociate the molecules to create methyl radicals that could be imaged by STM. After photochemical deposition of methyl radicals and annealing the surface to 175 K, the STM was used to image the surface. The methyl radical were estimated to arrange in a (?3 by ?3) lattice same as the methane, and imaged as roughly 0.4 ? high protrusions from the surface with a diameter of 5.5 ?. The last molecule that was studied, was the adsorption of diatomic nitrogen on the Pt(111) surface at a temperature of 25 K. Due to the very low desorption temperature of N2 (i.e. 46 K) and the relatively high temperature of the crystal, only chemisorbed molecules were able to be resolved. The results confirm that diatomic nitrogen binds to the top side of the Pt(111) step edge in agreement with Yates RAIRS studies, and calculations by Norskov. However, there was observed a stable cluster of molecules bound to the lower side of the step edge in a (2 x 2) lattice configuration which has previously unknown before these images and is the most likely source of the photoactivity of nitrogen molecules on the crystal surface. It is the hopes of this author that the experiments described within the dissertation lead to new and better understanding of the role that the microscopic scale structures of adsorbates on the surface play in catalysis. Also that the general information of STM design, construction and tip fabrication will be useful to all students who follow me in working

Schwendemann, Todd Charles

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

A study of RELAP5/MOD2 and RELAP5/MOD3 predictions of a small break LOCA simulation conducted at the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)pl / ? DE -Upp r Head Spray Nozzle rVent Valve Simulator Line Hot Leo Upper Plenum Leak Line r9 Core normal flow transient 'low ECCH Induction E-l EltO QtQ EltC] El Lower Plenum Figure 4. Pressure Vessel 12 Table II Primary... simulation codes RELAP5/MOD2 and RELAP5/MOD3 were utilized to calculate the phenomena which occurred during a small break LOCA simulation conducted at the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility. The transient scenario was a 5% break in the cold leg with a loss...

Sloan, Sandra Mernell

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

K Basin Sludge Conditioning Testing Nitric Acid Dissolution Testing of K East Area Sludge Composite, Small- and Large-Scale Testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to support the development of the K Basin Sludge Treatment System. For this work, testing was performed to examine the dissolution behavior of a K East Basin floor and Weasel Pit sludge composite, referred to as K East area sludge composite, in nitric acid at the following concentrations: 2 M, 4 M, 6 M and 7.8 M. With the exception of one high solids loading test the nitric acid was added at 4X the stoichiometric requirement (assuming 100% of the sludge was uranium metal). The dissolution tests were conducted at boiling temperatures for 24 hours. Most of the tests were conducted with {approximately}2.5 g of sludge (dry basis). The high solids loading test was conducted with {approximately}7 g of sludge. A large-scale dissolution test was conducted with 26.5 g of sludge and 620 mL of 6 M nitric acid. The objectives of this test were to (1) generate a sufficient quantity of acid-insoluble residual solids for use in leaching studies, and (2) examine the dissolution behavior of the sludge composite at a larger scale.

Carlson, C.D.; Delegard, C.H.; Burgeson, I.E.; Schmidt, A.J.; Silvers, K.L.

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

187

Predictions From High Scale Mixing Unification Hypothesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting with 'High Scale Mixing Unification' hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization-group equations. For both type of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution 'naturally' results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$ turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which th...

Srivastava, Rahul

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

A Small Scale Magnetic Particle Relaxometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a newly found imaging modality. It utilizes superparamagnetic materials as tracers in the blood stream to obtain very high resolutions. MPI promises to have high sensitivity, high spatial resolution...

El Ghamrawy, Ahmed

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

190

Small scales structures and neutrino masses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmological observables at the linear order. By means of N-body simulations we investigate the signatures left by neutrinos on the fully non-linear regime. We present the effects induced by massive neutrinos on the matter power spectrum, the halo mass function and on the halo-matter bias in massive neutrino cosmologies. We also investigate the clustering of cosmic neutrinos within galaxy clusters.

Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Towards Assembly Automation at Small Size Scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

environmental impact Robotics Injection Molding Advanced Polymer Composites 3D Printing #12;In-Mold Assembly

Gupta, Satyandra K.

192

Small-Scale Solar Grants (Rhode Island)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation (RIEDC) provides incentives for renewable-energy projects. Incentive programs are funded by the Rhode Island Renewable Energy Fund (RIREF) and...

193

Solar thermoelectrics for small scale power generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the past two decades, there has been a surge in the research of new thermoelectric (TE) materials, driven party by the need for clean and sustainable power generation technology. Utilizing the Seebeck effect, the ...

Amatya, Reja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses - 2014...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

in millions of small businesses nationwide by aligning small businesses and utilities through large-scale data acquisition, cost-effective building analytics, and...

195

A Biorefinery Goes 'Mod' and Small  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Minnesota-based Easy Energy Systems sells small-scale, easy-to use biorefineries. The company expects to create 100 jobs because of new orders.

196

Small Market Advanced Retrofit Transformation Program (SMART...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and government administrators of energy efficiency programs for small- and medium-sized buildings (SMBs). SMART Scale is looking to achieve an average of 20% energy savings per...

197

Nuclear scales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

Friar, J.L.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Small Buildings and Small Portfolios  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartment ofCombustuionDOEGovernment PurchaseSmall Buildings and

199

small business  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of the Review of theOFFICE OF8/%2A ennike |1/%2A2/%2A en Small

200

The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Sanitation: The Role of Small-Scale Entrepreneurs (NoteSmall-scale entrepreneurs in the urban water and sanitationsmall-scale independent providers in the delivery of water and sanitation

Cheng, Deborah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Politics of Pipes: The Persistence of Small Water Networks in Post-Privatization Manila  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Competition in Water and Sanitation: The Role of Small-ScaleSmall-scale entrepreneurs in the urban water and sanitationsmall-scale independent providers in the delivery of water and sanitation

Cheng, Deborah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Trace contaminant determination in fish scale by laser ablation technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser ablation on rings of fish scale has been used to analyze the historical accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in striped bass in the Watts Bar Reservoir. Rings on a fish scale grow in a pattern that forms a record of the fish`s chemical intake. In conjunction with the migration patterns of fish monitored by ecologists, relative PCB concentrations in the seasonal rings of fish scale can be used to study the PCB distribution in the reservoir. In this study, a tightly-focused laser beam from a XeCl excimer laser was used to ablate and ionize a small portion of a fish scale placed in a vacuum chamber. The ions were identified and quantified by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Studies of this type can provide valuable information for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) off-site clean-up efforts as well as identifying the impacts of other sources to local aquatic populations.

Lee, I.; Coutant, C.C.; Arakawa, E.T.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Structural Assessment of Small Bore Feeder Piping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BACKGROUND Structural Assessment of Small Bore Feeder Piping Kathryn Tang, Janos Mann, Skerdi. Supervisor: A. N. Sinclair CASE ONE CANDU REACTORS HAVE 380+ SMALL BORE FEEDER PIPES. THE PIPES PIPES AND VALIDATE COMPUTATIONAL METHODS COMPARED TO FULL SCALE TESTS TO FAILURE. THE CLIENT CANDU

204

Power Africa's Beyond the Grid Increasing Access through Small...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 billion into off-grid and small scale solutions for this underserved market. These private sector commitments will help Power Africa meet and exceed its commitment to...

205

Angular Scaling In Jets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.

Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

AGN Environments in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I: Dependence on Type, Redshift, and Luminosity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore how the local environment is related to the redshift, type, and luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Recent simulations and observations are converging on the view that the extreme luminosity of quasars is fueled in major mergers of gas-rich galaxies. In such a picture, quasars are expected to be located in regions with a higher density of galaxies on small scales where mergers are more likely to take place. However, in this picture, the activity observed in low-luminosity AGN is due to secular processes that are less dependent on the local galaxy density. To test this hypothesis, we compare the local photometric galaxy density on kiloparsec scales around spectroscopic Type I and Type II quasars to the local density around lower luminosity spectroscopic Type I and Type II AGN. To minimize projection effects and evolution in the photometric galaxy sample we use to characterize AGN environments, we place our random control sample at the same redshift as our AGN and impose a narrow redshift window around both the AGN and control targets. We find that higher luminosity AGN have more overdense environments compared to lower luminosity AGN on all scales out to our $2\\Mpchseventy$ limit. Additionally, in the range $0.3\\leqslant z\\leqslant 0.6$, Type II quasars have similarly overdense environments to those of bright Type I quasars on all scales out to our $2\\Mpchseventy$ limit, while the environment of dimmer Type I quasars appears to be less overdense than the environment of Type II quasars. We see increased overdensity for Type II AGN compared to Type I AGN on scales out to our limit of $2\\Mpchseventy$ in overlapping redshift ranges. We also detect marginal evidence for evolution in the number of galaxies within $2\\Mpchseventy$ of a quasar with redshift.

Natalie E. Strand; Robert J. Brunner; Adam D. Myers

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Small Business - Hanford Site  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home Prime Contracts Current Solicitations Small Business Other Sources DOE RL Contracting Officers DOE RL Contracting Officer Representatives Small Business Email Email Page...

208

INL Small Business Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small Business Program The Idaho National Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Small Business Program is a fundamental component of the Supply Chain Management organization....

209

Small Generator Aggregation (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section establishes requirements for electricity providers to purchase electricity from small generators, with the goal of ensuring that small electricity generators (those with a nameplate...

210

New Mexico Small Business  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA) helps small businesses in New Mexico access cutting-edge technologies, solve technical issues, and gain knowledge from technical experts...

211

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access DNAzyme-mediated recovery of small  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This protocol avoids toxic chemicals, and is therefore more suitable for large scale RNA purification than. The approach provides a route towards an economical method for the large-scale production of small RNAsRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access DNAzyme-mediated recovery of small recombinant RNAs from a 5S r

Fox, George

212

Scale invariability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I recently demonstrated that the Earth is a forced mechanical oscillator in which springtide induced magnification of all-masses resonance causes tectonics. I here generalize this georesonator concept so to make it apply to any body, anywhere in all the universes and at all times. It turns out that there is no distinction between physics at intergalactic, mechanist, quantum, and smaller scales. Instead of being a constant (of proportionality of physics at all scales), G is a parameter of most general form: G = s e^2, nonlinearly varying amongst different scales s. The so called scale variability of physics but not of G, imagined as such by Planck and Einstein, is due to springtide-induced extreme resonance of Earth masses, critically impeding terrestrial experiments for estimating G, while providing artificial settings for quantum experiments to all trivially "work". I propose that reality is a system of near infinitely many magnifying oscillators where permanent energy decay of all oscillation naturally forb...

Omerbashich, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Disposal of fluidized bed combustion ash in an underground mine to control acid mine drainage and subsidence - phase II - small scale field demonstration. Topical report, December 1, 1996--February 28, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been proposed that a mix made from fly and bottom ash from atmospheric pressure fluidized bed coal combusters (FBC ash), water, and stabilizers be injected from the surface into abandoned room and pillar coal mines through boreholes. Besides ash disposal, this process would prevent subsidence and acid mine drainage. Such a mix (called `grout`) needs to be an adequately stable and flowable suspension for it to spread and cover large areas in the mine. This is necessary as the drilling of the boreholes will be an expensive operation and the number such holes should be minimized. Addition of bentonite was found to be needed for this purpose. A suitable grout mix was tested rheologically to determine its fluid flow properties. Finding little published information on such materials, tests were performed using a commercial rotational viscometer with a T-bar rotor and a stand which produced a helical rotor path. Existing mixer viscometer test methods were modified and adapted to convert the measurements of torque vs. angular speed to the material properties appearing in several non-Newtonian constitutive equations. Yield stress was measured by an independent test called the vane method. The rheological behavior was a close fit to the Bingham fluid model. Bleed tests were conducted to ascertain the stability of the mixtures. Spread tests were conducted to compare the flowability of various mixes. Using the flow parameters determined in the laboratory, numerical simulations of grout flow were performed and compared with the results of scale model and field tests. A field injection of this grout was performed at the Fairfax mines in Preston county, W.V.. The observations there proved that this FBC ash grout flows as desired, is a very economical way of disposing the environmentally menacing ash, while also preventing the subsidence and acid mine drainage of the mines.

Ziemkiewicz, P.F.; Head, W.J.; Gray, D.D.; Siriwardane, H.J.; Sack, W.A.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

SRS Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

None

2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

215

SRS Small Modular Reactors  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The small modular reactor program at the Savannah River Site and the Savannah River National Laboratory.

None

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) An...

217

B3.6 SWCX for Indoor Bench-Scale Research Project and Conventional...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Action The DOE's Richland Operations Office and Office of River Protection propose to conduct indoor bench-scale research, conventional laboratory operations, and small-scale...

218

Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for two types of consumer products; refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers; small gas furnaces; and a proposed No standard standard for television sets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts resulting from new or amended energy-efficiency standard for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, small gas furnaces, and television sets as mandated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. A complete description of the Engineering and Economic Analysis of the proposed standards may be found elsewhere in the Technical Support Document (TSD). Four of the 14 scenarios for product design changes described in the Engineering Analysis of the TSD are chosen for environmental assessment based on their relative importance as design measures. Values for energy savings that result from product design changes are also taken from the TSD. The two main environmental concerns addressed are emissions from fossil fuel-fired electricity generation and the chlorofluorcarbons used in the production of rigid insulation foam. Each of the 12 design options for refrigerators and freezers result in decreased electricity use and and, therefore, reduced power plant emissions. Design changes that call for additional rigid foam insulation per appliance are of interest because they affect chlorofluorocarbon consumption. There is strong evidence that chlorofluorocarbons migrate to the stratosphere, break down, and catalyze the destruction of stratospheric ozone.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Turbulence-Flame Interactions in Type Ia Supernovae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The large range of time and length scales involved in type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) requires the use of flame models. As a prelude to exploring various options for flame models, we consider, in this paper, high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the small-scale dynamics of nuclear flames in the supernova environment in which the details of the flame structure are fully resolved. The range of densities examined, 1 to $8 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$, spans the transition from the laminar flamelet regime to the distributed burning regime where small scale turbulence disrupts the flame. The use of a low Mach number algorithm facilitates the accurate resolution of the thermal structure of the flame and the inviscid turbulent kinetic energy cascade, while implicitly incorporating kinetic energy dissipation at the grid-scale cutoff. For an assumed background of isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence with an energy characteristic of SN Ia, we find a transition density between 1 and $3 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$ where the nature of the burning changes qualitatively. By $1 \\times 10^7$ g cm$^{-3}$, energy diffusion by conduction and radiation is exceeded, on the flame scale, by turbulent advection. As a result, the effective Lewis Number approaches unity. That is, the flame resembles a laminar flame, but is turbulently broadened with an effective diffusion coefficient, $D_T \\sim u' l$, where $u'$ is the turbulent intensity and $l$ is the integral scale. For the larger integral scales characteristic of a real supernova, the flame structure is predicted to become complex and unsteady. Implications for a possible transition to detonation are discussed.

A. J. Aspden; J. B. Bell; M. S. Day; S. E. Woosley; M. Zingale

2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

220

Small Business Status  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Teaming Arrangements on Small Business Status The Department of Energy is planning to set aside for small businesses a number of acquisitions of a very complex nature, requiring a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Eclipsing Binaries in the OGLE Variable Star Catalogs.V. Long-Period Beta Lyrae-type Systems in the Small Magellanic Cloud and the PLC-beta Relation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thirty eight long-period (P>10 days), apparently contact binary stars discovered by the OGLE-II project in the SMC appear to be Beta Lyrae-type systems with ellipsoidal variations of the cool components dominating over eclipse effects in the systemic light variations and in the total luminosity. A new period-luminosity- color (PLC) relation has been established for these systems; we call it the PLC-beta relation, to distinguish it from the Cepheid relation. Two versions of the PLC-beta relation - based on the (B-V)0 or (V-I)0 color indices - have been calibrated for 33 systems with (V-I)0>0.25 spanning the orbital period range of 11 to 181 days. The relations can provide maximum-light, absolute-magnitude estimates accurate to epsilon-M_V~0.35 mag. within the approximate range -3PLC-beta relation can offer an auxiliary and entirely independent method of distance determination to nearby stellar systems rich in massive stars. The sample of the long-period Beta Lyrae systems in the SMC analyzed in this paper is currently the best defined and uniform known sequence of such binaries.

Slavek M. Rucinski; Carla Maceroni

2000-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Scale invariability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I recently demonstrated that the Earth is a mechanical oscillator in which springtide induced magnification of all-masses resonance forces tectonics. I here generalize this georesonator concept so to make it apply to any body, anywhere in all the universes, and at all times. It turns out that there is no distinction between physics at intergalactic, mechanist, quantum, and smaller scales. Instead of being a constant (of proportionality of physics at all scales), G is a parameter of most general form: G = s e^2, nonlinearly varying amongst different scales s. The so called scale variability of physics but not of G, imagined as such by Planck and Einstein, is due to springtide-induced extreme resonance of Earth masses critically impeding terrestrial experiments for estimating G, while providing artificial settings for quantum experiments to all trivially "work". Thus the derived equation is that of levitation. Reality is a system of near infinitely many magnifying oscillators, where permanent energy decay of all oscillation forbids constancy of known "physical constants". This hyperresonator concept explains the magnetism (as every forced oscillator feature), as well as the gravitation (as forward propagation of mechanical vibrations along the aether i.e. throughout the vacuum structure). To test my claim I propose a Space mission to collect on site measurements of eigenperiods of the Sun, its planets, and their satellites. The levitation equitation enables propulsionless Space travel via gravity sailing: Space vehicle hull ought to be engineered so as to automatically adjust its grave mode, to the vehicle instant gravitational surroundings, akin to trout up swimming.

M. Omerbashich

2010-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

223

SITEWIDE CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR SMALJ,SCALE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMEN...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) proposes to conduct small-scale research and development projects, conventional laboratory operations,...

224

-Small scale environmental heterogeneity along gradients -57 Abstract.Theobserveddistributionofaspeciesalongan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Burrough 1983; Phillips 1985; Christensen & MacAller 1985; Webster 1985; Armstrong 1986). For example

Palmer, Michael W.

225

In Situ Small Scale Mechanical Characterization of Materials Under Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, aluminum and titanium alloys were examined using those two techniques. Analysis of their behavior in comparison with their published mechanical properties made it possible to establish connections between test parameters and conventional uniaxial tensile...

Sanders, Matthew Wayne

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

226

Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programs DeploymentPrograms: Project Development This video teaches the viewer about wind turbines and RETscreen's wind...

227

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sphere Filled with Heavy Water 53 Figure 6.1 MCNPXdevice was modeled as filled with heavy water, D 2 O. Thesections associated with heavy water. Figure 5.15 shows the

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Feasibility of a Small Scale Intensity Correlation Interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

double slit image. The interferometer consists of 2 avalanche photo-diodes connected to a data acquisition computer. The image is produced by shining light through the double slit image an image containment system. The sensors are placed at the far end...

Kelderman, Gregory Peter

2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering...

Surface, Nicholas James

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Exploring the material properties of small scale folded structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

make robotics more readily available to the average person. Although designs for a number of successful printable robots have already been produced, there has been little formal exploration into the materials properties ...

Uberti, Megan E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Interactive Multiple Scale Small Multiples Andrew S. Forsberg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent, include thousands of time steps, and have multiple fields. While mathematical modeling helps users? Motivated by the complex data generated from bat flight simulations in a wind tunnel [8], we designed datasets (e.g., kinematics, anatomical structures, and the wake structure behind bat wings). The views

Laidlaw, David

232

SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE VIA FLOWS ALBERT M. FISHER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sets 6 5. The extended Cantor function (or Devil's Staircase) 7 6. The scenery ow 8 7. The Fuchsian. For a smooth embedded manifold one sees just the tangent space asymptotically, but for fractal sets and related as owing on a uni#12;cation of the dynamical and the parameter space. For fractal sets, the translation

Provence Aix-Marseille I, Université de

233

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

31 4.6. Heat load calculations . 33 5.188 9. Heat Load Calculations for Conceptual Transmutationtally [30, 63]. 4.6 Heat Load Calculations The heat load to

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

130 7.5. Americium-241 .. 132by neutron capture of Americium The thermal energy neutronsmagnitude longer. 7.5 Americium-241 As explained in Chapter

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

ATTACHMENT CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION FOR SMALL-SCALE RESEARCH AND...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

.. ,. .. , .i' : .. .. 1 Result in more than minimal air impacts? X 2 Increase offsite radiation dose measurably? X 3 Require a radiological work permit? X 4 Cause more than a...

236

Micro and small-scale generation in urban distribution networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As the world moves towards a more sustainable development, the energy coming from fossil fuels still produces the greenhouse gases that threaten the worlds climate. The UK government has established targets for the ...

Acosta Alvarez, Jorge Luis; Alvarez, Jorge Luis Acosta; Acosta, Jorge Luis

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

27], and the Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor (GCFTR)fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) and high temperature gas

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

COHERENCE AND INTERMITTENCY OF ELECTRON DENSITY IN SMALL-SCALE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRIC CNMSMethanol SteamNOTICE:Practices

239

SMALL-SCALE IMPACT SENSITIVITY TESTING ON EDC37  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

EDC37 was tested at LLNL to determine its impact sensitivity in the LLNL's drop hammer system. The results showed that impact sensitivities of the samples were between 86 cm and 156 cm, depending on test methods. EDC37 is a plastic bonded explosive consisting of 90% HMX, 1% nitrocellulose and binder. We recently conducted impact sensitivity testing in our drop hammer system and the results are presented in this report.

HSU, P C; HUST, G; MAIENSCHEIN, J L

2008-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

International Workshop on Small Scale Wind Energy for Developing Countries  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climate compatible developmentClimateOrganizationISWA) Jump to:|

242

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: TopEnergyIDIQ Contract ESPCElectricalofVoltageEmployeeEmployees

243

Power Africa's Beyond the Grid Increasing Access through Small- Scale  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergyDepartment ofOil'sof Energy Jun Luof Emergency Petition andEnergy

244

Enabling Small-Scale Biomass Gasification for Liquid Fuel Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE:2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and VehicleCoolingCompensation

245

Small-Scale Experiments: Sandia Instrumented Thermal Ignition (SITI)  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of theResourcecomments/rss enExpansion ofMaximumresearch community

246

Microsoft Word - 2014 Small-Scale - Intro.docx  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMappingENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT COMMENT SUMMARY- Carbon

247

Introduction to Small-Scale Photovoltaic Systems (Including RETScreen Case  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place: EdenOverview Of TheIntevac Jump to:Framework

248

Solar power water pump studies for small-scale irrigation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Irrigation is a well established procedure on many farms in western Canada and is practiced on various levels around the world. It allows diversification of (more)

Williamson, Erin.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Asymptotic scaling: getting the small things right Richard Craster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) closed-cell polyurethane (c) nickel (d) copper (e) zirconia (f) mullite (g) glass (h) a polyether foam ---------------- December 2011 ­ p.3/18 #12;Engineering foams Photographs of cellular solids: (a) open-cell polyurethane (b

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

250

SMART Scale  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l LPROJECTS IN7 Roadmap forDKT.Awards and IncentivesSHARPofofSMART Scale

251

DOE Announces Small Business Awards at its Annual Small Business...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

California Small Business Innovative Research-Small Business of the Year Recipient: Deep Web Technologies, Inc. President and CTO: Abe Lederman Santa Fe, New Mexico Small...

252

Small Wind Information (Postcard)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative maintains a website section devoted to information about small wind turbines for homeowners, ranchers, and small businesses. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource.

Not Available

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small Hotel | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofofDepartmentHotel Reference Buildings

254

Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartmentnews-flashes Office ofofDepartmentHotel Reference

255

Small Business First Policy  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to maximizing opportunities for small business contracts, including prime contracts and subcontracts, while driving towards operational excellence and efficiency across the enterprise. Does not cancel other directives.

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Small Business Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Focus on Energy offers a free energy assessment and free or discounted energy savings items to small businesses with a peak monthly electric demand of less than 100 kilowatts. After the initial...

257

Slim Holes for Small Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geothermal research study at Sandia National Laboratories has conducted a program in slimhole drilling research since 1992. Although our original interest focused on slim holes as an exploration method, it has also become apparent that they have substantial potential for driving small-scale, off-grid power plants. This paper summarizes Sandia's slim-hole research program, describes technology used in a ''typical'' slimhole drilling project, presents an evaluation of using slim holes for small power plants, and lists some of the research topics that deserve further investigation.

Finger, John T.

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

258

Small Grains for Forage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for both early and sustained production. Further testing of these varieties is underway. Otller varieties may be used satisfactorily, but the ones named have given the most consistent performance. Small grain varieties differ in growth habit, some... carried out at Crys- tal City to determine the import- ance of stage of growth at first clipping and frequency of clipping on small grain forage yields. These results are presented in Table 1. Under both field ancl greenhouse conditions...

Holt, Ethan C.

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Large Scale Deployment of Renewables for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

).38 The small scale of renewable energy projects multiplies the relative costs incurred through multiple administrative processes. For example, biogas plants in Germany require several parallel permit processes designed to address issues such as EU... -cellulose material. Anaerobic digestion or gasification of biomass produces gas that can be used in similar applications to natural gas. Small-scale biogas production is now a well-established technology and large-scale application is in the advanced stages...

Neuhoff, Karsten

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

260

Small Business Administration Recovery Act Implementation | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Business Administration Recovery Act Implementation Small Business Administration Recovery Act Implementation Small Business Administration Recovery Act Implementation Small...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Small SDI battle stations - More is better  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is presently suggested that large numbers of lower capability SDI systems, in contrast to small numbers of large battle stations, offer better overall defense performance at lower total cost, with lower technical risk, lower sensitivity to threat scenario variability, and improved survivability. This follows from such factors as the positioning of more platforms within effective range of targets during all phases of an attack, less exacting optics requirements, mass production economies-of-scale, and improved survivability.

Cornet, E.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Scale invariance, unimodular gravity and dark energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate that the combination of the ideas of unimodular gravity, scale invariance, and the existence of an exactly massless dilaton leads to the evolution of the universe supported by present observations: inflation in the past, followed by the radiation and matter dominated stages and accelerated expansion at present. All mass scales in this type of theories come from one and the same source.

Mikhail Shaposhnikov; Daniel Zenhausern

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

263

TeV Scale Lepton Number Violation and Baryogenesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contrary to the common lore based on naive dimensional analysis, the seesaw scale for neutrino masses can be naturally in the TeV range, with small parameters coming from radiative corrections. We present one such class of type-I seesaw models, based on the left-right gauge group $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}$ realized at the TeV scale, which fits the observed neutrino oscillation parameters as well as other low energy constraints. We discuss how the small parameters of this scenario can arise naturally from one loop effects. The neutrino fits in this model use quasi-degenerate heavy Majorana neutrinos, as also required to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our Universe via resonant leptogenesis mechanism. We discuss the constraints implied by the dynamics of this mechanism on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson in this class of models with enhanced neutrino Yukawa couplings compared to the canonical seesaw model and find a lower bound of $m_{W_R}\\geq 9.9$ TeV for successful leptogenesi...

Dev, P S Bhupal; Mohapatra, R N

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Prediciting Size Effects and Determing Length Scales in Small Scale Metaliic Volumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dependent and gradient dependent theory of plasticity on a thermodynamically consistent framework is adopted for this purpose. The developed gradient plasticity theory is applied to study size effects observed in biaxial and thermal loading of thin films...

Faruk, Abu N.

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

265

Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The DOE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs are highly competitive opportunities that encourage U.S.-based small businesses to engage in...

266

Wolter type i LAMAR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

Catura, R.C.; Joki, E.G.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

DOE Announces Small Business Awards at its Annual Small Business...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Technologies, Inc. President and CTO: Abe Lederman Santa Fe, New Mexico Small Technology Transfer Research-Small Business of the Year Recipient: SABIA, Inc. President: Clint...

269

Small Buildings and Small Portfolios Overview - 2014 BTO Peer...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Office's Small Buildings and Small Portfolios activities. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs....

270

Small Business Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

f rom b est p rac2ces. 5 1. R educe C osts * Small c ompanies o Ien d o n ot h ave t he deep fi nancial p ockets o f b ig b usiness t o "re---invent t he w heel". * By l earning...

271

Small Business Tax Credit (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Kentucky Small Business Tax Credit (KSBTC) program is designed to encourage small business growth and job creation by providing a nonrefundable state income tax credit to eligible small...

272

Anomalous Light Absorption by Small Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of resonant light absorption by a small particle (nanocluster) is reported. The problem cannot be described within the commonly used dipole scattering approximation and should be studied with methods based upon the exact Mie solution. It is shown that the absorption cross-section has giant maxima realized at small values of the imaginary part of the complex dielectric permittivity of the particle. The maxima are situated in the vicinity of the plasmon (polariton) resonances and correspond to the regions where the dissipative damping equals the radiative one. The case is similar to the recently introduced anomalous scattering [PRL vol. 97, 263902 (2006)] and exhibits similar peculiarities.

Michael I. Tribelsky

2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

273

A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL PARTICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

iuision, Ext. 6782 A New Solar Thermal Receiver UtilizingI \\D \\. }J F--' A NEW SOLAR THERMAL RECEIVER UTILIZING SMALL94720 ABSTRACT A new type of solar thermal receiver is being

Hunt, Arlon J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Large-scale simulations of reionization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use cosmological simulations to explore the large-scale effects of reionization. Since reionization is a process that involves a large dynamic range--from galaxies to rare bright quasars--we need to be able to cover a significant volume of the universe in our simulation without losing the important small scale effects from galaxies. Here we have taken an approach that uses clumping factors derived from small scale simulations to approximate the radiative transfer on the sub-cell scales. Using this technique, we can cover a simulation size up to 1280h{sup -1} Mpc with 10h{sup -1} Mpc cells. This allows us to construct synthetic spectra of quasars similar to observed spectra of SDSS quasars at high redshifts and compare them to the observational data. These spectra can then be analyzed for HII region sizes, the presence of the Gunn-Peterson trough, and the Lyman-{alpha} forest.

Kohler, Katharina; /JILA, Boulder /Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; /Fermilab; Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; /JILA, Boulder

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

National Veterans Small Business Engagement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The National Veterans Small Business Engagement (NVSBE) is a three-day event designed to support and promote Veteran-Owned Small Businesses (VOSBs).

276

Mexico Small Business Assistance fest  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

celebrate success at New Mexico Small Business Assistance fest April 4, 2011 LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, April 4, 2011-The New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program is...

277

Performance Testing of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine , S. Tullis2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance Testing of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine R. Bravo1 , S. Tullis2 , S. Ziada3 of electric production [1]. Although most performance testing for small-scale wind turbines is conducted vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT) in urban settings, full-scale wind tunnel testing of a prototype 3.5 k

Tullis, Stephen

278

Small arms ammunition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

Huerta, Joseph (399 Clover St., Aberdeen, MD 21001)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale PetaScale Debugging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project investigated novel techniques for debugging scientific applications on petascale architectures. In particular, we developed lightweight tools that narrow the problem space when bugs are encountered. We also developed techniques that either limit the number of tasks and the code regions to which a developer must apply a traditional debugger or that apply statistical techniques to provide direct suggestions of the location and type of error. We extend previous work on the Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), that has already demonstrated scalability to over one hundred thousand MPI tasks. We also extended statistical techniques developed to isolate programming errors in widely used sequential or threaded applications in the Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project to large scale parallel applications. Overall, our research substantially improved productivity on petascale platforms through a tool set for debugging that complements existing commercial tools. Previously, Office Of Science application developers relied either on primitive manual debugging techniques based on printf or they use tools, such as TotalView, that do not scale beyond a few thousand processors. However, bugs often arise at scale and substantial effort and computation cycles are wasted in either reproducing the problem in a smaller run that can be analyzed with the traditional tools or in repeated runs at scale that use the primitive techniques. New techniques that work at scale and automate the process of identifying the root cause of errors were needed. These techniques significantly reduced the time spent debugging petascale applications, thus leading to a greater overall amount of time for application scientists to pursue the scientific objectives for which the systems are purchased. We developed a new paradigm for debugging at scale: techniques that reduced the debugging scenario to a scale suitable for traditional debuggers, e.g., by narrowing the search for the root-cause analysis to a small set of nodes or by identifying equivalence classes of nodes and sampling our debug targets from them. We implemented these techniques as lightweight tools that efficiently work on the full scale of the target machine. We explored four lightweight debugging refinements: generic classification parameters, such as stack traces, application-specific classification parameters, such as global variables, statistical data acquisition techniques and machine learning based approaches to perform root cause analysis. Work done under this project can be divided into two categories, new algorithms and techniques for scalable debugging, and foundation infrastructure work on our MRNet multicast-reduction framework for scalability, and Dyninst binary analysis and instrumentation toolkits.

Miller, Barton

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Micron-scale lens array having diffracting structures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel micron-scale lens, a microlens, is engineered to concentrate light efficiently onto an area of interest, such as a small, light-sensitive detector element in an integrated electronic device. Existing microlens designs imitate the form of large-scale lenses and are less effective at small sizes. The microlenses described herein have been designed to accommodate diffraction effects, which dominate the behavior of light at small length scales. Thus a new class of light-concentrating optical elements with much higher relative performance has been created. Furthermore, the new designs are much easier to fabricate than previous designs.

Goldberg, Kenneth A

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band lightsuch an analysis on the supernovae of the Nearby Supernovaheadings: distance scale, supernovae: general 1 Physics

Kim, A. G.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Destination : a development plan or public space in the small historical town of Waxholm, Sweden  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small towns offer a type of community different than that of large metropolitan areas. The ideals of this community are deeply rooted in its history and culture. However, the current state of small towns in general, not ...

Brockman, Peter M. (Peter Marik), 1962-

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Damage from the impacts of small asteroids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fragmentation of a small asteroid in the atmosphere greatly increases its aerodynamic drag and rate of energy dissipation. The differential atmospheric pressure across it disperses its fragments at a velocity that increases with atmospheric density and impact velocity and decreases with asteroid density. Extending our previous work, we use a spherical atmosphere and a fitted curve to its density profile to find the damage done by an asteroid entering the atmosphere at various zenith angles. In previous work we estimated the blast damage by scaling from data on nuclear explosions in the atmosphere during the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. This underestimated the blast from asteroid impacts because nuclear fireballs radiate away a larger fraction of their energy than do meteors, so less of their energy goes into the blast wave. We have redone the calculations to allow for this effect. We have found the area of destruction around the impact point in which the over pressure in the blast wave exceeds 4 pounds/inch{sup 2} = 2.8 X 10{sup 5} dynes/cm{sup 3}, which is enough to knock over trees and destroy buildings. About every 100 years an impactor should blast an area of 300 km{sup 2} or more somewhere on the land area of Earth. The optical flux from asteroids 60 meters or more in diameter is enough to ignite pine forests. However, the blast from an impacting asteroid goes beyond the radius within which the fire starts. It tends to blow out the fire, so it is likely that the impact will char the forest (as at Tunguska), but it will not produce a sustained fire. Because of the atmosphere, asteroids less than about 200 m in diameter are not effective in producing craters and earthquakes. They are also not effective in producing water waves and tsunami in ocean impacts. Tsunami is probably the most devastating type of damage for asteroids that are between 200 meters and 1 km in diameter.

Hills, J.G.; Goda, M.P.

1996-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Perturbations to $?-?$ Symmetry, Leptogenesis and Lepton Flavour Violation with Type II Seesaw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the possibility of generating non-zero reactor mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by perturbing the $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix. The leading order $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetric neutrino mass matrix originates from type I seesaw mechanism whereas the perturbations to $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry originate from type II seesaw term. We consider four different realizations of $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry: Bimaximal Mixing(BM), Tri-bimaximal Mixing (TBM), Hexagonal Mixing (HM) and Golden Ratio Mixing (GRM) all giving rise to $\\theta_{13} = 0, \\theta_{23} = \\frac{\\pi}{4}$ but different non-zero values of solar mixing angle $\\theta_{12}$. We assume a minimal $\\mu-\\tau$ symmetry breaking type II seesaw mass matrix as a perturbation and calculate the neutrino oscillation parameters as a function of type II seesaw strength. We then consider the origin of non-trivial leptonic CP phase in the charged lepton sector and calculate the lepton asymmetry arising from the lightest right handed neutrino decay by incorporating the presence of both type I and type II seesaw. We constrain the type II seesaw strength as well as leptonic CP phase (and hence the charged lepton sector) by comparing our results with experimental neutrino oscillation parameters as well as Planck bound on baryon to photon ratio. Finally, we extend our analysis on lepton flavour violating decays like $\\mu \\to e \\gamma$ and $\\mu \\to eee$ due to exchange of TeV scale Higgs triplet scalar within the low scale type II seesaw framework. The branching ratios for these lepton flavour processes are examined with the small type II perturbation term $\\omega$ and the estimated values are very close to the experimental bound coming from current search experiments.

Manikanta Borah; Debasish Borah; Mrinal Kumar Das; Sudhanwa Patra

2014-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

285

Small Business News, Publications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural Resourcestepidum FMOSmall BusinessSmall Business

286

Small Particles in Cirrus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural ResourcestepidumProjects |Small Modular

287

Small Particles in Cirrus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural ResourcestepidumProjects |Small Modular

288

Small Particles, Big Impact  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus Tom Fletcher, Assistant7/2013technicalSmall Particles, Big

289

Small Game -- Cooking Care.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Game - Cooking Care Mary K. Sweeten* The Hunt Hunting small game animals in Texas is a popular recreational activity. Careful handling and preparation help you use game and avoid unnecessary waste of wild game resources if you do hunt. Squirrels.... Count Y2 cup of vegetable or fruit as one serving, or a portion ordinarily served such as one medium apple, banana, orange or potato, half a medium grapefruit or cantaloupe or the juice of one lemon. Some good sources of vitamin Care oranges...

Sweeten, Mary K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Electromagnetic Composites at the Compton Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new class of electromagnetic composite particles is proposed. The composites are very small (the Compton scale), potentially long-lived, would have unique interactions with atomic and nuclear systems, and, if they exist, could explain a number of otherwise anomalous and conflicting observations in diverse research areas.

Frederick J. Mayer; John R. Reitz

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

291

A mm-scale aeroelastic oscillation-based anemometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flutter of a thin filament can provide a good indication of fluid velocity at small scales. By combining a 'fishtail'-shaped filament's aeroelastic and vortex-forced flutter modes, its oscillation frequency can be ...

McKay, Ian Salmon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling the Web Scaling Web Sites Through Caching A large jump in a Web site's traffic may indi, pushing the site's through- put to its maximum point. When a Web site becomes overloaded, cus- tomers grow-generated revenue and may even tarnish the reputation of organizations relying on Web sites to support mission

Menascé, Daniel A.

293

Scaling analyses of forcings and outputs of a simplified Last1 Millennium climate model2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its responses with those of multiproxies and the NASA GISS-ER2 GCM. 22 became too weak at 27 longer scales. At small scales, the GISS ER2

Lovejoy, Shaun

294

Prognostics Health Management for Advanced Small Modular Reactor Passive Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, sustainable nuclear power to promote energy security is a key national energy priority. Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMR), which are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts using non-light-water reactor (LWR) coolants such as liquid metal, helium, or liquid salt may provide a longer-term alternative to more conventional LWR-based concepts. The economics of AdvSMRs will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional LWRs and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs are expected to be dominated by operations and maintenance costs. Therefore, achieving the full benefits of AdvSMR deployment requires a new paradigm for plant design and management. In this context, prognostic health management of passive components in AdvSMRs can play a key role in enabling the economic deployment of AdvSMRs. In this paper, the background of AdvSMRs is discussed from which requirements for PHM systems are derived. The particle filter technique is proposed as a prognostics framework for AdvSMR passive components and the suitability of the particle filter technique is illustrated by using it to forecast thermal creep degradation using a physics-of-failure model and based on a combination of types of measurements conceived for passive AdvSMR components.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Wootan, David W.; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Henager, Charles H.

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

295

Hydrogen Peroxide Storage in Small Sealed Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unstabilized hydrogen peroxide of 85% concentration has been prepared in laboratory quantities for testing material compatibility and long term storage on a small scale. Vessels made of candidate tank and liner materials ranged in volume from 1 cc to 2540 cc. Numerous metals and plastics were tried at the smallest scales, while promising ones were used to fabricate larger vessels and liners. An aluminum alloy (6061-T6) performed poorly, including increasing homogeneous decay due to alloying elements entering solution. The decay rate in this high strength aluminum was greatly reduced by anodizing. Better results were obtained with polymers, particularly polyvinylidene fluoride. Data reported herein include ullage pressures as a function of time with changing decay rates, and contamination analysis results.

Whitehead, J.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Small caliber guided projectile  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

Jones, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Kast, Brian A. (Albuquerque, NM); Kniskern, Marc W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rose, Scott E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rohrer, Brandon R. (Albuquerque, NM); Woods, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Greene, Ronald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.

Liu, Ning, E-mail: liuxiao@ase.buaa.edu.cn; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao [School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Yong-Gang [Department of Applied Mechanics, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

Small Business Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of the program is to help small businesses acquire funding needed to start or grow their small business. KEDFA may provide terms that are more lenient, less secure, or otherwise less...

300

Small Power Production Facilities (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For the purpose of these regulations, a small power production facility is defined as a facility that:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Don Jones, Jacqui Bauer, Richard Wise, and Alan Dunn* ID-265 #12;Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 2 It is the policy of the Purdue University Community Wastewater Cluster Systems ID-265 3 Small Community Wastewater Cluster Systems Table of Contents

Holland, Jeffrey

302

Scaling of structural failure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

Bazant, Z.P. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Chen, Er-Ping [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Possible violation of Newtonian gravitational law at small distances and constraints on it from the Casimir effect  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent ideas that the gravitational and gauge interactions become united at the weak scale lead to Yukawa-type corrections to the Newtonian gravitational law at small distances. We briefly summarize the best constraints on these corrections obtained recently from the experiments on the measurement of the Casimir force. The new constraints on the Yukawa-type interaction are derived from the latest Casimir force measurement between a large gold coated sphere and flat disk using an atomic force microscope. The obtained constraints are stronger up to 19 times comparing the previous experiment with aluminum surfaces and up to 4500 times comparing the Casimir force measurements between dielectrics. The application range of constraints obtained by means of an atomic force microscope is extended.

V. M. Mostepanenko; M. Novello

2000-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

304

Key words: STREAMLINE, yeast, scale up, automation, sanitization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorption by defining a realistic process example at small scale and taking it all the way up to a fullyKey words: STREAMLINE, yeast, scale up, automation, sanitization. Abstract This application note was evaluated by performing a sanitization study in which the column and system were challenged with culture

Lebendiker, Mario

305

MICROPROTEOMICS: ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN DIVERSITY IN SMALL SAMPLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICROPROTEOMICS: ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN DIVERSITY IN SMALL SAMPLES Howard B. Gutstein,1 * Jeffrey S.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/mas.20161 Proteomics, the large-scale study of protein expression in organisms, offers be expressed by the genetic material of an organism. Advancements in protein extraction, purification

306

678 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPONENTS AND PACKAGING TECHNOLOGIES, VOL. 29, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2006 Experimental Investigation of a Miniature-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-law efficiency ranging from 33% and 52% was obtained, using a commercially available small-scale compressor, electronics cooling, miniature-scale refrigeration system, second-law efficiency, small- scale compressor Experimental Investigation of a Miniature-Scale Refrigeration System for Electronics Cooling Suwat

307

Celebrating National Small Business Week, and Our FY 2011 Small...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

program. Past awards from the Department of Energy Small Business Awards program. Dot Harris Dot Harris Director, Office of Economic Impact and Diversity What does an...

308

Effect of wettability on scale-up of multiphase flow from core-scale to reservoir fine-grid-scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typical field simulation grid-blocks are internally heterogeneous. The objective of this work is to study how the wettability of the rock affects its scale-up of multiphase flow properties from core-scale to fine-grid reservoir simulation scale ({approximately} 10{prime} x 10{prime} x 5{prime}). Reservoir models need another level of upscaling to coarse-grid simulation scale, which is not addressed here. Heterogeneity is modeled here as a correlated random field parameterized in terms of its variance and two-point variogram. Variogram models of both finite (spherical) and infinite (fractal) correlation length are included as special cases. Local core-scale porosity, permeability, capillary pressure function, relative permeability functions, and initial water saturation are assumed to be correlated. Water injection is simulated and effective flow properties and flow equations are calculated. For strongly water-wet media, capillarity has a stabilizing/homogenizing effect on multiphase flow. For small variance in permeability, and for small correlation length, effective relative permeability can be described by capillary equilibrium models. At higher variance and moderate correlation length, the average flow can be described by a dynamic relative permeability. As the oil wettability increases, the capillary stabilizing effect decreases and the deviation from this average flow increases. For fractal fields with large variance in permeability, effective relative permeability is not adequate in describing the flow.

Chang, Y.C.; Mani, V.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Interconnection Standards for Small Generators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's...

310

PSNH- Small Business Retrofit Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Public Service of New Hampshire (PSNH), an electric utility, offers financial incentives and technical advice to small business customers seeking to improve energy efficiency through retrofits....

311

Small Business Goals and Statistics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

& Statistics The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is committed to supporting the small business objectives of the U.S. Government and the Department of Energy (DOE) and recognizes...

312

New Mexico Small Business Assistance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

May 31, 2012 Program of Los Alamos, Sandia national laboratories LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO, May 31, 2012-The New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, a...

313

The Intermediate Scale Branch of the Landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three branches of the string theory landscape have plausibly been identified. One of these branches is expected to exhibit a roughly logarithmic distribution of supersymmetry breaking scales. The original KKLT models are in this class. We argue that certain features of the KKLT model are generic to this branch, and that the resulting phenomenology depends on a small set of discrete choices. As in the MSSM, the weak scale in these theories is tuned; a possible explanation is selection for the dark matter density.

Michael Dine

2005-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

314

Infrared renormalization in non-relativistic QED and scaling criticality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a spin-$\\frac12$ electron in a translation-invariant model of non-relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). Let $H(\\vp,\\sig)$ denote the fiber Hamiltonian corresponding to the conserved total momentum $\\vp\\in\\R^3$ of the Pauli electron and the photon field, regularized by a fixed ultraviolet cutoff in the interaction term, and an infrared regularization parametrized by $00$, and all values of the finestructure constant $\\gs<\\gs_0$, with $\\gs_0\\ll1$ sufficiently small and {\\em independent} of $\\sig$, we prove the existence of a ground state eigenvalue of multiplicity two at the bottom of the essential spectrum. Moreover, we prove that the renormalized electron mass satisfies $1scaling-critical renormalization group problem of endpoint type, in which the interaction is strictly marginal (of scale-independent size). The main achievement of this paper is the development of a method that provides rigorous control of the renormalization of a {\\em strictly marginal} quantum field theory characterized by a {\\em non-trivial scaling limit}.

Thomas Chen

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

315

INVESTIGATION Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATION Construction of Reference Chromosome-Scale Pseudomolecules for Potato: Integrating was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising and orientation within the pseudo- molecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density

Douches, David S.

316

Identifying Product Scaling Principles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shows how laws of similarity were determined for wind turbine rotors in order for ease of optimization when scaling to the desired level (Peterson, 1984). The study depicts how certain scaling laws for varying changes such as rotational speed, radius... and scale the physical shape and features of the fin in order to produce wind turbine blades for producing electricity. A similar study takes the fins propulsion motion and converts it into a mechanical system for swimming robots and submarines...

Perez, Angel 1986-

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

317

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships Capital Costs (or

Boisvert, Jeff

318

Thermodynamics and scale relativity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is shown how the fractal paths of scale relativity (following Nottale) can be introduced into a thermodynamical context (following Asadov-Kechkin).

Robert Carroll

2011-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

319

Silica Scaling Removal Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems Water treatment systems Water evaporation systems Potential mining applications (produced water) Industry applications for which silica scaling must be prevented Benefits:...

320

Scaling Turbo Boost to a 1000 cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Intel Core i7 processor code named Nehalem provides a feature named Turbo Boost which opportunistically varies the frequencies of the processor's cores. The frequency of a core is determined by core temperature, the number of active cores, the estimated power consumption, the estimated current consumption, and operating system frequency scaling requests. For a chip multi-processor(CMP) that has a small number of physical cores and a small set of performance states, deciding the Turbo Boost frequency to use on a given core might not be difficult. However, we do not know the complexity of this decision making process in the context of a large number of cores, scaling to the 100s, as predicted by researchers in the field.

S, Ananth Narayan; Fedorova, Alexandra

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Amendment 1 - Dry-type power transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Specifies requirements for dry-type power transformers (including auto-transformers) having values of highest voltage for equipment up to and including 36 kV. The following small and special dry-type transformers are not covered by this standard: -instrument transformers (covered by IEC 60185 and 60186); -transformers for static convertors (covered by IEC 60084, 60119 and 60146). Where IEC standards do not exist for other special transformers, this standard may be applicable as a whole or in part.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

2013-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

323

Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lee, Kearn P.; Kelly, Steven E.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or project developer--step-by-step through the process needed to structure a business and financing plan for a small geothermal project; and Help you develop a financing plan that can be adapted and taken to potential financing sources. The Workbook will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing problems that are not related to the economic soundness of your project or are caused by things outside of your control.

Elizabeth Battocletti

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Acid treatment removes zinc sulfide scale restriction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that removal of zinc sulfide (ZnS) scale with acid restored an offshore Louisiana well's production to original rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near well bore area. The selected acid had been proven to control iron sulfide (FeS) scales in sour wells without causing harm to surface production equipment, tubing, and other downhole hardware. The successful removal of the blockage re-established previous production rates with a 105% increase in flowing tubing pressure. On production for a number of months, a high rate, high-pressure offshore well was experiencing unusually rapid pressure and rate declines. A small sample of the restrictive material was obtained during the wire line operations. The well was subsequently shut in while a laboratory analysis determined that zinc sulfide was the major component of the obstruction.

Biggs, K. (Kerr McGee Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Allison, D. (Otis Engineering Corp., Lafayette, LA (US)); Ford, W.G.F. (Halliburton Co., Duncan, OK (United States))

1992-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Optimization and Scale-up of Antibody Purification Conditions by Hydrophobic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization and Scale-up of Antibody Purification Conditions by Hydrophobic Charge Induction #12;Optimization and Scale-up of Antibody Purification Conditions by HCIC on MEP HHyyppeerr was regenerated using approximately 5 column volumes of 1 M NaOH. Small-scale runs were performed on an ?KTA

Lebendiker, Mario

327

Large Scale Parameter Sweep Studies Using Distributed Matlab  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Large Scale Parameter Sweep Studies Using Distributed Matlab Vikas Argod Graduate Assistant 225. The implementation is done in Matlab. The discussion extends to large scale problems of similar type using distributed matlab. Use of distributed matlab reduced computation time significantly

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

328

Small Enterprise Growth Fund (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Small Enterprise Growth Fund is a professionally-managed venture capital fund that invests in Maine companies which demonstrate high potential for growth and public benefit. The fund has...

329

Rockingham County- Small Wind Ordinance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In October 2004, the Rockingham County Board of Supervisors approved a zoning ordinance for small wind energy systems, the first of its kind in Virginia. Students at James Madison University...

330

Small Business Loans (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Loan Fund, a non-profit organization, offers loans for small businesses and start-ups, and for business lines of credit. The loan can be used to finance equipment, inventory, building...

331

Big Efficieny for Small Manufacturing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Energize Connecticut Small commercial and industrial customers ? Peak demand between 10 & 200 kW ESL-IE-14-05-10 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans...

Trombley, D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

E-Print Network 3.0 - automatic scale selection Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 2 Enhancing Visual Exploration by Appropriate Color Coding Summary: , data type, and spatial frequency Rule-based system for automatic color scale selection...

333

Small  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

Montoya, Joseph

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

334

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

05-1 Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: Investment allocated

Boisvert, Jeff

335

The Improbability scale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Improbability Scale (IS) is proposed as a way of communicating to the general public the improbability (and by implication, the probability) of events predicted as the result of scientific research. Through the use of the Improbability Scale, the public will be able to evaluate more easily the relative risks of predicted events and draw proper conclusions when asked to support governmental and public policy decisions arising from that research.

Ritchie, David J.; /Fermilab

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

1 LOST PRODUCTION AS CONSEQUENSE OF SILICA SCALING IN CERRO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral scale depositation occurs in many of the Cerro Prieto wells, but the main problems occurs by silica (SiO2) scale both pipes and reservoir zones close to the downhole. In Cerro Prieto geothermal field three types of scales are found; calcium carbonate (calcite), amorphous silica (SiO2), and metallic sulfides (mainly iron, and lesser lead and cooper). The scale causes lost production and it is necessary to make around 12 workover each year to recover the steam lost. When scaling problems occurred inside casing production is more easier to recover the production that scaling occurred in the reservoir zones, because it caused a skin damage (permeability decrease) in the reservoir zones close to the bottomhole. This paper analyze and discus the scaling problems and discuss the task developed to avoid and minimized the decline wells production, as to recover the production using workover alternatives.

Prieto Geothermal; Wells Mexico; Juan De; Dios Ocampo; Daz Sara; Lilia Moya; Jess De; Len Vivar

337

Hybrid energy systems (HESs) using small modular reactors (SMRs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large-scale nuclear reactors are traditionally operated for a singular purpose: steady-state production of dispatchable baseload electricity that is distributed broadly on the electric grid. While this implementation is key to a sustainable, reliable energy grid, small modular reactors (SMRs) offer new opportunities for increased use of clean nuclear energy for both electric and thermal ap plications in more locations while still accommodating the desire to support renewable production sources.

S. Bragg-Sitton

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

An investigation of the relationship between identity and intimacy measured using the Erwin Identity Scale and the Miller Social Intimacy Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The instruments used in this study were the Erwin Identity Scale (EIS) and the Miller Social Intimacy Scale (MSIS). By November 1986, instruments were completed by 94 college seniors. The research questions tested were as follows: (1) Is there a positive... types of relationships score higher on the EIS than those who describe the least intimate types of relationships? (4) Can the MSIS scores of college seniors be predicted from their freshmen EIS scores? The characteristics of the scales were examined...

Clark, Janet Karlease Kelly

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Accelerated Least Squares Multidimensional Scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

x(make_x(36,2)) xACCELERATED SCALING R EFERENCES I.ACCELERATED LEAST SQUARES MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING JAN DEare simpler to write. ACCELERATED SCALING It is shown in De

Leeuw, Jan de

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Accelerated Least Squares Multidimensional Scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

x(make_x(36,2)) xACCELERATED SCALING R EFERENCES I.ACCELERATED LEAST SQUARES MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING JAN DEare simpler to write. ACCELERATED SCALING It is shown in De

Jan de Leeuw

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Human Reliability Analysis for Small Modular Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because no human reliability analysis (HRA) method was specifically developed for small modular reactors (SMRs), the application of any current HRA method to SMRs represents tradeoffs. A first- generation HRA method like THERP provides clearly defined activity types, but these activity types do not map to the human-system interface or concept of operations confronting SMR operators. A second- generation HRA method like ATHEANA is flexible enough to be used for SMR applications, but there is currently insufficient guidance for the analyst, requiring considerably more first-of-a-kind analyses and extensive SMR expertise in order to complete a quality HRA. Although no current HRA method is optimized to SMRs, it is possible to use existing HRA methods to identify errors, incorporate them as human failure events in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and quantify them. In this paper, we provided preliminary guidance to assist the human reliability analyst and reviewer in understanding how to apply current HRA methods to the domain of SMRs. While it is possible to perform a satisfactory HRA using existing HRA methods, ultimately it is desirable to formally incorporate SMR considerations into the methods. This may require the development of new HRA methods. More practicably, existing methods need to be adapted to incorporate SMRs. Such adaptations may take the form of guidance on the complex mapping between conventional light water reactors and small modular reactors. While many behaviors and activities are shared between current plants and SMRs, the methods must adapt if they are to perform a valid and accurate analysis of plant personnel performance in SMRs.

Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Development of Advanced Small Hydrogen Engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of the project is to develop advanced, low cost conversions of small (< 25 hp) gasoline internal combustion engines (ICEs) to run on hydrogen fuel while maintaining the same performance and durability. This final technical report summarizes the results of i) the details of the conversion of several small gasoline ICEs to run on hydrogen, ii) the durability test of a converted hydrogen engine and iii) the demonstration of a prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system. Peak power of the hydrogen engine achieves 60% of the power output of the gasoline counterpart. The efforts to boost the engine power with various options including installing the over-sized turbocharger, retrofit of custom-made pistons with high compression ratio, an advanced ignition system, and various types of fuel injection systems are not realized. A converted Honda GC160 engine with ACS system to run with hydrogen fuel is successful. Total accumulative runtime is 785 hours. A prototype bundled canister solid hydrogen storage system having nominal capacity of 1.2 kg is designed, constructed and demonstrated. It is capable of supporting a wide range of output load of a hydrogen generator.

Krishna Sapru; Zhaosheng Tan; Ben Chao

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Pore-scale simulation of microbial growth using a genome-scale metabolic model: Implications for Darcy-scale reactive transport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent advances in microbiology have enabled the quantitative simulation of microbial metabolism and growth based on genome-scale characterization of metabolic pathways and fluxes. We have incorporated a genome-scale metabolic model of the iron-reducing bacteria Geobacter sulfurreducens into a pore-scale simulation of microbial growth based on coupling of iron reduction to oxidation of a soluble electron donor (acetate). In our model, fluid flow and solute transport is governed by a combination of the Navier-Stokes and advection-diffusion-reaction equations. Microbial growth occurs only on the surface of soil grains where solid-phase mineral iron oxides are available. Mass fluxes of chemical species associated with microbial growth are described by the genome-scale microbial model, implemented using a constraint-based metabolic model, and provide the Robin-type boundary condition for the advection-diffusion equation at soil grain surfaces. Conventional models of microbially-mediated subsurface reactions use a lumped reaction model that does not consider individual microbial reaction pathways, and describe reactions rates using empirically-derived rate formulations such as the Monod-type kinetics. We have used our pore-scale model to explore the relationship between genome-scale metabolic models and Monod-type formulations, and to assess the manifestation of pore-scale variability (microenvironments) in terms of apparent Darcy-scale microbial reaction rates. The genome-scale model predicted lower biomass yield, and different stoichiometry for iron consumption, in comparisonto prior Monod formulations based on energetics considerations. We were able to fit an equivalent Monod model, by modifying the reaction stoichiometry and biomass yield coefficient, that could effectively match results of the genome-scale simulation of microbial behaviors under excess nutrient conditions, but predictions of the fitted Monod model deviated from those of the genome-scale model under conditions in which one or more nutrients were limiting. The fitted Monod kinetic model was also applied at the Darcy scale; that is, to simulate average reaction processes at the scale of the entire pore-scale model domain. As we expected, even under excess nutrient conditions for which the Monod and genome-scale models predicted equal reaction rates at the pore scale, the Monod model over-predicted the rates of biomass growth and iron and acetate utilization when applied at the Darcy scale. This discrepancy is caused by an inherent assumption of perfect mixing over the Darcy-scale domain, which is clearly violated in the pore-scale models. These results help to explain the need to modify the flux constraint parameters in order to match observations in previous applications of the genome-scale model at larger scales. These results also motivate further investigation of quantitative multi-scale relationships between fundamental behavior at the pore scale (where genome-scale models are appropriately applied) and observed behavior at larger scales (where predictions of reactive transport phenomena are needed).

Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Fang, Yilin; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Lovley, Derek R.

2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

344

Heat transfer in a medium in which many small particles are embedded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The heat equation is considered in the complex system consisting of many small bodies (particles) embedded in a given material. On the surfaces of the small bodies a Newton-type boundary condition is imposed. An equation for the limiting field is derived when the characteristic size $a$ of the small bodies tends to zero, their total number $\\mathcal{N}(a)$ tends to infinity at a suitable rate, and the distance $d = d(a)$ between neighboring small bodies tends to zero $a << d$. No periodicity is assumed about the distribution of the small bodies.

A. G. Ramm

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

345

Big Things from Small Beginnings  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Slide Presentation given by D. Bullen on behalf of Peter S. Winokur, Ph.D., Chairman Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board; prepared by D. Bullen, D. Owen, J. MacSleyne, and D. Minnema. Big Things from Small Beginnings. How seemingly unimportant situations can lead to significant, undesirable events.

346

Small Flock Poultry Management Series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to care for your chicks in advance of them arriving at your home. Newly hatched chicks can not control (water splashed on the hot bulb will shatter it); Where possible use a `Hard Glass' bulb Family, HomeSmall Flock Poultry Management Series Brooding Chicks Starting your chicks Raising a flock

New Hampshire, University of

347

Is your small business eligible? | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Is your small business eligible? Is your small business eligible? Is your small business eligible? Get Started Here Is your small business eligible? Is your small business...

348

Types of Reuse  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

349

Higgs funnel region of SUSY dark matter for small $\\tan?$ and renormalization group effects on pseudoscalar Higgs boson with scalar mass non-universality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A non-universal scalar mass supergravity type of model is explored where the first two generation of scalars and the third generation of sleptons may be very massive. Lighter or vanishing third generation of squarks as well as Higgs scalars at the unification scale cause the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking constraint to be less prohibitive. Thus, both FCNC/CP-violation problems as well as the naturalness problem are within control. We identify a large slepton mass effect in the RGE of $m_{H_D}^2$ (for the down type of Higgs) that may turn the later negative at the electroweak scale even for a small $\\tan\\beta$. A hyperbolic branch/focus point like effect is found for $m_A^2$ that may result in very light Higgs spectra. The lightest stable particle is dominantly a bino that pair annihilates via Higgs exchange, giving rise to a WMAP satisfied relic density region for all $\\tan\\beta$. Detection prospects of such LSPs in the upcoming dark matter experiments both of direct and indirect types (photon flux) are interesting. The Higgs bosons and the third generation of squarks are light in this scenario and these may be easily probed besides charginos and neutralinos in the early runs of LHC.

Utpal Chattopadhyay; Debottam Das

2009-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

350

Small Business Environmental Assistance Program (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Through the Small Business Environmental Assistance Program (SBEAP), the Department of Environmental Protection provides technical and regulatory assistance to small businesses. Although SBEAP is...

351

Energy Department Accepting Small Business Grant Applications...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Energy Department Accepting Small Business Grant Applications for Large Wind Turbines Energy Department Accepting Small Business Grant Applications for Large Wind Turbines November...

352

Canada Small Business Financing Program (Canada)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Since 1961, the Canada Small Business Financing Program (CSBFP) seeks to increase the availability of loans for establishing, expanding, modernizing and improving small businesses. It does this by...

353

Sensor system scaling issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A model for IR sensor performance is used to compare estimates of sensor cost effectiveness. Although data from aircraft sensors indicate a weaker scaling, their agreement is adequate to support the assessment of the benefits of operating up to the maximum altitude of most current UAVs.

Canavan, G.H.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

PAIN SCALES (ATTACHMENT A)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TOTAL SCORE: ADD INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENT SCORES TO DETERMINE THE TOTAL PAIN SCORE. TOTAL THE 5 CATEGORIES FOR TOTAL PAIN SCORE. MAXIMUM SCORE = 10/10. Reference: Merkel SJ, et al. The FLACC: A Behavioral Pain Scale or groan. Low level speech with a negative or disapproving quality. Repeated troubled calling out. Loud

Oliver, Douglas L.

355

Mathematics Achievement Scale Score  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Croatia 490 New Zealand 486 Spain 482 Romania 482 Poland 481 Turkey 469 Azerbaijan 463 Chile 462 Thailand Romania 505 Spain 505 Poland 505 TIMSS Scale Centerpoint 500 New Zealand 497 Kazakhstan 495 Norway 494 Kazakhstan 487 Sweden 484 Ukraine 479 Norway 475 Armenia 467 Romania 458 United Arab Emirates 456 Turkey 452

Huang, Jianyu

356

Developing Best Practices for Small and Very Small Pork Processing Plants to Improve Food Safety  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

may not always be applicable to the operations of Small and Very Small establishments. Small and Very Small establishments warrant unique consideration in terms of financial and technological capabilities. While larger processors utilize multiple...

Hendricks, Matthew Benton

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

Engaging Small Business: Energy Efficiency and On-Bill Financing for Small Businesses Webinar  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Engaging Small Business: Energy Efficiency and On-Bill Financing for Small Businesses Webinar, from May 2011.

358

GUT-scale inflation with sizeable tensor modes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A sizeable tensor-to-scalar ratio, such as recently claimed by BICEP2, would imply a scale of inflation at the typical scale of supersymmetric grand unification. This could be an accident, or strong support for supersymmetric theories. Models of F-term hybrid inflation naturally connect the GUT scale with the inflationary scale, but they also predict the tensor-to-scalar ratio to be unmeasurably small. In this work we analyze a general UV embedding of F-term hybrid inflation into a supergravity theory with a general Kahler potential. The CMB observables are generated during the early phase of inflation, at large inflaton values, where the potential is dominated by Planck-suppressed operators. Tuning the leading higher-order terms can give an inflaton potential with sizeable tensor fluctuations and a field excursion which is still sub-Planckian but close to the Planck scale, as expected from the Lyth bound.

Felix Brummer; Valerie Domcke; Veronica Sanz

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

Evolving desiderata for validating engineered-physics systems without full-scale testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theory and principles of engineered-physics designs do not change over time, but the actual engineered product does evolve. Engineered components are prescient to the physics and change with time. Parts are never produced exactly as designed, assembled as designed, or remain unperturbed over time. For this reason, validation of performance may be regarded as evolving over time. Desired use of products evolves with time. These pragmatic realities require flexibility, understanding, and robustness-to-ignorance. Validation without full-scale testing involves engineering, small-scale experiments, physics theory and full-scale computer-simulation validation. We have previously published an approach to validation without full-scale testing using information integration, small-scale tests, theory and full-scale simulations [Langenbrunner et al. 2008]. This approach adds value, but also adds complexity and uncertainty due to inference. We illustrate a validation example that manages evolving desiderata without full-scale testing.

Langenbrunner, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hemez, Francois M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ross, Timothy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Small Break Air Ingress Experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Supporting Large-scale Continuous Stream Datacenters via Pub/Sub Middleware and Adaptive Transport Protocols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supporting Large-scale Continuous Stream Datacenters via Pub/Sub Middleware and Adaptive Transport {mahesh, ken}@cs.cornell.edu Abstract Large-scale datacenters that handle continuous data streams require constitutes a promising area of research to address the challenges of these types of large-scale datacenters

Schmidt, Douglas C.

362

Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidics: Fluid physics at the nanoliter scale Todd M. Squires* Departments of Physics by vastly reducing the space, labor, and time required for calculations. Microfluidic systems hold similar, the long-range nature of viscous flows and the small device dimensions inherent in microfluidics mean

Quake, Stephen R.

363

Novel devices for analytical-scale isoelectric trapping separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through buffering membranes whose pH values bracket the pI of the ampholytic component to be trapped in the compartment. The present small-scale instruments use plastics as their structural materials, which causes poor Joule heat dissipation...

Lim, Peniel Jason

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

An evaluation of the small farmer outreach training and technical assistance program for farmers of color in Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, access and acquisition of farm loans, participation in Extension sponsored events and involvement in community activities. The sample population for this study was small scale agricultural producers representing two ethnic groups, African Americans...

Daniels, Nelson T

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Small Wind Site Assessor Guidelines Document (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation on what the small wind site assessor guidelines document will cover and timeline for completion.

Preus, R.

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Installing Small Wind Turbines Seminar and Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seminar and Workshop Installing Small Wind Turbines Seminar and Workshop Location: Murdoch January 2011 Details for Registration and Payment: Mr Daniel Jones, National Small Wind Turbine Test: The National Small Wind Turbine Centre at Murdoch University is holding a Small Wind Turbine short training

367

CALIFORNIA ENERGY Small HVAC System Design Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Small HVAC System Design Guide DESIGNGUIDELINES October 2003 500;#12;Small HVAC System Design Guide Acknowledgements i Acknowledgements The products and outcomes presented; Darren Goody, PECI, Design Guide review. #12;Small HVAC System Design Guide Preface ii Preface The Small

368

Speed and Scale Up Software Reengineering with Abstraction Patterns and Rules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

intolerably slow, costly in manpower and only feasible for small­scaled legacy sys­ tems. In this paper, we, correct de­ fects, and upgrade legacy systems to keep up with changing business or technical conditions

Liu, Xiaodong

369

Fabrication of a SWATH vessel scale model for seakeeping tests using rapid prototyping methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the techniques used to fabricate a one meter long, 1/6 scale model of a Small Waterplane Area, Twin Hull (SWATH) Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) that will be used primarily for dynamic seakeeping testing ...

DiMino, John Robert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Toward high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and moderate-temperature chip-scale thermophotovoltaics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The challenging problem of ultra-high-energy-density, high-efficiency, and small-scale portable power generation is addressed here using a distinctive thermophotovoltaic energy conversion mechanism and chip-based system ...

Pilawa-Podgurski, R. C. N.

371

Continuous-flow study and scale-up of conventionally difficult chemical processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic systems provide valuable tools for exploring, studying, and optimizing organic syntheses. The small scales and fast transport rates allow for faster experiments and lower amounts of chemicals to be used, ...

Zaborenko, Nikolay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Robot calibration without scaling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Je rinkle (Member) arry Hogan (Member) eorge P. Peterson (Head of Department) May 1995 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering 111 ABSTRACT Robot Calibration without Scaling. (May 1995) Thomas W. Ives, B. S. , The University of Texas... robot. Researchers at Texas A6tM University found that convergence can be achieved simply by converting the original translational parameters fiom millimeters to inches. While this is nice and convenient for this particular case, it does not prove...

Ives, Thomas W.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Extreme Scale Visual Analytics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we provide an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.

Steed, Chad A [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL; Pullum, Laura L [ORNL] [ORNL; Ramanathan, Arvind [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

STEAM-SIDE OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION BEHAVIOR IN SUPERHEATERS AND REHEATERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in materials for power plants include not only new materials with higher-temperature capabilities, but also the use of current materials at increasingly higher temperatures. This latter activity builds on extensive experience of the performance of the various alloys, and provides a basis for identifying changes in alloy behavior with increasing temperature as well as understanding the factors that ultimately determine the maximum use temperatures of the different alloy classes. This paper presents results from an effort to model the exfoliation processes of steam-side oxide scales in a manner that describes as accurately as possible the evolution of strains in oxides growing inside small-diameter tubes subjected to large thermal gradients and to thermal transients typical of normal steam boiler operation. One way of portraying the results of such calculations is by plotting the evolving strains in a given oxide scale on an Exfoliation Diagram (of the type pioneered by Manning et al. of the British Central Electricity Research Laboratory) to determine the earliest time at which the trajectory of these strains intersects a criterion for scale failure. Understanding of how such strain trajectories differ among different alloys and are affected by the major variables associated with boiler operation has the potential to suggest boiler operating strategies to manage scale exfoliation, as well as to highlight the mode of scale failure and the limitations of each alloy. Preliminary results are presented of the strain trajectories calculated for alloys T22, T91, and TP347 subjected to the conditions experienced by superheaters under assumed boiler operating scenarios. For all three alloys the earliest predicted scale failures were associated with the increased strains developed during a boiler shut-down event; indeed, in the cases considered it appeared unlikely that scale failure would occur in any practically meaningful time due to strains accumulated during operation in a load-following mode in the absence of a shut down. The accuracy of the algorithms used for the kinetics of oxide growth appeared to be a very important consideration, especially for alloy TP347 for which large effects on oxide growth rate are known to occur with changes in alloy grain size and surface cold work.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P. [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Cross-Scale Effects in Solar-Wind Turbulence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The understanding of the small-scale termination of the turbulent energy cascade in collisionless plasmas is nowadays one of the outstanding problems in space physics. In the absence of collisional viscosity, the dynamics at small scales is presumably kinetic in nature; the identification of the physical mechanism which replaces energy dissipation and establishes the link between macroscopic and microscopic scales would open a new scenario in the study of turbulent heating in space plasmas. We present a numerical analysis of kinetic effects along the turbulent energy cascade in solar-wind plasmas which provides an effective unified interpretation of a wide set of spacecraft observations and shows that, simultaneously with an increase in the ion perpendicular temperature, strong bursts of electrostatic activity in the form of ion-acoustic turbulence are produced together with accelerated beams in the ion distribution function.

Valentini, F.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (Serbia and Montenegro) (Italy); Califano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Mangeney, A. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

376

Property:ProjectType | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: EnergyPotentialUrbanUtilityScalePVCapacity Jump to: navigation, search PropertyTransfer MethodProjectType Jump

377

Rock types, pore types, and hydrocarbon exploration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed exploration-oriented method of classifying porosity in sedimentary rocks is based on microscopic examination cores or cuttings. Factors include geometry, size, abundance, and connectivity of the pores. The porosity classification is predictive of key petrophysical characteristics: porosity-permeability relationships, capillary pressures, and (less certainly) relative permeabilities. For instance, intercrystalline macroporosity typically is associated with high permeability for a given porosity, low capillarity, and favorable relative permeabilities. This is found to be true whether this porosity type occurs in a sucrosic dolomite or in a sandstone with pervasive quartz overgrowths. This predictive method was applied in three Rocky Mountain oil plays. Subtle pore throat traps could be recognized in the J sandstone (Cretaceous) in the Denver basin of Colorado by means of porosity permeability plotting. Variations in hydrocarbon productivity from a Teapot Formation (Cretaceous) field in the Powder River basin of Wyoming were related to porosity types and microfacies; the relationships were applied to exploration. Rock and porosity typing in the Red River Formation (Ordovician) reconciled apparent inconsistencies between drill-stem test, log, and mud-log data from a Williston basin wildcat. The well was reevaluated and completed successfully, resulting in a new field discovery. In each of these three examples, petrophysics was fundamental for proper evaluation of wildcat wells and exploration plays.

Coalson, E.B.; Hartmann, D.J.; Thomas, J.B.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Reactions of small molecular systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This DOE program remains focused on small molecular systems relevant to combustion. Though a number of experimental approaches and machines are available for this research, the authors` activities are centered around the high-n Rydberg time-of-flight (HRTOF) apparatus in this laboratory. One student and one postdoc carry out experiments with this machine and also engage in small intra-group collaborations involving shared equipment. This past year was more productive than the previous two, due to the uninterrupted operation of the HRTOF apparatus. Results were obtained with CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 3}SH, Rg-HX complexes, HCOOH, and their deuterated analogs where appropriate. One paper is in print, three have been accepted for publication, and one is under review. Many preliminary results that augur well for the future were obtained with other systems such as HNO{sub 3}, HBr-HI complexes, toluene, etc. Highlights from the past year are presented below that display some of the features of this program.

Wittig, C. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Cloud-Scale Datacenters Page 1 Cloud-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud-Scale Datacenters Page 1 Cloud-Scale Datacenters #12;Cloud-Scale Datacenters Page 2, and operating datacenters. When software applications are built as distributed systems, every aspect brief will explore how cloud workloads have changed the way datacenters are designed and operated

Chaudhuri, Surajit

380

Typed Self-Optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type T y[O]. The operator IsIs is self-applicative, in thatargument t is any of Is[O] or IsIs, and otherwise behavesproof constant introduced by IsIs proves that the type of t

Brown, Matt

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Small Wind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerTypePonsa, Mallorca:upGuidebook Jump to:

382

The San Jose Scale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for controlling the scale. The most important spray mixtures in use are lime-sulphur salt, lime-sulphur, whale oil soap, kero? sene, crude petroleum, Kero-water, and kerosene or crude oil emulsions. All these preparations are mainly winter sprays, being applied... applied while cold, however, it clogs the apparatus and causes considerable inconven? ience in getting it on the tree. It is more expensive than the Lime- Sulphur wash. i I o . B I 3 I 2 In some States coal oil or kerosene has been experimented...

Conradi, Albert F.

1906-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

ATLAS Jet Energy Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jets originating from the fragmentation of quarks and gluons are the most common, and complicated, final state objects produced at hadron colliders. A precise knowledge of their energy calibration is therefore of great importance at experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, while is very difficult to ascertain. We present in-situ techniques and results for the jet energy scale at ATLAS using recent collision data. ATLAS has demonstrated an understanding of the necessary jet energy corrections to within \\approx 4% in the central region of the calorimeter.

D. Schouten; A. Tanasijczuk; M. Vetterli; for the ATLAS Collaboration

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

384

Pore Scale Micromodels | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home Design Passive SolarCenterYou areConstructionAPore Scale

385

Silica Scaling Removal Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2)Sharing Smart GridShift EndSidneyChemistry » Silica Scaling

386

Energy Department Small Business Partner Success Stories | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Small Business Partner Success Stories Energy Department Small Business Partner Success Stories Energy Department Small Business Partner Success Stories...

387

Large-Scale Analysis of Individual and Task Differences in Search Result Page Examination Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large-Scale Analysis of Individual and Task Differences in Search Result Page Examination users examine results which are similar to those observed in small-scale studies. Our findings have differences on search result page examination strategies is important in develop- ing improved search engines

Dumais, Susan

388

Telescopic Time-Scale Bridging for Modeling Dispersion in Rapidly Oscillating Flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Telescopic Time-Scale Bridging for Modeling Dispersion in Rapidly Oscillating Flows Ram K between the oscillation and dispersion time scales. Here, we present a methodology based on an implicit introduced errors. The error was found to decrease with mesh refinement, but a small inherent error

Zakhor, Avideh

389

Scale dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms in cumulus clouds  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

This work empirically examines the dependence of entrainment-mixing mechanisms on the averaging scale in cumulus clouds using in situ aircraft observations during the Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Aerial Facility Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign. A new measure of homogeneous mixing degree is defined that can encompass all types of mixing mechanisms. Analysis of the dependence of the homogenous mixing degree on the averaging scale shows that, on average, the homogenous mixing degree decreases with increasing averaging scales, suggesting that apparent mixing mechanisms gradually approach from homogeneous mixing to extreme inhomogeneous mixing with increasing scales. The scale dependence can be well quantified by an exponential function, providing first attempt at developing a scale-dependent parameterization for the entrainment-mixing mechanism. The influences of three factors on the scale dependence are further examined: droplet-free filament properties (size and fraction), microphysical properties (mean volume radius and liquid water content of cloud droplet size distributions adjacent to droplet-free filaments), and relative humidity of entrained dry air. It is found that the decreasing rate of homogeneous mixing degree with increasing averaging scales becomes larger with larger droplet-free filament size and fraction, larger mean volume radius and liquid water content, or higher relative humidity. The results underscore the necessity and possibility of considering averaging scale in representation of entrainment-mixing processes in atmospheric models.

Lu, Chunsong [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Chinese Acadamy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Liu, Yangang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.; Niu, Shengjie [Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology (China). Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters; Endo, Satoshi [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Biological, Environmental and Climate Science Dept.

2014-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

390

Injection system for small betatron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to reduce the head loads on the injector electrodes and to raise the efficiency of electron capture during acceleration, small betatrons are provided with an injection system with a controlled three-electrode injector in which injection current pulse with steep leading and trailing edges is formed by the application of a voltage pulse to the control electrode from a separate circuit through a pulse transformer. In a betatron injection system described, elements of the controlled injector of the accelerating chamber are used to correct the shape of the current pulse. The circuit for correcting the current-pulse shape can increase the accelerated charge by the average of 75% per betatron cycle and decrease the heat loads on the electrodes of the injector without the use of a generator of controlling voltage pulses.

Zuorygin, V.P.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Pushin, U.S.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Abundance Ratios in Early-Type Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although evidence is accumulating that abundance ratios in galaxies are often non-solar, they are far from understood. I resume the current evidence for non-solar abundance ratios, supplementing the recent review by Worthey (1998) with some new results. It appears that the Mg/Fe abundance ratio only depends on the mass of the galaxy, not on the formation time-scale. For massive galaxies [Mg/Fe] > 0, while small galaxies show solar abundance ratios. Information about abundances of other element is scarce, but new evidence is given that [Ca/Fe] is solar, or slightly lower than solar, contrary to what is expected for an alpha-element.

Reynier Peletier

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

Small Business Linked Deposit Program (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Small Business Linked Deposit Program provides below-market interest rates for qualified small businesses and certified industrial parks through local financing sources. Loans are for a two...

393

Small Power Production and Cogeneration (Maine)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maine's Small Power Production and Cogeneration statute says that any small power producer or cogenerator may generate or distribute electricity through his private property solely for his own use,...

394

Small Business Express Program (EXP) (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Small Business Express Program (EXP) provides loans and grants to small businesses (not more than 100 employees) to spur job creation and growth. The Program provides access to capital through...

395

2014 National Small Business Federal Contracting Summit  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2014 National Small Business Federal Contracting Summit - DC Summer Conference presented jointly by the U.S. Women's Chamber of Commerce and the American Small Business Chamber of Commerce /...

396

Small Business Job Creation Tax Credit (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Illinois Small Business Jobs Creation Tax Credit program provides small business owners and non-profits with an extra boost to grow their business over the next four years. After creating one...

397

USDA Rural Small Business Connection Event  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) will host Rural Small Business Connections, providing small businesses with networking sessions and opportunities to build capacity and do business with USDA and other Federal agencies.

398

Faster Payments to Our Nation's Small Businesses  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Today, President Obama announced a new initiative called Quick Pay that will cut the time it takes for Federal agencies to pay small businesses for contracted services.Now small businesses like...

399

Wisconsin Small Business Guarantee Program (Wisconsin)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Wisconsin Small Business Guarantee Program offers low-interest financing to small businesses for fixed assets, working capital, or inventory purchase. The loan guarantee maximum is 50 percent...

400

Small Wind Innovation Zone and Model Ordinance  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

In May 2009, the Iowa legislature created the Small Wind Innovation Zone Program, which allows any city, county, or other political subdivision to create small wind innovation zones that promote...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

California Small Hydropower and Ocean Wave Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

California Small Hydropower and Ocean Wave Energy Resources IN SUPPORT OF THE 2005 INTEGRATED....................................................................................................................... 9 Ocean Wave Energy................................................................. 21 #12;ii List of Tables Table 1 California Small Hydropower And Ocean Wave Energy Resources Table 2

402

NYSEG (Electric)- Small Business Lighting Retrofit Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

NYSEG offers a lighting incentive program designed to serve small business customers with a demand of 100 kilowatts (kW) or less. These small business customers may schedule a free energy...

403

SCALING LAW FOR THE IMPACT OF MAGNET FRINGE FIELDS.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general scaling law can be derived for the relative momentum deflection produced on a particle beam by fringe fields, to leading order. The formalism is applied to two concrete examples, for magnets having dipole and quadrupole symmetry. During recent years, the impact of magnet fringe fields is becoming increasingly important for rings of relatively small circumference but large acceptance. A few years ago, following some heuristic arguments, a scaling law was proposed [1], for the relative deflection of particles passing through a magnet fringe-field. In fact, after appropriate expansion of the magnetic fields in Cartesian coordinates, which generalizes the expansions of Steffen [2], one can show that this scaling law is true for any multipole magnet, at leading order in the transverse coefficients [3]. This paper intends to provide the scaling law to estimate the impact of fringe fields in the special cases of magnets with dipole and quadrupole symmetry.

WEI,J.; PAPAPHILIPPOU,Y.; TALMAN,R.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

404

Rate Setting for Small Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in detail the many resources that are available to help managers of small water systems make wise business decisions....

Dozier, Monty; Theodori, Gene L.; Jensen, Ricard

2007-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

405

The relationship between small learning communities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/vocational pathways. In the 1970s, schools progressed toward developing magnet programs, career academies, and mini-schools (Oxley, 2006). Charter schools became part of the high school evolution in the 1980s - 1990s, and are still strong advocates for small... traditional campus. Small Learning Communities Models and Strategies Sammon (2000) describes small learning communities by clustering them into six main models: career academies, houses, small learning community (SLC)/school- within-school, magnet schools...

Turnbo, Bobbie Jo

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Document Type: Subject Terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Authors: Source: Document Type: Subject Terms: Abstract: Full Text Word Count: ISSN at creating team results. In fact, it's priceless. Managers in Western corporations have received a lifetime

Major, Arkady

407

Experimental investigation of small-scale breaking waves : flow visualization across the air-water interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of breaking waves significantly affect air-sea fluxes of heat, momentum, mass and energy across the ocean interface. Breaking waves also contribute considerable loading to offshore and coastal structures, and ...

McDonald, Angus Kai

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Solvrme i smskaligt fjrrvrment; Solar heating in small-scale district heating.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Satsningar p frnyelsebar energiproduktion r en viktig del i strvan efter ett mer hllbart samhlle. Att ta till vara p energin i solinstrlningen r (more)

Rossing, Jonas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Line map construction based on small-scale mobile robot using single-sonar navigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HI STRONG PEAKS PARAMETERS FOR THE SECOND EXPERIMENT -20 90' 180 11 -25 Plg. 35. TI1C 1lAC Bop OA (AC R&%1A tlBASfOffA gCOfACtTQ . CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK In this study a line map construction approach has been presented...

Jaradat, Mohammad Abdel Kareem

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Fall 2011 Small Scale Anaerobic Digestion by PENERGY Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by wood-fired boilers. By generating biogas through anaerobic digestion of swine manure, fuel can: A mechanical anaerobic digester to handle organic farm waste. A complete biogas collection system with hook Digestion by PENERGY Solutions Overview For most farmers in Pennsylvania, the growing season ends

Demirel, Melik C.

411

Electro/Magnetically Induced Controllable Rotation In Small-scale Liquid Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study all the possibilities of producing rotating flow in an incompressible fluid by electric and magnetic fields. We start with a general theoretical basis and look for different configurations and set-ups which electric/magnetic field and an electric current affect the vorticity of fluid resulting in rotation on liquid flow. We assume steady-state conditions and time-independent electric and magnetic fields as the external body torque. Regarding the theoretical basis, we propose three experimental set-ups in which by applying fields on a fluid, rotational vortices are produced: (a) a uniform electric field and a uniform electric current, (b) a uniform electric current and a non-uniform magnetic field, and (c) a non-uniform electric current and a uniform magnetic field. The first case has been reported in detail named "Liquid Film Motor". The two other cases are experimentally investigated here for a cubic an cylindrical cells. The rotational velocity patterns are obtained by PIV technique, and the result...

Amjadi, A; Sobhani, S O; Shirsavar, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

SMALL-SCALE DISTRIBUTIONS OF OCEANIC DIATOMS E. L. VENRICK1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.g., Hasle, 1954; Holmes and Widrig, 1956; Barnes and Hasle, 1957; Cassie, 1959a, b, 1960; Bernhard and Rampi

413

Small-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) system for heat and power in remote areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand for heating and electric power has steadily increased in remote areas. The use of locally available fuel to achieve self sufficiency has become an important objective. Energy demands may require steam generation for district heating, power generation and process consumption. In addition, the steam generation unit can also be required to burn waste that includes MSW and sewage sludge. To meet these demands, new systems must be installed that use local fuel. This paper describes a lower cost CFBC for use in remote areas. With the support of DOE METC, in late summer 1994, DONLEE performed a test burn at its 10 MM btu/hr pilot CFBC using subbituminous coal from Wyoming. The Wyoming coal`s sulfur dioxide emissions were very low due to the low sulfur content of the Wyoming coal and the excellent efficiency at temperatures as low as 1,500 F thereby indicating no limestone addition was needed for sulfur capture. The CFBC testing indicated emissions met all of the environmental requirements, both Federal and state. These requirements include: particulates, SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x}, opacity, chlorinated dioxins/furans, etc. The unit can be fabricated in modules, making the installation easier and less expensive for use in remote areas. The design is highly reliable and can be fully automated thereby requiring limited staffing.

Stuart, J.M.; Korenberg, J. [DONLEE Technologies Inc., York, PA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Extreme-ultraviolet radiation transport in small scale length laser-produced tin plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from laser-produced tin plasmas. Proceedings ofRadiation from Laser- Produced Tin Plasmas. Physical Reviewspectra of xenon and tin discharges. Physical Review E,

Sequoia, Kevin Lamar Williams

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

ORIGINAL PAPER Small-scale gold mining erodes fish assemblage structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and heavy metal pollution (Cleary 1990). Freshwater ecosystems are particularly impacted by these mining

Grenouillet, Gael

416

THE EMERGENCE OF INEQUALITY IN SMALL-SCALE SOCIETIES: SIMPLE SCENARIOS AND AGENT-BASED SIMULATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; easmith@u.washington.edu Jung-Kyoo Choi, School of Economics and Trade, Kyungpook National University. Autonomous egalitarian societies of foragers and agriculturalists persisted in some regions; resource storage; control of production technology (e.g., irrigation); scalar #12;2 effects of increasing

Smith, Eric Alden

417

Extreme-ultraviolet radiation transport in small scale length laser-produced tin plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plasma diagnostics .spatial profile of the SL355 2.3. Plasma diagnostics In thissection the plasma diagnostics will be explained in detail.

Sequoia, Kevin Lamar Williams

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Fuel from farms: A guide to small-scale ethanol production: Second edition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This guide presents the current status of on-farm fermentation ethanol production as well as an overview of some of the technical and economic factors. Tools such as decision and planning worksheets and a sample business plan for use in exploring whether or not to go into ethanol production are given. Specifics in production including information on the raw materials, system components, and operational requirements are also provided. Recommendation of any particular process is deliberately avoided because the choice must be tailored to the needs and resources of each individual producer. The emphasis is on providing the facts necessary to make informed judgments. 98 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

FEMP Webcast: O&M Best Practices for Small-Scale PV Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hosted by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), this seminar covers operations and maintenance (O&M) best practices for photovoltaic (PV) systems of 100 kilowatt or less, including planning for a PV O&M scope of work and maintenance procedures to keep the system operating at optimal capacity.

420

Direct control of the small-scale energy balance in 2D fluid dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the direct modification of the pseudo-spectral truncation of 2D, incompressible fluid dynamics to maintain a prescribed kinetic energy spectrum. The method provides a means of simulating fluid states with defined spectral properties, for the purpose of matching simulation statistics to given information, arising from observations, theoretical prediction or high fidelity simulation. In the scheme outlined here, Nos\\'e-Hoover thermostats, commonly used in molecular dynamics, are introduced as feedback controls applied to energy shells of the Fourier-discretized Navier-Stokes equations. As we demonstrate in numerical experiments, the dynamical properties (quantified using autocorrelation functions) are only modestly perturbed by our device, while ensemble dispersion is significantly enhanced in comparison with simulations of a corresponding truncation incorporating hyperviscosity.

Frank, Jason; Myerscough, Keith

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

WILLINGNESS TO ACCEPT ASSESSMENT OF SMALL SCALE EUCALYPTUS FARMERSO SM SC UC US M S  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ecosystem services/forest corridors Sampling size 50 heads of the household #12;2/27/2009 5 Methods://www.woodycrops.org/mechconf/mcnabb.html Justification Forrest Corridors Ecosystem Services Cultural Preservation Aikaterini Perrakis, "Feasibility Valuation Method. Washington D.C.: Hopkins University Press. Survey questions Triple-bounded approach

Gray, Matthew

422

Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Fouling Parameters in a Small-Scale Rotating Unit  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the unit from the start to the finish. Without his input, I never would have been able to finish in a timely manner. I would like to thank Salem Bouhairie for all of his help in CFD studies. Thanks also goes out to the technicians and other staff... OF DESIGN: SHEAR STRESS ......................................................... 24 5. VALIDATION OF DESIGN: HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT .......................... 32 6. USE OF CFD FOR MODELING THE RFU...

Lane, Matthew Ryan

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Analysis of Small Scale MBR Anisotropy in the Presence of Foreground Contamination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many of the current round of experiments searching for anisotropies in the MBR are confronting the problem of how to disentangle the cosmic signal from contamination due to galactic and intergalactic foreground sources. Here we show how commonly used likelihood function techniques can be generalized to account for foreground. Specifically we set some restrictions on the spectrum of foreground contamination but allow the amplitude to vary arbitrarily. The likelihood function thus generalized gives reasonable limits on the MBR anisotropy which, in some cases, are not much less restrictive than what one would get from more detailed modeling of the foreground. Furthermore, the likelihood function is exactly the same as one would obtain by simply projecting out foreground contamination and just looking at the reduced data set. We apply this generalized analysis to the recent medium angle data sets of ACME-HEMT and MAX. The resulting analysis constrains the one free parameter in the standard cold dark matter theory to be Q=18_-5^+8 microK. This best fit value, although in striking agreement with the normalization from COBE, is not a very good fit, with an overall chi^2/ degree of freedom =208/168. We also argue against three commonly used methods of dealing with foreground: (i) ignoring it completely; (ii) subtracting off a best fit foreground and treating the residuals as if uncontaminated; and (iii) culling data which appears to be contaminated by foreground.

Scott Dodelson; Albert Stebbins

1993-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

424

Food Security and Small Scale Aquaponics: A Case Study on the Northern Mariana Island of Rota .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Aquaponics has recently emerged on the global scene as a viable form of alternative agriculture. A combination of practices, such as growing and harvesting fish (more)

Foskett, Dustin

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The Challenges of Biofuels in Ohio: From the Perspective of Small-Scale Producers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The increased interest in renewable biofuels, such as biodiesel and ethanol, has come in the wake of higher domestic fuel costs after many years (more)

McHenry, John Carl Izaak

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefiner...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

its proprietary technology for the production of ethanol from a wide array of biomass feedstocks, including sugarcane bagasse, agricultural byproducts, waste wood products, and...

427

Revaluing waste in New York City : planning for small-scale compost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One-third of the municipal solid waste stream is organic material that, when processed in landfills, produces methane, a highly potent greenhouse gas. Composting is a proven strategy for organic waste management, which ...

Neilson, Sarah (Sarah Jane)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerial Vehicles (UAV) (4) Turbomachinery Component Design Centrifugal compressor design for reduced size

Camci, Cengiz

429

Impact of Feedwater Salinity on Energy Requirements of a Small-Scale Membrane Filtration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Many remote communities in both developed and developing countries lack electricity and clean drinking water. One solution, for such communities that rely on brackish groundwater, is a photovoltaic (PV) powered hybrid ...

Richards, B.S.; Masson, L.; Schfer, Andrea

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Small-Scale Bioenergy Alternatives for Industry, Farm, and Institutions : A User`s Perspective.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents research on biomass as an energy source. Topics include: bioenergy development and application; bioenergy combustion technology; and bioenergy from agricultural, forest, and urban resources. There are a total of 57 individual reports included. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

Folk, Richard [ed.] [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Forest Products

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Feasibility of using power steering pumps in small-scale solar thermal electric power systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The goal of this study was to determine performance curves for a variety of positive displacement pumps in order to select an efficient and low cost option for use as a boiler feed pump in a 1-kWe organic Rankine cycle ...

Lin, Cynthia, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Physical modeling of wind turbine generators in a small scale analog system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This project represents the physical modeling and experimental test of a Doubly-fed Induction Machine (DFIM), in order to substantially analyze the characteristic behaviors of wind turbines and its use in the micro-grid ...

Wang, Xuntuo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Less Parking, More Carsharing: Supporting Small-Scale Transit-Oriented Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TCRP Report 108: Car Sharing: Where and How It Relationship between car sharing membership and members of your car sharing organization if they

Dentel-Post, Colin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

Wiltsee, G.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Radiative Properties of Small Clouds: Multi-Scale Observations and Modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Warm, liquid clouds and their representation in climate models continue to represent one of the most significant unknowns in climate sensitivity and climate change. Our project combines ARM observations, LES modeling, and satellite imagery to characterize shallow clouds and the role of aerosol in modifying their radiative effects.

Feingold, Graham [NOAA ESRL; McComiskey, Allison [CIRES, University of Colorado

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

436

Study of heat transfer in attics with a small scale simulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flux through the floor of the attic was reduced by about 16 percent. Experimental results were compared to a model that model was a modification of a existing three-region approximate solution developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL...' ) [31]. G. HEAT TRANSFER MODELS FOIL FlBROUS INSULATION Radiation is the most, significant component of the total heat, trans- 13 kg lb fer in insulation having densities lower than 32 ? (2 ? ), Oak Ridge I' fts National Laboratory (ORNL) has...

Katipamula, Srinivas

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Extreme-ultraviolet radiation transport in small scale length laser-produced tin plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics) by Kevin Lamar Williams Sequoia Committee inR. Tynan Copyright Kevin Lamar Williams Sequoia, 2009 AllDissertation of Kevin Lamar Williams Sequoia is approved,

Sequoia, Kevin Lamar Williams

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

ThermoSolar and photovoltaic hybridization for small scale distributed generation : applications for powering rural health  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of provisioning a remote health clinic or school with electricity, heating and cooling (trigeneration) is considered from an engineering design and optimization standpoint. A baseline technical-economic review ...

Orosz, Matthew S. (Matthew Sndor), 1977-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Ionosphere-magnetosphere simulation of small-scale structure and dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in this paper focus on ion and electron heating by different sources, i.e., ion heating due to plasma- neutral-magnetosphere coupling, with emphasis on the ionospheric physics. There are ionospheric models which focus, 1997] incorporated basic plasma transport co- efficients such as ionization, plasma-neutral friction

Lummerzheim, Dirk

440

Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or heat at the site where it is used. This concept reduces grid losses and focuses on demand rather than consumption by providing both heat and power on site without transmission losses. The high grade heat produced variation during the operation. The analysis will consider an average profile for heat and power demand

Berning, Torsten

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, partially composted feedlot manure, and finished composted feedlot manure. Performance characteristics and emission data were taken for each case. A summary of the results is as follows: (I) sulfur Wyoming coal was fired and a gasification efficiency...

Frazzitta, Stephen

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Hybrid magnet devices for molecule manipulation and small scale high gradient-field applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure provides a high performance hybrid magnetic structure made from a combination of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic pole materials which are assembled in a predetermined array. The hybrid magnetic structure provides means for separation and other biotechnology applications involving holding, manipulation, or separation of magnetizable molecular structures and targets. Also disclosed are hybrid magnetic tweezers able to exert approximately 1 nN of force to 4.5 .mu.m magnetic bead. The maximum force was experimentally measured to be .about.900 pN which is in good agreement with theoretical estimations and other measurements. In addition, a new analysis scheme that permits fast real-time position measurement in typical geometry of magnetic tweezers has been developed and described in detail.

Humphries, David E. (El Cerrito, CA); Hong, Seok-Cheol (Seoul, KR); Cozzarelli, legal representative, Linda A. (Berkeley, CA); Pollard, Martin J. (El Cerrito, CA); Cozzarelli, Nicholas R. (Berkeley, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

443

A Simplified Self-Help Approach to Sizing of Small-Scale Cogeneration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

304 KV Hence, size of the Cogeneration system selected from Table 1 is 300 KW (c) Average Cost of Gas (d) Average Thermal Energy Required = (Total MCF of Gas Used Annually for Heating Steam and Hot Water) x 1,000,000 Btu/MCF x 0.8/(operating hours in a... Thermal Load 4 (d) Selection of Engine Size 5 (e) The Percent Thermal Energy Utilization 6 (f) Use of Nomographs to Determine Economic Feasibility of a Cogeneration System 6 Discussion of Examples 13 Limitations of this Simplified Self-Help Approach 13...

Somasundaram, S.; Turner, W. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Characterization of Small Scale Heterogeneity for Prediction of Acid Fracture Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prolific counties, Grant and Stevens County in Kansas, approach 8 Tcf and the infrastructure for additional recovery is in place (Dubois et al., 2006). The Hugoton Field has been in active production since the 1920s, but further recovery has been... and McCauley, 1987). 20 The extensive outcrop study done by Mazzullo et al. (1996) and Mazzullo (1999) suggest Geary County and Riley County to contain outcrops suitable for comparison to the subsurface reservoir rock in Stevens County. Two trips were...

Beatty, Cassandra Vonne

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

445

Small Solar Wind Transients and Their Connection totheLarge-Scale Coronal Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I.G. : 2006, In situ solar wind and magnetic ?eld signaturesPenou, E. : 2008, The IMPACT Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (Heliospheric images of the solar wind at Earth. Astrophys.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Can Florida's Legislative Standard of Review for Small-Scale Land Use Amendments Be Justified?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1294. 164. Id. 165. Id. (citing FLA. STAT. 163.3184(8) (1991)). 249. See id. (citing FLA. STAT. 286.0115 (1995)).601 (1966). 101. See id. ; FLA. STAT. 163.3184(11)(a) (

Appleman, Bernard R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

The impact of small-scale turbulence on laminar magnetic reconnection P. G. Watsona  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. © 2007 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2458595 I. INTRODUCTION In this paper we explore physics, astrophys- ics, and laboratory plasma devices. Reconnection is therefore central to understanding plasma dynamics in the solar co- rona, the earth's magnetotail, galactic dynamos, and toka- maks, e

Oughton, Sean

448

Field and laboratory observations of small-scale dispersion in wetlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimating longitudinal dispersion in wetlands is a necessary first step in predicting the behavior of dissolved species and suspended particles. However, many processes are involved, and they can interact in nonlinear ...

Lightbody, Anne F. (Anne Fraser), 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Small scale intermittency in anisotropic turbulence Wouter J.T. Bos, Lukas Liechtenstein, Kai Schneider  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the anisotropy (e.g. vor- tex tubes aligned with the rotation axis in rotating tur- bulence and horizontal vortex flatness. The anisotropy of the spatial fluctuations of the energy distribution can hereby be quantified between horizontal and vertical intermittency for stratified turbulence can be explained by an energy

Boyer, Edmond

450

Development of a Small-Scale Natural Gas Liquefier. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report describes the progress during the contract period March 1, 1998 through April 30, 2003, on the design, development, and testing of a novel mixed-refrigerant-based 1000 gal/day natural gas liquefier, together with the associated gas cleanup equipment. Based on the work, it is concluded that a cost-effective 1000 gal/day liquefaction system is technically and economically feasible. A unit based on the same developed technology, with 5000 gal/day capacity, would have much improved economics.

Kountz, K.; Kriha, K.; Liss, W.; Perry, M.; Richards, M.; Zuckerman, D.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

451

2014 Electronics Packaging Symposium Technology Advances in Small Scale Systems and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development - David Smukowski, Sensors in Motion Embedded Actuation and Sensing Via Multi-Material 3D Printing.m. 3D Printing Multi-Functionality: Mec

Madden, Patrick H.

452

DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

VA. "These projects will help pioneer the next generation of non-food based biofuels that will power our cars and trucks and help meet President Bush's goal to stop...

453

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

today's announcement while delivering keynote remarks at the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Biofuels Dialogue Series, "Outlook for an Emerging Global Biofuels Market." "These project...

454

Large and small-scale structures and the dust energy balance problem in spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interstellar dust content in galaxies can be traced in extinction at optical wavelengths, or in emission in the far-infrared. Several studies have found that radiative transfer models that successfully explain the optical extinction in edge-on spiral galaxies generally underestimate the observed FIR/submm fluxes by a factor of about three. In order to investigate this so-called dust energy balance problem, we use two Milky Way-like galaxies produced by high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We create mock optical edge-on views of these simulated galaxies (using the radiative transfer code SKIRT), and we then fit the parameters of a basic spiral galaxy model to these images (using the fitting code FitSKIRT). The basic model includes smooth axisymmetric distributions along a S\\'ersic bulge and exponential disc for the stars, and a second exponential disc for the dust. We find that the dust mass recovered by the fitted models is about three times smaller than the known dust mass of the hydrodynamical in...

Saftly, W; De Geyter, G; Camps, P; Renaud, F; Guedes, J; De Looze, I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

DOE Selects 3 Small-Scale Biorefinery Projects for up to $86 Million of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofThe U.S. Department of Energy

456

DOE to Provide up to $40 Million in Funding for Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomentheATLANTA, GA - U.S. Department ofTheEnergy StrengthensDevelopmentProjects in

457

COLLOQUIUM: Small-scale CMB Cosmology: ACT, Planck and Beyond | Princeton  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6Energy, science,Principles ofPhysics LabAdjoint Methods

458

Using information about small-scale variability in water vapor in a  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II Field Emission

459

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Small-scale drop size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops AtmosphericApplication andAnthe Infrared Land Surface Emissivity in thevariability:

460

Waste Heat-to-Power in Small Scale Industry Using Scroll Expander for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment of Energy While dryWashington's CentraliaWashingtonSystems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A New Look into the Treatment of Small-Scale Drop Variability in Radiative Transfer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-Research andAFishingMicroscopy

462

A case study of symmetric instability in the presence of a small-scale cyclone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contoured every 2' K) at 0600 UTC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 82 42 As in Fig. 41 except at 1200 UTC 84 43 As in Fig. 41 except at 1500 UTC 44 Soundings from HAT at 1200 and 1500 UTC. . . . . 45 As in Fig. 44 except from MRH. 85 87 88 CHAPTER I... States (Fig. 2a). The associated precipitation was apparently associated with a weak surface low that had moved northeastward across the Gulf of Mexico. On the surface map (Fig. 3a), a low pressure center over northern Michigan and an associated...

Wood, Lance Thomas

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Measured turbulent mixing in a small-scale circuit breaker model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to understand how hot gas from the arc zone mixes with colder gas in the mixing volume. This mixing process with cold gas that is present, for example, in the exhausts and mixing volume. Understanding the details of the mixing process is imperative to estimate the temperature distribution within the entire breaker volume

Basse, Nils Plesner

464

Unified treatment of cosmological perturbations from super-horizon to small scales  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations, using a hybrid approximation scheme which upgrades the weak-field limit of Einstein's field equations to account for post-Newtonian scalar and vector metric perturbations and for leading-order source terms of gravitational waves, while including also the first and second-order perturbative approximations. Our equations, which are derived in the Poisson gauge, provide a unified description of matter inhomogeneities in a Universe filled with a pressureless and irrotational fluid and a cosmological constant, ranging from the linear to the highly non-linear regime. The derived expressions for scalar, vector and tensor modes can have a wide range of cosmological applications, ranging from secondary CMB anisotropy and polarization effects, cosmographic relations in a inhomogeneous Universe, gravitational lensing effects and the stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds generated by non-linear cosmic structures.

Carmelita Carbone; Sabino Matarrese

2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

465

Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small-scale  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus Area Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy,Rural E M C

466

Energy Department Launches H2 Refuel H-Prize Competition for Small-Scale  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program -Department ofto Cellulosic BioenergyatDepartment ofHydrogen Refueling

467

Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment of Energy U.S. DepartmentCommitmentGovernment PurchaseDoesThe current

468

UCRL-ID-119665 LLNL Small-Scale Drop-Hammer Impact Sensitivity Test  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite JC-118794 PREPRINT A Comparison of Riskf^17240,.

469

UCRL-ID-124563 LLNL Small-scale Friction Sensitivity (BAM) Test  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite JC-118794 PREPRINT A Comparison of

470

U.S. Department of Energy Selects First Round of Small-Scale Biorefinery  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of EnergyTheDepartmentFeed Families"ofTravisD.ofProjects

471

U.S. Department of Energy Small-Scale Biorefineries: Project Overview |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of EnergyTheDepartmentFeedContractor | Department ofDepartment

472

Small-Scale Reactor for the Production of Medical Isotopes - Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBiSite Cultural ResourcestepidumProjectsMore thanInnovation

473

U.S. Department of Energy Small-Scale Biorefineries Project Overview |  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyTheTwo New Energy AmericanOffice ofThe activitiesworkDepartment

474

Introduction to Small-Scale Wind Energy Systems (Including RETScreen Case  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpInc Place: EdenOverview Of TheIntevac Jump to:FrameworkStudy)

475

Grid planning with a large amount of small scale solar power.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? With an increasing interest for renewable power, photovoltaics (PV) have becomemore and more common in the distribution network. If a customer wants to install (more)

Hagstrm, Emil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

SMALL-SCALE SPATIOTEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF PLANT COVER DURING THE INITIAL PHASE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's conditions: Vicia tetrasperma (annual), Calamagrostis epigejos and Phragmites australis (clonal grasses), Be/or polycormones (Calamagrostis epigejos, Phragmites australis, occasionally P. tremula). Apparently, the plant is the source of Ph. australis and Salix sp. div. (Kováfi 1979), surrounding ruderal stands on the pyrite

Herben, Tomas

477

DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the oilfield include calcium carbonates (CaCO3, mainly calcite) and alkaline-earth metal sulfates (barite BaSO4, celestite SrSO4, anhydrite CaSO4, hemihydrate CaSO4 1/2H2O, and gypsum CaSO4 2H2O or calcium sulfate). The cause of scaling can be difficult to identify in real oil and gas wells. However, pressure and temperature changes during the flow of fluids are primary reasons for the formation of carbonate scales, because the escape of CO2 and/or H2S gases out of the brine solution, as pressure is lowered, tends to elevate the pH of the brine and result in super-saturation with respect to carbonates. Concerning sulfate scales, the common cause is commingling of different sources of brines either due to breakthrough of injected incompatible waters or mixing of two different brines from different zones of the reservoir formation. A decrease in temperature tends to cause barite to precipitate, opposite of calcite. In addition, pressure drops tend to cause all scale minerals to precipitate due to the pressure dependence of the solubility product. And we can expect that there will be a pressure drop across the heat exchanger. Weather or not this will be offset by the rise in pressure remains to be seen. It's typically left to field testing to prove out. Progress has been made toward the control and treatment of the scale deposits, although most of the reaction mechanisms are still not well understood. Often the most efficient and economic treatment for scale formation is to apply threshold chemical inhibitors. Threshold scale inhibitors are like catalysts and have inhibition efficiency at very low concentrations (commonly less than a few mg/L), far below the stoichiometric concentrations of the crystal lattice ions in solution. There are many chemical classes of inhibitors and even more brands on the market. Based on the water chemistry it is anticipated that there is a high likelihood for sulfate compound precipitation and scaling. This may be dependent on the temperature and pressure, which vary throughout the system. Therefore, various types and amounts of scaling may occur at different

Daily, W D

2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

478

OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Small.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) operations in Oak Ridge, Tennessee and associated areas. · Cleanup commercial uses for many Oak Ridge facilities. #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 CONTACT INFORMATION · Basic BJC

479

Physics at Small Numbers of Particles Within the Frame of a Horizon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Einstein equations are non-linear and the particles of which the gravitational e?ect is described by these equations are lastly un- known. If renormalizable ?elds are assumed, then results are obtained only in the case of a at space. Therefore, there is still no generally recognized quantum theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. In this work the solution of these quantum mechanic problems are forced in some sense: the metric tensor is linearized, and it is required that the entire system of equations is invariant with respect to the symmetry group of the linearized Einstein equations. The ?eld which represents this symmetry group only allows a measurement within the horizon to simulate the event horizon. It is shown that the num- ber of quants of this ?eld is constant. There are 4 types of solutions in the 2-quantum space, of which one has particle-like properties. This particular solution has a gravitational e?ect which can be externally arbitrarily small, as compared to its electromagnetic e?ect. In con- trast, this does not apply to the other 3 solutions. The model might be used to explain why gravitation is so much weaker than the elec- tromagnetic interaction in real physics. Accordingly, the Higgs boson is possibly not necessarily be required for the mass scale. Likewise, an explanation could be made why gravitation and electromagnetic inter- actions had the same intensity during the early stages of the universe. A pecularity of the model provides a mechanism for the Big Bang in all four types of solutions, although there is no singularity. As a consequence of the inferred change in the microstructure, a change in the macrostructure of the cosmos is suggested, allowing an understanding of the particular properties of the Dark Matter and the accelerated expansion of the cosmos.

Alfred Kording

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

480

Small Wind Guidebook/Things to Consider When Purchasing a Small...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GuidebookThings to Consider When Purchasing a Small Wind Turbine < Small Wind Guidebook Jump to: navigation, search Print PDF WIND ENERGY STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT & OUTREACHSmall...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type small scale" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Large-scale anisotropy in stably stratified rotating flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up to $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $\\approx 1000$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law behavior compatible with $\\sim k_\\perp^{-5/3}$, including in the absence of rotation. In this latter purely stratified case, such a spectrum is the result of a direct cascade of the energy contained in the large-scale horizontal wind, as is evidenced by a strong positive flux of energy in the parallel direction at all scales including the largest resolved scales.

Marino, Dr. Raffaele [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Mininni, Dr. Pablo D. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Rosenberg, Duane L [ORNL; Pouquet, Dr. Annick [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Comparison of Small ELM Characteristics and Regimes in Alcator C-Mod, MAST, and NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the status of a set of ITPA-coordinated experiments between the Alcator C-Mod, MAST and NSTX devices to compare the characteristics and access conditions of discharges with small edge-localized modes (ELMs). The small ELMs in C-Mod, MAST and one of the two small ELM types in NSTX exist when {beta}{sub ped}{sup pol} approached 10-15%, although the lower/upper limits of the operational windows differ. These small ELM regimes appear in diverted configurations very close to balanced double-null in each device. We classify these small ELMs as type II, based on the published characteristics from a number of previous studies. In addition, these type II ELMs in each device had multiple filaments with propagation in the co-I{sub p} or ion diamagnetic drift direction. Moreover, we conclude that these type II ELMs are distinct from the type V ELMs routinely observed in NSTX, which have one or two filaments and propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction.

Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Hubbard, A.E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Meyer, H. [EURATOM / UKAEA, UK; Hughes, J.W. [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK; Kirk, A. [UKAEA Fusion, Culham UK; Maqueda, R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Terry, J. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Observation of Discrete Oscillations in a Model-independent Plot of Cosmological Scale Factor vs. Lookback Time and a Scalar Field Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have observed damped longitudinal cosmological-scale oscillations in a unique model-independent plot of scale factor against lookback time for Type Ia supernovae data. We found several first-derivative relative maxima/minima spanning the range of reported transition-redshifts. These extrema comprise 2 full cycles with a period of approximately 0.15 Hubble times (H0=68 km/s/Mpc). This period corresponds to a fundamental frequency of approximately 7 cycles over the Hubble time. Transition-z values quoted in the literature generally fall near these minima and may explain the reported wide spread up to the predicted LCDM value of approximately z = 0.77. We also observe second and third harmonics of the fundamental. The scale factor data is analyzed several different ways including smoothing, Fourier transform and autocorrelation. We propose a cosmological scalar field harmonic oscillator model for the observation. On this time scale, for a quantum scalar field, the scalar field mass is extraordinarily small at...

Ringermacher, H I

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Large scale EPR correlations and cosmic gravitational waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study how quantum correlations survive at large scales in spite of their exposition to stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves. We consider Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) correlations built up on the polarizations of photon pairs and evaluate how they are affected by the cosmic gravitational wave background (CGWB). We evaluate the quantum decoherence of the EPR correlations in terms of a reduction of the violation of the Bell inequality as written by Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH). We show that this decoherence remains small and that EPR correlations can in principle survive up to the largest cosmic scales.

B. Lamine; R. Herv; M. -T. Jaekel; A. Lambrecht; S. Reynaud

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

485

Direct numerical simulations of type Ia supernovae flames I: The landau-darrieus instability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planar flames are intrinsically unstable in open domains due to the thermal expansion across the burning front--the Landau-Darrieus instability. This instability leads to wrinkling and growth of the flame surface, and corresponding acceleration of the flame, until it is stabilized by cusp formation. We look at the Landau-Darrieus in stability for C/O thermonuclear flames at conditions relevant to the late stages of a Type Ia supernova explosion. Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of both single-mode and multi-mode perturbations using a low Mach number hydrodynamics code are presented. We show the effect of the instability on the flame speed as a function of both the density and domain size, demonstrate the existence of the small scale cutoff to the growth of the instability, and look for the proposed breakdown of the non-linear stabilization at low densities. The effects of curvature on the flame as quantified through measurements of the growth rate and computation of the corresponding Markstein number. While accelerations of a few percent are observed, they are too small to have any direct outcome on the supernova explosion.

Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Rendleman, C.A.; Woosley, S.E.; Zingale, M.

2003-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

486

Self-Assembling Tile Systems that Heal from Small Fragments Stanford University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-Assembling Tile Systems that Heal from Small Fragments Holin Chen Stanford University holin systems have proved to be a useful model for understanding self-assembly at the nano scale. Self-healing tile systems, introduced by Winfree, have the property that the self-assembled shape can recover from

Goel, Ashish

487

relatively high population density (much of it living inland) and small  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relatively high population density (much of it living inland) and small rivers this is an important of filters such as activated carbon. The main problem is one of scale. A city such as Northampton, UK energy intensive drinking water purification technology in such a case would be an expensive undertaking

Darton, Richard

488

Ground state energy scaling laws during the onset and destruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@cims.nyu.edu; Courant Institute, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA 4 otto@iam.uni-bonn.de; Institut fGround state energy scaling laws during the onset and destruction of the intermediate state Abstract The intermediate state of a type-I superconductor is a classical ex- ample of energy

489

SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 SEDIMENT DECONTAMINATION TREATMENT TRAIN: COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION FOR THE PORT OF NEW YORK York and New Jersey. We describe here a regional contaminated sediment decontamination program) public outreach. Several types of treatment technologies suitable for use with varying levels of sediment

Brookhaven National Laboratory

490

Large scale tracking algorithms.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argu...

Thalabard, Simon; Galtier, Sebastien; Sergey, Medvedev

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Anomalous scalings in differential models of turbulence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Differential models for hydrodynamic, passive-scalar and wave turbulence given by nonlinear first- and second-order evolution equations for the energy spectrum in the $k$-space were analysed. Both types of models predict formation an anomalous transient power-law spectra. The second-order models were analysed in terms of self-similar solutions of the second kind, and a phenomenological formula for the anomalous spectrum exponent was constructed using numerics for a broad range of parameters covering all known physical examples. The first-order models were examined analytically, including finding an analytical prediction for the anomalous exponent of the transient spectrum and description of formation of the Kolmogorov-type spectrum as a reflection wave from the dissipative scale back into the inertial range. The latter behaviour was linked to pre-shock/shock singularities similar to the ones arising in the Burgers equation. Existence of the transient anomalous scaling and the reflection-wave scenario are argued to be a robust feature common to the finite-capacity turbulence systems. The anomalous exponent is independent of the initial conditions but varies for for different models of the same physical system.

Simon Thalabard; Sergey Nazarenko; Sebastien Galtier; Medvedev Sergey

2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

493

Proposal for an experiment to search for Randall-Sundrum type corrections to Newton's law of gravitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

String theory, as well as the string inspired brane-world models such as the Randall-Sundrum (RS) one, suggest a modification of Newton's law of gravitation at small distance scales. Search for modifications of standard gravity is an active field of research in this context. It is well known that short range corrections to gravity would violate the Newton-Birkhoff theorem. Based on calculations of RS type non-Newtonian forces for finite size spherical bodies, we propose a torsion balance based experiment to search for the effects of violation of this celebrated theorem valid in Newtonian gravity as well as the general theory of relativity. We explain the main principle behind the experiment and provide detailed calculations suggesting optimum values of the parameters of the experiment. The projected sensitivity is sufficient to probe the Randall-Sundrum parameter up to 10 microns.

Mofazzal Azam; M. Sami; C. S. Unnikrishnan; T. Shiromizu

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

494

Time-scale for accretion of matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mass accretion is the key factor for evolution of galaxies. It can occur through secular evolution, when gas in the outer parts is driven inwards by dynamical instabilities, such as spirals or bars. This secular evolution proceeds very slowly when spontaneous, and can be accelerated when triggered by companions. Accretion can also occur directly through merging of small companions, or more violent interaction and coalescence. We discuss the relative importance of both processes, their time-scale and frequency along a Hubble time. Signatures of both processes can be found in the Milky Way. It is however likely that our Galaxy had already gathered the bulk of its mass about 8-10 Gyr ago, as is expected in hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios.

F. Combes

1998-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

495

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive small brush-type Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

automotive aftermarket industry and the oil... and gas industry. Recent projects have centered around hybridelectric vehicles and automotive battery Source: Liblit, Ben -...

496

TRACE Code Validation for Natural Circulation During Small Break LOCA in EPR-Type Reactor.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The PWR PACTEL test facility was built in Lappeenranta (Finland) to gain experience in thermal-hydraulics behavior of vertical steam generators used by EPR (European (more)

Bertran Morancho, Joan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Bubbling Reactor Technology for Rapid Synthesis of Uniform, Small MFI-Type  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScienceCareersEnergy, science,SciencesEnergy,Energy,--Bruce

498

Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of small modular reactors (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview purposes and is a sampling of advanced SMR concepts, which will be considered as part of the current DOE SMR program but whose estimated deployment time is beyond CAPs current investment time horizon. Attachment I is the public DOE statement describing the present approach of their SMR Program.

Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO{sub 2}, 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as cogeneration, water desalination or district heating were not addressed directly in the economic analyses since these depend more on local conditions, demand and economy and can not be easily generalized. Current economic performance experience and available cost data were used. The preliminary cost estimate, based on a concept that could be deployed in less than a decade, is: (1) Net Electrical Output--1050 MWe; (2) Net Station Efficiency--23%; (3) Number of Power Units--30; (4) Nominal Plant Capacity Factor--95%; (5) Total capital cost--$1241/kWe; and (6) Total busbar cost--3.4 cents/kWh. The project includes a testing program that has been conducted at Oregon State University (OSU). The test facility is a 1/3-height and 1/254.7 volume scaled design that will operate at full system pressure and temperature, and will be capable of operation at 600 kW. The design and construction of the facility have been completed. Testing is scheduled to begin in October 2002. The MASLWR conceptual design is simple, safe, and economical. It operates at NSSS parameters much lower than for a typical PWR plant, and has a much simplified power generation system. The individual reactor modules can be operated as on/off units, thereby limiting operational transients to startup and shutdown. In addition, a plant can be built in increments that match demand increases. The ''pull and replace'' concept offers automation of refueling and maintenance activities. Performing refueling in a single location improves proliferation resistance and eliminates the threat of diversion. Design certification based on testing is simplified because of the relatively low cost of a full-scale prototype facility. The overall conclusion is that while the efficiency of the power generation unit is much lower (23% versus 30%), the reduction in capital cost due to simplification of design more than makes up for the increased cost of nuclear fuel. The design concept complies with the safety requirements and criteria. It also satisfies the goals for modularity, standard plant design, certification before construction, c

Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving Transformational Energy Productivity Gains Industrial Scale Demonstration of Smart Manufacturing Achieving...