National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for type nickel metal

  1. Nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastromatteo, E.

    1986-10-01

    Nickel was first isolated in impure form in 1751 by Cronstedt from an ore containing niccolite (NiAs). An ore of this type had earlier caused trouble in the smelting of copper and silver in Saxony, yielding an unusually brittle product. This interfering substance was referred to as kupfernick after Old Nick and his mischievous gnomes and Cronstedt applied the name nickel to this new element. The pure metal was first prepared by Richter in 1804 and he described some of the useful properties of nickel. This paper discusses the properties, sources, and toxicity of nickel.

  2. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windt, Norman F.; Williams, Joe L.

    1983-01-01

    The invention is a process for decontaminating particulate nickel contaminated with actinide-metal fluorides. In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel containing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  3. Nickel-chromium-silicon brazing filler metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martini, Angelo J.; Gourley, Bruce R.

    1976-01-01

    A brazing filler metal containing, by weight percent, 23-35% chromium, 9-12% silicon, a maximum of 0.15% carbon, and the remainder nickel. The maximum amount of elements other than those noted above is 1.00%.

  4. Method for decontamination of nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windt, N.F.; Williams, J.L.

    In one aspect, the invention comprises contacting nickel-fluoride-coated nickel with gaseous ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation thereof and effecting hydrogen-reduction of the nickel fluoride. The resulting nickel is heated to form a melt and a slag and to effect transfer of actinide metals from the melt into the slag. The melt and slag are then separated. In another aspect, nickel contianing nickel oxide and actinide metals is contacted with ammonia at a temperature effecting nickel-catalyzed dissociation to effect conversion of the nickel oxide to the metal. The resulting nickel is then melted and separated as described. In another aspect nickel-fluoride-coated nickel containing actinide-metal fluorides is contacted with both steam and ammonia. The resulting nickel then is melted and separated as described. The invention is characterized by higher nickel recovery, efficient use of ammonia, a substantial decrease in slag formation and fuming, and a valuable increase in the service life of the furnace liners used for melting.

  5. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries October 17, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy Department-sponsored research can yield great economic benefits and help bring important new products to market. The

  6. Metal dusting and carburization resistance of nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kloewer, J.; Grabke, H.J.; Mueller-Lorenz, E.M.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1997-08-01

    Severe material failures caused by so-called metal dusting have been reported during recent years. The reason for these failures were strongly carburizing CO-H{sub 2} gas mixtures such as encountered in chemical plants for the synthesis of hydrocarbons, methanol, ammonia etc. as well as in plants for the reduction of iron ores. The carburization behavior of nine commercial nickel-base alloys and four iron-nickel-chromium alloys was investigated at 650 C in a carburizing H{sub 2}-CO-H{sub 2}O-gas with a carbon activity of a{sub c} {much_gt} 1. The iron-nickel-chromium alloys suffered severe metal dusting after a very short test period. Nickel base alloys were generally less susceptible to metal dusting than iron-base alloys. However, their corrosion behavior was found to depend sensitively on the chromium concentration of the respective alloys. Alloys like alloy 600H, with a chromium concentration of only 16%, suffered wastage rates which were similar to those of the more resistant iron-base alloys. Nickel-base alloys with chromium concentrations of 25% and above, on the other hand, showed no significant evidence of metal dusting even after 10,000 hours of exposure. It was found that these alloys are protected against metal dusting by the formation of a dense, self-healing chromia scale, which prevents the penetration of carbon into the base metal.

  7. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  8. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  9. Nickel-metal hydride battery development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Rechargeable batteries are used as the power source for a broad range of portable equipment. Key battery selection criteria typically are weight, volume, first cost, life cycle cost, and environmental impact. Rechargeable batteries are favored from a life cycle cost and environmental impact standpoint over primary batteries. The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery system has emerged as the battery of choice for many applications based on its superior characteristics when judged on the above criteria against other battery types. In most cases commercial Ni-MH batteries are constructed with coiled electrodes in cylindrical metal containers. Electro Energy, Inc. (EEI) has been developing a novel flat bipolar configuration of the Ni-MH system that offers weight, volume, and cost advantages when compared to cylindrical cells. The unique bipolar approach consists of fabricating individual flat wafer cells in conductive, carbon-filled, plastic face plates. The individual cells contain a nonconductive plastic border which is heat sealed around the perimeter to make a totally sealed unit cell. Multi-cell batteries are fabricated by stacking the individual wafer cells in such a way that the positive face of one cell contacts the negative face of the adjacent cell. The stack is then contained in an outer housing with end contacts. The purpose of this program was to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the capabilities of the EEI Ni-MH battery system for consumer applications. The work was directed at the development and evaluation of the compact bipolar construction for its potential advantages of high power and energy density. Experimental investigations were performed on various nickel electrode types, hydride electrode formulations, and alternate separator materials. Studies were also directed at evaluating various oxygen recombination techniques for low pressure operation during charge and overcharge.

  10. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  11. Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Simultaneously Doped with Lithium and a Metal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dopant - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Simultaneously Doped with Lithium and a Metal Dopant National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Certain materials, referred to as electrochromic materials, are known to change their optical properties in response to the application of an electrical potential. This property has been taken advantage of

  12. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  13. Ductile filler metal alloys for welding nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L.; McNabb, Jeffrey D.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2003-04-08

    Nickel aluminum alloys are welded utilizing a nickel based alloy containing zirconium but substantially free of titanium and niobium which reduces the tendency to crack.

  14. {sup 55}Co separation from proton irradiated metallic nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdovinos, H. F. Graves, S. Barnhart, T. Nickles, R. J.

    2014-11-07

    {sup 55}Co with > 97% radionuclidic purity 24 hours after end of bombardment (EoB) was produced from the {sup 58}Ni(p,α) reaction using proton irradiations of 16 MeV on natural nickel. Two-hour irradiations with 25 μA on a 254 μm thick nickel foil generate 0.18 ± 0.01 GBq (n = 3) 24 hours after EoB. The separation of cobalt from the target material and other metallic contaminants present at trace levels is accomplished in HCl medium by two rounds of anion exchange chromatography (AG1-X8) using an automated module driven by a peristaltic pump. 80 ± 5 % (n = 3) of the activity generated at EoB is ready for labeling in 0.1 M HCl one hour after the start of separation. Using 99.999% pure Ni, the reactivity (decay corrected to EoB) with the bifunctional chelator (BFC) DOTA was 8.5 GBq/μmol; enough for radiolabeling BFC conjugated biomolecules at a nmol scale with > 90% yield. Using 99.9% pure Ni the reactivity with DOTA and NOTA was 0.19 +/− 0.09 GBq/μmol and 2.9 +/− 1.7 GBq/μmol (n = 2), respectively. Both cobalt complexes showed 100% in vitro stability in PBS and mouse serum over 41 hours at room temperature. MicroPET images of a miniature Derenzo phantom show excellent resolution where rods of 1.5 mm were separated by two times their diameter.

  15. Method for inhibiting alkali metal corrosion of nickel-containing alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVan, Jackson H.; Selle, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Structural components of nickel-containing alloys within molten alkali metal systems are protected against corrosion during the course of service by dissolving therein sufficient aluminum, silicon, or manganese to cause the formation and maintenance of a corrosion-resistant intermetallic reaction layer created by the interaction of the molten metal, selected metal, and alloy.

  16. Nickel(II) and Copper(I,II)-based Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nickel(II) perchlorate or copper(II) nitrate afforded two new metal-organic frameworks, Ni3(BTPP)2solvent (Ni-BTPP) and CuI4CuII2(OH)2(BTPP)2 solvent (Cu-BTPP). Powder...

  17. Paste Type Nickel Electrode Containing Compound And At Least One Other Element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick; Bertrand, Fran.cedilla.oise; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-11-30

    The present invention provides a paste type nickel electrode for a storage cell having an alkaline electrolyte, the electrode comprising a current collector and a paste containing a nickel-based hydroxide and an oxidized compound of cobalt syncrystallized with at least one other element, wherein said hydroxide forms a first powder and wherein said compound forms a second powder distinct from said first powder, said powders being mixed mechanically within said paste.

  18. Nickel anode electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Bethel, CT); Benedict, Mark (Monroe, CT)

    1987-01-01

    A nickel anode electrode fabricated by oxidizing a nickel alloying material to produce a material whose exterior contains nickel oxide and whose interior contains nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material and by reducing and sintering the oxidized material to form a product having a nickel metal exterior and an interior containing nickel metal throughout which is dispersed the oxide of the alloying material.

  19. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  20. Amorphorized tantalum-nickel binary films for metal gate applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Jiaomin; Wongpiya, Ranida; Clemens, Bruce M.; Deal, Michael D.; Nishi, Yoshio

    2015-04-13

    Amorphous metal gates have the potential to eliminate the work function variation due to grain orientation for poly-crystalline metal gate materials, which is a leading contributor to threshold voltage variation for small transistors. Structural and electrical properties of TaNi alloys using co-sputtering with different compositions and multilayer structures with different thicknesses are investigated in this work. It is found that TaNi films are amorphous for a wide range of compositions as deposited, and the films stay amorphous after annealing at 400?C in RTA for 1?min and up to at least 700?C depending on the composition. The amorphous films eventually crystallize into Ni, Ta, and TaNi{sub 3} phases at high enough temperature. For multilayer Ta/Ni structures, samples with individual layer thickness of 0.12?nm and 1.2?nm are amorphous as deposited due to intermixing during deposition, and stay amorphous until annealed at 500?C. The resistivity of the films as-deposited are around 200 ??cm. The work function of the alloy is fixed at close to the Ta work function of 4.6?eV for a wide range of compositions. This is attributed to the segregation of Ta at the metal-oxide interface, which is confirmed by XPS depth profile. Overall, the excellent thermal stability and low resistivity makes this alloy system a promising candidate for eliminating work function variation for gate last applications, as compared to crystalline Ta or TiN gates.

  1. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  2. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-12-16

    Prior to the restructuring of the Prometheus Program, the NRPCT was tasked with delivering a nuclear space reactor. Potential NRPCT nuclear space reactor designs for the Prometheus Project required dissimilar materials to be in contact with each other while operating at extreme temperatures under irradiation. As a result of the high reactor core temperatures, refractory metals were the primary candidates for many of the reactor structural and cladding components. They included the tantalum-base alloys ASTAR-811C and Ta-10W, the niobium-base alloy FS-85, and the molybdenum base alloys Moly 41-47.5 Rhenium. The refractory metals were to be joined to candidate nickel base alloys such as Haynes 230, Alloy 617, or Nimonic PE 16 either within the core if the nickel-base alloys were ultimately selected to form the outer core barrel, or at a location exterior to the core if the nickel-base alloys were limited to components exterior to the core. To support the need for dissimilar metal joints in the Prometheus Project, a co-extrusion experiment was proposed. There are several potential methods for the formation of dissimilar metal joints, including explosive bonding, friction stir welding, plasma spray, inertia welding, HIP, and co-extrusion. Most of these joining methods are not viable options because they result in the immediate formation of brittle intermetallics. Upon cooling, intermetallics form in the weld fusion zone between the joined metals. Because brittle intermetallics do not form during the initial bonding process associated with HIP, co-extrusion, and explosive bonding, these three joining procedures are preferred for forming dissimilar metal joints. In reference to a Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory report done under a NASA sponsored program, joints that were fabricated between similar materials via explosive bonding had strengths that were directly affected by the width of the diffusion barrier. It was determined that the diffusion zone should not exceed

  3. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  4. Positron annihilation spectroscopy of vacancy-type defects hierarchy in submicrocrystalline nickel during annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel V.; Mironov, Yuri P. E-mail: tolmach@ispms.tsc.ru Tolmachev, Aleksey I. E-mail: tolmach@ispms.tsc.ru Rakhmatulina, Tanzilya V. E-mail: tolmach@ispms.tsc.ru; Bordulev, Yuri S. E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com Laptev, Roman S. E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com Lider, Andrey M. E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com Mikhailov, Andrey A. E-mail: laptev.roman@gmail.com; Korznikov, Alexander V.

    2014-11-14

    Positron annihilation and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to study submicrocrystalline nickel samples prepared by equal channel angular pressing. In the as-prepared samples the positrons are trapped at dislocation-type defects and in vacancy clusters that can include up to 5 vacancies. The study has revealed that the main positron trap centers at the annealing temperature of ΔT= 20°C-180°C are low-angle boundaries enriched by impurities. At ΔT = 180°C-360°C, the trap centers are low-angle boundaries providing the grain growth due to recrystallization in-situ.

  5. Distribution of nickel between copper-nickel and alumina saturated iron silicate slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, R.G.; Acholonu, C.C.

    1984-03-01

    The solubility of nickel in slag is determined in this article by equilibrating copper-nickel alloys with alumina-saturated iron silicate slags in an alumina crucible at 1573 K. The results showed that nickel dissolves in slag both as nickel oxide and as nickel metal. The presence of alumina is shown to increase the solubility of nickel in slags.

  6. Metals design handbook (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sufficient to design the metallic components in the reactor system and hot duct assembly. ... MATERIALS SCIENCE; HTGR TYPE REACTORS; REACTOR COMPONENTS; SPECIFICATIONS; NICKEL BASE ...

  7. Material and Energy Flows Associated with Select Metals in GREET 2. Molybdenum, Platinum, Zinc, Nickel, Silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavides, Pahola T.; Dai, Qiang; Sullivan, John L.; Kelly, Jarod C.; Dunn, Jennifer B.

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyzed the material and energy consumption from mining to production of molybdenum, platinum, zinc, and nickel. We also analyzed the production of solar- and semiconductor-grade silicon. We described new additions to and expansions of the data in GREET 2. In some cases, we used operating permits and sustainability reports to estimate the material and energy flows for molybdenum, platinum, and nickel, while for zinc and silicon we relied on information provided in the literature.

  8. Schottky barrier height reduction for holes by Fermi level depinning using metal/nickel oxide/silicon contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Raisul, E-mail: raisul@stanford.edu; Shine, Gautam; Saraswat, Krishna C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We report the experimental demonstration of Fermi level depinning using nickel oxide (NiO) as the insulator material in metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) contacts. Using this contact, we show less than 0.1?eV barrier height for holes in platinum/NiO/silicon (Pt/NiO/p-Si) contact. Overall, the pinning factor was improved from 0.08 (metal/Si) to 0.26 (metal/NiO/Si). The experimental results show good agreement with that obtained from theoretical calculation. NiO offers high conduction band offset and low valence band offset with Si. By reducing Schottky barrier height, this contact can be used as a carrier selective contact allowing hole transport but blocking electron transport, which is important for high efficiency in photonic applications such as photovoltaics and optical detectors.

  9. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi{sub 5} for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, J.

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB{sub 5} alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi{sub 5} substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 {micro}m) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB{sub 5} alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB{sub 5} alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB{sub 5} alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB{sub 5} alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB{sub 5} production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle applications in the foreseeable

  10. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  11. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

  12. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  13. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.; Liu, Xinghua

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  14. Concentrations of metals in tissues of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) near a copper-nickel smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada: A factor analytic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagatto, G.; Shorthouse, J.D. ); Crowder, A.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Ecosystems damaged by emissions from the copper-nickel smelters of Inco and Falconbridge Ltd. near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada have provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of metal particulates and sulphur dioxide fumigations on plant and animal communities. The most infamous terrain in the Sudbury region is nearest the smelters (two active and one closed), where nearly all vegetation has been destroyed and soils eroded and contaminated. However, over all the past twenty years, some species of plants have developed a tolerance to polluted soils and some denuded lands have been naturally and artificially revegetated. Furthermore, a series of unique anthropogenic forests have developed away from the smelters. Several studies on the accumulation of metals in plant tissues indicate the levels of metals are usually highest closest to the smelters. Consequently, several studies have reported high correlations between plant concentrations of certain metals with distance from the source of pollution. However, tissue metal burdens are not always correlated with distance from the emission source, suggesting that other biological and physico-chemical factors may influence tissue metal burdens in the Sudbury habitat. The present study provides information on the metal burdens in another plant, lowbush blueberry, growing both near and away from the smelters. This study assesses the apparent influence of the Sudbury smelting operations on plant tissue burdens of five additional elements, along with copper and nickel, by using a factor analytic approach. This approach will allow determination of underlying factors which govern tissue metal burdens in a polluted environment and helps to refine the future direction of research in the Sudbury ecosystem. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Events Return to Search ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM AND A METAL DOPANT United States Patent Application *** PATENT GRANTED ***...

  16. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dejonghe, Lutgard C.; Visco, Steven J.; Mailhe, Catherine C.; Armand, Michel B.

    1989-01-01

    An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

  17. Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, L.C.; Visco, S.J.; Mailhe, C.C.; Armand, M.B.

    1988-03-31

    A novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200/degree/C or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S)/sub y/)n wherein y = 1 to 6; n = 2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprises one or more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon. 4 figs.

  18. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Sealock, John L.

    1998-01-01

    A method of hydrogenation using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions.

  19. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L.; Goodwin, Gene M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys.

  20. Nickel aluminide alloys with improved weldability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1995-05-09

    Weldable nickel aluminide alloys which are essentially free, if not entirely free, of weld hot cracking are provided by employing zirconium concentrations in these alloys of greater than 2.6 wt. % or sufficient to provide a substantial presence of Ni--Zr eutectic phase in the weld so as to prevent weld hot cracking. Weld filler metals formed from these so modified nickel aluminide alloys provide for crack-free welds in previously known nickel aluminide alloys. 5 figs.

  1. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Like This Return to Search Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant United States Patent Patent Number: 8,687,261 Issued: April 1,...

  2. Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracks in Nickel Alloy Dissimilar Metal Welds: Detection and Sizing Using Established and Emerging Nondestructive Examination Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braatz, Brett G.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Prokofiev, Iouri

    2012-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) as a follow-on to the international cooperative Program for the Inspection of Nickel Alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize surface-breaking primary water stress corrosion cracks in dissimilar-metal welds (DMW) in bottom-mounted instrumentation (BMI) penetrations and small-bore (≈400-mm diameter) piping components. A series of international blind round-robin tests were conducted by commercial and university inspection teams. Results from these tests showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound techniques provided the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in BMIs by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field. The goal of PARENT is to continue the work begun in PINC and apply the lessons learned to a series of open and blind international round-robin tests that will be conducted on a new set of piping components including large-bore (≈900-mm diameter) DMWs, small-bore DMWs, and BMIs. Open round-robin testing will engage universities and industry worldwide to investigate the reliability of emerging NDE techniques to detect and accurately size flaws having a wide range of lengths, depths, orientations, and locations. Blind round-robin testing will invite testing organizations worldwide, whose inspectors and procedures are certified by the standards for the nuclear industry in their respective countries, to investigate the ability of established NDE techniques to detect and size flaws whose characteristics range from easy to very difficult to detect and size. This paper presents highlights of PINC and reports on the plans and progress for

  3. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-08-26

    A method is described for preparing uranium objects prior to nickel electroplating. The process consiats in treating the surface of the uranium with molten ferric chloride hexahydrate, at a slightiy elevated temperature. This treatment etches the metal surface providing a structure suitable for the application of adherent electrodeposits and at the same time plates the surface with a thin protective film of iron.

  4. Two types of metal fume fever: Mild vs. serious

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, B.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Some physicians recognize the mild form of Metal Fume Fever (MFF); few recognize MFF's serious form. Mild MFF is self-limited and is caused by inhaling metal oxide fumes. Serious MFF may be life-threatening and is caused by inhalation of military smoke. Initial manifestations of the two forms are similar but their pathophysiologies and managements are different. Mild MFF patients recover within 48 hours and rarely require hospitalization. Serious MFF symptoms remit but may relapse 24 to 48 hours later with significant morbidity and mortality. Serious MFF patients require admission for observation. Military physicians need to differentiate these forms of MFF.26 references.

  5. NICKEL COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Nickel coatings on uranium and various methods of obtaining such coatings are described. Specifically disclosed are such nickel or nickel alloy layers as barriers between uranium and aluminum- silicon, chromium, or copper coatings.

  6. p-Type semiconducting nickel oxide as an efficiency-enhancing anodal interfacial layer in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Irwin, Michael D; Buchholz, Donald B; Marks, Tobin J; Chang, Robert P. H.

    2014-11-25

    The present invention, in one aspect, relates to a solar cell. In one embodiment, the solar cell includes an anode, a p-type semiconductor layer formed on the anode, and an active organic layer formed on the p-type semiconductor layer, where the active organic layer has an electron-donating organic material and an electron-accepting organic material.

  7. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  8. From carbon nanobells to nickel nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Srikanth, V. V. S. S.; Maik, D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Staedler, T.; Jiang, X.

    2009-01-05

    A generic strategy is proposed to prepare one dimensional (1D) metallic nanotubes by using 1D carbon nanostructures as the initial templates. Following the strategy, nickel (Ni) nanotubes are prepared by using carbon nanobells (CNBs) as the initial templates. CNBs are first prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Carbon/nickel core/shell structures are then prepared by electroplating the CNBs in a nickel-Watts electrolytic cell. In the final step, the carbon core is selectively removed by employing hydrogen plasma etching to obtain Ni nanotubes. The mechanism leading to Ni nanotubes is briefly discussed.

  9. Antiferromagnetic half-metals, gapless half-metals, and spin gapless semiconductors: The D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, G. Y. Yao, Kai-Lun

    2013-12-02

    High-spin-polarization materials are desired for the realization of high-performance spintronic devices. We combine recent experimental and theoretical findings to theoretically design several high-spin-polarization materials in binary D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloys: gapless (zero-gap) half-metallic ferrimagnets of V{sub 3}Si and V{sub 3}Ge, half-metallic antiferromagnets of Mn{sub 3}Al and Mn{sub 3}Ga, half-metallic ferrimagnets of Mn{sub 3}Si and Mn{sub 3}Ge, and a spin gapless semiconductor of Cr{sub 3}Al. The high spin polarization, zero net magnetic moment, zero energy gap, and slight disorder compared to the ternary and quaternary Heusler alloys make these binary materials promising candidates for spintronic applications. All results are obtained by the electronic structure calculations from first-principles.

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Nickel Co - Bayonne

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Laboratories - NJ 17 Nickel Co - Bayonne Laboratories - NJ 17 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Nickel Co., Bayonne Laboratories (NJ.17 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Bayonne , New Jersey NJ.17-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 NJ.17-1 Site Operations: Conducted research on the nickel plating of uranium metal. NJ.17-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to limited scope

  11. Gaps and pseudogaps in perovskite rare earth nickelates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, S. James; Ouellette, Daniel G.; Kally, James; Kozhanov, Alex; Hauser, Adam J.; Mikheev, Evgeny; Zhang, Jack Y.; Moreno, Nelson E.; Son, Junwoo; Stemmer, Susanne; Balents, Leon

    2015-06-01

    We report on tunneling measurements that reveal the evolution of the quasiparticle state density in two rare earth perovskite nickelates, NdNiO{sub 3} and LaNiO{sub 3}, that are close to a bandwidth controlled metal to insulator transition. We measure the opening of a sharp gap of ∼30 meV in NdNiO{sub 3} in its insulating ground state. LaNiO{sub 3}, which remains a correlated metal at all practical temperatures, exhibits a pseudogap of the same order. The results point to both types of gaps arising from a common origin, namely, a quantum critical point associated with the T = 0 K metal-insulator transition. The results support theoretical models of the quantum phase transition in terms of spin and charge instabilities of an itinerant Fermi surface.

  12. Welding procedure specification. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests. Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel to nickel-copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    Procedure WPS-2301-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel, NO2200 or NO2201 (P-41) to nickel-copper NO4400 (P-42), in thickness range 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

  13. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Rong; Merz, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  14. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel alloy for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    An improved noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, the alloy containing platinum, ruthenium, and nickel. The alloy shows methanol oxidation activity.

  15. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel alloy for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-04-20

    An improved noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, the alloy containing platinum, ruthenium, and nickel. The alloy shows methanol oxidation activity.

  16. TESTING THE METAL OF LATE-TYPE KEPLER PLANET HOSTS WITH IRON-CLAD METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Andrew W.; Hilton, Eric J.; Gaidos, Eric; Kraus, Adam

    2013-06-10

    It has been shown that F, G, and early K dwarf hosts of Neptune-sized planets are not preferentially metal-rich. However, it is less clear whether the same holds for late K and M dwarf planet hosts. We report metallicities of Kepler targets and candidate transiting planet hosts with effective temperatures below 4500 K. We use new metallicity calibrations to determine [Fe/H] from visible and near-infrared spectra. We find that the metallicity distribution of late K and M dwarfs monitored by Kepler is consistent with that of the solar neighborhood. Further, we show that hosts of Earth- to Neptune-sized planets have metallicities consistent with those lacking detected planets and rule out a previously claimed 0.2 dex offset between the two distributions at 6{sigma} confidence. We also demonstrate that the metallicities of late K and M dwarfs hosting multiple detected planets are consistent with those lacking detected planets. Our results indicate that multiple terrestrial and Neptune-sized planets can form around late K and M dwarfs with metallicities as low as 0.25 solar. The presence of Neptune-sized planets orbiting such low-metallicity M dwarfs suggests that accreting planets collect most or all of the solids from the disk and that the potential cores of giant planets can readily form around M dwarfs. The paucity of giant planets around M dwarfs compared to solar-type stars must be due to relatively rapid disk evaporation or a slower rate of planet accretion, rather than insufficient solids to form a core.

  17. Precipitation of sigma and chi phases in ?-ferrite of Type 316FR weld metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, Eun Joon; Baba, Hayato; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi; Saida, Kazuyoshi

    2013-12-15

    The decomposition behavior and kinetics of ?-ferrite are examined using aging treatments between 873 and 1073 K for Type 316FR stainless steel weld metals with different solidification modes (316FR AF, 316FR FA). The dominant precipitates are sigma, chi, and secondary austenite nucleated at ?-ferrite/austenite interfaces or in the interior of the ferrite grains. These precipitates consume all the ferrite during isothermal aging in both 316FR AF and FA weld metals. Differences in the precipitation behavior (precipitation initiation time and precipitation speed) between weld metals can be explained by i) the degree of Cr and Mo microsegregation within ?-ferrite or austenite near ferrite and ii) the nucleation sites induced due to the solidification mode (AF or FA), such as the ferrite amount. For both weld materials, a JohnsonMehl-type equation can express the precipitation behavior of the sigma + chi phases and quantitatively predict the behavior at the service-exposure temperatures of a fast breed reactor. - Highlights: Precipitation of ? and ? phase in Type 316FR welds (two solidification modes) Different precipitation behaviors: precipitation initiation time and growth speed Johnson-Mehltype equation is the most applicable to the precipitation behaviors Precipitation behaviors are predicted under service conditions of FBRs.

  18. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  19. Structure of a Putative Metal-Chelate Type ABC Transporter: An

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inward-facing Conformation Putative Metal-Chelate Type ABC Transporter: An Inward-facing Conformation ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transporters represent a large family of integral membrane proteins, which are found in all organisms from mammals to bacteria. These proteins transport substrates across a biological membrane powered by the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. ABC transporters primarily consist of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains

  20. Welding studies of nickel aluminide and nickel-iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santella, M.L.; David, S.A.; Horton, J.A.; White, C.L.; Liu, C.T.

    1985-08-01

    Because welding is often used during the fabrication of structural components, one of the key issues in the development of nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for engineering applications is their weldability. The goals of this study were to characterize weldment microstructures and to identify some of the factors controlling weldability of ductile Ni/sub 3/Al alloys. The alloys used in this initial study were Ni/sub 3/Al containing 500 wppm boron and Ni/sub 3/Al containing 10 at. % iron and either 500 wppm or 20 wppm boron. Full-penetration autogenous welds were made in sheet shock by the electron beam (EB) and gas tungsten arc (GTA) processes. The main process variables were travel speed and preheat. The as-welded coupons were examined visually and in detail by the usual optical and electron metallographic methods. Weldments of boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al were composed of nearly 100% ordered ..gamma..' phase. Weldments of the nickel-iron aluminides were ..gamma..' + ..beta..' phase mixtures, with martensitic ..beta..' distributed interdendritically in the fusion zone and decorating grain boundaries in the heat-affected zone. All welds made in this particular boron-doped Ni/sub 3/Al alloy contained cracks. Weldability improved with the addition of iron, and defect-free welds were made in the nickel-iron aluminides by both EB and GTA welding. Nevertheless, the iron-containing alloys were susceptible to cracking, and their weldability was affected by boron concentration, welding speed, and (for GTA) gas shielding. Defect-free welds were found to have good tensile properties relative to those of the base metal. 34 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Structural and electrochemical properties of nanostructured nickel silicides by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiao [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Bingsen [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Li, Chuang; Shao, Zhengfeng [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Su, Dangsheng [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Germany); Williams, Christopher T. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Swearingen Engineering Center, University of South Carolina (United States); Liang, Changhai, E-mail: changhai@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Catalytic Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been synthesized by reduction and silification of high-surface-area nickel oxide, and exhibited remarkably like-noble metal property, lower electric resistivity, and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have been prepared by reduction and silification of high-surface-area NiO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of nickel silicides changed with increasing reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si doping into nickel changed the magnetic properties of metallic nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiSi{sub x} have remarkably lower electric resistivity and like-noble metal property. -- Abstract: Nanostructured nickel silicides have been prepared by reduction and silicification of high-surface-area nickel oxide (145 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) produced via precipitation. The prepared materials were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetic and electrochemical measurements. The nickel silicide formation involves the following sequence: NiO (cubic) {yields} Ni (cubic) {yields} Ni{sub 2}Si (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi (orthorhombic) {yields} NiSi{sub 2} (cubic), with particles growing from 13.7 to 21.3 nm. The nickel silicides are ferromagnetic at room temperature, and their saturation magnetization values change drastically with the increase of Si content. Nickel silicides have remarkably low electrical resistivity and noble metal-like properties because of a constriction of the Ni d band and an increase of the electronic density of states. The results suggest that such silicides are promising candidates as inexpensive yet functional materials for applications in electrochemistry as well as catalysis.

  2. Nanoscale nickel oxide/ nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale nickel oxide nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution ...

  3. Combination nickel foam expanded nickel screen electrical connection supports for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert; Prevish, Thomas; Bronson, Angela; George, Raymond A.

    2007-01-02

    A solid oxide fuel assembly is made, wherein rows (14, 25) of fuel cells (17, 19, 21, 27, 29, 31), each having an outer interconnection (20) and an outer electrode (32), are disposed next to each other with corrugated, electrically conducting expanded metal mesh member (22) between each row of cells, the corrugated mesh (22) having top crown portions and bottom portions, where the top crown portion (40) have a top bonded open cell nickel foam (51) which contacts outer interconnections (20) of the fuel cells, said mesh and nickel foam electrically connecting each row of fuel cells, and where there are no more metal felt connections between any fuel cells.

  4. Effect of Metal-Support Interactions in Ni/Al2O3 Catalysts with Low Metal Loading for Methane Dry Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewbank, Jessica L.; Kovarik, Libor; Diallo, Fatoumata Z.; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Types of nickel sites as a function of preparation method have received much attention in the literature. In this work, two preparation methods, controlled adsorption and dry impregnation, are implemented to explore the effect of preparation method on catalytic nickel centers. For controlled adsorption, optimal synthesis conditions are identified using point of zero charge measurements, pH-precipitation experiments, and adsorption isotherms to prepare a catalyst with a high dispersion and strong metal support interactions. Metal support interactions influence the types of nickel sites formed. Thus, comparison of catalysts that differ primarily in metal support interactions, strong metal support interaction (controlled adsorption) and weak metal support interactions (dry impregnation), is of great interest. It is confirmed through characterization techniques; N2 physisorption, H2 chemisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) that the types of nickel sites formed are indeed strongly dependent on preparation method. Methane dry reforming reactivity studies are used to demonstrate the successful application of these catalysts and further probe the types of active centers present. Combustion analysis and XPS of spent catalysts reveal different amounts and nature of carbonaceous deposits as a function of the synthesis method.

  5. On the Design of High Efficiency Thermoelectric Type I Clathrates through Transition Metal Doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xun; Yang, Jiong; Yang, Jihui; Salvador, James R.; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Weiqing; Chen, Lidong; Wong-Ng, W.; Wang, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The lack of high efficiency thermoelectric materials hinders their deployment into wide ranging applications such as power generation from waste heat and solid state heating and cooling, which could lead to significant energy savings. Type I clathrates have recently been identified as prospective thermoelectric materials for power generation purposes due to their very low lattice thermal conductivity values. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of almost all type I clathrates is, however, less than 1; and occurs at, or above, 1000 K making them unfavorable especially for intermediate temperature applications. In this report, we demonstrate that transition metal doping introduces charge distortion and lattice defects into these materials which increases the ionized impurity scattering of carriers and point defect scattering of lattice phonons, respectively; leading to an enhanced power factor, reduced lattice thermal conductivity, and therefore improved thermoelectric figure of merit. Most importantly, the band gap of these materials can be tuned between 0.1 eV and 0.5 eV by adjusting the transition metal content, making it possible to design type I clathrates with excellent thermoelectric properties between 500 K and 1000 K.

  6. Choice of corrosion-resistant metal for fluotitanic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reingeverts, M.D.; Lapchenko, E.P.; Semenyuk, E.Y.

    1986-05-01

    The authors investigate the corrosion and anodic behavior of steels 12Kh18N10T, 08Kh21N6M2T, and 06KhN28MDT, nickel, and molybdenum in 10-40% naturally aerated solutions of H/sub 2/TiF/sub 6/ at 20 and 50 degrees C. The authors found that in solutions of fluotitanic acid, as also in tetrafluoroboric and hydrofluoric acids, the most stable alloys are chromium-nickel-molybdenum alloy of type 06KhN28MDT and (for acid concentrations above 20%) copper-nickel-alloys of the monel metal type. Steels 12Kh18N10T and 08Kh21N6M2T can be used in acid concentrations of less than 10% and temperatures up to 20 degrees C with anodic protection.

  7. Ductile tungsten-nickel-alloy and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    The tensile elongation of a tungsten-nickel-iron alloy containing essentially 95 weight percent reprocessed tungsten, 3.5 weight percent nickel, and 1.5 weight percent iron is increased from a value of less than about 1 percent up to about 23 percent by the addition of less than 0.5 weight percent of a reactive metal consisting of niobium and zirconium.

  8. Thermoelectric material including a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jihui; Shi, Xun; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong; Yang, Jiong

    2012-01-17

    A thermoelectric material includes a multiple transition metal-doped type I clathrate crystal structure having the formula A.sub.8TM.sub.y.sub.1.sup.1TM.sub.y.sub.2.sup.2 . . . TM.sub.y.sub.n.sup.nM.sub.zX.sub.46-y.sub.1.sub.-y.sub.2.sub.- . . . -y.sub.n.sub.-z. In the formula, A is selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium, and europium; X is selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, and tin; M is selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, and indium; TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, and TM.sup.n are independently selected from the group consisting of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals; and y.sub.1, y.sub.2, y.sub.n and Z are actual compositions of TM.sup.1, TM.sup.2, TM.sup.n, and M, respectively. The actual compositions are based upon nominal compositions derived from the following equation: z=8q.sub.A-|.DELTA.q.sub.1|y.sub.1-|.DELTA.q.sub.2|y.sub.2- . . . -|.DELTA.q.sub.n|y.sub.n, wherein q.sub.A is a charge state of A, and wherein .DELTA.q.sub.1, .DELTA.q.sub.2, .DELTA.q.sub.n are, respectively, the nominal charge state of the first, second, and n-th TM.

  9. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  10. Response of a pool-type LMR (liquid metal reactor) to seismic loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic analysis of a 450-MWe pool-type liquid metal reactor (LMR) under 0.3 g SSE ground excitations. It also assess the ultimate inelastic structural capabilities for other beyond-design-basis seismic events. Calculation is focused on a new design configuration where the vessel thickness is reduced considerably compared to the previous design (Ma and Gvildys, 1987). In the analysis, the stress and displacement fields at important locations of the reactor vessel, guard vessel, and support skirt are investigated. Emphasis is placed on the horizontal excitation in which large stress is generated. The possibility of impact between the reactor and guard vessels is examined. In the reactor vessel analysis, the effect of fluid-structure interaction is included. Attention is further given to the maximum horizontal acceleration of the reactor core as well as the relative displacement between the reactor core and the upper internal structure. The Argonne National Laboratory augmented three-dimensional Fluid-Structure Interaction program, FLUSTR-ANL is utilized for performing the base calculation where ground excitation is assumed to be 0.3 g SSE. The Newmark-Hall Ductility modification method was used for the beyond-design-basis seismic events. In both calculations, stress fields generated from the horizontal and vertical excitations are evaluated separately. The resultant stresses due to combined actions of these events are computed by the SRSS method. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Corrosion investigation of multilayered ceramics and experimental nickel alloys in SCWO process environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, K.M.; Mizia, R.

    1995-02-01

    A corrosion investigation was done at MODAR, Inc., using a supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) vessel reactor. Several types of multilayered ceramic rings and experimental nickel alloy coupons were exposed to a chlorinated cutting oil TrimSol, in the SCWO process. A corrosion casing was designed and mounted in the vessel reactor with precautions to minimize chances of degrading the integrity of the pressure vessel. Fifteen of the ceramic coated rings were stacked vertically in the casing at one time for each test. There was a total of 36 rings. The rings were in groupings of three rings that formed five sections. Each section saw a different SCWO environment, ranging from 650 to 300{degrees}C. The metal coupons were mounted on horizontal threaded holders welded to a vertical rod attached to the casing cover in order to hang down the middle of the casing. The experimental nickel alloys performed better than the baseline nickel alloys. A titania multilayered ceramic system sprayed onto a titanium ring remained intact after 120-180 hours of exposure. This is the longest time any coating system has withstood such an environment without significant loss.

  12. A Chandrasekhar mass progenitor for the Type Ia supernova remnant 3C 397 from the enhanced abundances of nickel and manganese

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Badenes, Carles; Foster, Adam R.; Bravo, Eduardo; Williams, Brian J.; Maeda, Keiichi; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Petre, Robert; et al

    2015-03-12

    Despite decades of intense efforts, many fundamental aspects of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain elusive. One of the major open questions is whether the mass of an exploding white dwarf (WD) is close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Here, we report the detection of strong K-shell emission from stable Fe-peak elements in the Suzaku X-ray spectrum of the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397. The high Ni/Fe and Mn/Fe mass ratios (0.11–0.24 and 0.018–0.033, respectively) in the hot plasma component that dominates the K-shell emission lines indicate a degree of neutronization in the supernova ejecta that can only bemore » achieved by electron capture in the dense cores of exploding WDs with a near-Chandrasekhar mass. This suggests a single-degenerate origin for 3C 397, since Chandrasekhar mass progenitors are expected naturally if the WD accretes mass slowly from a companion. Altogether with other results supporting the double-degenerate scenario, our work adds to the mounting evidence that both progenitor channels make a significant contribution to the SN Ia rate in star-forming galaxies.« less

  13. A Chandrasekhar mass progenitor for the Type Ia supernova remnant 3C 397 from the enhanced abundances of nickel and manganese

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Badenes, Carles; Foster, Adam R.; Bravo, Eduardo; Williams, Brian J.; Maeda, Keiichi; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Petre, Robert; Koyama, Katsuji

    2015-03-12

    Despite decades of intense efforts, many fundamental aspects of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain elusive. One of the major open questions is whether the mass of an exploding white dwarf (WD) is close to the Chandrasekhar limit. Here, we report the detection of strong K-shell emission from stable Fe-peak elements in the Suzaku X-ray spectrum of the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397. The high Ni/Fe and Mn/Fe mass ratios (0.11–0.24 and 0.018–0.033, respectively) in the hot plasma component that dominates the K-shell emission lines indicate a degree of neutronization in the supernova ejecta that can only be achieved by electron capture in the dense cores of exploding WDs with a near-Chandrasekhar mass. This suggests a single-degenerate origin for 3C 397, since Chandrasekhar mass progenitors are expected naturally if the WD accretes mass slowly from a companion. Altogether with other results supporting the double-degenerate scenario, our work adds to the mounting evidence that both progenitor channels make a significant contribution to the SN Ia rate in star-forming galaxies.

  14. Method for inhibiting corrosion of nickel-containing alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVan, J.H.; Selle, J.E.

    Nickel-containing alloys are protected against corrosion by contacting the alloy with a molten alkali metal having dissolved therein aluminum, silicon or manganese to cause the formation of a corrosion-resistant intermetallic layer. Components can be protected by applying the coating after an apparatus is assembled.

  15. Raney nickel catalytic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Hare, Stephen A.

    1978-01-01

    A catalytic device for use in a conventional coal gasification process which includes a tubular substrate having secured to its inside surface by expansion a catalytic material. The catalytic device is made by inserting a tubular catalytic element, such as a tubular element of a nickel-aluminum alloy, into a tubular substrate and heat-treating the resulting composite to cause the tubular catalytic element to irreversibly expand against the inside surface of the substrate.

  16. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  17. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  18. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  19. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of...

  20. Microstructural, mechanical and weldability assessments of the dissimilar welds between γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naffakh Moosavy, Homam; Aboutalebi, Mohammad-Reza; Seyedein, Seyed Hossein; Mapelli, Carlo

    2013-08-15

    Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys has been investigated to identify the relationship between the microstructure of the welds and the resultant mechanical and weldability characteristics. γ′-Strengthened nickel-base Alloy 500 and γ″-strengthened nickel-base Alloy 718 were used for dissimilar welding. Gas tungsten arc welding operations were utilized for performing the autogenous dissimilar welding. Alloy 500 and Alloy 718 base metals showed various types of phases, carbides, intermetallics and eutectics in their microstructure. The results for Alloy 500 weld metal showed severe segregation of titanium to the interdendritic regions. The Alloy 718 weld metal compositional analysis confirmed the substantial role of Nb in the formation of low-melting eutectic-type morphologies which can reduce the weldability. The microstructure of dissimilar weld metal with dilution level of 65% wt.% displayed semi-developed dendritic structure. The less segregation and less formation of low-melting eutectic structures caused to less susceptibility of the dissimilar weld metal to the solidification cracking. This result was confirmed by analytic modeling achievements. Dissolution of γ″-Ni{sub 3}Nb precipitations took place in the Alloy 718 heat-affected zone leading to sharp decline of the microhardness in this region. Remelted and resolidified regions were observed in the partially-melted zone of Alloy 500 and Alloy 718. Nevertheless, no solidification and liquation cracking happened in the dissimilar welds. Finally, this was concluded that dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys can successfully be performed. - Highlights: • Dissimilar welding of γ′- and γ″-strengthened nickel-base superalloys is studied. • Microstructural, mechanical and weldability aspects of the welds are assessed. • Microstructure of welds, bases and heat-affected zones is characterized in detail. • The type

  1. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC3115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54kpc from its centercorresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ? 0.5 to 0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < 0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ?54kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ? 1.3 and with total mass 2 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} ? 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC3115 of 30.05 0.05 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 0.2 0.5{sub sys}Mpc)

  2. Bulk and surface half-metallicity: The case of D0{sub 3}-type Mn{sub 3}Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, G. Y. Hu, Lei; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Zhu, Sicong; Wang, Shuling; Yao, K. L.

    2014-01-21

    Motivated by the experimental realization of D0{sub 22}-type Mn{sub 3}Ge (001) films [Kurt et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 132410 (2012)] and the structural stability of D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloy Mn{sub 3}Ge [Zhang et al. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25, 206006 (2013)], we use the first-principles calculations based on the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of D0{sub 3}-type Heusler alloy Mn{sub 3}Ge and its (001) surface. We show that bulk D0{sub 3}-Mn{sub 3}Ge is a half-metallic ferromagnet with the minority-spin energy gap of 0.52 eV and the magnetic moment of 1.00 μ{sub B} per formula unit. The bulk half-metallicity is preserved at the pure Mn-terminated (001) surface due to the large exchange split, but the MnGe-terminated (001) surface destroys the bulk half-metallicity. We also reveal that the surface stabilities are comparable between the D0{sub 3}-Mn{sub 3}Ge (001) and the experimental D0{sub 22}-Mn{sub 3}Ge (001), which indicates the feasibility to grow the Mn{sub 3}Ge (001) films with D0{sub 3} phase other than D0{sub 22} one. The surface half-metallicity and stability make D0{sub 3}-Mn{sub 3}Ge a promising candidate for spintronic applications.

  3. Welding procedure specification: gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper to nickel-chromium-iron. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    Procedure WPS-2303-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper N04400 (P-42) to nickel-chromium-iron N06600 (P-43), in thickness range of 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

  4. Uncovering the transmembrane metal binding site of the novel bacterial major facilitator superfamily-type copper importer CcoA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khalfaoui-Hassani, Bahia; Verissimo, Andreia F.; Koch, Hans -Georg; Daldal, Fevzi

    2016-01-19

    In this study, uptake and trafficking of metals and their delivery to their respective metalloproteins are important processes. Cells need precise control of each step to avoid exposure to excessive metal concentrations and their harmful consequences. Copper (Cu) is a required micronutrient used as a cofactor in proteins. However, in large amounts, it can induce oxidative damage; hence, Cu homeostasis is indispensable for cell survival. Biogenesis of respiratory heme-Cu oxygen (HCO) reductases includes insertion of Cu into their catalytic subunits to form heme-Cu binuclear centers. Previously, we had shown that CcoA is a major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-type bacterial Cu importermore » required for biogenesis of cbb3-type cytochromecoxidase (cbb3-Cox). Here, using Rhodobacter capsulatus, we focused on the import and delivery of Cu to cbb3-Cox. By comparing the CcoA amino acid sequence with its homologues from other bacterial species, we located several well-conserved Met, His, and Tyr residues that might be important for Cu transport. We determined the topology of the transmembrane helices that carry these residues to establish that they are membrane embedded, and substituted for them amino acids that do not ligand metal atoms. Characterization of these mutants for their uptake of radioactive64Cu and cbb3-Cox activities demonstrated that Met233 and His261 of CcoA are essential and Met237 and Met265 are important, whereas Tyr230 has no role for Cu uptake or cbb3-Cox biogenesis. These findings show for the first time that CcoA-mediated Cu import relies on conserved Met and His residues that could act as metal ligands at the membrane-embedded Cu binding domain of this transporter.« less

  5. Phase Formation and Texture of Nickel Silicides on Si1-xCx Epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K De Keyser; B De Schutter; C Detavernier; V Machkaoutsan; M Bauer; S Thomas; J Jordan Sweet; C Lavoie

    2011-12-31

    We investigated the phase formation and texture of nickel silicides formed during the reaction of 10 nm sputter deposited nickel with Si1-xCx epitaxial layers on Si(1 0 0) substrates, having a carbon content between 0 and 2.5 atomic percent. It was found that both the formation temperature as well as the texture of the metal-rich phases is influenced by the amount of carbon in the Si1-xCx layer. To determine the influence of the location of the carbon during the silicidation process we also investigated the reaction of 10 nm nickel on Si(1 0 0) substrates, where carbon was either alloyed in the nickel layer or deposited as an interlayer at the interface between the nickel and the substrate. Depending on the location of the carbon, a different thermal stability of the layer was found.

  6. Generation of highly N-type, defect passivated transition metal oxides using plasma fluorine insertion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, L. Robert; Seo, Hyungtak; Hervier, Antoine; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2016-04-12

    A new composition of matter is disclosed wherein oxygen vacancies in a semiconducting transition metal oxide such as titanium dioxide are filled with a halogen such as Fluorine, whereby the conductivity of the composition is greatly enhanced, while at the same time the chemical stability of the composition is greatly improved. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide having less than 3 % oxygen vacancies is subject to fluorine insertion such that oxygen vacancies are filled, limited amounts of fluorine replace additional oxygen atoms and fluorine interstitially inserts into the body of the TiO.sub.2 composition.

  7. Winds of low-metallicity OB-type stars: HST-COS spectroscopy in IC 1613

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, Miriam; Najarro, Francisco; Herrero, Artemio; Urbaneja, Miguel Alejandro

    2014-06-10

    We present the first quantitative ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of resolved OB stars in IC 1613. Because of its alleged very low metallicity (?1/10 Z {sub ?}, from H II regions), studies in this Local Group dwarf galaxy could become a significant step forward from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) toward the extremely metal-poor massive stars of the early universe. We present HST-COS data covering the ?1150-1800 wavelength range with resolution R ? 2500. We find that the targets do exhibit wind features, and these are similar in strength to SMC stars. Wind terminal velocities were derived from the observed P Cygni profiles with the Sobolev plus Exact Integration method. The v {sub ?}-Z relationship has been revisited. The terminal velocity of IC 1613 O stars is clearly lower than Milky Way counterparts, but there is no clear difference between IC 1613 and SMC or LMC analog stars. We find no clear segregation with host galaxy in the terminal velocities of B-supergiants, nor in the v {sub ?}/v {sub esc} ratio of the whole OB star sample in any of the studied galaxies. Finally, we present the first evidence that the Fe-abundance of IC 1613 OB stars is similar to the SMC, which is in agreement with previous results on red supergiants. With the confirmed ?1/10 solar oxygen abundances of B-supergiants, our results indicate that IC 1613's ?/Fe ratio is sub-solar.

  8. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, Wolfgang M. H.; Tzou, Ming-Shin; Jiang, Hui-Jong

    1987-01-01

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  9. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  10. Nickel uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod, Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alikhan, M.A.; Zia, S.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including nickel are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. As a consequence, a number of lakes in this region has become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of nickel by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni (Decapod, Crustacea), was monitored for 4 wk in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of the response of the crayfish to increased levels of this relatively less metabolically essential but toxic metal in the aquatic environment.

  11. Non-Sintered Nickel Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick; Dennig, Corinne; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Alcorta, Jose; Coco, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    A non-sintered nickel electrode contains a conductive support and a paste comprising an electrochemically active material containing nickel hydroxide and a binder which is a mixture of an elastomer and a crystalline polymer. The proportion of the elastomer is in the range 25% to 60% by weight of the binder and the proportion of the crystalline polymer is in the range 40% to 75% by weight of the binder.

  12. Effects of in vitro nickel exposure on the macrophage-mediated immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowser, D.H.; Frenkel, K.; Zelikoff, J.T. )

    1994-03-01

    Nickel is occurs naturally in the geophysical environment. It has become a common byproduct of industrialization. Nickel is released into the atmosphere and coal-burning power plants and trash incinerators, and is also discharged into waste water by industries which convert scrap or new nickel into alloys. The effluent that spreads to streams, rivers, and lakes may disrupt the integrity of the aquatic environment. Excess nickel contamination is hazardous to aquatic ecosystems due to its existence and bioaccumulation. While the adverse health effects associated with nickel exposure have been extensively examined in mammalian systems, very little is known concerning nickel's effects on aquatic organisms. Although trace amounts of nickel are necessary for maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of some vertebrate species, larger amounts of nickel have been shown to be toxic. In addition to being both genotoxic and carcinogenic, nickel modulates immunological functions in a variety of mammalian species. The toxic effects of nickel on the numbers, activity, and ultrastructure of macrophages (M[o]) have been well-studied. A number of other toxic metals such as copper, manganese, and cadmium modulate the immune responses of fish. To appraise the immunomodulating potential of nickel on fish, and to begin to establish baseline parameters of altered immune function as potential biomarkers of in vivo nickel exposure, elicited peritoneal macrophages from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of nickel sulfate (NiSO[sub 4]). Following exposure, M[o] activities important for maintaining host immunocompetence were evaluated and these include; mobility (random and stimulus-directed), production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytosis. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Injection technology to recover nickel and cobalt from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thapliyal, P.; Zhao, Y.F.; Irons, G.A.

    1996-12-31

    The petroleum refining industry generates over a million tons of spent catalyst per year, containing valuable metals. Currently, these materials are recycled to smelting furnaces, but the fundamental mechanisms controlling the recovery processes are poorly understood. Furthermore, submerged injection of finely divided materials is potentially a means to obtain high recoveries of pay metals. In this study, a catalyst containing 10% Ni and 1% Co was injected into 45 kg heats of matte. A copper matte was chosen so that the nickel and cobalt recoveries were measurable. It was found that the recovery ranged from 40 to 70%, increasing with catalyst feed rate, decreasing with catalyst particle size and decreasing with the oxygen content of the carrier gas. A mathematical model was developed to account for the results, and to permit extrapolation to nickel mattes. The industrial implications are discussed. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can bemore » stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  15. Control corrosion with new nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schade, J.P. ); Ross, R.W. Jr. )

    1994-07-01

    Nickel plays an important role in many of the alloys developed to withstand corrosive process environments such as those in chemical, petrochemical, power, marine, and pulp and paper industries. It imparts excellent corrosion resistance, toughness, metallurgical stability, and fabricability to alloys containing iron, chromium, tungsten, and other metals. These alloys are valuable in processes with high concentrations of corrosives and high operating temperatures. These alloys and their corrosive environments are discussed here.

  16. Seismic analysis of a large pool-type LMR (liquid metal reactor)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic study of a 450-MWe liquid metal reactor (LMR) under 0.3-g SSE ground excitation. Two calculations were performed using the new design configuration. They deal with the seismic response of the reactor vessel, the guard vessel and support skirt, respectively. In both calculations, the stress and displacement fields at important locations of those components are investigated. Assessments are also made on the elastic and inelastic structural capabilities for other beyond-design basis seismic loads. Results of the reactor vessel analysis reveal that the maximum equivalent stress is only about half of the material yield stress. For the guard vessel and support skirt, the stress level is very small. Regarding the analysis if inelastic structural capability, solutions of the Newmark-Hall ductility modification method show that the reactor vessel can withstand seismics with ground ZPAs ranging from 1.015 to 1.31 g, which corresponds to 3.37 to 4.37 times the basic 0.3-g SSE. Thus, the reactor vessel and guard vessel are strong enough to resist seismic loads. 4 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Characterization of nickel laterite reduction from Pomalaa, Sulawesi Tenggara

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhamdani, Ahmad Rizky; Petrus, Himawan T. B. M. Fahrurrozi, Moh.

    2015-12-29

    The effect of using different reductors in the reduction process of nickel laterite was investigated. In this work, the author conducted the reduction of nickel laterite ores by anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, in air and CO{sub 2} atmosphere, within the temperature ranged from 800°C and 1000°C. The results indicate that at higher temperatures, the reduction reactions proceed more complete. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, the type of carbon used greatly influence the rate of the reduction of nickel laterite. The order of reactivity is anthracite coal, lamtoro charcoal, and carbon raiser, respectively. The reduction atmospheric condition also greatly influences the reduction process. The reduction process in CO{sub 2} atmospheric condition gives a lot of significant decrease in hematite and magnetite presence, means that the reduction reactions proceed more complete compared to the reduction process in the air atmospheric condition.

  18. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  19. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activity 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.

  20. Platinum Nickel Nanowires as Methanol Oxidation Electrocatalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-08-27

    We investigated platinum(Pt) nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) as methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) catalysts in rotating disk electrode (RDE) half-cells under acidic conditions. Pt-ruthenium (Ru) nanoparticles have long been the state of the art MOR catalyst for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) where Ru provides oxophilic sites, lowering the potential for carbon monoxide oxidation and the MOR onset. Ru, however, is a precious metal that has long term durability concerns. Ni/Ni oxide species offer a potential to replace Ru in MOR electrocatalysis. PtNiNWs were investigated for MOR and oxygen annealing was investigated as a route to improve catalyst performance (mass activitymore » 65% greater) and stability to potential cycling. Our results presented show that PtNiNWs offer significant promise in the area, but also result in Ni ion leaching that is a concern requiring further evaluation in fuel cells.« less

  1. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  2. Electron screening in nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz

    2012-10-20

    In order to investigate the interplay between nuclei and their surroundings we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. The presented results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energies.

  3. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-07-29

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  4. Direct metal brazing to cermet feedthroughs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopper, Jr., Albert C.

    1984-12-18

    An improved method for brazing metallic components to a cermet surface in an alumina substrate eliminates the prior art metallized layer over the cermet via and adjoining alumina surfaces. Instead, a nickel layer is applied over the cermet surface only and metallic components are brazed directly to this nickel coated cermet surface. As a result, heretofore unachievable tensile strength joints are produced. In addition, cermet vias with their brazed metal components can be spaced more closely in the alumina substrate because of the elimination of the prior art metallized alumina surfaces.

  5. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  6. Effect of nickelous and other metal ions on the inhibition of rumen bacterial metabolism by 3-(3'-isocyanocyclopent-2-enylidene)propionic acid and related isocyanides. [Phleum pratense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, D.; Calder, F.W.; Jones, G.A.; Tanguay, D.; Taylor, A.

    1986-01-01

    3-(3'-isocyanocyclopent-2-enylidene) propionic acid at a concentration of 2 to 5 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/ inhibited cellulose digestion by a mixed culture of rumen microorganisms and in other experiments inhibited the degradation of timothy had (Phleum pratense) in a digestibility test. At isocyanide concentrations of 12 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/ the fermentation activity of rumen fluid, measured by its dehydrogenase activity, was inhibited but not abolished. All of these isocyanide effects were reversed by the incorporation of nickelous ion into the solutions of the systems under study. The activity of 1 mol of isocyanide is reversed by about 1 mol of Ni/sup 2 +/ and, in the case of the cellulose digestion test, by about 1 mol of Co/sup 2 +/. Of some 15 other ions tested only Pd/sup 2 +/ and possibly chromium reversed the effect of the isocyanide.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation for arrangement of nickel atoms filled in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Liu Zhenyu, Zhao; Lirui, Liu

    2014-08-28

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) filled with metals can be used in capacitors, sensors, rechargeable batteries, and so on. Atomic arrangement of the metals has an important role in the function of the composites. The tips of CNTs were opened, and then nickel was filled by means of hydrothermal oxidation/ultrasonic vibration method. The tests of TEM, HREM, and EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis showed that Ni was filled in CNTs successfully. The atomic arrangement of nickel filled into single wall carbon nanotubes was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The radial distribution function and bond orientation order were established to analyze the atomic arrangement of nickel filled in carbon nanotubes during the cooling process. The results show that nickel atoms became in order gradually and preferably crystallized on the inner wall of carbon nanotubes when the temperature decreased from 1600?K. After it cooled to 100?K, the arrangement of nickel atoms in outermost circle was regular and dense, but there were many defects far from the wall of CNTs. According to the calculation of bond orientation order parameters Q{sub 6} and its visualization, the structure of nickel is Face-centered cube (f.c.c). (1,1,1){sub Ni} was close on the inner surface of carbon nanotubes. Radial direction of CNTs was [1,1,1] crystal orientation. Axial direction of CNTs, namely, filling direction, was [1{sup }, 1{sup },2] crystal orientation.

  8. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  9. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  10. Practical handbook of stainless steels and nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, S.

    1999-07-01

    This new handbook is an up-to-date technical guide to the grades, properties, fabrication characteristics, and applications of stainless steels and nickel alloys. The individual chapters were written by industry experts and focus on the key properties and alloy characteristics important in material selection and specification as well as the practical factors that influence the development and application of these materials. The contents include: alloy grades and their welding and fabrication characteristics and their application; monel metal; iron-based and nickel-based alloys; ferritic, austenitic, superaustenitic, and martensitic stainless steels; hastelloys; alloys 20, G, and 825; AOD and new refining technology; duplex stainless steels; 6-Mo alloys; corrosion-resistant castings; specification cross-reference tables; trade names; hardness conversions; list of common abbreviations.

  11. Selective decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martis, P.; Venugopal, B.R.; Delhalle, J.; Mekhalif, Z.

    2011-05-15

    A simple route to selective decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using nickel acetylacetonate (NAA) was successfully achieved for the first time. The homogeneously decorated nanocrystals on MWCNTs were investigated for their structure and morphology by various techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that the size distributions of the nanocrystals on MWCNTs ranged from 8 to 15 nm and they were well resolved. The precursor, NAA, was effectively employed to impregnate the MWCNTs, which on calcination at suitable temperatures and in the presence of hydrogen and nitrogen atmosphere gave rise to nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals, respectively. -- Graphical abstract: Nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals were selectively and homogeneously decorated on multiwalled carbon nanotubes using nickel acetylacetonate, as a precursor in a simple and efficient route. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} A simple route for decoration of nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals on MWCNTs. {yields} Nickel acetylacetonate used as nickel source for the first time to impregnate on MWCNTs. {yields} Selective decoration was achieved by calcination in hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres. {yields} The as-decorated nickel and nickel oxide nanocrystals are in the range of 8-15 nm.

  12. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian

    2002-01-01

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  13. Challenges of nickel silicidation in CMOS technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breil, Nicolas; Lavoie, Christian; Ozcan, Ahmet; Baumann, Frieder; Klymko, Nancy; Nummy, Karen; Sun, Bing; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Yu, Jian; Zhu, Frank; Narasimha, Shreesh; Chudzik, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In our paper, we review some of the key challenges associated with the Ni silicidation process in the most recent CMOS technologies. The introduction of new materials (e.g.SiGe), and of non-planar architectures bring some important changes that require fundamental investigation from a material engineering perspective. Following a discussion of the device architecture and silicide evolution through the last CMOS generations, we focus our study on a very peculiar defect, termed NiSi-Fangs. We describe a mechanism for the defect formation, and present a detailed material analysis that supports this mechanism. We highlight some of the possible metal enrichment processes of the nickel monosilicide such as oxidation or various RIE (Reactive Ion Etching) plasma process, leading to a metal source available for defect formation. Furthermore, we investigate the NiSi formation and re-formation silicidation differences between Si and SiGe materials, and between (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) orientations. Finally, we show that the thermal budgets post silicidation can lead to the formation of NiSi-Fangs if the structure and the processes are not optimized. Beyond the understanding of the defect and the discussion on the engineering solutions used to prevent its formation, the interest of this investigation also lies in the fundamental learning within the Ni–Pt–Si–Ge system and some additional perspective on Ni-based contacts to advanced microelectronic devices.

  14. Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Doohee

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

  15. Iron aluminides and nickel aluminides as materials for chemical air separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, D.

    1991-01-29

    The present invention is directed to a chemical air separation process using a molten salt solution of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite wherein the materials of construction of the containment for the process are chosen from intermetallic alloys of nickel and/or iron aluminide wherein the aluminum content is 28 atomic percent or greater to impart enhanced corrosion resistance.

  16. Electrochemical polishing of thread fastener test specimens of nickel-chromium iron alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kephart, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    An electrochemical polishing device and method for selective anodic dissolution of the surface of test specimens comprised, for example, of nickel-chromium-iron alloys, which provides for uniform dissolution at the localized sites to remove metal through the use of a coiled wire electrode (cathode) placed in the immediate proximity of the working, surface resulting in a polished and uniform grain boundary.

  17. Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides for use in oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    1988-03-15

    Nickel aluminides and nickel-iron aluminides treated with hafnium or zirconium, boron and cerium to which have been added chromium to significantly improve high temperature ductility, creep resistance and oxidation properties in oxidizing environments.

  18. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  19. Chromium Vaporization Reduction by Nickel Coatings For SOEC Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Sergey N. Rashkeev; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-09-01

    The vaporization of Cr-rich volatile species from interconnect materials is a major source of degradation that limits the lifetime of planar solid oxide devices systems with metallic interconnects, including Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, or SOECs. Some metallic coatings (Ni, Co, and Cu) significantly reduce the Cr release from interconnects and slow down the oxide scale growth on the steel substrate. To shed additional light upon the mechanisms of such protection and find a suitable coating material for ferritic stainless steel materials, we used a combination of first-principles calculations, thermodynamics, and diffusion modeling to investigate which factors determine the quality of the Ni metallic coating at stainless steel interconnector. We found that the Cr migration in Ni coating is determined by a delicate combination of the nickel oxidation, Cr diffusion, and phase transformation processes. Although the formation of Cr2O3 oxide is more exothermic than that of NiO, the kinetic rate of the chromia formation in the coating layer and its surface is significantly reduced by the low mobility of Cr in nickel oxide and in NiCr2O4 spinel. These results are in a good agreement with diffusion modeling for Cr diffusion through Ni coating layer on the ferritic 441 steel substrate.

  20. PROCESS OF COATING WITH NICKEL BY THE DECOMPOSITION OF NICKEL CARBONYL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, T.B.

    1959-04-01

    An improved process is presented for the deposition of nickel coatings by the thermal decomposition of nickel carbonyl vapor. The improvement consists in incorporating a small amount of hydrogen sulfide gas in the nickel carbonyl plating gas. It is postulated that the hydrogen sulfide functions as a catalyst. i

  1. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  2. Templated synthesis of nickel nanoparticles: Toward heterostructured nanocomposites for efficient hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Nicholas Cole

    2013-01-01

    The world is currently facing an energy and environmental crisis for which new technologies are needed. Development of cost-competitive materials for catalysis and hydrogen storage on-board motor vehicles is crucial to lead subsequent generations into a more sustainable and energy independent future. This thesis presents work toward the scalable synthesis of bimetallic heterostructures that can enable hydrogen to compete with carbonaceous fuels by meeting the necessary gravimetric and volumetric energy densities and by enhancing hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics near ambient temperatures and pressures. Utilizing the well-known phenomenon of hydrogen spillover, these bimetallic heterostructures could work by lowering the activation energy for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of metals. Herein, we report a novel method for the scalable synthesis of silica templated zero-valent nickel particles (Ni⊂SiO2) that hold promise for the synthesis of nickel nanorods for use in bimetallic heterostructures for hydrogen storage. Our synthesis proceeds by chemical reduction of a nickel-hydrazine complex with sodium borohydride followed by calcination under hydrogen gas to yield silica encapsulated nickel particles. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the general morphology of the resultant nanocapsules as well as the crystalline phases of the incorporated Ni0 nanocrystals. The structures display strong magnetic behavior at room temperature and preliminary data suggests nickel particle size can be controlled by varying the amount of nickel precursor used in the synthesis. Calcination under different environments and TEM analysis provides evidence for an atomic migration mechanism of particle formation. Ni⊂SiO2 nanocapsules were used as seeds to induce heterogeneous nucleation and subsequent growth within the nanocapsule via electroless nickel plating. Nickel nanoparticle growth occurs

  3. Three new extended Preyssler-type polyoxometalates modified by transition metal-2,2 Prime -biimidazole complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chun-Yue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Zhang, Lan-Cui, E-mail: zhanglancui@lnnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Wang, Zan-Jiao; Wang, Lin; Li, Xiao-Hui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Zhu, Zai-Ming, E-mail: chemzhu@sina.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Three extended Preyssler-type ({l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace}) polyoxometalates modified by transition metal (TM)-2,2 Prime -biimidazole (abbreviated as H{sub 2}biim) complexes, namely [Mn(H{sub 2}biim){sub 3}]{sub 5}H{sub 2}[{l_brace}Mn(H{sub 2}biim){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace} (NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110})]{center_dot}39H{sub 2}O (1), [{l_brace}(H{sub 2}biim){sub 2}Zn({mu}-OH)Zn(H{sub 2}biim)({mu}-H{sub 2}biim)Zn(H{sub 2}biim)(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}H{sub 4}(NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110})]{center_dot}22 H{sub 2}O (2), and {l_brace}(H{sub 4}biim){sub 18}NaH{sub 5}[({mu}-Fe(H{sub 3}biim)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3})({mu}-Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 4})(NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}78H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (3) have been hydrothermally synthesized, and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Their catalytic activities have been investigated. 1 contains mono-supporting {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} anions. In compound 2, a {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} anion is bi-supported by two symmetrical chains constructed by trinuclear zinc complexes. Compound 3 is composed of infinite 1-D zigzag chains built up of {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} polyoxoanions linked via [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sup 3+} and [Fe(H{sub 3}biim)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup 4+} fragments. H{sub 2}biim ligands adopt three coordination modes in the structure. All these compounds have 3-D supramolecular frameworks via extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions. - Graphical abstract: Three new extended Preyssler-type polyoxometalates modified by TM-2,2 Prime -biimidazole complexes are obtained, they display high thermal stabilities. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three new extended Preyssler-type polyoxometalates were hydrothermally synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An interesting trinuclear zinc-2,2 Prime -biimidazole-polyanion complex was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The huge {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} clusters were

  4. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Madsen, M.M.; Malone, G.A.

    1985-08-01

    As an integral part of its program in fluidized-bed combustion technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and the MITRE Corporation have undertaken a project to compile and analyze metal loss data obtained from a variety of FBC systems ranging from small-scale experimental units to industrial-size facilities and to establish a functional relationship between metal loss for several alloy types and various FBC design and operating parameters. To date, metal loss and operating information have been categorized for forty-four alloys in twenty separate FBC systems worldwide. Review of the tabulated data indicate the following trends: metal temperatures above 1200/sup 0/F significantly increase rates of metal loss; system operation with high excess air reduces metal loss, but does not eliminate it; use of coals with high ash sintering temperatures does not significantly reduce metal loss; degree of metal loss is much lower for surfaces exposed in the freeboard than for in-bed surfaces; the rate of metal loss decreases with time of exposure; iron-based stainless steels are relatively resistant to conditions which cause metal loss; cobalt-based alloys and high-chromium steels show significant resistance to metal loss; nickel-based alloys are most susceptible to metal loss; sulfidation/oxidation attack on metals within fluidized beds are more likely to occur if sorbent is present; and metal attack will occur irrespective of coal and sorbent type. 25 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Airbrushed Nickel Nanoparticles for Large-Area (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Airbrushed Nickel Nanoparticles for Large-Area Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Airbrushed Nickel Nanoparticles for Large-Area Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers ...

  6. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  7. Synthesis of nickel nanoparticles and carbon encapsulated nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng Jipeng . E-mail: mseem@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Xiaobin; Ye Ying

    2006-01-15

    Nickel nanoparticles were prepared and uniformly supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by reduction route with CNTs as a reducing agent at 600 deg. C. As-prepared nickel nanoparticles were single crystalline with a face-center-cubic phase and a size distribution ranging from 10 to 50 nm, and they were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These nickel nanoparticles would be coated with graphene layers, when they were exposed to acetylene at 600 deg. C. The coercivity values of nickel nanoparticles were superior to that of bulk nickel at room temperature.

  8. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1990-07-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99% gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  9. Gold-nickel-titanium brazing alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizuhara, Howard

    1995-01-03

    A brazing alloy in accordance with this invention has the following composition, by weight: 91 to 99 gold, 0.5 to 7% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium. Alternatively, with palladium present, the composition is as follows, by weight: 83 to 96% gold; 3 to 10% palladium; 0.5 to 5% nickel; 0.10 to 2% titanium.

  10. Crucial role of Toll-like receptors in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Chao, How-Ran

    2013-12-15

    Our previous studies indicated that zinc induced inflammatory response in both vascular endothelial cells and promonocytes. Here, we asked if other metals could cause the similar effect on vascular endothelial cells and tried to determine its underlying mechanism. Following screening of fifteen metals, zinc and nickel were identified with a marked proinflammatory effect, as determined by ICAM-1 and IL-8 induction, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Inhibiting protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor acting as a TLR-signaling transducer, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, suggesting the critical roles of TLRs in the inflammatory response. Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NFκB activation. The same CLI-095 treatment significantly blocked the zinc-induced IL-8 expression, however with no significant effect on the ICAM-1 expression and a minor inhibitory effect on the NFκB activation. The finding demonstrated the differential role of TLR-4 in regulation of the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, where TLR-4 played a dominant role in NFκB activation by nickel, but not by zinc. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB by adenovirus-mediated IκBα expression and Bay 11-7025, an inhibitor of cytokine-induced IκB-α phosphorylation, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory responses, indicating the critical of NFκB in the process. The study demonstrates the crucial role of TLRs in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells and herein deciphers a potential important difference in NFκB activation via TLRs. The study provides a molecular basis for linkage between zinc/nickel exposure and pathogenesis of the metal-related inflammatory vascular disease. - Highlights: • Both zinc and nickel cause

  11. Biodegradation of orthodontic appliances and their effects on the blood level of nickel and chromium. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, R.D.

    1990-05-01

    Austenitic stainless steels containing approximately 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel for orthodontic bands, brackets and wires is universally used in orthodontic practices. With the introduction of nickel-titanium alloys as orthodontic archwires in the 1970's an additional source of patient exposure to metal corrosion products has been introduced. Since the oral environment is particularly ideal for the biodegradation of metals due to its ionic, thermal, microbiologic and enzymatic properties some level of patient exposure to the corrosion products of these alloys is assured.

  12. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  13. Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

    1984-09-14

    This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

  14. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, G.O.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

  15. Nonwoven fabrics made from nickel and stainless steel fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepro, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Nonwoven fabrics made from metal fiber have uses in a variety of applications due to their alloy composition, heat resistivity, conductivity and durability. Applications include: filtration media, battery current collectors, EMI/RFI shielding, insulation and conductive fillers. The ability to form metal fibers into fabrics of non-directionalized fiber webs has led to improved materials in a variety of applications. The non-orientation of the fibers provides a three dimensional structure that is filled with materials such as nickel hydroxide, cadmium oxide and MH alloy used for battery applications or to act as a contaminate trap for filtration. Fibers made from nickel, stainless steel, iron, cobalt, monel and copper are all possibilities for use in nonwoven fabrics. The density, porosity and thickness are all controllable during the web formation process. Fiber diameter is also a critical consideration when specific pore sizes are targeted. Fiber diameters are controlled during the fiber formation process. Diameters as low as 6 microns in stainless steel and 9 microns in other alloys are possible.

  16. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Novak, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined.

  17. Braze material for joining ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic surfaces and joined ceramic to metal and ceramic to ceramic article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, T.K.; Novak, R.F.

    1991-05-07

    An improved active metal braze filler material is provided in which the coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze filler is more closely matched with that of the ceramic and metal, or two ceramics, to provide ceramic to metal, or ceramic to ceramic, sealed joints and articles which can withstand both high temperatures and repeated thermal cycling without failing. The braze filler material comprises a mixture of a material, preferably in the form of a powder, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, silicon carbide and mixtures thereof, and an active metal filler material selected from the group consisting of alloys or mixtures of nickel and titanium, alloys or mixtures of nickel and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and copper, alloys or mixtures of nickel, titanium, and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium and zirconium, alloys or mixtures of niobium and titanium, alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, and nickel, alloys or mixtures of niobium, zirconium, and nickel, and alloys or mixtures of niobium, titanium, zirconium, and nickel. The powder component is selected such that its coefficient of thermal expansion will effect the overall coefficient of thermal expansion of the braze material so that it more closely matches the coefficients of thermal expansion of the ceramic and metal parts to be joined. 3 figures.

  18. Strength of semiconductors, metals, and ceramics evaluated by a microscopic cleavage model with Morse-type and Lennard-Jones-type interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hess, Peter

    2014-08-07

    An improved microscopic cleavage model, based on a Morse-type and Lennard-Jones-type interaction instead of the previously employed half-sine function, is used to determine the maximum cleavage strength for the brittle materials diamond, tungsten, molybdenum, silicon, GaAs, silica, and graphite. The results of both interaction potentials are in much better agreement with the theoretical strength values obtained by ab initio calculations for diamond, tungsten, molybdenum, and silicon than the previous model. Reasonable estimates of the intrinsic strength are presented for GaAs, silica, and graphite, where first principles values are not available.

  19. Welding procedure specification. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests. Gas tungsten arc welding of chromium-nickel steel to nickel-copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    Procedure WPS-2602-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of 300 series Cr-Ni steels (P-8-1) to nickel-copper N04400 (P-42), in thickness range 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

  20. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  1. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  2. Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W.; Smith, David F.

    1983-01-01

    A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  3. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  4. ASYMMETRY IN THE OBSERVED METAL-RICH EJECTA OF THE GALACTIC TYPE IA SUPERNOVA REMNANT G299.22.9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Seth; Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Box 19059, TX 76019 (United States); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT-PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 OHara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Burrows, David N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Lee, Jae-Joon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Mori, Koji [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Slane, Patrick O., E-mail: seth.post@mavs.uta.edu, E-mail: badenes@pitt.edu, E-mail: burrows@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: jph@physics.rutgers.edu, E-mail: mori@astro.miyazaki-u.ac.jp, E-mail: slane@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We have performed a deep Chandra observation of the Galactic TypeIa supernova remnant G299.22.9. Here we report the initial results from our imaging and spectral analysis. The observed abundance ratios of the central ejecta are in good agreement with those predicted by delayed-detonation TypeIa supernovae models. We reveal inhomogeneous spatial and spectral structures of metal-rich ejecta in G299.22.9. The Fe/Si abundance ratio in the northern part of the central ejecta region is higher than that in the southern part. A significant continuous elongation of ejecta material extends out to the western outermost boundary of the remnant. In this western elongation, both the Si and Fe are enriched with a similar abundance ratio to that in the southern part of the central ejecta region. These structured distributions of metal-rich ejecta material suggest that this TypeIa supernova might have undergone a significantly asymmetric explosion and/or has been expanding into a structured medium.

  5. Nickel porphyrins for memory optical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.; Jia, Songling; Medforth, Craig; Holten, Dewey; Nelson, Nora Y.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a nickel-porphyrin derivative in a matrix, the nickel-porphyrin derivative comprising at least two conformational isomers, a lower-energy-state conformer and a higher-energy-state conformer, such that when the higher-energy-state conformer is generated from the lower-energy-state conformer following absorption of a photon of suitable energy, the time to return to the lower-energy-state conformer is greater than 40 nanoseconds at approximately room temperature. The nickel-porphyrin derivative is useful in optical memory applications.

  6. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  7. The effect of iron dilution on strength of nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fout, S.L.; Wamsley, S.D.

    1983-03-28

    The weld strength, as a function of iron content, for nickel/steel and Monel/steel welds was determined. Samples were prepared using a Gas Metal Arc (GMAW) automatic process to weld steel plate together with nickel or Monel to produce a range of iron contents typical of weld compositions. Tensile specimens of each iron content were tested to obtain strength and ductility measurements for that weld composition. Data indicate that at iron contents of less than 20% iron in a nickel/steel weld, the weld fails at the weld interface, due to a lack of fusion. Between 20% and 35% iron, the highest iron dilution that could be achieved in a nickel weld, the welds were stronger than the steel base metal. This indicates that a minimum amount of iron dilution (20%) is necessary for good fusion and optimum strength. On the other hand for Monel/steel welds, test results showed that the welds had good strength and integrity between 10% and 27% iron in the weld. Above 35% iron, the welds have less strength and are more brittle. The 35% iron content also corresponds to the iron dilution in Monel welds that has been shown to produce an increase in corrosion rate. This indicates that the iron dilution in Monel welds should be kept below 35% iron to maximize both the strength and corrosion resistance. 2 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The recent research on the use of platinum-nickel alloys as ... study ORR on Pt3Ni(hkl) single-crystal surfaces, identify which ... (LEIS), and synchrotron-based high-resolution ...

  9. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Wednesday, 28 February 2007 00:00 Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and

  10. Catalytic hydroprocessing of aromatic compounds: Effects of nickel and vanadium sulfide deposits on reactivities and reaction networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yumoto, Mitsugu |; Kukes, S.G.; Klein, M.T.; Gates, B.C. |

    1996-09-01

    Ni-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydroprocessing catalysts enriched in nickel and vanadium by contacting with solutions of the respective metal naphthenates were sulfided and tested for hydroprocessing of naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, and quinoline in a batch reactor at 350 C and 165 atm. Approximately reaction networks were determined for each reactant, and the data showed the dependence of the pseudo-first-order rate constants on the catalyst nickel and vanadium contents. The nickel sulfide deposits only slightly affected the rate constants for hydrogenation, but the vanadium sulfide deposits led to decreases in the rate constants for hydrogenation reactions in the naphthalene network and to increases in those for hydrogenation reactions in the dibenzothiophene network. Nickel sulfide deposits led to almost no change in the rate constants for hydrogenolysis of dibenzothiophene, but vanadium sulfide deposits led to decreased rate constant for this reaction. The nickel sulfide deposits have little activity for reactions giving lower-molecular-weight (cracking) products, but the vanadium sulfide deposits have a relatively high activity for cracking, which suggests that they are acidic; the effects are reversed by the presence of the basic quinoline in the reactants. The results indicate a need for representing the nickel and vanadium sulfide deposits separately in process models for heavy oil hydroprocessing.

  11. Welding procedure specification. Supplement 1. Records of procedure qualification tests. Gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wodtke, C.H.; Frizzell, D.R.; Plunkett, W.A.

    1986-06-01

    Procedure WPS-1302-ASME-3 is qualified under Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for gas tungsten arc welding of nickel-copper NO4400 (P-42), in thickness range 0.035 to 0.432 inch; filler metal is ERNiCu-7 (F-42); shielding gas is argon.

  12. Weldability and microstructure development in nickel-base superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, S.A.; Babu, S.S.; Vitek, J.M.

    1997-11-01

    The integrity of nickel-base superalloy single-crystal welds depends on the weld cracking tendency, weld metal dendrite selection process, stray crystal formation, and macro- and microstructure development. These phenomena have been investigated in commercial nickel-base superalloy single crystal welds. During electron beam and laser beam welding, transverse and longitudinal weld cracking occurred. However, the weld cracking tendency was reduced with preheating. Most of the dendritic growth pattern development in these welds can be explained by a geometric model. However, the welds also contained misoriented stray crystals, which were frequently associated with weld cracks. The formation of stray crystals was related to thermal and constitutional supercooling effects. Fine-scale elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} phase was measured with atom-probe field-ion microscopy. Marked differences in partitioning characteristics in two welds were observed and are related to differences in cooling rates. In this paper, the modeling tools available to describe the above are reviewed.

  13. Nickel Complexes of a Binucleating Ligand Derived from an SCS Pincer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Sonja M.; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    A binucleating ligand has been prepared that contains an SCS pincer and three oxygen donor ligands in a partial crown ether loop. To enable metalation with Ni0, a bromoarene precursor was used and resulted in the formation of a nickel-bromide complex in the SCS pincer. Reaction of the nickel complex with a lithium salt yielded a heterobimetallic complex with bromide bridging the two metal centers. The solid-state structures were determined for this heterobimetallic complex and the nickel-bromide precursor, and the two complexes were characterized electrochemically to determine the influence of coordinating the second metal. This research was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  14. Long-term tests of dissimilar metal crevice corrosion in filtered seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurer, J.R. . Technical Center)

    1994-04-01

    Dissimilar metal crevice (DMC) corrosion has been found in condensers in which superferritic stainless steel tubes have been expanded into type 316 stainless steel (UNS S31600) tube sheets. Low-pH corrosion products, which formed in the tube-to-tube sheet crevice, cause depassivation and attack of the superferritic alloy. Long-term tests in filtered natural seawater confirm DMC corrosion of several superferritic alloys, including one containing 2% nickel, when in contact with type 316. Superaustenitic 6% molybdenum alloys in contact with type 316 did not show DMC corrosion. As expected, type 316 corroded in these exposures. When superferritic and superaustenitic alloys were tested in contact with each other, neither was attacked.

  15. Stabilization of Nickel Metal Catalysts for Aqueous Processing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    over a range of temperatures from 200C to 450C. However, these catalysts lose activity over time and must be replenished with new supports to continue facilitating the...

  16. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  17. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  18. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  19. Removal of arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1985-05-17

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids (shale oil, SRC, etc.) by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  20. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  1. Dietary chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin of hairless mice The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male mice) and nickel in UVR-irradiated female Skh1...

  2. Inspection of Nickel Alloy Welds: Results from Five Year International Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokofiev, Iouri; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2011-06-23

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission established and coordinated the international Program for the Inspection of Nickel alloy Components (PINC). The goal of PINC was to evaluate the capabilities of various nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques to detect and characterize primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in dissimilar metal welds. Round-robin results showed that a combination of conventional and phased-array ultrasound provide the highest performance for flaw detection and depth sizing in dissimilar metal piping welds. The effective detection of flaws in bottom-mounted instrumentation penetrations by eddy current and ultrasound shows that it may be possible to reliably inspect these components in the field.

  3. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

  4. Metal dusting behavior of high-temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of ferritic, stainless steel, iron-nickel-chromium and nickel-base alloys was investigated in H{sub 2}-80 % CO at 621 C. Mass change and rate of mass loss, pit depth progression rate and pit distribution were monitored and recorded. It was found that wastage rates and pit depth progression rates were generally much lower for nickel-base alloys than iron-base alloys. Pit depth did not necessarily correlate with area averaged mass change rate, Chromium, silicon and aluminum additions were found to be beneficial in producing an oxide scale which reduced or prevented wastage due to metal dusting.

  5. Metal-ion recycle technology for metal electroplating waste waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, N.N.; Smith, B.F.

    1993-06-01

    As a result of a collaboration with Boeing Aerospace, the authors have begun a program to identify suitable treatments or to develop new treatments for electroplating baths. The target baths are mixed-metal or alloy baths that are being integrated into the Boeing electroplating complex. These baths, which are designed to replace highly toxic chromium and cadmium baths, contain mixtures of two metals, either nickel-tungsten, nickel-zinc, or zinc-tin. This report reviews the literature and details currently available on emerging technologies that could affect recovery of metals from electroplating baths under development by Boeing Aerospace. This literature survey summarizes technologies relevant to the recovery of metals from electroplating processes. The authors expanded the scope to investigate single metal ion recovery technologies that could be applied to metal ion recovery from alloy baths. This review clearly showed that the electroplating industry has traditionally relied on precipitation and more recently on electrowinning as its waste treatment methods. Despite the almost ubiquitous use of precipitation to remove contaminant metal ions from waste electroplating baths and rinse waters, this technology is clearly no longer feasible for the electroplating industry for several reasons. First, disposal of unstabilized sludge is no longer allowed by law. Second, these methods are no longer adequate as metal-removal techniques because they cannot meet stringent new metal discharge limits. Third, precious resources are being wasted or discarded because these methods do not readily permit recovery of the target metal ions. As a result, emerging technologies for metal recovery are beginning to see application to electroplating waste recycle. This report summarizes current research in these areas. Included are descriptions of various membrane technologies, such as reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, ion exchange and chelating polymer technology, and electrodialysis.

  6. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel-Doped Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, R; Baumann, T F; Cronin, S; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M; Satcher, Jr., J H

    2004-11-09

    We have prepared carbon aerogels (CAs) doped with cobalt or nickel through sol-gel polymerization of formaldehyde with the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, followed by ion-exchange with M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} (where M = Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}), supercritical drying with liquid CO{sub 2} and carbonization at temperatures between 400 C and 1050 C under an N{sub 2} atmosphere. The nanostructures of these metal-doped carbon aerogels were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Metallic nickel and cobalt nanoparticles are generated during the carbonization process at about 400 C and 450 C, respectively, forming nanoparticles that are {approx}4 nm in diameter. The sizes and size dispersion of the metal particles increase with increasing carbonization temperatures for both materials. The carbon frameworks of the Ni- and Co-doped aerogels carbonized below 600 C mainly consist of interconnected carbon particles with a size of 15 to 30 nm. When the samples are pyrolyzed at 1050 C, the growth of graphitic nanoribbons with different curvatures is observed in the Ni and Co-doped carbon aerogel materials. The distance of graphite layers in the nanoribbons is about 0.38 nm. These metal-doped CAs retain the overall open cell structure of metal-free CAs, exhibiting high surface areas and pore diameters in the micro and mesoporic region.

  8. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacNair, V.; Muth, T.; Shasteen, K.; Liby, A.; Hradil, G.; Mishra, B.

    1996-12-31

    In October 1993, Manufacturing Sciences Corporation was awarded DOE contract DE-AC21-93MC30170 to develop and test recycling of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) to high value and intermediate and final product forms. This work was conducted to help solve the problems associated with decontamination and reuse of the diffusion plant barrier nickel and other radioactively contaminated scrap metals present in the diffusion plants. Options available for disposition of the nickel include decontamination and subsequent release or recycled product manufacture for restricted end use. Both of these options are evaluated during the course of this research effort. work during phase I of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to make stainless steel from barrier nickel feed. This paved the way for restricted end use products made from stainless steel. Also, after repeated trials and studies, the inducto-slag nickel decontamination process was eliminated as a suitable alternative. Electro-refining appeared to be a promising technology for decontamination of the diffusion plant barrier material. Goals for phase II included conducting experiments to facilitate the development of an electro-refining process to separate technetium from nickel. In parallel with those activities, phase II efforts were to include the development of the necessary processes to make useful products from radioactive scrap metal. Nickel from the diffusion plants as well as stainless steel and carbon steel could be used as feed material for these products.

  9. Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates with transition metal as a central atom: Crystal structure and magnetic study with 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Feng [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen, YiPing, E-mail: ypchen007@sina.com [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); You, ZhuChai; Xia, ZeMin; Ge, SuZhi; Sun, YanQiong; Huang, BiHua [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates, [Co(phen)?]?[CoW??O??]9H?O 1 (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Fe(phen)?]?[FeW??O??]H?OH?O 2, have been synthesized via the hydrothermal technique and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, IR, XPS, TG analysis, UVDRS, XRD, thermal-dependent and magnetic-dependent 2D-COS IR (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Crystal structure analysis reveals that the polyanions in compound 1 are linked into 3D supramolecule through hydrogen bonding interactions between lattice water molecules and terminal oxygen atoms of polyanion units, and [Co(phen)?]? cations distributed in the polyanion framework with many hydrogen bonding interactions. The XPS spectra indicate that all the Co atoms in 1 are +2 oxidation state, the Fe atoms in 2 existing with +2 and +3 mixed oxidation states. - Graphical abstract: The magnetic-dependent synchronous 2D correlation IR spectra of 1 (a), 2 (b) over 050 mT in the range of 6001000 cm?, the obvious response indicate two Keggin polyanions skeleton susceptible to applied magnetic field. Highlights: Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates with transition metal as a central atom has been obtained. Compound 1 forms into 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding between water molecules and polyanions. Magnetic-dependent 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was introduced to discuss the magnetism of polyoxometalate.

  10. Ordered Mesoporous CMK-5 Carbon with Ultra-Thin Pore Walls and Highly Dispersed Nickel Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulvio, Pawquale F; Liang, Chengdu; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2009-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous CMK-5 carbons with ultra-thin carbon pore walls and highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by using two different SBA-15 silicas as hard templates and 2, 3-di-hydroxynaphtalene (DHN) as a carbon precursor. The nickel precursor was a concentrated nickel nitrate hexahydrate [Ni(NO3)2.6H2O] solution in isopropanol added to the carbon-silica nanocomposites prior to thermal treatments. The samples studied were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG), nitrogen adsorption at -196 C, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and in situ electron diffraction X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). While TG revealed carbon contents lower than 30 wt%, nitrogen adsorption provided information about homogeneity of carbon thin film deposited onto mesopore walls of ordered silica templates, SBA-15. The templates, carbon-silica nanocomposites and carbon inverse replicas with nickel nanoparticles exhibited uniform pores, high surface areas and large pore volumes. Graphitic carbon was identified by the presence of a characteristic G band on Raman spectra, whereas the diffraction peak attributed to the stacking of graphene planes was not observed by powder XRD.The presence of ordered domains in the carbon materials studied was confirmed by small angle XRD and STEM imaging. In addition, the STEM images revealed that the nickel nanoparticles were uniform in size, ~3nm, and were homogeneously dispersed within ordered tubular carbon walls. A few larger clusters of nickel, ~60nm, present on the external surface, were identified by powder XRD as metallic Ni. The in situ EDX revealed that the small nanoparticles were largely composed of Ni with traces of NiO. Similar nanoparticles dispersions have been reported only for Ni-containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), whereas previously reported ordered mesoporous carbons possessed larger Ni/NiO nanoparticles within CMK-3 nanostructure.

  11. Sequential desorption energy of hydrogen from nickel clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deepika,; Kumar, Rakesh; R, Kamal Raj.; Kumar, T. J. Dhilip

    2015-06-24

    We report reversible Hydrogen adsorption on Nickel clusters, which act as a catalyst for solid state storage of Hydrogen on a substrate. First-principles technique is employed to investigate the maximum number of chemically adsorbed Hydrogen molecules on Nickel cluster. We observe a maximum of four Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom, but the average Hydrogen molecules adsorbed per Nickel atom decrease with cluster size. The dissociative chemisorption energy per Hydrogen molecule and sequential desorption energy per Hydrogen atom on Nickel cluster is found to decrease with number of adsorbed Hydrogen molecules, which on optimization may help in economical storage and regeneration of Hydrogen as a clean energy carrier.

  12. Simple bond-order-type interatomic potential for an intermixed Fe-Cr-C system of metallic and covalent bondings in heat-resistant ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomohisa Nakamura, Kaoru; Yamada, Susumu; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2014-12-28

    It is known that M{sub 23}C{sub 6}(M?=?Cr/Fe) behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels affects the strength of the material at high temperature. The ability to garner direct information regarding the atomic motion using classical molecular dynamics simulations is useful for investigating the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels. For such classical molecular dynamics calculations, a suitable interatomic potential is needed. To satisfy this requirement, an empirical bond-order-type interatomic potential for Fe-Cr-C systems was developed because the three main elements to simulate the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels are Fe, Cr, and C. The angular-dependent term, which applies only in non-metallic systems, was determined based on the similarity between a Finnis-Sinclair-type embedded-atom-method interatomic potential and a Tersoff-type bond-order potential. The potential parameters were determined such that the material properties of Fe-Cr-C systems were reproduced. These properties include the energy and lattice constants of 89 crystal structures; the elastic constants of four realistic precipitates; the bulk moduli of B1, B2, and B3 crystals; the surface energies of B1 and B2 crystals; and the defect-formation energies and atomic configurations of 66 Fe-Cr-C complexes. Most of these material properties were found to be reproduced by our proposed empirical bond-order potentials. The formation energies and lattice constants of randomly mixed Fe-Cr alloys calculated using the interatomic potentials were comparable to those obtained through experiments and first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the energies and structures of interfaces between Cr carbide and ?-Fe as predicted through first-principles calculations were well reproduced using these interatomic potentials.

  13. Solid-state graphene formation via a nickel carbide intermediate phase [Nickel carbide (Ni3C) as an intermediate phase for graphene formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiong, W; Zhou, Yunshen; Hou, Wenjia; Guillemet, Thomas; Silvain, Jean-François; Lahaye, Michel; Lebraud, Eric; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei; Cullen, David A; et al

    2015-01-01

    Direct formation of graphene with controlled number of graphitic layers on dielectric surfaces is highly desired for practical applications. Despite significant progress achieved in understanding the formation of graphene on metallic surfaces through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of hydrocarbons, very limited research is available elucidating the graphene formation process via rapid thermal processing (RTP) of solid-state amorphous carbon, through which graphene is formed directly on dielectric surfaces accompanied by autonomous nickel evaporation. It is suggested that a metastable hexagonal nickel carbide (Ni3C) intermediate phase plays a critical role in transforming amorphous carbon to 2D crystalline graphene and contributing to themore » autonomous Ni evaporation. Temperature resolved carbon and nickel evolution in the RTP process is investigated using Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) depth profiling and glancing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD). Formation, migration and decomposition of the hexagonal Ni3C are confirmed to be responsible for the formation of graphene and the evaporation of Ni at 1100 °C. The Ni3C-assisted graphene formation mechanism expands the understanding of Ni-catalyzed graphene formation, and provides insightful guidance for controlled growth of graphene through the solid-state transformation process.« less

  14. Apparatus for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01

    Improved electrolytic cells for producing metals by the electrolytic reduction of a compound dissolved in a molten electrolyte are disclosed. In the improved cells, at least one electrode includes a protective layer comprising an oxide of the cell product metal formed upon an alloy of the cell product metal and a more noble metal. In the case of an aluminum reduction cell, the electrode can comprise an alloy of aluminum with copper, nickel, iron, or combinations thereof, upon which is formed an aluminum oxide protective layer.

  15. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-06-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, {Delta}T, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to {approx}550{degrees}C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to {approx}650{degrees}C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above {approx}600{degrees}C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150{degrees}C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material.

  16. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    1992-01-01

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition.

  17. Castable nickel aluminide alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-04-28

    The specification discloses nickel aluminide alloys which include as a component from about 0.5 to about 4 at. % of one or more of the elements selected from the group consisting of molybdenum or niobium to substantially improve the mechanical properties of the alloys in the cast condition. 4 figs.

  18. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  19. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  20. HIP clad nickel base Alloy 625 for deep sour wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhl, W.K.; Pendley, M.R.

    1984-05-01

    The hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process was used to clad nickel base Alloy 625 to AISI 4130 low alloy steel. The performance of the HIP clad material in the corrosive environment characteristic of deep, sour oil and gas wells was evaluated in laboratory tests. Included in the test program were NACE TM-01-77 sulfide stress cracking tests, chloride stress corrosion cracking tests in boiling MgCl /SUB 2'/ , and pitting and crevice corrosion tests. The HIP clad 625 performed excellently, displaying essentially the same corrosion resistance as wrought 625. Specifically the HIP clad 625 resisted sulfide stress cracking at applied stresses as high as 120% of yield strength and resisted chloride stress corrosion cracking at stresses exceeding 100% of yield. The HIP clad 625 also displayed immunity to pitting and crevice corrosion, with corrosion rates of <0.025 mm/y (1 mil/y). The 4130 base metal, however, was attacked severly in all tests. SEM/EDX analysis of the 625/4130 interface demonstrated that dilution of the cladding by the base metal was essentially eliminated.

  1. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W.; Krauter, Gordon W.

    2002-01-01

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  2. Hopping conduction in p-type MoS{sub 2} near the critical regime of the metal-insulator transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Tae-Eon; Jang, Chaun E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr; Suh, Joonki; Wu, Junqiao; Seo, Dongjea; Park, Joonsuk; Lin, Der-Yuh; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Choi, Heon-Jin; Chang, Joonyeon E-mail: presto@kist.re.kr

    2015-11-30

    We report on temperature-dependent charge and magneto transport of chemically doped MoS{sub 2}, p-type molybdenum disulfide degenerately doped with niobium (MoS{sub 2}:Nb). The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity is characterized by a power law, ρ(T) ∼ T{sup −0.25}, which indicates that the system resides within the critical regime of the metal-insulator (M-I) transition. By applying high magnetic field (∼7 T), we observed a 20% increase in the resistivity at 2 K. The positive magnetoresistance shows that charge transport in this system is governed by the Mott-like three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) at low temperatures. According to relationship between magnetic-field and temperature dependencies of VRH resistivity, we extracted a characteristic localization length of 19.8 nm for MoS{sub 2}:Nb on the insulating side of the M-I transition.

  3. Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummarySteven Visco, Craig Jacobson, and Lutgard DeJonghe have designed a cost-efficient, structurally sound technology for current collection and cell-to-cell interconnection of high temperature (>600 C) planar electrochemical devices. Current collection is normally achieved using expensive metal oxides or metals such as platinum or nickel.

  4. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  5. Carbide Coatings for Nickel Alloys, Graphite and Carbon/Carbon Composites to be used in Fluoride Salt Valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagle, Denis; Zhang, Dajie

    2015-10-22

    The focus of this research was concerned with developing materials technology that supports the evolution of Generation IV Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) concepts. Specifically, we investigate refractory carbide coatings for 1) nickel alloys, and 2) commercial carbon-carbon composites (CCCs). Numerous compelling reasons have driven us to focus on carbon and carbide materials. First, unlike metals, the strength and modulus of CCCs increase with rising temperature. Secondly, graphite and carbon composites have been proven effective for resisting highly corrosive fluoride melts such as molten cryolite [Na₃AlF₆] at ~1000°C in aluminum reduction cells. Thirdly, graphite and carbide materials exhibit extraordinary radiation damage tolerance and stability up to 2000°C. Finally, carbides are thermodynamically more stable in liquid fluoride salt than the corresponding metals (i.e. Cr and Zr) found in nickel based alloys.

  6. High weldability nickel-base superalloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Robert C.; Korenko, Michael K.

    1980-01-01

    This is a nickel-base superalloy with excellent weldability and high strength. Its composition consists essentially of, by weight percent, 10-20 iron, 57-63 nickel, 7-18 chromium, 4-6 molybdenum, 1-2 niobium, 0.2-0.8 silicon, 0.01-0.05 zirconium, 1.0-2.5 titanium, 1.0-2.5 aluminum, 0.02-0.06 carbon, and 0.002-0.015 boron. The weldability and strength of this alloy give it a variety of applications. The long-time structural stability of this alloy together with its low swelling under nuclear radiation conditions, make it especially suitable for use as a duct material and controlling element cladding for sodium-cooled nuclear reactors.

  7. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten

  8. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten

  9. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten

  10. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten

  11. Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough Research on Platinum-Nickel Alloys Print Two out of three of the kinetic barriers to the practical use of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cells in automobiles have been breached: the impractically high amount of extra energy needed for the oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) on the catalyst and the loss of catalytic surface areas available for ORR. Using a combination of probes and calculations, a group of scientists has demonstrated that the Pt3Ni(111) alloy is ten

  12. Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted wet chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barzegar Vishlaghi, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farzalipour Tabriz, M., E-mail: meisam.fa@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammad Moradi, O. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: ? Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) assisted chemical synthesis of nickel nanoparticles is reported. ? Substituting water with non-aqueous media prevents the formation of nickel hydroxide. ? Size of particles decreased from 10 to 20 nm down to 24 nm by using multi-jet mode. ? Synthesized nanoparticles have diffraction patterns similar to amorphous materials. -- Abstract: In this study nickel nanoparticles were prepared via chemical reduction of nickel acetate using sodium borohydride using electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) technique. This technique was used to spray a finely dispersed aerosol of nickel precursor solution into the reductive bath. Obtained particles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVVisible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results confirmed the formation of nickel nanoparticles and showed that applying EHDA technique to chemical reduction method results in producing smaller particles with narrower size distribution in comparison with conventional reductive precipitation method.

  13. Electrodeposition of amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guilinger, Terry R.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous ternary nickel-chromium-phosphorus alloys are electrodeposited from a bath comprising a nickel salt, a chromium salt, a phosphorus source such as sodium hypophosphite, a complexing agent for the nickel ions, supporting salts to increase conductivity, and a buffering agent. The process is carried out at about room temperature and requires a current density between about 20 to 40 A/dm.sup.2.

  14. DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy DOE Seeks Industry Input on Nickel Disposition Strategy March 23, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Energy Department's prime contractor, Fluor-B&W Portsmouth (FBP), managing the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP), issued a request for Expressions of Interest (EOI) seeking industry input to support the development of an acquisition strategy for potential disposition of DOE nickel. The EOI requests technical,

  15. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  16. Cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc in the water column of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerlund, S.; Oehman, P. Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg )

    1991-08-01

    This paper presents results from the first complete investigation of the dissolved and suspended trace metals cadmium, copper, cobalt, nickel, lead, and zinc in the water column of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. A total of 35 stations was covered in the central Weddell Sea and the shelf areas around the Filchner Depression and Dronning Mauds Land. Snow samples were collected from the sea ice and from the Antarctic continent to evaluate the importance of the fresh water influence on the Weddell Sea. Oceanographic data, i.e., salinity, temperature, and nutrients, are used to link the trace metal results to the different water masses. The general range found is for cadmium, 0.5-0.8 nM; copper, 2.0-2.9 nM; cobalt, 20-40 nM; nickel, 6-7 nM; lead, 10 pM; zinc, 3-7 nM. The suspended trace metals are a small fraction, but considerably higher than in other oceans. The lowest concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc are found in the surface layer and in the whole water column at the Filchner Depression. Cobalt shows an increase in the surface water compared to the deep water. This is suggested to be generated by the terrogent material from the Antarctic continent from the melting of the ice. No evidence of anthropogenic lead can be seen in the lead profile. Nutrient trace metal relations found show poor statistical correlation in contrast to what is found in other oceans. This assumes that cadmium, copper, and zinc are not directly linked to the bioproduction cycle. However, the nutrient trace metal ratios found support the theory that the Weddell Sea is the ultimate source for generation of the nutrient trace metal ratios in the Pacific Ocean.

  17. Response of nickel surface to pulsed fusion plasma radiations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niranjan, Ram Rout, R. K. Srivastava, R. Gupta, Satish C.; Chakravarthy, Y.; Patel, N. N.; Alex, P.

    2014-04-24

    Nickel based alloys are being projected as suitable materials for some components of the next generation fusion reactor because of compatible thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. Pure nickel material is tested here for possibility of similar application purpose. Nickel samples (> 99.5 % purity) are exposed here to plasma radiations produced due to D-D fusion reaction inside an 11.5 kJ plasma focus device. The changes in the physical properties of the nickel surface at microscopic level which in turn change the mechanical properties are analyzed using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, glancing incident X-ray diffractometer and Vicker's hardness gauge. The results are reported here.

  18. Effects of nickel, chromate, and arsenite on histone 3 lysine...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ARSENIC; CARCINOMAS; CELL DIVISION; CHROMATES; CHROMIUM; DNA; GENES; LUNGS; LYSINE; METHYLATION; MICROSCOPY; NICKEL; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE Word ...

  19. Advanced Nickel Oxide Based Materials for Electrochromic Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Nickel Oxide Based Materials for...

  20. New route toward integrating large nickel nanocrystals onto mesoporous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New route toward integrating large nickel nanocrystals onto mesoporous carbons This content will become publicly available on December 30, 2016 Title: New route toward integrating ...

  1. Fluorescent tracking of nickel ions in human cultured cells ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluorescent tracking of nickel ions in human cultured cells Citation Details In-Document ... B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International ...

  2. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujan, G.K. Haseeb, A.S.M.A. Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  3. Heterobimetallic Metal–Organic Framework as a Precursor to Prepare a Nickel/Nanoporous Carbon Composite Catalyst for 4-Nitrophenol Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Cheng Jun; Li, Xinsong; Zhang, Wen; Ma, Xiaohui; Ren, Yang; Zhang, Xin

    2014-11-01

    Nickel/nanoporous carbon (Ni/NPC) composites are facilely prepared by direct pyrolysis of nonporous heterobimetallic zinc-nickel-terephthalate frameworks (Zn1-xNixMOF, x approximate to 0-1, MOF= metal-organic framework) at 1223 K in situ. Tailoring the Ni/Zn ratio creates densely populated and small Ni nanocrystals (Ni NCs) while maintaining sufficient porosity and surface area in the final product, which exhibits the largest activity factor (9.2 s(-1)g(-1)) and excellent stability toward 4-nitrophenol reduction.

  4. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-07-01

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  5. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P; Tappan, Bryce; Mueller, Alex; Mihaila, Bogdan; Volz, Heather; Cardenas, Andreas; Papin, Pallas; Veauthier, Jackie; Stan, Marius

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  6. Buffer layers on rolled nickel or copper as superconductor substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, Mariappan; Lee, Dominic F.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    Buffer layer architectures are epitaxially deposited on biaxially-textured rolled substrates of nickel and/or copper and their alloys for high current conductors, and more particularly buffer layer architectures such as Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Ni, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Ni (RE=Rare Earth), and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Ni, Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, YSZ/Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Y.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /CeO.sub.2 /Cu, RE.sub.2 O.sub.3 /Cu, and Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 /YSZ/CeO.sub.2 /Cu. Deposition methods include physical vapor deposition techniques which include electron-beam evaporation, rf magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, thermal evaporation, and solution precursor approach, which includes chemical vapor deposition, combustion CVD, metal-organic decomposition, sol-gel processing, and plasma spray.

  7. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide on nickel and tungsten films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, J.M.; Nasser, F.A.K.

    1985-07-18

    The interaction of carbonyl sulfide with evaporated nickel and tungsten films has been investigated in the temperature range 195-450 K using gas pressures ranging from 1 to 13 N m/sup -2/. Rapid but mainly associative chemisorption of COS occurred on both metals at 195 K. Further adsorption of COS on W at temperatures 293-450 K was extremely slow and accompanied by more CO desorption than COS adsorbed. Sulfidation of Ni film by COS occurred at temperatures greater than or equal to 293 K with the liberation of carbon monoxide. The rate of adsorption increased with temperature but was independent of COS pressure. The activation energy (E/sub x/) increased with extent (X) of sulfidation to a limiting value of 97 kJ mol/sup -1/. A linear relationship was obtained from the plot of E/sub x/ against 1/X, suggesting the applicability of Cabrera-Mott theory to the sulfidation of Ni film by COS. 20 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Industrial Experience on the Caustic Cracking of Stainless Steels and Nickel Alloys - A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Caustic environments are present in several industries, from nuclear power generation to the fabrication of alkalis and alumina. The most common material of construction is carbon steel but its application is limited to a maximum temperature of approximately 80 C. The use of Nickel (Ni) alloys is recommended at higher temperatures. Commercially pure Ni is the most resistant material for caustic applications both from the general corrosion and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) perspectives. Nickel rich alloys also offer a good performance. The most important alloying elements are Ni and chromium (Cr). Molybdenum (Mo) is not a beneficial alloying element and it dissolves preferentially from the alloy in presence of caustic environments. Austenitic stainless steels such as type 304 and 316 seem less resistant to caustic conditions than even plain carbon steel. Experimental evidence shows that the most likely mechanism for SCC is anodic dissolution.

  9. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  10. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  11. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, E.T.

    1997-03-11

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorus acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution. 1 fig.

  12. Method for regeneration of electroless nickel plating solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenmann, Erhard T.

    1997-01-01

    An electroless nickel(EN)/hypophosphite plating bath is provided employing acetic acid/acetate as a buffer and which is, as a result, capable of perpetual regeneration while avoiding the production of hazardous waste. A regeneration process is provided to process the spent EN plating bath solution. A concentrated starter and replenishment solution is provided for ease of operation of the plating bath. The regeneration process employs a chelating ion exchange system to remove nickel cations from spent EN plating solution. Phosphites are then removed from the solution by precipitation. The nickel cations are removed from the ion exchange system by elution with hypophosphorous acid and the nickel concentration of the eluate adjusted by addition of nickel salt. The treated solution and adjusted eluate are combined, stabilizer added, and the volume of resulting solution reduced by evaporation to form the bath starter and replenishing solution.

  13. 3-D Metals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Metals Jump to: navigation, search Name 3-D Metals Facility 3-D Metals Sector Wind energy Facility Type Small Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Location Valley City OH...

  14. Acute phytotoxicity of seven metals alone and in mixture: Are Italian soil threshold concentrations suitable for plant protection?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baderna, Diego Lomazzi, Eleonora; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Ciaccia, Gianluca; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2015-07-15

    Metals can pollute soils in both urban and rural areas with severe impacts on the health of humans, plants and animals living there. Information on metal toxicity is therefore important for ecotoxicology. This study investigated the phytotoxicity of different metals frequently found as pollutants in soils: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) and cress (Lepidium sativum) seeds were used as models for other plants used in human nutrition such as cereals, rice, fruits and vegetables. The 72-h germination rate and root elongations were selected as short-term ecotoxicological endpoints in seeds exposed to single metals and mixtures. Metals were spiked onto OECD standard soils in concentrations comparable to current Italian contamination threshold concentrations for residential and commercial soils. Arsenic, chromium, mercury and nickel were the most toxic metals in our experimental conditions, particularly to cress seeds (5.172, 152 and 255.4 mg/kg as 72 h IC50 for arsenic, mercury and nickel respectively). Italian limits were acceptable for plant protection only for exposure to each metal alone but not for the mixtures containing all the metals concentrations expected by their respective legislative threshold. The effects of the mixture were class-specific: trends were comparable in dicots but different in monocots. The response induced by the mixture at high concentrations differed from that theoretically obtainable by summing the effects of the individual metals. This might be due to partial antagonism of the metals in soil or to the formation of complexes between the metals, which reduce the bioavailability of the pollutants for plants. - Graphical abstract: Metals investigated: Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Lead, Mercury, Nickel and Zinc. - Highlights: • The short-term phytotoxicity of seven metals was investigated with 3 higher plants. • Italian limits for arsenic and nickel in

  15. Metallic sulfide additives for positive electrode material within a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, William J.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Yao, Neng-ping; Koura, Kobuyuki

    1976-01-01

    An improved active material for use within the positive electrode of a secondary electrochemical cell includes a mixture of iron disulfide and a sulfide of a polyvalent metal. Various metal sulfides, particularly sulfides of cobalt, nickel, copper, cerium and manganese, are added in minor weight proportion in respect to iron disulfide for improving the electrode performance and reducing current collector requirements.

  16. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  17. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  18. Heavy reflector experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor: Stainless steel, carbon steel and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simoes de; Jerez, Rogerio; Liambos Mura, Luis Felipe; Fuga, Rinaldo

    2013-05-06

    New experiments devoted to the measurements of physical parameters of a light water core surrounded by a heavy reflector were performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. These experiments comprise three sets of heavy reflector (SS-304, Carbon Steel, and Nickel) in a form of laminates around 3 mm thick. Each set was introduced individually in the west face of the core of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The aim here is to provide high quality experimental data for the interpretation and validation of the SS-304 heavy reflector calculation methods. The experiments of Carbon Steel, which is composed mainly of iron, and Nickel were performed to provide a consistent and an interpretative check for the SS-304 reflector experiment. The experimental results comprise critical control bank positions, temperatures and reactivities as a function of the number of the plates. Particularly to the case of Nickel, the experimental data are unique of its kind. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. It was shown that this nuclear data library has a very good performance up to thirteen plates and overestimates the reactivity for higher number of plates independently of the type of the reflector.

  19. Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Hydrogen-Evolution Catalysts Based on Non-Noble Metal Nickel Molybdenum Nitride Nanosheets (1,161 KB) a) TEM image of the stacked MoN nanosheets on carbon supports. The read and white arrows mark the nanosheets that lay flat and stand vertically, respectively. b) A HRTEM image with the crystal structure overlaid looking down along the

  20. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  1. Preparation of nickel aluminum-manganese spinel oxides Ni{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} for oxygen electrocatalysis in alkaline medium: Comparison of properties stemming from different preparation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponce, J.; Rios, E.; Gautier, J.L.; Rehspringer, J.L.; Poillerat, G.; Chartier, P.

    1999-06-01

    Two different procedures were used to prepare spinel-type Ni{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 1) compounds to study the effects of solid state properties of mixed oxides on their electrocatalytic properties. The oxalic route, coprecipitation of metal oxalates dissolved in propanol or ethanol, and the propionic route, hydrolysis of metal carboxylates in propionic acid, have been used. In both routes, thermal decomposition produces the corresponding oxides. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the oxides crystallize in a cubic spinel phase with a unit cell parameter a that increases as aluminum is replaced by nickel. At low x values, compounds prepared by the propionic route showed a larger variation for parameter a than compounds prepared by the oxalic route, probably due to oxygen stoichiometric deficiency. This effect was estimated from the tetrahedral force constant (k{sub 1}) values, which showed a fast decrease as x varied from 0 to 1. Electrical conductivity, conduction activation energy, hole mobility, and pHz of oxides prepared by the propionic route were also higher than those from oxides prepared by the oxalic route. Crystallinity grade and particle size were nearly 50% higher in propionic-route samples than in oxalic-route samples. The apparent and real electrocatalytic activities of both types of oxides were compared for O{sub 2} evolution. 42 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engelhaupt, Darell E.

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  3. Effects of chemical intermixing on electrical and thermal contact conductances at metallized bismuth and antimony telluride interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devender,; Mehta, Rutvik J.; Ramanath, Ganpati; Lofgreen, Kelly; Mahajan, Ravi; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2015-03-15

    Tailoring electrical and thermal contact conductivities (?{sub c} and ?{sub c}) across metallized pnictogen chalcogenide interfaces is key for realizing efficient thermoelectric devices. The authors report that Cu, Ni, Ti, and Ta diffusion and interfacial telluride formation with n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and p-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} influence both ?{sub c} and ?{sub c}. Cu metallization yields the highest ?{sub c} and the lowest ?{sub c}, correlating with maximal metal diffusion and copper telluride formation. Ni diffuses less and yields the highest ?{sub c} with Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} due to p-type nickel telluride formation, which diminishes ?{sub c} improvement with n-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} interfaces. Ta and Ti contacts yield the lowest properties similar to that in Ni-metallized structures. These correlations between interfacial diffusion and phase formation on electronic and thermal transport properties will be important for devising suitable metallization for thermoelectric devices.

  4. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  5. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-20

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  6. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Shinhoo; Selverian, John H.; Kim, Hans J.; Dunn, Edmund M.; Kim, Kyung S.

    1992-01-01

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof.

  7. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, S.; Selverian, J.H.; Kim, H.J.; Dunn, E.M.; Kim, K.S.

    1992-04-28

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod is described. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof. 4 figs.

  8. Electrode Plate For An Eletrlchemical Cell And Having A Metal Foam Type Support, And A Method Of Obtaining Such An Electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude; Stewart, Donald

    1996-05-21

    The electrode plate includes an active portion that is pasted with active material, and a plate head that is made up of three layers of compressed metal foam comprising: a non-pasted portion of height G of the support of the electrode plate; and two strips of non-pasted metal foam of height R on either side of the non-pasted portion of height G of the support and also extending for an overlap height h.sub.2 over the pasted portion of the support. The plate head includes a zone of reduced thickness including a portion that is maximally compressed, and a transitional portion between said maximally compressed portion and the remainder of the electrode which is of thickness e.sub.2. A portion of said plate head forms a connection tab. The method of obtaining the electrode consists in simultaneously rolling all three layers of metal foam in the plate head, and then in cutting matter away from the plates so as to obtain respective connection tabs.

  9. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report, May 8, 2004, Exothermic Metal Reactor Event During Sodium Transfer Activities, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board (Board) appointed by Gerald Boyd, Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy. The Board was appointed to perform a Type B investigation of the accident and prepare an investigation report in accordance with DOE O 225.1A, Accident Investigations.

  10. Powder metallurgy processing and deformation characteristics of bulk multimodal nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farbaniec, L.; Dirras, G.; Krawczynska, A.; Mompiou, F.; Couque, H.; Naimi, F.; Bernard, F.; Tingaud, D.

    2014-08-15

    Spark plasma sintering was used to process bulk nickel samples from a blend of three powder types. The resulting multimodal microstructure was made of coarse (average size ? 135 ?m) spherical microcrystalline entities (the core) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (average grain size ? 1.5 ?m) or a thick rim (the shell) distinguishable from the matrix. Tensile tests revealed yield strength of ? 470 MPa that was accompanied by limited ductility (? 2.8% plastic strain). Microstructure observation after testing showed debonding at interfaces between the matrix and the coarse entities, but in many instances, shallow dimples within the rim were observed indicating local ductile events in the shell. Dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries and twinning at crack tip were the main deformation mechanisms taking place within the fine-grained matrix as revealed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy. Estimation of the stress from loop's curvature and dislocation pile-up indicates that dislocation emission from grain boundaries and grain boundary overcoming largely contributes to the flow stress. - Highlights: Bulk multi-modal Ni was processed by SPS from a powder blend. Ultrafine-grained matrix or rim observed around spherical microcrystalline entities Yield strength (470 MPa) and ductility (2.8% plastic strain) were measured. Debonding was found at the matrix/microcrystalline entity interfaces. In-situ TEM showed twinning, dislocation emission and annihilation at grain boundaries.

  11. Microstructure of selective laser melted nickeltitanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bormann, Therese; Mller, Bert; Kessler, Anja; Thalmann, Peter

    2014-08-15

    In selective laser melting, the layer-wise local melting of metallic powder by means of a scanning focused laser beam leads to anisotropic microstructures, which reflect the pathway of the laser beam. We studied the impact of laser power, scanning speed, and laser path onto the microstructure of NiTi cylinders. Here, we varied the laser power from 56 to 100 W and the scanning speed from about 100 to 300 mm/s. In increasing the laser power, the grain width and length increased from (33 7) to (90 15) ?m and from (60 20) to (600 200) ?m, respectively. Also, the grain size distribution changed from uni- to bimodal. Ostwald-ripening of the crystallites explains the distinct bimodal size distributions. Decreasing the scanning speed did not alter the microstructure but led to increased phase transformation temperatures of up to 40 K. This was experimentally determined using differential scanning calorimetry and explained as a result of preferential nickel evaporation during the fabrication process. During selective laser melting of the NiTi shape memory alloy, the control of scanning speed allows restricted changes of the transformation temperatures, whereas controlling the laser power and scanning path enables us to tailor the microstructure, i.e. the crystallite shapes and arrangement, the extent of the preferred crystallographic orientation and the grain size distribution. - Highlights: Higher laser powers during selective laser melting of NiTi lead to larger grains. Selective laser melting of NiTi gives rise to preferred <111> orientation. The observed Ni/Ti ratio depends on the exposure time. Ostwald ripening explains the bimodal grain size distribution.

  12. NICKEL-CHROMIUM-GERMANIUM ALLOYS FOR STAINLESS STEEL BRAZING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGurty, J.A.; Funston, E.S.

    1959-08-25

    ABS>A new tennary brazing alloy consisting of from 37 to 65 wt.% nickel, from 5 to 40 wt.% chromium, and from 15 to 40 wt.% germanium ts described.

  13. Carbomethoxyethylation of aryl and alkyl bromides catalyzed by nickel complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S.A.; Lopatina, V.S.; Berestova, S.S.; Petrov, E.S.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1986-12-10

    The reaction of aryl and alkyl bromides with methyl acrylate in the presence of water, pyridine, and a nickel catalyst results in the formation of saturated conjugate-addition products, viz. methyl esters of aryl- and alkyl-propionic acids.

  14. In vivo corrosion, tumor outcome, and microarray gene expression for two types of muscle-implanted tungsten alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuster, B.E.; Roszell, L.E.; Murr, L.E.; Ramirez, D.A.; Demaree, J.D.; Klotz, B.R.; Rosencrance, A.B.; Dennis, W.E.; Bao, W.; Perkins, E.J.; Dillman, J.F.; Bannon, D.I.

    2012-11-15

    Tungsten alloys are composed of tungsten microparticles embedded in a solid matrix of transition metals such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. To understand the toxicology of these alloys, male F344 rats were intramuscularly implanted with pellets of tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, or pure tungsten, with tantalum pellets as a negative control. Between 6 and 12 months, aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas formed around tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets, while those of tungsten/nickel/iron or pure tungsten did not cause cancers. Electron microscopy showed a progressive corrosion of the matrix phase of tungsten/nickel/cobalt pellets over 6 months, accompanied by high urinary concentrations of nickel and cobalt. In contrast, non-carcinogenic tungsten/nickel/iron pellets were minimally corroded and urinary metals were low; these pellets having developed a surface oxide layer in vivo that may have restricted the mobilization of carcinogenic nickel. Microarray analysis of tumors revealed large changes in gene expression compared with normal muscle, with biological processes involving the cell cycle significantly up‐regulated and those involved with muscle development and differentiation significantly down‐regulated. Top KEGG pathways disrupted were adherens junction, p53 signaling, and the cell cycle. Chromosomal enrichment analysis of genes showed a highly significant impact at cytoband 7q22 (chromosome 7) which included mouse double minute (MDM2) and cyclin‐dependant kinase (CDK4) as well as other genes associated with human sarcomas. In conclusion, the tumorigenic potential of implanted tungsten alloys is related to mobilization of carcinogenic metals nickel and cobalt from corroding pellets, while gene expression changes in the consequent tumors are similar to radiation induced animal sarcomas as well as sporadic human sarcomas. -- Highlights: ► Tungsten/nickel/cobalt, tungsten/nickel/iron, and pure tungsten were studied. ► Male Fischer rats implanted with

  15. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  16. Sulfur-impurity Induced Amorphization of Nickel | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility Sulfur-impurity Induced Amorphization of Nickel Authors: Yuan, Z., Chen, H.P, Wang, W., Nomura, K., Kalia, R.K., Nakano, A., Vashishta, P. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have shown an essential role of sulfur segregation-induced amorphization of crystalline nickel leading to its embrittlement at a critical sulfur concentration of ∼14%, but the atomistic mechanism of the amorphization remains unexplained. Here, molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the

  17. Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrosilylation Catalysts Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone Hydrosilylation Catalysts Authors: Trovitch, R.J. Title: Comparing Well-Defined Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel Ketone Hydrosilylation Catalysts Source: Synlett Year: 2014 Volume: published online May 8, 2014 Pages: ABSTRACT: A brief review of manganese-catalyzed hydrosilylation is presented along with a personal account of how the design for the highly active catalyst, (Ph2PPrPDI)Mn, was

  18. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  19. Type B Accident Investigation on the June 27, 2002, Exothermic Metal Reaction Event During Converter Disassembly in Building K-33 at the East Tennessee Technology Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board (Board) appointed by Michael Holland, Acting Manager, Oak Ridge Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Nickel coated aluminum battery cell tabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucchi, Robert S.; Casoli, Daniel J.; Campbell, Kathleen M.; Nicotina, Joseph

    2014-07-29

    A battery cell tab is described. The battery cell tab is anodized on one end and has a metal coating on the other end. Battery cells and methods of making battery cell tabs are also described.

  1. PROCESS OF COATING METALS WITH BISMUTH OR BISMUTH-BASE ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, J.G.

    1958-01-28

    A method is described for producing coatings of bismuth or bismuth alloys on a metal base. This is accomplished by electrodepositing the bismuth from an aqueous solution of BiCl/sub 3/, and by making the metal base alternately the cathode and the anode, the cathode periods being twice as long as the anode periods. In one embodiment a nickel coating is first electrodeposited in a known way, and this nickel plated piece is tae base upon which tae bismuth is deposited by the process of this patent. The coated piece is then heat treated to produce a homogeneous Ni--Bi alloy by diffusion.

  2. Revisiting Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Spectra of Nickel Oxide from First Principles: Implications for Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-07-17

    We use two different ab initio quantum mechanics methods, complete active space self-consistent field theory applied to electrostatically embedded clusters and periodic many-body G?W? calculations, to reanalyze the states formed in nickel(II) oxide upon electron addition and ionization. In agreement with interpretations of earlier measurements, we find that the valence and conduction band edges consist of oxygen and nickel states, respectively. However, contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that the oxygen states of the valence band edge are localized whereas the nickel states at the conduction band edge are delocalized. We argue that these characteristics may lead to low electron-hole recombination and relatively efficient electron transport, which, coupled with band gap engineering, could produce higher solar energy conversion efficiency compared to that of other transition-metal oxides. Both methods find a photoemission/inverse-photoemission gap of 3.6-3.9 eV, in good agreement with the experimental range, lending credence to our analysis of the electronic structure of NiO.

  3. Identification of c-Type Heme-Containing Peptides Using Non-Activated Immobilized Metal Affinity Cchromatography Resin Enrichment and Higher-Energy Collisional Dissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haizhen; Yang, Feng; Qian, Weijun; Brown, Roslyn N.; Wang, Yuexi; Merkley, Eric D.; Park, Jea H.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2011-10-01

    c-type cytochromes play essential roles in many biological activities of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including electron transfer, enzyme catalysis and induction of apoptosis. We report a novel enrichment strategy for identifying c-type heme-containing peptides that uses non-activated IMAC resin. The strategy demonstrated at least seven-fold enrichment for heme-containing peptides digested from a cytochrome c protein standard, and quantitative linear performance was also assessed for heme-containing peptide enrichment. Heme-containing peptides extracted from the periplasmic fraction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were further identified using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated the applicability of this enrichment strategy to identify c-type heme-containing peptides from a highly complex biological sample, and at the same time, confirmed the periplasmic localization of heme-containing proteins during suboxic respiration activities of S. oneidensis MR-1.

  4. Zinc, iron, manganese, and magnesium accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagatto, G.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Sudbury basin has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. Elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, and nickel have been reported in crayfish populations close to the Sudbury smelting works. The present study compares concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. These metals were selected since they are known to be emitted in moderately high quantities into the Sudbury environment as byproduct of the smelting process. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish were also examined to determined specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  5. High Temperature Interactions of Antimony with Nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter, the surface and bulk interactions of antimony with the Ni-based anodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) will be discussed. High fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of SOFCs, allowing the direct use of fossil and bio fuels without a hydrogen separation unit. Synthesis gas derived from coal and biomass consists of a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and steam, but finite amounts of tars and trace impurities such as S, Se, P, As, Sb, Cd, Pb, Cl, etc, are also always present. While synthesis gas is commonly treated with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers to remove the impurities, complete purification is not economical. Antimony is widely distributed in coals. During coal gasification antimony is volatilized, such that contact with the SOFC anodes and other SOFC parts, e.g., interconnect, current collecting wires, fuel gas supplying tubing, is most likely. This chapter addresses the following topics: high temperature Ni - Sb interactions; alteration phase, Ni3Sb, Ni5Sb2, NiSb, formation; thermochemical modeling; impact of Sb on the electrocatalytic activity of Ni toward the fuel oxidation and the presence of other impurities (sulfur, in particular); converted anode structural instability during long-term SOFC operation; comparison with nickel heterogeneous catalysts.

  6. Hydrogen ingress into copper-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pound, B.G. . Materials Research Center)

    1994-04-01

    Hydrogen (H) ingress into two copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloys -- a commercial 77% Cu-15% Ni alloy (aged) and alloy K-500 (UNS N05500, aged and unaged) --- was studied using a technique referred to as hydrogen ingress analysis by potentiostatic pulsing (HIAPP). Anodic current transients obtained for these alloys in an acetate buffer (1 mol/L acetic acid + 1 mol/L sodium acetate [NaAc]) were analyzed using a diffusion-trapping model to determine trapping constants and H entry fluxes. A small increase was observed in the irreversible trapping constant for alloy K-500 with aging. Trapping constants of the aged alloys were similar within the limits of uncertainty, but H entry flux for the 77% Cu alloy was lower than that for aged or unaged alloy K-500. The lower flux may have accounted at least partly, for the Cu alloy's higher resistance to H embrittlement. Trap densities were consistent qualitatively with levels of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in the two alloys. This finding supported an assumption that S and P provided the primary irreversible traps.

  7. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knox, Anna Sophia; Paller, Michael H.; Milliken, Charles E.; Redder, Todd M.; Wolfe, John R.; Seaman, John

    2016-04-29

    One challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixedmore » amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 hour experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Moreover, Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p<0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. Finally, these findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination.« less

  8. Influence of process parameters on rolling-contact-fatigue life of ion plated nickel-copper-silver lubrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, we present a connection between argon ion flux, element-mixing, and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of a thin film nickel-copper-silver lubricant on ball bearings. The film is deposited on the balls using an ion plating process and tested for RCF in high vacuum. The ion flux is measured using a Langmuir probe and the plane stress within the film during deposition is calculated using a thin film model. Experiments reveal that there is an inverse relationship between ion flux and RCF life for most deposition voltage and pressure combinations tested, specifically, 15.5-18.5 mTorr and 1.5-3.5 kV. For voltages up to 2.5 kV, RCF life decreases as ion flux increases due to increased compressive stress within the film, reaching as high as 2.6 GPa. For voltages between 2.5 and 3.5 kV, interlayer mixing of nickel and copper with the silver layer reduces RCF life due to contamination, even as ion flux and corresponding film compressive stress are reduced. A Monte Carlo-based simulation tool, SRIM is used to track collision cascades of the argon ions and metal atoms within the coating layers. At process voltages above 2.5 kV we observe elemental mixing of copper and nickel with the silver layer using Auger electron spectroscopy of coated steel and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls. The authors conclude that an ion flux greater than 5.0 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} leads to reduced RCF life due to high film stress. In addition, process voltages greater than 2.5 kV also reduce RCF life due to contamination and interlayer mixing of nickel and copper within the silver layer.

  9. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. Thermal stress development in a nickel based superalloy during weldability test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Z.; Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.

    1997-11-01

    A finite element model has been developed to quantitatively evaluate the local thermomechanical conditions for weld metal solidification cracking in a laboratory weldability test (the Sigmajig test). The loading mechanism in the Sigmajig test was simulated by means of nonlinear spring elements. The effects of weld pool solidification on the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the specimen were considered. An efficient algorithm was developed to include the solidification effects in the material constitutive relations. Stress/temperature/location diagrams were constructed to reveal the local stress development behind the traveling weld pool where solidification cracking occurs. Based on the concept of the material resistance to cracking and the mechanical driving force for cracking, the calculated local stress in the solidification temperature range was used to explain the experimentally observed cracking initiation behaviors of a nickel-based superalloy single crystal under different welding and loading conditions.