National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for type li-ion steady

  1. Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Robustness analysis of State-of-Charge estimation methods for two types of Li-ion batteries i g h l i g h t s battery model parameters are optimized. 2012 Accepted 1 June 2012 Available online 9 June 2012 Keywords: Battery management systems SOC

  2. Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Title Enabling Future Li-Ion Battery Recycling Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2014 Authors Gaines, LL Abstract Presentation made...

  3. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Electrode for Sodium Ion Batteries. Chemistry of Materialsnickel fluoride in Li ion batteries. Electrochimica Actafor advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science and

  4. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    lithium batteries. Electrochemistry Communications 9, 262 (Amatucci, Structure and Electrochemistry of Copper FluorideLi-ion battery, Fe2OF4. Electrochemistry Communications 11,

  5. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared Imaging Techniques 2011 DOE...

  6. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    commercial Li-ion batteries today use graphite or a mixturein certain primary batteries). Graphite has a potential of

  7. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Smith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G.; Shi, Y.; Pesaran, A. 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION...

  8. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of LIB Cathode Materials Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria, Ohio...

  9. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hersam, Northwestern University and CEES EFRC To enhance the performance and lifetime of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, researchers require an improved understanding of the...

  10. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User...

  11. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode Coating, Direct Separator Coating, and Fast Formation Technologies Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion...

  12. Material review of Li ion battery separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Christoph J., E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com; Geiger, Sigrid, E-mail: Christoph.Weber@freudenberg-nw.com [Freudenberg Vliesstoffe SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany); Falusi, Sandra; Roth, Michael [Freudenberg Forschungsdienste SE and Co KG, 69465 Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-06-16

    Separators for Li Ion batteries have a strong impact on cell production, cell performance, life, as well as reliability and safety. The separator market volume is about 500 million m{sup 2} mainly based on consumer applications. It is expected to grow strongly over the next decade for mobile and stationary applications using large cells. At present, the market is essentially served by polyolefine membranes. Such membranes have some technological limitations, such as wettability, porosity, penetration resistance, shrinkage and meltdown. The development of a cell failure due to internal short circuit is potentially closely related to separator material properties. Consequently, advanced separators became an intense area of worldwide research and development activity in academia and industry. New separator technologies are being developed especially to address safety and reliability related property improvements.

  13. Novel Energy Sources -Material Architecture and Charge Transport in Solid State Ionic Materials for Rechargeable Li ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katiyar, Ram S; Gómez, M; Majumder, S B; Morell, G; Tomar, M S; Smotkin, E; Bhattacharya, P; Ishikawa, Y

    2009-01-19

    Since its introduction in the consumer market at the beginning of 1990s by Sony Corporation ‘Li-ion rechargeable battery’ and ‘LiCoO2 cathode’ is an inseparable couple for highly reliable practical applications. However, a separation is inevitable as Li-ion rechargeable battery industry demand more and more from this well serving cathode. Spinel-type lithium manganate (e.g., LiMn2O4), lithium-based layered oxide materials (e.g., LiNiO2) and lithium-based olivine-type compounds (e.g., LiFePO4) are nowadays being extensively studied for application as alternate cathode materials in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Primary goal of this project was the advancement of Li-ion rechargeable battery to meet the future demands of the energy sector. Major part of the research emphasized on the investigation of electrodes and solid electrolyte materials for improving the charge transport properties in Li-ion rechargeable batteries. Theoretical computational methods were used to select electrodes and electrolyte material with enhanced structural and physical properties. The effect of nano-particles on enhancing the battery performance was also examined. Satisfactory progress has been made in the bulk form and our efforts on realizing micro-battery based on thin films is close to give dividend and work is progressing well in this direction.

  14. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries Monday, February 13, 2012 - 1:30pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Stephen J. Harris, General Motors R&D While battery performance is well...

  15. Maximum Li storage in Si nanowires for the high capacity three-dimensional Li-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Moon-Ho

    , such as fuel cells and secondary batteries. Here we report a coin-type Si nanowire NW half-cell Li-ion battery is the central research subject in various energy conversion systems, such as solar cells, fuel cells must be optimally coordinated.7 In this respect, Si nanowire NW arrays can serve as the high capacity

  16. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle...

  17. Influence of Li ions on the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum electrocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H; Xing, YC

    2011-06-01

    A Li-air battery can provide a much higher theoretical energy density than a Li-ion battery. The use of aqueous acidic electrolytes may prevent lithium oxide deposition from aprotic electrolytes and lithium carbonate precipitation from alkaline electrolytes. The present communication reports a study on the effect of Li ions on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in sulfuric acid electrolytes. It was found that the Li ions have negligible interactions with the active surface of Pt catalysts. However, significantly lower ORR activities were found when Li ions are present in the sulfuric acid. The intrinsic kinetic activities were found to decrease with the increase of Li ion concentrations, but level off when the Li ion concentrations are larger than 1.0 M. The low activities of Pt catalysts in Li ion containing electrolytes were attributed to a constraining effect of Li ions on the diffusion of oxygen in the electrolyte solution. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The significance of Li-ion batteries in electric vehicle life-cycle energy and emissions and recycling's role in its reduction Title The significance of Li-ion batteries in...

  19. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  20. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, A.

    2010-01-01

    12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries A. Jaiswal 1 , C. R. Hornenext generation of Li-ion batteries for consumer electronics

  1. Aalborg Universitet Datasheet-based modeling of Li-Ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    SLPB 120216216 53Ah Li-Ion cell. Keywords: battery model, Lithium Ion battery, equivalent circuit model

  2. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries g h l i g h t s We demonstrated that thermal management of Li-ion batteries improves dramatically incorporation leads to significant decrease in the temperature rise in Li-ion batteries. Graphene leads

  3. Li ion migration in Li3PO4 electrolytes: Effects of O vacancies and N substitutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    Li ion migration in Li3PO4 electrolytes: Effects of O vacancies and N substitutions Y. A. Dua and N an understanding of detailed mechanisms of Li ion migration in these materials. In previous work, (7) we used first-principles calculations to model Li ion migration in crystalline Li3PO4, finding very good agreement with the experimental

  4. High Capacity Graphite Anodes for Li-Ion battery applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    High Capacity Graphite Anodes for Li-Ion battery applications using Tin microencapsulation Basker range 1.6V to 0.01V at 0.05 mV/s Physical characterization SEM, EDAX and XRD #12;SEM images of Bare

  5. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-01-01

    for Modeling Steady, Laminar, One-Dimensional PremixedType of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-to support another kind of laminar ?ame that is steady and

  6. Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Polymer graphite composite anodes for Li-ion batteries Basker Veeraraghavan, Bala Haran, Ralph analysis #12;TGA analysis of polymer composite SFG10 samples -0.0 150.0 300.0 450.0 600.0 750.0 900-discharge curves of polymer composite SFG10 samples 0 200 400 600 800 Specific Capacity (mAh/g) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4

  7. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes Citation Details In-Document...

  8. Miniature All-solid-state Heterostructure Nanowire Li-ion Batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    All-solid-state Heterostructure Nanowire Li-ion Batteries as a Toll for Engineering and Structural Diagnostics of Nanoscale Electrochemical Processes Citation Details In-Document...

  9. Analysis of Heat Dissipation in Li-Ion Cells & Modules for Modeling of Thermal Runaway (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2007-05-15

    The objectives of this study are: (1) To develop 3D Li-Ion battery thermal abuse ''reaction'' models for cell and module analysis; (2) To understand the mechanisms and interactions between heat transfer and chemical reactions during thermal runaway for Li-Ion cells and modules; (3) To develop a tool and methodology to support the design of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems for PHEVs/HEVs; and (4) To help battery developers accelerate delivery of abuse-tolerant Li-Ion battery systems in support of the FreedomCAR's Energy Storage Program.

  10. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Experimental Validation Development of CellPack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with Experimental Validation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  11. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of...

  12. Automotive Li-ion Battery Cooling Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartmentAuditsDepartment of EnergyConversionLi-ion

  13. INTRODUCTION Among different types of rechargeable batteries, polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    INTRODUCTION Among different types of rechargeable batteries, polymer lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells% per month), and long cycling life [1]. Such desired features have made Li-ion batteries one the most vehicles with Li- ion batteries in order to reduce or remove the contribution of internal combustion engine

  14. Aalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    in a e-mobility application. Simulation results demonstrate the technical feasibility of this newlyAalborg Universitet Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs Barreras, R. E. (2014). Multi-Objective Control of Balancing Systems for Li-Ion Battery Packs: A paradigm

  15. Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Electrochemical Lithium Harvesting from Waste Li-ion Batteries Byron M. Wolfe III1 , Wen Chao Lee1 This study demonstrates the feasibility of using water and the contents of waste Li-ion batteries for the electrodes in a Li-liquid battery system. Li metal was collected electrochemically from a waste Li

  16. Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries Ralf August 30, 2010 Abstract Battery technology plays an important role in energy storage. In particular, lithium­ ion (Li-ion) batteries are of great interest, because of their high capacity, long cycle life

  17. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion Batteries Dmitry Ruzmetov, all-solid-state Li ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and small footprint are highly, into the nanometer regime, can lead to rapid self-discharge of the battery even when the electrolyte layer

  18. Adsorption and Diffusion of Lithium on Layered Silicon for Li-Ion Georgios A. Tritsaris,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -dimensional silicon in the form of silicene layers for Li-ion storage. KEYWORDS: Lithium-ion battery, energy storage batteries constitute a promising energy storage technology suitable for portable and grid applicationsAdsorption and Diffusion of Lithium on Layered Silicon for Li-Ion Storage Georgios A. Tritsaris

  19. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion batteries. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received September 2013 Keywords: Battery Thermal management Graphene Phase change material a b s t r a c t Li

  20. First principles simulations of Li ion migration in materials related to LiPON electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    energies for Li ion migration. In the course of this work, we discovered new stable crystalline forms of Li. For crystalline materials the activa- tion energy EA is related to the migration energy Em and the "formationFirst principles simulations of Li ion migration in materials related to LiPON electrolytes Y. A

  1. Adaptation of an Electrochemistry-based Li-Ion Battery Model to Account for Deterioration Observed Under Randomized Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    Adaptation of an Electrochemistry-based Li-Ion Battery Model to Account for Deterioration Observed). In this paper, we use an electrochemistry-based lithium ion (Li-ion) battery model developed in (Daigle

  2. A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Aging Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-ion Batteries: Power of a commercial LiFePO4-graphite Li-ion battery. Compared to the isothermal reference, the mechanism of porosity;2 Due to their high power and energy densities, Li-ion technologies are the leading battery systems

  3. Multiscale Simulations of Li Ion Conductivity in Solid Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sushko, Maria L.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2011-09-15

    Optimizing solid electrolyte design for its application in Li-ion and Li-metal batteries requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of ion and electron transport in the material at the nano- to micron-scales. We have performed simulations of Li+ and electron conductivity in lithium phosphorus oxynitride, one of the most widely used solid electrolytes, using novel hierarchical multiscale models. By comparing the results of one- and three-dimensional models we show that for this material with complex non-linear Li+ diffusion pathways three-dimensional description is essential for reproducing experimentally measured conductivity. We also suggest some basic principles to design optimum electrolyte tailored for low and high temperature regimes.

  4. Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, Ann Marie

    Mesoscale Modeling of a Li-Ion Polymer Cell Chia-Wei Wanga, * and Ann Marie Sastrya,b,c, *,z, the study reported critical data required for mesoscale numerical simulation, including ionic con- ductivity

  5. Second-Use Li-Ion Batteries to Aid Automotive and Utility Industries (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Repurposing Li-ion batteries at the end of useful life in electric drive vehicles could eliminate owners' disposal concerns and offer low-cost energy storage for certain applications.

  6. An ultra-compact and efficient Li-ion battery charger circuit for biomedical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do Valle, Bruno Guimaraes

    This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger for wirelessly powered implantable medical devices. The charger presented here takes advantage of the tanh output current profile of an ...

  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report LBNL-725E 1 A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory report LBNL-725E 1 A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames;Nomenclature fuel equivalence ratio 1 Introduction There is growing evidence that a new type of laminar

  8. Facile synthesis of nanostructured vanadium oxide as cathode materials for efficient Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -ion batteries Yanyi Liu,a Evan Uchaker,a Nan Zhou,ab Jiangang Li,ac Qifeng Zhanga and Guozhong Cao*a Received 23 and VO2 (B) nanorods were tested as active cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The V2O5 sheet for efficient Li-ion batteries. Introduction The expansion and demands for energy use in the past several

  9. NREL's PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Secondary-Use Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-06-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) is restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the Li-ion battery's cost via reuse in other applications after it is retired from service in the vehicle, when the battery may still have sufficient performance to meet the requirements of other energy storage applications.

  10. Silicon Based Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Wei; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Deyu; Liu, Jun

    2012-06-15

    Silicon is environmentally benign and ubiquitous. Because of its high specific capacity, it is considered one of the most promising candidates to replace the conventional graphite negative electrode used in today's Li ion batteries. Silicon has a theoretical specific capacity of nearly 4200 mAh/g (Li21Si5), which is 10 times larger than the specific capacity of graphite (LiC6, 372 mAh/g). However, the high capacity of silicon is associated with huge volume changes (more than 300 percent) when alloyed with lithium, which can cause severe cracking and pulverization of the electrode and lead to significant capacity loss. Significant scientific research has been conducted to circumvent the deterioration of silicon based anode materials during cycling. Various strategies, such as reduction of particle size, generation of active/inactive composites, fabrication of silicon based thin films, use of alternative binders, and the synthesis of 1-D silicon nanostructures have been implemented by a number of research groups. Fundamental mechanistic research has also been performed to better understand the electrochemical lithiation and delithiation process during cycling in terms of crystal structure, phase transitions, morphological changes, and reaction kinetics. Although efforts to date have not attained a commercially viable Si anode, further development is expected to produce anodes with three to five times the capacity of graphite. In this chapter, an overview of research on silicon based anodes used for lithium-ion battery applications will be presented. The overview covers electrochemical alloying of the silicon with lithium, mechanisms responsible for capacity fade, and methodologies adapted to overcome capacity degradation observed during cycling. The recent development of silicon nanowires and nanoparticles with significantly improved electrochemical performance will also be discussed relative to the mechanistic understanding. Finally, future directions on the development of silicon based anodes will be considered.

  11. Novel Laser-Based Manufacturing of nano-LiFePO4-Based Materials for High Power Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horne, Craig R.; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Chang, On; Crane, S.; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Emile

    2006-01-01

    II “Olivines in Lithium Batteries” The Beckman Institute,for High Power Li Ion Batteries C.R. Horne 1 , A. Jaiswal

  12. Electrochemical characteristics of plasma-etched black silicon as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gibaek; Wehrspohn, Ralf B., E-mail: ralf.b.wehrspohn@iwmh.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, Halle (Saale) 06120, Germany and Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany); Schweizer, Stefan L. [Department of Physics, Martin-Luther University, Halle (Saale) 06099 (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    Nanostructured silicon as an anode material for Li-ion batteries is produced for the first time by inductively coupled plasma–plasma etching of Si wafers in the black silicon regime. The microscopic structure strongly resembles other types of nanostructured silicon, with a well-arranged nanostructure possessing a sufficient porosity for accommodating large volume expansion. Despite these features, however, a high first-cycle irreversible capacity loss and a poor cycle life are observed. The main reason for these poor features is the formation of a thick solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer related to the surface condition of the pristine nanostructured black silicon (b-Si) electrode. Therefore, the cycle life of the b-Si electrode is heavily influenced by the constant reformation of the SEI layer depending upon the surface composition in spite of the presence of nanostructured Si. In the fast lithiation experiments, the nanostructure region of the b-Si electrode is detached from the Si substrate owing to the kinetics difference between the lithium ion diffusion and the electron injection and phase transformation in the nanostructured Si region. This means that more Si substrate is involved in lithiation at high current rates. It is therefore important to maintain balance in the chemical kinetics during the lithiation of nanostructured Si electrodes with a Si substrate.

  13. A numerical study of steady-state vortex configurations and vortex pinning in type-II superconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sangbum

    2006-04-12

    In part I, a numerical study of the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied ...

  14. Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4-Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Simplified Electrochemical and Thermal Model of LiFePO4- Graphite Li-Ion Batteries for Fast Charge, a simplified electrochemical and thermal model of LiFePO4-graphite based Li-ion batteries is developed for battery management system (BMS) applications and comprehensive aging investigations. Based on a modified

  15. Aalborg Universitet Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    Aalborg Universitet Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems, R. E. (2014). Influence of Li-ion Battery Models in the Sizing of Hybrid Storage Systems Storage Systems with Supercapacitors Cl´audio Pinto, Jorge V. Barreras, Ricardo de Castro, Erik Schaltz

  16. Electrostatic Energy Harvester and Li-Ion Charger Circuit for Micro-Scale Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    of the available technologies [7]. Mobile and outdoors applications, for instance, are more likely to vibrateElectrostatic Energy Harvester and Li-Ion Charger Circuit for Micro-Scale Applications Erick O-cycle operation, smart power-aware net- work architectures, and batteries with improved energy density, the stored

  17. A Model Reduction Framework for Efficient Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Model Reduction Framework for Efficient Simulation of Li-Ion Batteries Mario Ohlberger Stephan of degradation processes in lithium-ion batteries, the modelling of cell dynamics at the mircometer scale algorithms. In this contribution we discuss the reduction of microscale battery models with the reduced basis

  18. Atomistic insights into Li-ion diffusion in amorphous silicon , Afif Gouissem a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Pradeep

    are a critical part of the future energy storage needs in a broad range of applica- tions: portable electronics is currently focused on understanding the basic materials science underscoring these energy storage devicesAtomistic insights into Li-ion diffusion in amorphous silicon Xin Yan a , Afif Gouissem a , Pradeep

  19. First principles simulations of Li ion migration in materials related to LiPON electrolytes a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    of known materials reported in the literature together with new stable and meta-stable predictedFirst principles simulations of Li ion migration in materials related to LiPON electrolytes materials in the LixPOyNz family (x = 2y + 3z - 5). In order to systematize the current state

  20. Stochastic reconstruction and electrical transport studies of porous cathode of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    are among the most viable candidates for next generation, clean, and potentially fossil fuels independent. Siddique, Amir Salehi, Fuqiang Liu* Electrochemical Energy Laboratory, Department of Materials Science of detailed understanding has stagnated the development of the next generation Li-ion batteries. The state

  1. Nanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    density.1 The graphite generally used in lithium rechargeable batteries has a capacity of 372 mNanoparticle iron-phosphate anode material for Li-ion battery Dongyeon Son School of Materials rechargeable batteries. The electrochemical properties of the nanoparticle iron phosphates were characterized

  2. Aalborg Universitet A novel BEV concept based on fixed and swappable li-ion battery packs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    and Control, Robotics and Mechatronics Center German Aerospace Center (DLR), Wessling, D-82234, Germany Email@fe.up.pt Abstract--In this paper a novel battery electric vehicle (BEV) concept based on a small fixed and a big swappable li-ion battery pack is proposed in order to achieve: longer range, lower initial purchase price

  3. Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number Ayan Ghosh The electrochemical properties of a solid polymer electrolyte consisting of a diblock copolymer and lithium bis of withstanding such high voltage conditions. Unlike traditional liquid electrolytes, solid-state polymer electro

  4. Measurements of the Fracture Energy of Lithiated Silicon Electrodes of Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Measurements of the Fracture Energy of Lithiated Silicon Electrodes of Li-Ion Batteries Matt Pharr, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States ABSTRACT: We have measured the fracture energy of lithiated of the observed cracks appear brittle in nature. By determining the condition for crack initiation, the fracture

  5. Investigation of Path Dependence in Commercial Li-ion Cells Chosen for PHEV Duty Cycle Protocols (paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Gering

    2011-04-01

    Path dependence is emerging as a premier issue of how electrochemical cells age in conditions that are diverse and variable in the time domain. For example, lithium-ion cells in a vehicle configuration will experience a variable combination of usage and rest periods over a range of temperature and state of charge (SOC). This is complicated by the fact that some aging can actually become worse (or better) when a lithium-ion cell is idle for extended periods under calendar-life (calL) aging, as opposed to cycle-life (cycL) conditions where the cell is used within a predictable schedule. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between highly idealized and controlled laboratory test conditions and actual field conditions regarding PHEV applications, so that field-type aging mechanisms can be mimicked and quantified in a repeatable laboratory setting. The main parameters are the magnitude and frequency of the thermal cycling, looking at isothermal, mild, and severe scenarios. To date, little is known about Li-ion aging effects caused by thermal cycling superimposed onto electrochemical cycling, and related path dependence. This scenario is representative of what Li-ion batteries will experience in vehicle service, where upon the typical start of a HEV/PHEV, the batteries will be cool or cold, will gradually warm up to normal temperature and operate there for a time, then will cool down after the vehicle is turned off. Such thermal cycling will occur thousands of times during the projected life of a HEV/PHEV battery pack. We propose to quantify the effects of thermal cycling on Li-ion batteries using a representative chemistry that is commercially available. The secondary Li-ion cells used in this study are of the 18650 configuration, have a nominal capacity rating of 1.9 Ah, and consist of a {LiMn2O4 + LiMn(1/3)Ni(1/3)Co(1/3)O2} cathode and a graphite anode. Electrochemical cycling is based on PHEV-relevant cycle-life protocols that are a combination of charge depleting (CD) and charge sustaining (CS) modes discussed in the Battery Test Manual for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (INL, March 2008, rev0). A realistic duty cycle will involve both CD and CS modes, the proportion of each defined by the severity of the power demands. We assume that the cells will start each cycling day at 90% SOC, and that they will not be allowed to go below 35% SOC, with operation around 70% SOC being a nominal condition. The 35, 70, and 90% SOC conditions are also being used to define critical aspects of the related reference performance test (RPT) for this investigation. There are three primary components to the RPT, all assessed at room temperature: (A) static and residual capacity (SRC) over a matrix of current, (B) kinetics and pulse performance testing (PPT) over current for SOCs of interest, and (C) EIS for SOCs of interest. The RPT is performed on all cells every 30 day test interval, as well as a pulse-per-day to provide a quick diagnostic snapshot. Where feasible, we utilize various elements of Diagnostic Testing (DT) to characterize performance of the cells and to gain mechanistic-level knowledge regarding both performance features and limitations. We will present the rationale behind the experimental design, early data, and discuss the fundamental tools used to elucidate performance degradation mechanisms.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced High Energy Li-Ion Cell for PHEV and EV Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by 3M at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced high energy Li-ion cell for PHEV...

  7. Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiPF6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Influence Formation of AlF 3 Passive Film on Aluminum in Li-Identity of Passive Film Formed on Aluminum in Li-ionEngineering Abstract The passive film that forms on aluminum

  8. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  9. Silicon Nanoparticles-Graphene Paper Composites for Li Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jeong K.; Smith, Kurt B.; Hayner, Cary M.; Kung, Harold H

    2010-01-01

    Composites of Si nanoparticles highly dispersed between graphene sheets, and supported by a 3-D network of graphite formed by reconstituting regions of graphene stacks exhibit high Li ion storage capacities and cycling stability. An electrode was prepared with a storage capacity >2200 mA h g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles and >1500 mA h g{sup ?1} after 200 cycles that decreased by <0.5% per cycle.

  10. Selected test results from the neosonic polymer Li-ion battery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingersoll, David T.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2010-07-01

    The performance of the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery was measured using a number of tests including capacity, capacity as a function of temperature, ohmic resistance, spectral impedance, hybrid pulsed power test, utility partial state of charge (PSOC) pulsed cycle test, and an over-charge/voltage abuse test. The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of the polymer Li-ion battery technology for utility applications requiring frequent charges and discharges, such as voltage support, frequency regulation, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. Test results have indicated that the Neosonic polymer Li-ion battery technology can provide power levels up to the 10C{sub 1} discharge rate with minimal energy loss compared to the 1 h (1C) discharge rate. Two of the three cells used in the utility PSOC pulsed cycle test completed about 12,000 cycles with only a gradual loss in capacity of 10 and 13%. The third cell experienced a 40% loss in capacity at about 11,000 cycles. The DC ohmic resistance and AC spectral impedance measurements also indicate that there were increases in impedance after cycling, especially for the third cell. Cell No.3 impedance Rs increased significantly along with extensive ballooning of the foil pouch. Finally, at a 1C (10 A) charge rate, the over charge/voltage abuse test with cell confinement similar to a multi cell string resulted in the cell venting hot gases at about 45 C 45 minutes into the test. At 104 minutes into the test the cell voltage spiked to the 12 volt limit and continued out to the end of the test at 151 minutes. In summary, the Neosonic cells performed as expected with good cycle-life and safety.

  11. Surface treated natural graphite as anode material for high-power Li-ion battery applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.; Barsukov, I. V.; Henry, F.; Doniger, J.; Chemical Engineering; Superior Graphite Co.

    2006-01-01

    High power application of Li-ion battery in hybrid electrical vehicles requires low cost and safe cell materials. Among the various carbon anode materials used in lithium ion batteries, natural graphite shows the most promise with advantages in performance and cost. However, natural graphite is not compatible with propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolytes, which have a lower melting point and improved safety characteristics. The problem with it is that the molecules of propylene carbonate intercalate with Li+ into graphite, and that frequently leads to the exfoliation of the graphite matrix.

  12. Anodic polymerization of vinyl ethylene carbonate in Li-Ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Guoying; Zhuang, Guorong V.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gao, Liu; Ross Jr., Philip N.

    2005-02-28

    A study of the anodic oxidation of vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC) was conducted with post-mortem analysis of reaction products by ATR-FTIR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The half-wave potential (E1/2) for oxidation of VEC is ca. 3.6 V producing a resistive film on the electrode surface. GPC analysis of the film on a gold electrode produced by anodization of a commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte containing 2 percent VEC at 4.1 V showed the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. IR analysis indicated polycarbonate with alkyl carbonate rings linked by aliphatic methylene and methyl branches.

  13. Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds Jump to:LaredoLeelanauLeonicsLewisville,Li ion

  14. Development of High Energy Cathode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1 DOEEnergyEnergy for Li-ion

  15. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Accelerated development and market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (Evs) are restricted at present by the high cost of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. One way to address this problem is to recover a fraction of the battery cost via reuse in other applications after the battery is retired from service in the vehicle, if the battery can still meet the performance requirements of other energy storage applications. In several current and emerging applications, the secondary use of PHEV and EV batteries may be beneficial; these applications range from utility peak load reduction to home energy storage appliances. However, neither the full scope of possible opportunities nor the feasibility or profitability of secondary use battery opportunities have been quantified. Therefore, with support from the Energy Storage activity of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is addressing this issue. NREL will bring to bear its expertise and capabilities in energy storage for transportation and in distributed grids, advanced vehicles, utilities, solar energy, wind energy, and grid interfaces as well as its understanding of stakeholder dynamics. This presentation introduces NREL's PHEV/EV Li-ion Battery Secondary-Use project.

  16. Cahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles Yi Zeng1, Martin Z. Bazant1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    Cahn-Hilliard Reaction Model for Isotropic Li-ion Battery Particles Yi Zeng1, Martin Z. Bazant1,2 1 particle. This general approach extends previous Li-ion battery models, which either neglect phase separation or postulate a spherical shrinking-core phase boundary under all conditions, by predicting phase

  17. Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Heat generation rate measurement in a Li-ion cell at large C-rates through temperature and heat Keywords: Lithium-ion batteries Heat generation rate measurement Heat flux sensor Thermal conduction Battery safety a b s t r a c t Understanding the rate of heat generation in a Li-ion cell is critical

  18. Structural Underpinnings of the Enhanced Cycling Stability upon Al-Substitution in LiNi0.45Mn0.45Co0.1-yAlyO2 Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    materials for Li-ion batteries Thomas E. Conry, a,b Apurvamaterials in Li-ion batteries. Synchrotron-based high-materials for Li-ion batteries. LiNi z Mn z Co 1-2z O 2 (NMC

  19. Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Ultrathin Spinel LiMn2O4 Nanowires as High Power Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries Hyun diameters less than 10 nm and lengths of several micrometers. Galvanostatic battery testing showed that Li, lithium ion battery, LiMn2O4 nanowires, high power density, Jahn-Teller distortion T he high energy

  20. Figure 1. Schematic drawing showing the components of a Li-ion battery cell and the information that can be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    showing the concept of the smallest working battery based on a single nanowire (left). TEM image of the Sn transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of the electrode during the battery's operation. EssentiallyFigure 1. Schematic drawing showing the components of a Li-ion battery cell and the information

  1. Applied Surface Science 266 (2013) 516 Interphase chemistry of Si electrodes used as anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    to the lithiation of graphite, which also contributes to the increase of the energy density of the battery. Among in Li-ion batteries Catarina Pereira-Nabaisa,b , Jolanta S´wiatowskaa, , Alexandre Chagnesb, , Franc made to increase the energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), namely for electric vehicle

  2. Li Ion Diffusion Mechanisms in the Crystalline Electrolyte Yaojun A. Du and N. A. W. Holzwarth*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    electronically September 6, 2007. Recently, there has been a lot of interest in solid electrolyte ma- terialsLi Ion Diffusion Mechanisms in the Crystalline Electrolyte -Li3PO4 Yaojun A. Du and N. A. W. Holzwarth*,z Department of Physics, Wake-Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109, USA Solid

  3. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grcar, Joseph F; Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-06-30

    Ultra-lean, hydrogen-air mixtures are found to support another kind of laminar flame that is steady and stable beside flat flames and flame balls. Direct numerical simulations are performed of flames that develop into steadily and stably propagating cells. These cells were the original meaning of the word"flamelet'' when they were observed in lean flammability studies conducted early in the development of combustion science. Several aspects of these two-dimensional flame cells are identified and are contrasted with the properties of one-dimensional flame balls and flat flames. Although lean hydrogen-air flames are subject to thermo-diffusive effects, in this case the result is to stabilize the flame rather than to render it unstable. The flame cells may be useful as basic components of engineering models for premixed combustion when the other types of idealized flames are inapplicable.

  4. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Marcinek, L. J.Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Density Li-ion Cells for EV’s Based on Novel, High Voltage Cathode Material Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Farasis at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy density Li-ion cells for...

  6. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

    2010-03-05

    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  7. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  8. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A.; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes (?S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  9. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  10. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  11. Title: Single-Inductor Fuel CellLi Ion ChargerSupply IC with Nested Hysteretic Control Suhwan Kim, Student Member, IEEE, and Gabriel A. Rincn-Mora, Fellow, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 Title: Single-Inductor Fuel Cell­Li Ion Charger­Supply IC with Nested Hysteretic Control Authors, miniaturized devices benefit from deriving energy from fuel cells (FCs) and power from Li Ions, rather than-inductor, dual-input, dual-output (SIDIDO) charger-supply 0.5-µm CMOS IC with a nested hysteretic-control scheme

  12. Abstract--A novel, accurate, compact, and power efficient Lith-ium-Ion (Li-Ion) battery charger designed to yield maximum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 Abstract-- A novel, accurate, compact, and power efficient Lith- ium-Ion (Li-Ion) battery charger verified. The proposed charger uses a diode to smoothly (i.e., continuously) transition between two high Terms-- Adaptive power supply, constant current charger (CC), constant voltage charger (CV), Li

  13. 26.2 Single-Inductor Dual-Input Dual-Output Buck-Boost Fuel Cell-Li Ion Charging DC-DC Converter Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    1 26.2 Single-Inductor Dual-Input Dual-Output Buck-Boost Fuel Cell-Li Ion Charging DC-DC Converter battery with its energy-dense counterpart like the fuel cell (FC) improves micro-scale integration [2]. As a result, buck or boost single-inductor, dual-input, dual-output (SIDIDO) converters enjoy

  14. Recent advances on the understanding of structural and composition evolution of LMR cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-06-08

    Lithium-rich, magnesium-rich (LMR) cathode materials have been regarded as one of the very promising cathodes for Li-ion battery applications. However, their practical application is still limited by several challenges, especially by their limited electrochemical stability rate capability. In this work, we present recent progresses on the understanding of the structural and composition evolution of LMR cathode materials with emphasis being placed on the correlation between structural/chemical evolution and electrochemical properties. In particular, using Li [Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 as a typical example, we clearly illustrate the structural characteristics of the pristine materials and their dependence on the materials processing history, cycling induced structuralmore »degradation/chemical partition and their correlation with degradation of electrochemical performance. The fundamental understanding obtained in this work may also guide the design and preparation of new cathode materials based on ternary system of transitional metal oxide.« less

  15. A Computational Investigation of Li(subscript 9)M(subscript 3)(P(subscript 2)O(subscript 7))(subscript 3)(PO(subscript 4))(subscript 2) (M = V, Mo) as Cathodes for Li Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Anubhav

    Cathodes with high energy density and safety are sought to improve the performance of Li ion batteries for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. In this study, we examine the properties of the potential ...

  16. Air stable Al2O3-coated Li2NiO2 cathode additive as a surplus current consumer in a Li-ion cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    increases to 2.75V (2.85V vs. graphite), its discharge capacity decreases to 120 mAh/g, which corresponds for the irreversible capacity of the Li-ion cell using LiCoO2 and natural graphite as cathode and anode materials the complete decomposition of the Li2NiO2. 1. Introduction Most Li secondary batteries use LiCoO2 as a cathode

  17. Novel materials for Li-ion batteries is one of the principle thrust areas of current research in energy storage. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's performance is the low specific capacities of the active

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in energy storage. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's performance is the low specific capacities of the active materials in the electrodes. Anode materials based on silicon have generated much interest of late. Both cubic and amorphous silicon can reversibly alloy with lithium and have a theoretical

  18. Probing the Degradation Mechanisms in Electrolyte Solutions for Li-ion Batteries by In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Mehdi, Beata L.; Parent, Lucas R.; Gu, Meng; Park, Chiwoo; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Yaohui; Arslan, Ilke; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-03-12

    One of the goals in the development of new battery technologies is to find new electrolytes with increased electrochemical stability. In-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using an electrochemical fluid cell provides the ability to rapidly and directly characterize electrode/electrolyte interfacial reactions under battery relevant electrochemical conditions. Furthermore, as the electron beam itself causes a localized electrochemical reaction when it interacts with the electrolyte, the breakdown products that occur during the first stages of battery operation can potentially be simulated and characterized using a straightforward in-situ liquid stage (without electrochemical biasing capabilities). In this paper, we have studied the breakdown of a range of inorganic/salt complexes that are used in state-of-the-art Li-ion battery systems. The results of the in-situ (S)TEM experiments matches with previous stability tests performed during battery operation and the breakdown products and mechanisms are also consistent with known mechanisms. This analysis indicates that in-situ liquid stage (S)TEM observations can be used to directly test new electrolyte designs and provide structural insights into the origin of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation mechanism.

  19. A New Charging Method for Li-ion Batteries: Dependence of the charging time on the Direction of an Additional Oscillating Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamad, I Abou; Wipf, D O; Rikvold, P A

    2010-01-01

    We have recently proposed a new method for charging Li-ion batteries based on large-scale molecular dynamics studies (I. Abou Hamad et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 12, 2740 (2010)). Applying an additional oscillating electric field in the direction perpendicular to the graphite sheets of the anode showed an exponential decrease in charging time with increasing amplitude of the applied oscillating field. Here we present new results exploring the effect on the charging time of changing the orientation of the oscillating field. Results for oscillating fields in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  20. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Li, Ning [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wu, Borong [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Beijing Higher Institution Engineering Research Center of Power Battery and Chemical Energy Materials (China); Xu, Hongliang [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Wang, Lei [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Chemistry Dept.; Wu, Feng [Beijing Inst. of Technology (China). Key Lab. of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achieving around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.

  1. Sphere-Shaped Hierarchical Cathode with Enhanced Growth of Nanocrystal Planes for High-Rate and Cycling-Stable Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Linjing; Li, Ning; Wu, Borong; Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-14

    High-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries have been intensively pursued as power sources in electronic vehicles and renewable energy storage systems in smart grids. With this purpose, developing high-performance cathode materials is urgently needed. Here we report an easy and versatile strategy to fabricate high-rate and cycling-stable hierarchical sphered cathode Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2, by using an ionic interfusion method. The sphere-shaped hierarchical cathode is assembled with primary nanoplates with enhanced growth of nanocrystal planes in favor of Li+ intercalation/deintercalation, such as (010), (100), and (110) planes. This material with such unique structural features exhibits outstanding rate capability, cyclability, and high discharge capacities, achievingmore »around 70% (175 mAhg–1) of the capacity at 0.1 C rate within about 2.1 min of ultrafast charging. Such cathode is feasible to construct high-energy and high-power Li-ion batteries.« less

  2. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  3. Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    polymeric binders for Lithium-ion battery anode Tianxiang Gao Advisor: Dr. Ximin He April 20, 2015; 2:00 PMTin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries polymeric structure can offer the pathway for Lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte

  4. A Steady Lessening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Chloe Cooper

    2012-05-31

    . ________________________________ Chairperson Dr. Philip Barnard ________________________________ Dr. Kathryn Conrad ________________________________ Dr. Frank Farmer ________________________________ Dr. Mary Klayder...: A STEADY LESSENING ________________________________ Chairperson Dr. Philip Barnard Date approved: 11 April 2012 iii Abstract Presented here is a novella plus an academic introduction. The introduction attempts...

  5. First-Principles Study of Novel Conversion Reactions for High-Capacity Li-Ion Battery Anodes in the Li-Mg-B-N-H System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, T.H.; Graetz, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, J.; Majzoub, E.H.

    2011-07-28

    Anodes for Li-ion batteries are primarily carbon-based due to their low cost and long cycle life. However, improvements to the Li capacity of carbon anodes, LiC{sub 6} in particular, are necessary to obtain a larger energy density. State-of-the-art light-metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications often contain Li and involve reactions requiring Li transport, and light-metal ionic hydrides are candidates for novel conversion materials. Given a set of known solid-state and gas-phase reactants, we have determined the phase diagram in the Li-Mg-B-N-H system in the grand canonical ensemble, as a function of lithium chemical potential. We present computational results for several new conversion reactions with capacities between 2400 and 4000 mAh g{sup -1} that are thermodynamically favorable and that do not involve gas evolution. We provide experimental evidence for the reaction pathway on delithiation for the compound Li{sub 4}BN{sub 3}H{sub 10}. While the predicted reactions involve multiple steps, the maximum volume increase for these materials on lithium insertion is significantly smaller than that for Si.

  6. A Novel In-situ Electrochemical Cell for Neutron Diffraction Studies of Phase Transitions in Small Volume Electrodes of Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vadlamani, Bhaskar S; An, Ke; Jagannathan, M.; Ravi Chandran, K.

    2014-01-01

    The design and performance of a novel in-situ electrochemical cell that greatly facilitates the neutron diffraction study of complex phase transitions in small volume electrodes of Li-ion cells, is presented in this work. Diffraction patterns that are Rietveld-refinable could be obtained simultaneously for all the electrodes, which demonstrates that the cell is best suited to explore electrode phase transitions driven by the lithiation and delithiation processes. This has been facilitated by the use of single crystal (100) Si sheets as casing material and the planar cell configuration, giving improved signal-to-noise ratio relative to other casing materials. The in-situ cell has also been designed for easy assembly and to facilitate rapid experiments. The effectiveness of cell is demonstrated by tracking the neutron diffraction patterns during the charging of graphite/LiCoO2 and graphite/LiMn2O4 cells. It is shown that good quality neutron diffraction data can be obtained and that most of the finer details of the phase transitions, and the associated changes in crystallographic parameters in these electrodes, can be captured.

  7. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    a new cathode material for batteries of high energy density.energy sources, are strong drivers for fundamental research in new materials

  8. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    for advanced lithium ion batteries. Materials Science andin high voltage lithium ion batteries: A joint experimentalof rechargeable lithium-ion batteries after prolonged

  9. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion batteries.batteries. The Na anode materials must not be overlooked since graphite-

  10. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    materials. Energy & Environmental Science 4, 3680 (Sep,ion batteries. Energy & Environmental Science 4, 3223 (Sep,study. Energy & Environmental Science, A. Rudola, K.

  11. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Jul, 2001). Z. H. Lu, J. R. Dahn, In situ X-ray diffraction4109 (2011). Z. Lu, J. R. Dahn, In Situ X-Ray Diffraction9306 (2011). Z. H. Lu, J. R. Dahn, Can all the lithium be

  12. Beyond Conventional Cathode Materials for Li-ion Batteries and Na-ion Batteries Nickel fluoride conversion materials and P2 type Na-ion intercalation cathodes /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dae Hoe

    2013-01-01

    H. Futata, N. Yamazoe, Solid electrolyte CO2 sensor usingconduction, initially as solid electrolytes [45-47] and moreas the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer

  13. Quantum steady computation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castagnoli, G. )

    1991-08-10

    This paper reports that current conceptions of quantum mechanical computers inherit from conventional digital machines two apparently interacting features, machine imperfection and temporal development of the computational process. On account of machine imperfection, the process would become ideally reversible only in the limiting case of zero speed. Therefore the process is irreversible in practice and cannot be considered to be a fundamental quantum one. By giving up classical features and using a linear, reversible and non-sequential representation of the computational process - not realizable in classical machines - the process can be identified with the mathematical form of a quantum steady state. This form of steady quantum computation would seem to have an important bearing on the notion of cognition.

  14. Typical Pure Nonequilibrium Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takaaki Monnai; Kazuya Yuasa

    2014-08-12

    We show that typicality holds for a class of nonequilibrium systems, i.e., nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs): almost all the pure states properly sampled from a certain Hilbert space well represent a NESS and characterize its intrinsic thermal nature. We clarify the relevant Hilbert space from which the pure states are to be sampled, and construct practically all the typical pure NESSs. The scattering approach leads us to the natural extension of the typicality for equilibrium systems. Each pure NESS correctly yields the expectation values of observables given by the standard ensemble approach. It means that we can calculate the expectation values in a NESS with only a single pure NESS. We provide an explicit construction of the typical pure NESS for a model with two reservoirs, and see that it correctly reproduces the Landauer-type formula for the current flowing steadily between the reservoirs.

  15. Trimodal steady water waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Erik Wahlén

    2013-10-31

    We construct three-dimensional families of small-amplitude gravity-driven rotational steady water waves on finite depth. The solutions contain counter-currents and multiple crests in each minimal period. Each such wave generically is a combination of three different Fourier modes, giving rise to a rich and complex variety of wave patterns. The bifurcation argument is based on a blow-up technique, taking advantage of three parameters associated with the vorticity distribution, the strength of the background stream, and the period of the wave.

  16. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2013-05-14

    Li-rich layered material Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 possesses high voltage and high specific capacity, which makes it an attractive candidate for the transportation industry and sustainable energy storage systems. The rechargeable capacity of the Li-ion battery is linked largely to the structural stability of the cathode materials during the charge-discharge cycles. However, the structure and cation distribution in pristine (un-cycled) Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 have not yet been fully characterized. Using a combination of aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy, X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (XEDS), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), and complementary multislice image simulation, we have probed the crystal structure, cation/anion distribution, and electronic structure of Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 nanoparticle. We discovered that the electronic structure and valence state of transition metal ions show significant variations, which have been identified to be attributed to the oxygen deficiency near the particle surfaces. Characterization of the nanoscale phase separation and cation ordering in the pristine material are critical for understanding the capacity and voltage fading of this material for battery application.

  17. Steady-state and equilibrium vortex configurations, transitions, and evolution in a mesoscopic superconducting cylinder 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Hu, Chia-Ren; Andrews, MJ.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical scheme to study the mixed states in a mesoscopic type-II superconducting cylinder is described. Steady-state configurations and transient behavior of the magnetic vortices for various values of the applied magnetic field H are presented...

  18. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-01-01

    on New Sealed Rechargeable Batteries and Supercapacitors, B.10. S. Hossain, in Handbook of Batteries, Second Edition, D.Workshop on Advanced Batteries (Lithium Batteries), February

  19. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, W.C.

    1983-05-17

    This invention relates to the confinement of field reversed plasma rings and, more particularly, to the steady state maintainance of field reversed plasma rings produced by coaxial plasma guns.

  1. Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fornberg, Bengt

    Some Observations Regarding Steady Laminar Flows Past Bluff Bodies Bengt Fornberg Department, 2013. February 4, 2014 Abstract Steady laminar flows past simple objects, such as a cylinder

  2. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, Alan C. (E. Windsor, NJ); Jardin, Stephen C. (Princeton, NJ); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  3. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Erik Wahlén

    2011-04-01

    We construct small-amplitude periodic water waves with multiple critical layers. In addition to waves with arbitrarily many critical layers and a single crest in each period, two-dimensional sets of waves with several crests and troughs in each period are found. The setting is that of steady two-dimensional finite-depth gravity water waves with vorticity.

  4. Florida consumer confidence holds steady in May

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    . Consumer confidence held steady at 68 in May after dropping for three months since Feb. 1 when gasoline prices began shooting up, according to a new survey. But Floridians' perceptions of their own finances.8 from a revised 66 in April on worries about jobs and inflation for groceries and gasoline. The survey

  5. 4, 797821, 2007 Steady state 13C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of plant litter into more persistent organic compounds (Jones and Donelly, 2004). Carbon sequestration can-term steady state 13 C labelling to investigate carbon turnover in plant soil systems K. Klumpp, J. F mesocosms, allows tracing the fate of photosynthetic carbon in plant-soil systems in natural light

  6. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  7. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, William C. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  8. ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles ORC Closed Loop Control Systems for Transient and Steady State Duty Cycles System-level models using...

  9. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.

    1990-07-17

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.

  10. Enhanced rate capability of LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 nanoplates by reduced graphene oxide/carbon double coating for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    rights reserved. 1. Introduction Olivine-type lithium transition-metal phosphates LiMPO4 (M ¼ Fe, Mn, Ni method [12,24]. A mixture (30 ml) of manganese acetate tetrahydrate (Mn(CH3COO)2$4H2O: 0.054 mol) and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate (Mg(

  11. Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Constraints On The Mechanism Of Long-Term, Steady Subsidence At Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, From Gps, Leveling, And Insar Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  12. EXISTENCE OF KNOTTED VORTEX TUBES IN STEADY EULER FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Alberto

    EXISTENCE OF KNOTTED VORTEX TUBES IN STEADY EULER FLOWS ALBERTO ENCISO AND DANIEL PERALTA-SALAS Abstract. We prove the existence of knotted and linked thin vortex tubes for steady solutions of vortex tubes of a Beltrami field that tends to zero at infinity. The structure of the vortex lines

  13. SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE TOPOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    SLOPE DISTRIBUTIONS, THRESHOLD HILLSLOPES, AND STEADY-STATE TOPOGRAPHY DAVID R. MONTGOMERY hillslopes, and steady-state topography. Plots of drainage area versus slope for these mountain ranges or exponential distributions in areas of active rock uplift and depositional topography, respectively. Local

  14. Steady two-layer source-sink flow Lynne Talley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    and plane steady ocean circulation models. 2. Equations The two-layer system is illustrated in Fig. 1. H1 Dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution WHOI-79-84 (advisor: Adrian Gill) August, 1979 Note Greenland Current and colder fresher water from the north. The model discussed here is a steady extension

  15. Quantifying Maintenance Requirements From the Steady-State Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Quantifying Maintenance Requirements From the Steady-State Operation of a Two-Phase Partitioning remarkably through achievement of steady-state operation. The data conclusively show that maintenance and explicitly quantifying the maintenance energy requirements of pure cultures growing on volatile organic

  16. Steady State of Pedestrian Flow in Bottleneck Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Weichen; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. In this work, a feasible algorithm - Cumulative Sum Control Chart - is proposed and improved to automatically detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with previous manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives more reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The study about pedestrian flow shows that the difference between the flows in all states and in steady state mainly depends on the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. When the ratio is higher than a critical value (approximately 115 persons/m), the flow in all states is almost ...

  17. Steady-state and transient thermal performance of subsea hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabaras, G.J.; Zhang, J.

    1998-06-01

    The thermal performance of subsea hardware is of ultimate importance to the economic development and reliable operation of deepwater subsea oil and gas systems because of the potential for hydrate formation. Results of numerical calculations are presented on the thermal performance of subsea equipment such as wellheads, tubing and flowline jumpers, and flowline field joints. In contrast to previous published studies on the thermal performance of insulated subsea wellbores and flowlines, this paper addresses the thermal performance of the subsea equipment that can provide weak thermal links for the subsea system. A two-dimensional (2D), general-purpose, finite-element, partial-differential equation solver was used to analyze the steady-state and transient thermal behavior at different cross sections of the subsea tree. This paper presents a new method for predicting pressure profiles in oil and gas wells. The method combines mechanistic flow-pattern transition criteria with physical models for pressure-loss and liquid-holdup calculations for each of the flow patterns considered. Past published methods relied heavily on empirical fit of limited field data. As a result, they are inaccurate when used outside the range of data upon which they are based. In contrast, the new method is universally applicable to all types of wells under all operating scenarios because it is based on fundamental physics rather than the curve-fit of field data. Its prediction performance has been demonstrated by extensive comparison to field data from a variety of wells.

  18. Reducing Transient and Steady State Electricity Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of their large energy footprint. One type of equipment that is common in homes and some offices is an electrical for the amount of heating due to occupancy as it varies throughout the day and year. Experiments on BRITE show Learning-Based Model-Predictive Control Energy efficiency improvement in HVAC systems is investigated

  19. Autonomous quantum thermal machine for generating steady-state entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonatan Bohr Brask; Nicolas Brunner; Géraldine Haack; Marcus Huber

    2015-04-15

    We discuss a simple quantum thermal machine for the generation of steady-state entanglement between two interacting qubits. The machine is autonomous in the sense that it uses only incoherent interactions with thermal baths, but no source of coherence or external control. By weakly coupling the qubits to thermal baths at different temperatures, inducing a heat current through the system, steady-state entanglement is generated far from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we discuss two possible implementations, using superconducting flux qubits or a semiconductor double quantum dot. Experimental prospects for steady-state entanglement are promising in both systems.

  20. The bridge permeameter; An alternative method for single-phase, steady-state permeability measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1994-03-01

    Laboratory measurements of single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock are important for a number of different applications. The oil and gas industry uses permeability data as a key indicator of the producability of a hydrocarbon reservoir; effective containment of large volumes of oil in underground salt caverns is directly dependent upon the permeability of the adjacent cavern walls; and safe, long term underground isolation of radioactive and hazardous waste is contingent upon the flow and transport characteristics of the surrounding geologic formations. An alternative method for measuring single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock is presented. The use of troublesome and expensive mass flow meters is eliminated and replaced with a bridge configuration of flow resistors. Permeability values can be determined directly from differential pressures across the bridge network, resulting in potentially significant cost savings and simplification for conducting these types of measurements. Results from the bridge permeameter are compared with results obtained using conventional methods.

  1. The steady-state control problem for Markov decision processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyen, Laurent

    ensuring that the steady-state distribution of M under is exactly goal. We first show that station- ary MDP, and provide a PTIME algorithm using linear programming tech- niques. (2) We next lift the problem

  2. BURNER DEVELOPMENT AND OPERABILITY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH STEADY FLOWING SYNGAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    mechanisms developed for hydrogen/carbon monoxide ignition overestimate the ignition delay time, indicating Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA 2 UCI Combustion Laboratory, University- back, dynamic stability, and autoignition in premixed, steady flowing combustion systems

  3. Issues in the statistical mechanics of steady sedimentation Sriram Ramaswamy*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    Issues in the statistical mechanics of steady sedimentation Sriram Ramaswamy* Centre for Condensed://www.tandf.co.uk/journals DOI: 10.1080/0001873011005061 7 * e-mail: sriram@ physics.iisc.ernet.in #12;4.5. Theories

  4. Method and apparatus for adapting steady flow with cyclic thermodynamics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Reid, Robert S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ward, William C. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Energy transfer apparatus has a resonator for supporting standing acoustic waves at a selected frequency with a steady flow process fluid thermodynamic medium and a solid medium having heat capacity. The fluid medium and the solid medium are disposed within the resonator for thermal contact therebetween and for relative motion therebetween. The relative motion is produced by a first means for producing a steady velocity component and second means for producing an oscillating velocity component at the selected frequency and concomitant wavelength of the standing acoustic wave. The oscillating velocity and associated oscillating pressure component provide energy transfer between the steady flow process fluid and the solid medium as the steady flow process fluid moves through the resonator.

  5. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    T. , Tozawa, K. Prog. Batteries Solar Cells 1990, 9, 209. E.Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vechicles. ” Center forin Solids: Solid State Batteries and Devices, Ed. by W. vn

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF THERMAL STABILITY OF LI-ION BATTERIES BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Overall Technology Assessment · Appendices o Appendix A: Final Report (under separate cover) o Appendix B Funding: $75,000 Term: July 2002 ­ June 2003 PIER Subject Area: Renewable Energy Technologies #12;Page i · Renewable Energy Technologies · Environmentally-Preferred Advanced Generation · Energy-Related Environmental

  7. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt007esconner2012p.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  8. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    NY. 1999. Definition. Pyrolysis: the application of heat toComplete and Unabridged, 10 th ed. 2009. “Pyrolysis. ”en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyrolysis. Accessed 12/14/11. Bickmore

  9. Searching for Sustainable and "Greener" Li-ion Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tarascon, Jean-Marie [University of Picardie at Aimens, France

    2010-01-08

    Lithium-ion batteries are strong candidates for powering upcoming generations of hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. But improvements in safety must be achieved while keeping track of materials resources and abundances, as well as materials synthesis and recycling processes, all of which could inflict a heavy energy cost. Thus, electrode materials that have a minimum footprint in nature and are made via eco-efficient processes are sorely needed. The arrival of electrode materials based on minerals such as LiFePO4 (tryphilite) is a significant, but not sufficient, step toward the long-term demand for materials sustainability. The eco-efficient synthesis of LiFePO4 nanopowders via hydrothermal/ solvo-thermal processes using latent bases, structure directing templates, or other bio-related approaches will be presented in this talk. However, to secure sustainability and greeness, organic electrodes appear to be ideal candidates.... We took a fresh look at organic based electrodes; the results of this research into sequentially metal-organic-framework electrodes and Li-based organic electrodes (LixCyOz) will be reported and discussed.

  10. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Thin, Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Liangbing Hu,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    can be paper- thin, flexible, lightweight and manufactured by a low cost, roll-to-roll printing for su- percapacitors.6 We recently demonstrated that paper coated with CNTs or silver nanowires can coating and peeling process. The double layer films were laminated onto commercial paper, and the paper

  13. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  14. Anode Materials for Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fultz, B.

    2001-01-12

    This research is on materials for anodes and cathodes in electrochemical cells. The work is a mix of electrochemical measurements and analysis of the materials by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffractometry. At present, our experimental work involves only materials for Li storage, but we have been writing papers from our previous work on hydrogen-storage materials.

  15. Improved Positive Electrode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conry, Thomas Edward

    2012-01-01

    battery cathodes for portable electronics (and is even the material used in batteries for the original Tesla

  16. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Negative Electrodes: Novel and Optimized Materials Novel and Optimized Materials Phases for High Energy Density Batteries FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D...

  17. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation) (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor forPatents -SciTech Connect Predictive

  18. Batteries - Next-generation Li-ion batteries Breakout session

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p uBUS SERVICE SUBSIDIESDepartment of585 October

  19. Investigation of critical parameters in Li-ion battery electrodes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. Department of(Presentation) | Department ofFuelDepartment of

  20. Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on Clean Energys o u tMr.Leveraging

  1. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE

  2. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE1

  3. GM Li-Ion Battery Pack Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department ofOctober0032 DOE10

  4. On the Steady Nature of Line-Driven Disk Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas A. Pereyra; Stanley P. Owocki; D. John Hillier; David A. Turnshek

    2003-11-11

    We perform an analytic investigation of the stability of line-driven disk winds, independent of hydrodynamic simulations. Our motive is to determine whether or not line-driven disk winds can account for the wide/broad UV resonance absorption lines seen in cataclysmic variables (CVs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). In both CVs and QSOs observations generally indicate that the absorption arising in the outflowing winds has a steady velocity structure on time scales exceeding years (for CVs) and decades (for QSOs). However, published results from hydrodynamic simulations of line-driven disk winds are mixed, with some researchers claiming that the models are inherently unsteady, while other models produce steady winds. The analytic investigation presented here shows that if the accretion disk is steady, then the line-driven disk wind emanating from it can also be steady. In particular, we show that a gravitational force initially increasing along the wind streamline, which is characteristic of disk winds, does not imply an unsteady wind. The steady nature of line-driven disk winds is consistent with the 1D streamline disk-wind models of Murray and collaborators and the 2.5D time-dependent models of Pereyra and collaborators. This paper emphasizes the underlying physics behind the steady nature of line-driven disk winds using mathematically simple models that mimic the disk environment

  5. Enhancing Android Accessibility for Users with Hand Tremor by Reducing Fine Pointing and Steady Tapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Enhancing Android Accessibility for Users with Hand Tremor by Reducing Fine Pointing and Steady; magnification; Android; disambiguation; fine pointing; steady tapping. ACM Classification Keywords H.5

  6. Combustion dynamics in steady compressible flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Berti; D. Vergni; A. Vulpiani

    2008-07-03

    We study the evolution of a reactive field advected by a one-dimensional compressible velocity field and subject to an ignition-type nonlinearity. In the limit of small molecular diffusivity the problem can be described by a spatially discretized system, and this allows for an efficient numerical simulation. If the initial field profile is supported in a region of size l < lc one has quenching, i.e., flame extinction, where lc is a characteristic length-scale depending on the system parameters (reacting time, molecular diffusivity and velocity field). We derive an expression for lc in terms of these parameters and relate our results to those obtained by other authors for different flow settings.

  7. Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Lin; J. P. Gaebler; F. Reiter; T. R. Tan; R. Bowler; A. S. Sørensen; D. Leibfried; D. J. Wineland

    2013-07-16

    Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryp-tography, and quantum computation [1].To date, controlled unitary interactions applied to a quantum system, so-called "quantum gates", have been the most widely used method to deterministically create entanglement [2]. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation as well as minimizing the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here, on the contrary, we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion qubits independent of their initial state. While previous works along this line involved the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates [3] or generated entanglement of atomic ensembles dissipatively but relied on a measurement record for steady-state entanglement [4], we implement the process in a continuous time-independent fashion, analogous to optical pumping of atomic states. By continuously driving the system towards steady-state, the entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation, and dissipative phase transitions [5-7]. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation [8].

  8. Tracer advection by steady groundwater flow in a stratified aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sposito, Garrison; Weeks, Scott W.

    1997-01-02

    The perfectly stratified aquifer has often been investigated as a simple, tractable model for exploring new theoretical issues in subsurface hydrology. Adopting this approach, we show that steady groundwater flows in the perfectly stratified aquifer are always confined to a set of nonintersecting permanent surfaces, on which both streamlines and vorticity lines lie. This foliation of the flow domain exists as well for steady groundwater flows in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer. In the present model example it is a direct consequence of the existence of a stream function, we then demonstrate that tracer plume advection by steady groundwater flow in a perfectly stratified aquifer is never ergodic, regardless of the initial size of the tracer plume. This nonergodicity, which holds also for tracer advection in any isotropic, spatially heterogeneous aquifer, implies that stochastic theories of purely advective tracer plume movement err in assuming ergodic behavior to simplify probabilistic calculations of plume spatial concentration moments.

  9. Entropy and specific heat for open systems in steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X. L. Huang; B. Cui; X. X. Yi

    2010-01-27

    The fundamental assumption of statistical mechanics is that the system is equally likely in any of the accessible microstates. Based on this assumption, the Boltzmann distribution is derived and the full theory of statistical thermodynamics can be built. In this paper, we show that the Boltzmann distribution in general can not describe the steady state of open system. Based on the effective Hamiltonian approach, we calculate the specific heat, the free energy and the entropy for an open system in steady states. Examples are illustrated and discussed.

  10. Existence of knotted vortex tubes in steady Euler flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alberto Enciso; Daniel Peralta-Salas

    2014-10-23

    We prove the existence of knotted and linked thin vortex tubes for steady solutions to the incompressible Euler equation in R^3. More precisely, given a finite collection of (possibly linked and knotted) disjoint thin tubes in R^3, we show that they can be transformed with a C^m-small diffeomorphism into a set of vortex tubes of a Beltrami field that tends to zero at infinity. The structure of the vortex lines in the tubes is extremely rich, presenting a positive-measure set of invariant tori and infinitely many periodic vortex lines. The problem of the existence of steady knotted vortex tubes can be traced back to Lord Kelvin.

  11. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourhasan, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  12. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razieh Pourhasan

    2015-11-20

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  13. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razieh Pourhasan

    2015-09-03

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P = P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  14. Models for steady state cycles in simple cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Steven D.

    Models for steady state cycles in simple cells Steve Bennett April 19, 2004 Abstract Candidate simple cell models are explored, with emphasis on their potential to result in a stable cell cycle, and consequences and limitations of each model are discussed. 1 Introduction and Background Cell architecture

  15. Steady water waves with multiple critical layers: interior dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mats Ehrnström; Joachim Escher; Gabriele Villari

    2011-04-01

    We study small-amplitude steady water waves with multiple critical layers. Those are rotational two-dimensional gravity-waves propagating over a perfect fluid of finite depth. It is found that arbitrarily many critical layers with cat's-eye vortices are possible, with different structure at different levels within the fluid. The corresponding vorticity depends linearly on the stream function.

  16. Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceragioli, Francesca

    Steady detonation problem for slow and fast chemical reactions F. Conforto1 , M. Groppi2 , R chemical reaction are discussed. The former consists in a system of balance laws for the case of a chemical is a system of conser- vation laws for the case of short chemical relaxation time (fast reaction). After

  17. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  18. Delayed feedback control of unstable steady states with high-frequency modulation of the delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleksandar Gjurchinovski; Thomas Jüngling; Viktor Urumov; Eckehard Schöll

    2013-08-21

    We analyze the stabilization of unstable steady states by delayed feedback control with a periodic time-varying delay in the regime of a high-frequency modulation of the delay. The average effect of the delayed feedback term in the control force is equivalent to a distributed delay in the interval of the modulation, and the obtained distribution depends on the type of the modulation. In our analysis we use a simple generic normal form of an unstable focus, and investigate the effects of phase-dependent coupling and the influence of the control loop latency on the controllability. In addition, we have explored the influence of the modulation of the delays in multiple delay feedback schemes consisting of two independent delay lines of Pyragas type. A main advantage of the variable delay is the considerably larger domain of stabilization in parameter space.

  19. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: steady state and linearized dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-Ting Yeh; Hsuan-Yi Chen

    2015-08-07

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue is assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description for tissue dynamics at long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insight for the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface could enhance small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multi-layered tissues, it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology and developing pattern.

  20. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  1. Arbitrary axisymmetric steady streaming: Flow, force and propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spelman, Tamsin A

    2015-01-01

    A well-developed method to induce mixing on microscopic scales is to exploit flows generated by steady streaming. Steady streaming is a classical fluid dynamics phenomenon whereby a time-periodic forcing in the bulk or along a boundary is enhanced by inertia to induce a non-zero net flow. Building on classical work for simple geometrical forcing and motivated by the complex shape oscillations of elastic capsules and bubbles, we develop the mathematical framework to quantify the steady streaming of a spherical body with arbitrary axisymmetric time-periodic boundary conditions. We compute the flow asymptotically for small-amplitude oscillations of the boundary in the limit where the viscous penetration length scale is much smaller than the body. In that case, the flow has a boundary layer structure and the fluid motion is solved by asymptotic matching. Our results, presented in the case of no-slip boundary conditions and extended to include the motion of vibrating free surfaces, recovers classical work as parti...

  2. QUASI-STEADY CONFIGURATIONS OF CONDUCTIVE INTRACLUSTER MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voit, G. M.

    2011-10-10

    The radial distributions of temperature, density, and gas entropy among cool-core clusters tend to be quite similar, suggesting that they have entered a quasi-steady state. If that state is regulated by a combination of thermal conduction and feedback from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), then the characteristics of those radial profiles ought to contain information about the spatial distribution of AGN heat input and the relative importance of thermal conduction. This paper addresses those topics by deriving steady-state solutions for clusters in which radiative cooling, electron thermal conduction, and thermal feedback fueled by accretion are all present, with the aim of interpreting the configurations of cool-core clusters in terms of steady-state models. It finds that the core configurations of many cool-core clusters have entropy levels just below those of conductively balanced solutions in which magnetic fields have suppressed electron thermal conduction to {approx}1/3 of the full Spitzer value, suggesting that AGN feedback is triggered when conduction can no longer compensate for radiative cooling. And even when feedback is necessary to heat the central {approx}30 kpc, conduction may still be the most important heating mechanism within a cluster's central {approx}100 kpc.

  3. Pre-Steady-State Analysis of ATP Hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cereVisiae DNA Topoisomerase II. 2. Kinetic Mechanism for the Sequential Hydrolysis of Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Timothy

    DriVe, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, and Department of Mathematics, UniVersity of Utah, 233 John Widtsoe, and consequently identify kinetic steps following the rate-determining step. For catalytic turnover, type II DNAH-rate studies, as described below. All buffers were filtered (0.45 µm). Steady-State Product Inhibition Studies

  4. Optimization of hybrid dynamic/steady-state processes using process integration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grooms, Daniel Douglas

    2009-06-02

    PROBLEM STATEMENT................................................................ 5 III OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS AND SCHEDULING OF HYBRID DYNAMIC/STEADY-STATE MASS EXCHANGE NETWORKS..................................................................................... 23 IV OPTIMAL SYNTHESIS AND SCHEDULING OF HYBRID DYNAMIC/STEADY-STATE PROPERTY INTEGRATION NETWORKS ......................................................... 24 4.1 Introduction...

  5. Accelerated Iterative Method for Solving Steady Solutions of Linearized Atmospheric Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Masahiro

    Accelerated Iterative Method for Solving Steady Solutions of Linearized Atmospheric Models Masahiro approach, referred to as the accelerated iterative method (AIM), is developed for solving steady state, respectively. For ensuring the accelerated asymptotic convergence of iterative procedure

  6. Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-12-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore »CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely captured the variability of the HWSD SOC across the different dominant plant functional types (PFTs) at global scale. The numerical correlation between the calculated and HWSD SOC was, however, weak at both point and global scales, suggesting that the models used in describing biogeochemical processes in CLM needs improvements and/or HWSD needs updating as suggested by other studies. Besides SOC, the steady state solution also includes all other state variables simulated by a spin-up run, such as NPP, GPP, total vegetation C etc., which makes the developed approach a promising tool to efficiently estimate global SOC distribution and evaluate and compare different aspects simulated by different CN mechanisms in the model.« less

  7. Design and Present status of Steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Design and Present status of Steady-state spherical tokamak, QUEST K.Hanada, H.Zushi, K.N.Sato, K Component Interactions in Steady State Magnetic Fusion Devices at NIFS #12;Japanese Collaborators and Map knowledge QUEST #12;Why steady-state ? Time (sec) Hsupply(1020 H) wall pumping ~4 x 1017 [H/m2s] High

  8. From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    From a Failed-Growth Economy to a Steady-State Economy By Herman Daly A steady-state economy of negative growth, a depression such as we are entering now, is a failed-growth economy, not a steady-state economy. Halting an accelerating downward spiral is necessary but is not the same thing as resuming

  9. Steady state entanglement in the mechanical vibrations of two dielectric membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael J. Hartmann; Martin B. Plenio

    2008-09-15

    We consider two dielectric membranes suspended inside a Fabry-Perot-cavity, which are cooled to a steady state via a drive by suitable classical lasers. We show that the vibrations of the membranes can be entangled in this steady state. They thus form two mechanical, macroscopic degrees of freedom that share steady state entanglement.

  10. Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flury, Markus

    Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state), Correction to ``Nitrate and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably and colloid transport through coarse Hanford sediments under steady state, variably saturated flow'' by Kelly

  11. Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given.

  12. Effective Temperature in Steady-state Dynamics from Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Arnab

    2015-01-01

    We argue that, within the realm of gauge-gravity duality, for a large class of systems in a steady-state there exists an effective thermodynamic description. This description comes equipped with an effective temperature and a free energy, but no well-defined notion of entropy. Such systems are described by probe degrees of freedom propagating in a much larger background, e.g. $N_f$ number of ${\\cal N} =2$ hypermultiplets in ${\\cal N}=4$ $SU(N_c)$ super Yang-Mills theory, in the limit $N_f \\ll N_c$. The steady-state is induced by exciting an external electric field that couples to the hypermultiplets and drives a constant current. With various stringy examples, we demonstrate that an open string equivalence principle determines a unique effective temperature for all fluctuations in the probe-sector. We further discuss various properties of the corresponding open string metric that determines the effective geometry which the probe degrees of freedom are coupled to. We also comment on the non-Abelian generalizat...

  13. Steady-state solution methods for open quantum optical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. D. Nation

    2015-04-25

    We discuss the numerical solution methods available when solving for the steady-state density matrix of a time-independent open quantum optical system, where the system operators are expressed in a suitable basis representation as sparse matrices. In particular, we focus on the difficulties posed by the non-Hermitian structure of the Lindblad super operator, and the numerical techniques designed to mitigate these pitfalls. In addition, we introduce a doubly iterative inverse-power method that can give reduced memory and runtime requirements in situations where other iterative methods are limited due to poor bandwidth and profile reduction. The relevant methods are demonstrated on several prototypical quantum optical systems where it is found that iterative methods based on iLU factorization using reverse Cuthill-Mckee ordering tend to outperform other solution techniques in terms of both memory consumption and runtime as the size of the underlying Hilbert space increases. For eigenvalue solving, Krylov iterations using the stabilized bi-conjugate gradient method outperform generalized minimal residual methods. In contrast, minimal residual methods work best for solvers based on direct LU decomposition. This work serves as a guide for solving the steady-state density matrix of an arbitrary quantum optical system, and points to several avenues of future research that will extend the applicability of these classical algorithms in absence of a quantum computer.

  14. The microstructure and rheology of a model, thixotropic nanoparticle gel under steady shear and large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Kim, Jung; Kate Gurnon, A.; Wagner, Norman J., E-mail: wagnernj@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Neutron Science, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Eberle, Aaron P. R. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Porcar, Lionel [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 and Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-09-01

    The microstructure-rheology relationship for a model, thermoreversible nanoparticle gel is investigated using a new technique of time-resolved neutron scattering under steady and time-resolved large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) flows. A 21 vol. % gel is tested with varying strength of interparticle attraction. Shear-induced structural anisotropy is observed as butterfly scattering patterns and quantified through an alignment factor. Measurements in the plane of flow show significant, local anisotropy develops with alignment along the compressional axis of flow, providing new insights into how gels flow. The microstructure-rheology relationship is analyzed through a new type of structure-Lissajous plot that shows how the anisotropic microstructure is responsible for the observed LAOS response, which is beyond a response expected for a purely viscous gel with constant structure. The LAOS shear viscosities are observed to follow the “Delaware-Rutgers” rule. Rheological and microstructural data are successfully compared across a broad range of conditions by scaling the shear rate by the strength of attraction, providing a method to compare behavior between steady shear and LAOS experiments. However, important differences remain between the microstructures measured at comparatively high frequency in LAOS experiments and comparable steady shear experiments that illustrate the importance of measuring the microstructure to properly interpret the nonlinear, dynamic rheological response.

  15. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Raman

    2003-10-08

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs.

  16. Interfacial colloidal monolayers under steady shear: structure and flow profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivo Buttinoni; Zachary A. Zell; Todd M. Squires; Lucio Isa

    2015-09-11

    We study the coupling between the structural dynamics and rheological response of charged colloidal monolayers at water/oil interfaces, driven into steady shear by a microdisk rotating at a controlled angular velocity. The flow causes particles to layer into rotating concentric rings linked to the local, position-dependent shear rate, which triggers two distinct dynamical regimes: particles move continuously "Flowing") close to the microdisk, or exhibit intermittent "Hopping" between local energy minima farther away. The shear-rate dependent surface viscosity of a monolayer can be extracted from an interfacial stress balance, giving "macroscopic" flow curves whose behavior corresponds to the distinct microscopic regimes of particle motion. Hopping Regions correspond to a surface yield stress $\\eta \\sim \\tau_S^Y \\dot{\\gamma}^{-1}$, whereas Flowing Regions exhibit surface viscosities with power-law shear-thinning characteristics.

  17. Non-equilibrium steady states for chains of four rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé Cuneo; Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2015-04-20

    We study a chain of four interacting rotors (rotators) connected at both ends to stochastic heat baths at different temperatures. We show that for non-degenerate interaction potentials the system relaxes, at a stretched exponential rate, to a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). Rotors with high energy tend to decouple from their neighbors due to fast oscillation of the forces. Because of this, the energy of the central two rotors, which interact with the heat baths only through the external rotors, can take a very long time to dissipate. By appropriately averaging the oscillatory forces, we estimate the dissipation rate and construct a Lyapunov function. Compared to the chain of length three (considered previously by C. Poquet and the current authors), the new difficulty with four rotors is the apparition of resonances when both central rotors are fast. We deal with these resonances using the rapid thermalization of the two external rotors.

  18. Exact equalities and thermodynamic relations for nonequilibrium steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teruhisa S. Komatsu; Naoko Nakagawa; Shin-ichi Sasa; Hal Tasaki

    2014-12-25

    We study thermodynamic operations which bring a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) to another NESS in physical systems under nonequilibrium conditions. We model the system by a suitable Markov jump process, and treat thermodynamic operations as protocols according to which the external agent varies parameters of the Markov process. Then we prove, among other relations, a NESS version of the Jarzynski equality and the extended Clausius relation. The latter can be a starting point of thermodynamics for NESS. We also find that the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy has a microscopic representation in terms of symmetrized Shannon entropy in systems where the microscopic description of states involves "momenta". All the results in the present paper are mathematically rigorous.

  19. Interfacial colloidal monolayers under steady shear: structure and flow profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivo Buttinoni; Zachary A. Zell; Todd M. Squires; Lucio Isa

    2015-04-01

    We study the coupling between the structural dynamics and rheological response of charged colloidal monolayers at water/oil interfaces, driven into steady shear by a microdisk rotating at a controlled angular velocity. The flow causes particles to layer into rotating concentric rings linked to the local, position-dependent shear rate, which triggers two distinct dynamical regimes: particles move continuously "Flowing") close to the microdisk, or exhibit intermittent "Hopping" between local energy minima farther away. The shear-rate dependent surface viscosity of a monolayer can be extracted from an interfacial stress balance, giving "macroscopic" flow curves whose behavior corresponds to the distinct microscopic regimes of particle motion. Hopping Regions correspond to a surface yield stress $\\eta \\sim \\tau_S^Y \\dot{\\gamma}^{-1}$, whereas Flowing Regions exhibit surface viscosities with power-law shear-thinning characteristics.

  20. Steady-State Electrical Conduction in the Periodic Lorentz Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. I. Chernov; G. L. Eyink; J. L. Lebowitz; Ya. G. Sinai

    1993-02-08

    We study nonequilibrium steady states in the Lorentz gas of periodic scatterers when an external field is applied and the particle kinetic energy is held fixed by a ``thermostat'' constructed according to Gauss' principle of least constraint (a model problem previously studied numerically by Moran and Hoover). The resulting dynamics is reversible and deterministic, but does not preserve Liouville measure. For a sufficiently small field, we prove the following results: (1) existence of a unique stationary, ergodic measure obtained by forward evolution of initial absolutely continuous distributions, for which the Pesin entropy formula and Young's expression for the fractal dimension are valid; (2) exact identity of the steady-state thermodyamic entropy production, the asymptotic decay of the Gibbs entropy for the time-evolved distribution, and minus the sum of the Lyapunov exponents; (3) an explicit expression for the full nonlinear current response (Kawasaki formula); and (4) validity of linear response theory and Ohm's transport law, including the Einstein relation between conductivity and diffusion matrices. Results (2) and (4) yield also a direct relation between Lyapunov exponents and zero-field transport (=diffusion) coefficients. Although we restrict ourselves here to dimension $d=2,$ the results carry over to higher dimensions and to some other physical situations: e.g. with additional external magnetic fields. The proofs use a well-developed theory of small perturbations of hyperbolic dynamical systems and the method of Markov sieves, an approximation of Markov partitions. In our context we discuss also the van Kampen objection to linear response theory, which, we point out, overlooks the ``structural stability'' of strongly hyperbolic flows.

  1. Steady state relativistic stellar dynamics around a massive black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Or, Ben

    2015-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the "loss-cone", which take them directly into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena: tidal heating and tidal disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, are of interest as they can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the existence of the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, probe strong gravity, and provide information on stars and gas near the MBH. The continuous loss of stars and the processes that resupply them shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss-cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady-state analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclos...

  2. A steady-state L-mode tokamak fusion reactor : large scale and minimum scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark W. (Mark Wilbert)

    2010-01-01

    We perform extensive analysis on the physics of L-mode tokamak fusion reactors to identify (1) a favorable parameter space for a large scale steady-state reactor and (2) an operating point for a minimum scale steady-state ...

  3. High-Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Regimes for ITER and FIRE D. M. Meade1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FT High- Steady-State Advanced Tokamak Regimes for ITER and FIRE D. M. Meade1 , N. R. Sauthoff1 , C Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA An attractive tokamak-based fusion power plant will require the development of high- steady- state advanced tokamak regimes to produce a high gain burning

  4. BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott PLP 891 January 1983 Plasma Studies of the authors and major professor. #12;BOOTSTRAP-CURRENT-DRIVEN STEADY-STATE TOKAMAK J.C. Sprott We examime here the possibility of modifying the Levitated Octupole to operate as a tokamak with a rotational transform produced

  5. APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Contraction: Multiple Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Contraction: Multiple Steady States Benjamin Akers Department states, as well as a steady reservoir with a two-dimensional hydraulic jump in the contraction occur-dimensional hydraulic theory provides a comprehensive leading-order explanation, but quadratic friction is re- quired

  6. Optimization of a Steady-State Tokamak-Based Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization of a Steady-State Tokamak-Based Power Plant Farrokh Najmabadi University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA IEA Workshop 59 "Shape and aspect ratio optimization for high , steady between a physics optimization and an integrated systems optimization Identify key impact of physics

  7. Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance laminar shear flow using a process-based stability approach. The hydrodynamics of the problem is solved under steady laminar shear flow, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04S09, doi:10.1029/2004JF000278. 1

  8. A stochastic analysis of steady state two-phase flow in heterogeneous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    and soil pore size distribution. A stochastic numerical model for steady state water-oil flow in a random these expansions of Y(x), b(x) and dependent pressures, the steady state water-oil flow equations and corresponding size distribution b(x) are assumed to be Gaussian random functions with a separable exponential

  9. Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric semiconductor superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luryi, Serge

    Photovoltaic transistors based on a steady-state internal polarization effect in asymmetric that a modified structure can generate a steady-state photovoltage. We then propose a new class of photovoltaic novelty is such a photovoltaic transistor (PVT) aspect. Our idea of the PVT arises from the well known

  10. On the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    importance for many manufacturing industries, where vast quantities of raw materials are stored and handledOn the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials.1 Pierre A@math.ncsu.edu,jvmatthe@eos.ncsu.edu The problem of determining the steady state flow of granular materials in silos under the action of gravity

  11. On the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials. 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    importance for many manufacturing industries, where vast quantities of raw materials are stored and handledOn the computation of steady hopper flows I: stress determination for Coulomb materials. 1 Pierre A@eos.ncsu.edu The problem of determining the steady state flow of granular materials in silos under the action of gravity

  12. Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled Inductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipo, Thomas

    2005-38 Generalized Steady-state Analysis of Multiphase Interleaved Boost Converter with Coupled interleaved boost converter with coupled inductors H.-B. Shin, J.-G. Park, S.-K. Chung, H.-W. Lee and T.A. Lipo Abstract: The generalised steady-state analysis of the multi-phase interleaved boost converter

  13. Groundwater dynamics along a hillslope: A test of the steady state hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    Groundwater dynamics along a hillslope: A test of the steady state hypothesis Jan Seibert,1 Kevin modeling is that the relation between groundwater levels and runoff can be described as a succession of steady state conditions. This results in a single- valued, monotonic function between the groundwater

  14. Non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems Daniel Hurowitz and Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    or weakly interacting driven systems. Such "sparse" systems reach a novel non-equilibrium steady state (NESS case the quantum NESS might differ enormously from the stochastic NESS, with saturation temperature ensemble is analyzed. The study of systems with non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) has become active

  15. Modulation of the 40-Hz Auditory Steady State Response by Attention during Acoustic Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Larry

    Modulation of the 40-Hz Auditory Steady State Response by Attention during Acoustic Training Gander modulates the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response (SSR) which localizes to cortical sources in the region source waveform was enhanced in right hemisphere, implying modulation of A1 by attention

  16. Steady state load models for power system analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cresswell, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The last full review of load models used for power system studies occurred in the 1980s. Since then, new types of loads have been introduced and system load mix has changed considerably. The examples of newly introduced ...

  17. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  18. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to test the method up to Ip {approx} 500 kA. In parallel, start-up using radio-frequency current drive and only external poloidal field coils are being developed on NSTX. The area of power and particle handling is expected to be challenging because of the higher power density expected in the ST relative to that in conventional aspect-ratio tokamaks. Due to its promise for power and particle handling, liquid lithium is being studied in CDX-U as a potential plasma-facing surface for a fusion reactor.

  19. Steady and unsteady calibration of multi-hole probes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Espen S

    1998-01-01

    discussed. A new type of pressure sensor has been developed with silicon-nitride diaphragm and a characteristic size of only 250 gm. These pressure sensors are small enough to be mounted close to the surface of a miniature hemispherical-tip probe, obtaining...

  20. A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE FEL PORTION OF A TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sternbach, E.

    2008-01-01

    September 8-13, 1985 A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICSIN THE FEL PORTION OF A TWO-BEAM ACCELERATOR E. SternbachLBL-19939 A STEADY-STATE FEL: PARTICLE DYNAMICS IN THE FEL

  1. Steady-State Poisson-Nernst-Planck Systems: Asymptotic expansions and applications to ion channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abaid, Nicole Teresa

    2008-07-31

    Important properties of ion channels can be described by a steady state Poisson-Nernst-Plank system for electrodiffusion. The solution to the PNP system gives a relation between the current and electric potential of the ...

  2. Statistical Behavior of Quasi-Steady Balanced Reconnection in Earth's Magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissinger, Jennifer Eileen

    2012-01-01

    slow, steady solar wind conditions, one might expect to seeejections at one AU during 1995-2004, Solar Physics, 239,and declining solar cycle phases, and that one component of

  3. IMPROVED QUASI-STEADY-STATE-APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay, Laurent O.

    IMPROVED QUASI-STEADY-STATE-APPROXIMATION METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY INTEGRATION L. O. JAY are presented. Key words. atmospheric chemistry, stiff ordinary differential equations, quasi PII. S1064827595283033 1. Introduction. As our scientific understanding of atmospheric chemistry

  4. Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haaser, Robert Anthony

    1999-01-01

    It is standard lore that the voltage profile varies linearly in space within the electrolyte of a lead acid cell under slow, steady discharge. However, this hypothesis has never been put to the test. A recent theory predicts ...

  5. Solute transport under steady and transient conditions in biodegraded municipal solid waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bendz, David; Singh, Vijay P.

    1999-01-01

    The transport of a conservative tracer (lithium) in a large (3.5 m3) undisturbed municipal solid waste sample has been investigated under steady and fully transient conditions using a simple model. The model comprises a ...

  6. Particle Migration of Quasi-Steady Flow in Concentrated Suspension for Powder Injection Molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, X.

    A hybrid FEM/FDM algorithm for particle migration of quasi-steady flow in concentrated suspension materials is proposed in this study. This hybrid FEM/FDM algorithm in which the planar variables, such as pressure field, ...

  7. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Cardella, A; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Kasparek, W; Klinger, T.; Koenig, R; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Michel, G; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Wegener, Lutz; Werner, A.; Zhang, D; Beidler, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brown, T.; Geiger, J.; Harris, Jeffrey H; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Neilson, G. H.; Otte, M; Rummel, Thomas; Spong, Donald A; Tretter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  8. Aspects of Steady-State Operation of the Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiger, J.; Wolf, R. C.; Beidler, C.; Cardella, A; Chlechowitz, E; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Hirsch, M; Kasparek, W; Kisslinger, J; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Lore, Jeremy D; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Michel, G; Otte, M; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Wendelstein 7-X is to demonstrate steady-state operation at -values of up to 5%, at ion temperatures of several keV and plasma densities of up to 2 1020 m 3. The second operational phase foresees a fully steady-state high heat flux (HHF) divertor. Preparations are underway to cope with residual bootstrap currents, either by electron cyclotron current drive or by HHF protection elements. The main steady-state heating system is an electron cyclotron resonance heating facility. Various technical improvements of the gyrotrons have been implemented recently. They enable a reliable operation at the 1MW power level. Some of the technical issues preparing plasma diagnostics for steady-state operation are exemplified. This includes the protection against non-absorbed microwave radiation.

  9. Application of variational techniques for parametric studies of steady-state controlled thermonuclear reactor blankets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, James David

    1975-01-01

    APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis JAMES DAVID PEARCE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OP SCIENCE May 1975 Ma)or Subject: Nuclear Engineering APPLICATION OF VARIATIONAL TECHNIQUES FOR PARAMETRIC STUDIES OF STEADY-STATE CONTROLLED THERMONUCLEAR REACTOR BLANKETS A Thesis by JAMES DAVID PEARCE Approved...

  10. Characteristics of various methods for solving steady state and unsteady state distillation problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coco, Vincent Joseph

    1965-01-01

    CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1965 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Approved as to style and content by...

  11. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koguchi, H. Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-02-15

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ?3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  12. Quantum Entanglement at High Temperatures? II. Bosonic Systems in Nonequilibrium Steady State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jen-Tsung Hsiang; B. L. Hu

    2015-03-12

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures $T_1 > T_2$. For \\textit{constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling} studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature $T_c$. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on $T_{1}$, $T_{2}$ , the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature $T_c$ is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, `hot entanglement' is largely a fiction. In Paper III we will examine the case (C2) of \\textit{time-dependent driven coupling } which contains the parametric pumping type described in [2] wherein entanglement was first shown to sustain at high temperatures.

  13. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  14. Casimir effect in the nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum spin chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, D. L.; Racz, Z.

    2010-05-15

    We present a fully microscopics-based calculation of the Casimir effect in a nonequilibrium system, namely, an energy-flux-driven quantum XX chain. The force between the walls (transverse-field impurities) is calculated in a nonequilibrium steady state which is prepared by letting the system evolve from an initial state with the two halves of the chain prepared at equilibrium at different temperatures. The steady state emerging in the large-time limit is homogeneous but carries an energy flux. The Casimir force in this nonequilibrium state is calculated analytically in the limit when the transverse fields are small. We find that the the Casimir force range is reduced compared to the equilibrium case, and suggest that the reason for this is the reduction of fluctuations in the flux-carrying steady state.

  15. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  16. Enhancing the ABAQUS thermomechanics code to simulate multipellet steady and transient LWR fuel rod behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Williamson

    2011-08-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance analysis capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. This new capability is demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multipellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared-pellet simulations. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional, multipellet, fully-coupled thermomechanical approach. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermomechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  17. A New Type of Steady and Stable, Laminar, Premixed Flame in Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcar, Joseph F

    2008-01-01

    411–422. [9] I. Glassman, Combustion, 3rd Edition, AcademicB. Lewis, G. von Elbe, Combustion, Flames and Explosions ofin Ultra-Lean, Hydrogen-Air Combustion Joseph F. Grcar a a

  18. FORMULATION OF NON-STEADY-STATE DUST FORMATION PROCESS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozawa, Takaya [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: takaya.nozawa@ipmu.jp [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-10-10

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO{sub 3} grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f{sub con,{sub ?}}, and average radius a{sub ave,{sub ?}} of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule ?{sub coll} is much smaller than the timescale ?{sub sat} with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lower f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a larger a{sub ave,{sub ?}}. Examining the results of calculations, we reveal that the steady-state nucleation rate is applicable if the cooling gas satisfies ? ? ?{sub sat}/?{sub coll} ?> 30 during the formation of dust, and find that f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a{sub ave,{sub ?}} are uniquely determined by ?{sub on} at the onset time t{sub on} of dust formation. The approximation formulae for f{sub con,{sub ?}} and a{sub ave,{sub ?}} as a function of ?{sub on} could be useful in estimating the mass and typical size of newly formed grains from observed or model-predicted physical properties not only in supernova ejecta but also in mass-loss winds from evolved stars.

  19. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  20. Blood Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-03-14

    Sox spent a hundred mil to acquire pitcher Daisuke Matsuzaka; they probably weren't even aware that he is a Type O and that they make the best bankers, politicians and... you guessed it... professional baseball players. #ceas #hacker #japan #tsutsuien...

  1. Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed MethaneAir Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Gravity Effects on Steady Two-Dimensional Partially Premixed Methane­Air Flames ZHUANG SHU, CHUN W, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7022 Under normal-gravity conditions the flame heat is only weakly affected by gravity, the outer flame shows significant spatial differences for the two

  2. Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Upscaling of soil hydraulic properties for steady state evaporation and infiltration Jianting Zhu September 2002. [1] Estimation of effective/average soil hydraulic properties for large land areas and guidelines for upscaling soil hydraulic properties in an areally heterogeneous field. In this study, we

  3. APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Channel Contraction: Multiple Steady States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    APS/123-QED Hydraulic Flow through a Channel Contraction: Multiple Steady States Benjamin Akers with a complex hydraulic jump in the contraction occurring in a small section of the bc/b0 and Froude number parameter plane. One- dimensional hydraulic theory provides a comprehensive leading-order approximation

  4. Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    Effective hydraulic parameters for steady state vertical flow in heterogeneous soils Jianting Zhu August 2003. [1] In hydroclimate and land-atmospheric interaction models, effective hydraulic properties are needed at large grid scales. In this study, the effective soil hydraulic parameters of the areally

  5. FRC on the Path to Fusion Energy (Moderate Density Steady-State Approach)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to start from already formed FRC) Plasma measurement in RMF frame of reference so s RMF r Br T *2 22 µ1 FRC on the Path to Fusion Energy (Moderate Density Steady-State Approach) Alan Hoffman Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory University of Washington (FPA Meeting on Fusion Pathways to the Future

  6. ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    ECONOMIC COMPARISON OF MHD EQUILIBRIUM OPTIONS FOR ADVANCED STEADY STATE TOKAMAK POWER PLANTS D for commercial tokamak power plants. The economic prospects of future designs are compared for several tokamak for future power plants. 1. INTRODUCTION The development path to economical and environ- mentally attractive

  7. Steady and unsteady flow within an axisymmetric tube dilatation Ch. Stamatopoulos a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaharilaou, Yannis

    Accepted 20 February 2010 Keywords: Tube dilatation Wall shear Vortex Flow separation­reattachment a bSteady and unsteady flow within an axisymmetric tube dilatation Ch. Stamatopoulos a , Y s t r a c t The flow field in an axisymmetric tube dilatation is studied employing a 2D PIV system

  8. Axisymmetric, High-, Steady-State Plasma Torus: A "Wind-Tunnel" to Develop Whole Device Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Axisymmetric, High-, Steady-State Plasma Torus: A "Wind-Tunnel" to Develop Whole Device Models Mike College, Hanover, NH White Paper for the 2015 DOE Integrated Simulations Workshop (Topics: C, D) Motivation The development of experimentally-validated whole device models is a grand challenge of fusion

  9. Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, revealed by repeated leveling) in 1954 and 1989 show that the summit area subsided by as much as 302 ± 30 mm (À8.6 ± 0.9 mm in the earlier analysis of the same data by Dzurisin et al. [1991], who reported the subsidence rate as À11.1 ± 1

  10. Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion , and J. BRINDLEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Alex

    Stability of Multiple Steady States of Catalytic Combustion A. JAMES* , and J. BRINDLEY Department reaction (m s 1 ) Ag Pre-exponential factor for gas-phase reaction (m3 mol 1 s 1 ) Cox Initial [O2] (mol m mol 1 ) h Heat transfer coefficient (W m 2 K 1 ) hD Mass transfer coefficient (m s 1 ) kc Thermal

  11. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  12. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  13. Out-of-equilibrium energy flow and steady state configurations in AdS/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megias, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    We study out-of-equilibrium energy flow in a strongly coupled system by using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In particular, we describe the appearance of a steady state connecting two asymptotic equilibrium systems. We obtain results within the linear response regime.

  14. On the Steady Nature of Line-Driven Disk Winds: Application to Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas A. Pereyra; David A. Turnshek; D. John Hillier

    2005-06-01

    We apply the semi-analytical analysis of the steady nature of line-driven winds presented in two earlier papers to disk winds driven by the flux distribution of a standard Shakura & Sunyaev (1973) disk for typical cataclysmic variable (CV) parameters. We find that the wind critical point tends to be closer to the disk surface towards the inner disk regions. Our main conclusion, however, is that a line-driven wind, arising from a steady disk flux distribution of a standard Shakura-Sunyaev disk capable of locally supplying the corresponding mass flow, is steady. These results confirm the findings of an earlier paper that studied "simple" flux distributions that are more readily analyzable than those presented here. These results are consistent with the steady velocity nature of outflows observationally inferred for both CVs and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). We find good agreement with the 2.5D CV disk wind models of Pereyra and collaborators. These results suggest that the likely scenario to account for the wind outflows commonly observed in CVs is the line-driven accretion disk wind scenario, as suggested early-on by Cordova & Mason (1982). For QSOs, these results show that the line-driven accretion disk wind continues to be a promising scenario to account for the outflows detected in broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs, as suggested early-on by Turnshek (1984), and analyzed in detail by Murray et al. (1995).

  15. Sharp Uniform Bounds for Steady Potential Fluid-Poisson Systems Irene M. Gamba1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , for the potential hydrodynamic{Poisson systems, cavitation speed is a function that depends on the potential ow consider steady potential hydrodynamic-Poisson system with a dissipation term (viscosity) proportional is bounded pointwise, at points x0 in the interior of the ow domain, by cavitation speed (given by Bernoulli

  16. Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    Infrared thermography of a pulsating heat pipe: Flow regimes and multiple steady states V t Understanding of the operational characteristics of a closed loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) with non- intrusive. Introduction A pulsating heat pipe/oscillating heat pipe is essentially a pas- sive two-phase heat transfer

  17. Bridging the Gap: Automated Steady Scaffoldings for 3D Printing Jrmie Dumas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lévy, Bruno

    Bridging the Gap: Automated Steady Scaffoldings for 3D Printing Jérémie Dumas Université de Figure 1: The upper leg of the Poppy robot (www.poppy-project.org) cannot be 3D printed on low cost FDM usage. Abstract Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is the process of 3D printing ob- jects from melted

  18. EXISTENCE AND STABILITY OF STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS WITH FINITE ENERGY FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schonbek, Maria

    EXISTENCE AND STABILITY OF STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS WITH FINITE ENERGY FOR THE NAVIER to viscosity is sufficiently small in a natural norm we construct solutions which have finite energy (finite L2 norm). These solutions are unique among all solutions with finite energy and finite Dirichlet integral

  19. Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of steady gravity waves generated by a moving localised pressure disturbance in water-dimensional surface waves generated by an applied steadily moving localized pressure distribution over water of finite is ignored, and has applications for the modelling of waves generated by ships. The flow parameters

  20. Tracer transport in the presence of steady zonal jets in a forced and viscous barotropic model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Jonathan Craig

    2000-01-01

    to the time since release, and in the long-time limit, to the square root of the time. Tracers released into a fluid which was anisotropic and contained steady zonal jets, exhibited an inhibition of meridional excursion. However, the length scale associated...

  1. Aircraft landing gear greased slider bearing steady-state thermo-elastohydrodynamic concept model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to take place at the lower bearing­piston sliding interface of the main landing gear (MLG) (see Fig. 1Aircraft landing gear greased slider bearing steady-state thermo-elastohydrodynamic concept model for studying the thermal behavior of a greased aircraft landing gear lower slider bearing. Structural damage

  2. Conditional moment analysis of steady state unsaturated flow in bounded, randomly heterogeneous soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    soils Zhiming Lu and Shlomo P. Neuman Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, University of Arizona 26 April 2002. [1] We consider steady state unsaturated flow in bounded, randomly heterogeneous soils that the solution may remain asymptotic for values of sY 2 as large as 2. INDEX TERMS: 1866 Hydrology: Soil moisture

  3. ECE 331 Electromechanical Energy Conversion Catalog Description: Energy conversion principles for electric motors. Steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduction to drives and power electronics in control of electric machines, including switch-mode PWM (ABET Outcomes A, C, E, j, k) Learning Resources: Electric Machines and Drives: A First Course, Ned for electric motors. Steady-state characteristics and analysis of induction, synchronous and direct current

  4. Steady Improved Confinement in FTU High Field Plasmas Sustained by Deep Pellet Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Steady Improved Confinement in FTU High Field Plasmas Sustained by Deep Pellet Injection D at the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T), and lower, by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas featured due to particle concentration in the well confined hot core. Deep pellet injection in Alcator C high

  5. Steady improved confinement in FTU high field plasmas sustained by deep pellet injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Steady improved confinement in FTU high field plasmas sustained by deep pellet injection D to the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T) by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas also feature high to the input power due to particle concentration in the well confined hot core. Deep pellet injection (e

  6. ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ASHRAE Transactions: Research 3 ABSTRACT A steady-state simulation model for a water-to-water. The model includes several unspecified parameters that are esti- mated from catalog data using a multi available from manufacturers' catalogs. Compared to equation-fit models, by retaining the physically based

  7. Stochastics and Statistics A wavelet-based spectral procedure for steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    q Emily K. Lada a,1 , James R. Wilson b,* a SAS Institute Inc., 100 SAS Campus Drive, R5413, Cary Box 7906, Raleigh, NC 27695-7906, USA Received 23 February 2004; accepted 21 April 2005 Available online 27 June 2005 Abstract We develop WASSP, a wavelet-based spectral method for steady

  8. Current control in ITER steady state plasmas with neutral beam steering R. V. Budnya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    . The heating and current drive systems for ITER plasmas are being designed. The primary systems being for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid as the ratio of the DT fusion and the external heating powers PDT/Pext 5 for durations of up to 3000 s

  9. Nonequilibrium steady states of finite quantum systems coupled to thermal reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at small coupling, the combined quantum system S+R 1 +R 2 has a unique non­equilibrium steady state (NESS) and that the approach to this NESS is exponentially fast. We show that the entropy production of the coupled system argument is general and deals with spectral theory of NESS. In the abstract setting of algebraic quantum

  10. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Htotal implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT to SLRT crossover Quantum (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,

  11. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n.n. transitions d dt = -i[H, ] - 2 2 [V, [V,

  12. The non-equilibrium steady state of sparse systems with non trivial topology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    , the system will reach a Non-Equilibrium Steady State (NESS). #12;The model system System + Bath + Driving of cooling = DB TB - DB Tsystem Driving System Work (W)Heat (Q) Bath SB() SA() Hence at the NESS: Tsystem = 1 to the sparsity of the perturbation matrix, the NESS is of glassy nature [1]. 2. An extension of the Fluctuation

  13. Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    Non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) of sparse systems Doron Cohen Ben-Gurion University Daniel + D() DB « TB Sparsity implies a glassy NESS We can define NESS effective temperature D() exhibit LRT (s=0.85) Quantum (s=0.01) Stochastic (s=0.01) T B #12;Quantum NESS for toy model with n

  14. Transpolar voltage and polar cap flux during the substorm cycle and steady convection events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    of the 10,216 passes is classified by its substorm phase or as a steady convection event (SCE) by inspection of the AE indices. For all phases, we detect a contribution to the transpolar voltage by reconnection is 97% certain during quiet intervals and >99% certain during substorm/SCE growth phases but falls to 75

  15. The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) Systems Steady State Modeling Penyarat plants offer high cycle efficiencies. In this work a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine power, Gas turbine, Hybrid, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell hal-00703135,version1-31May2012 Author manuscript

  16. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  17. Steady-state laboratory ow laws alone fail to explain postseismic observations Andrew M. Freed a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freed, Andrew

    dislocation creep geodesy nite element modeling We test whether laboratory derived steady-state ow laws- and stress-dependent ow laws for diffusion and dislocation creep of olivine. We primarily concentrate of a number of creep mechanisms and associated constitutive relationships that quantify how viscosity and ow

  18. Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds on Slopes in Wide Valleys: Hydraulic Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    Quasi-Steady Katabatic Winds on Slopes in Wide Valleys: Hydraulic Theory and Observations M in the presence of weak synoptic winds. Because of the lateral constraints on the flow, Coriolis effects by sloping topography (Strobach 1991), as is the terrain of most urban areas of the world. Air circulation

  19. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Cambridge, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  20. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham (Arlington, MA)

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  1. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01

    for rechargeable lithium batteries," Science 311(5763), 977-^ for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc.02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem. Lett. , [3] Yabuuchi,

  2. Electrochemical and physical analysis of a Li-ion cell cycled at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Joongpyo; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Song, Xiangyun; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2002-06-21

    Laboratory-size LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2/graphite lithium-ion pouch cells were cycled over 100 percent DOD at room temperature and 60 degrees C in order to investigate high-temperature degradation mechanisms of this important technology. Capacity fade for the cell was correlated with that for the individual components, using electrochemical analysis of the electrodes and other diagnostic techniques. The high-temperature cell lost 65 percent of its initial capacity after 140 cycles at 60 degrees C compared to only 4 percent loss for the cell cycled at room temperature. Cell ohmic impedance increased significantly with the elevated temperature cycling, resulting in some of loss of capacity at the C/2 rate. However, as determined with slow rate testing of the individual electrodes, the anode retained most of its original capacity, while the cathode lost 65 percent, even when cycled with a fresh source of lithium. Diagnostic evaluation of cell components including XRD, Raman, CSAFM and suggest capacity loss occurs primarily due to a rise in the impedance of the cathode, especially at the end-of-charge. The impedance rise may be caused in part by a loss of the conductive carbon at the surface of the cathode and/or by an organic film on the surface of the cathode that becomes non-ionically conductive at low lithium content.

  3. Source fabrication and lifetime for Li+ ion beams extracted from alumino-silicate sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W

    2012-03-05

    A space-charge-limited beam with current densities (J) exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} have been measured from lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at a temperature of #24;~1275#14;{degrees} C. At higher extraction voltages, the source appears to become emission limited with J #21;{>=} 1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and J increases weakly with the applied voltage. A 6.35 mm diameter source with an alumino-silicate coating, {<=}#20;0.25 mm thick, has a measured lifetime of ~#24;40 hours at ~#24;1275#14;{degrees} C, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of #24;~6 μs each. At this rate, the source lifetime was independent of the actual beam charge extracted due to the loss of neutral atoms at high temperature. The source lifetime increases with the amount of alumino-silicate coated on the emitting surface, and may also be further extended if the temperature is reduced between pulses.

  4. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    years. During the materials optimization and development,of this material also needs optimization[30-32]. The mostrole in material designing and optimization. As the problems

  5. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01

    State Chemistry and Electrochemistry of LiCoi Ni, Mni/ 0 forState Chemistry and Electrochemistry of LiCo Nii/ Mn 0 forM. , "Structure and electrochemistry of LiNii/ Coi/ . M Mn

  6. LIFETIME OF THE METASTABLE 23S1 STATE IN STORED Li+ IONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    such a cloud was determined by a computer integration, usingbeam - ion cloud interaction. H. THE COMPUTER SYSTEM /.

  7. Understanding Phase Transformation in Crystalline Ge Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    studies. 1. INTRODUCTION One of the most important renewable energy storage technologies is lithium to silicon. Despite recent studies on Ge electrode reactions, there is still limited understanding elements, such as silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge), are very attractive candidates for high- capacity

  8. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Designing new electrode materials for energy devices byTo1) - a New Cathode Material for Batteries of High- Energy

  9. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English...

  10. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2010-01-01

    Mn 02 for lithium-ion batteries," Chem. Lett. , [3]0 for advanced lithium-ion batteries," J. Power Sources,Mni/ 0 for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Electrochem.

  11. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    2x/3Mn2/3-x/3]O2 for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Electrochemicalfor advanced lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Powerfor high-power lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta,

  12. Modeling of Nonuniform Degradation in Large-Format Li-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    Study of impacts of large-format cell design features on battery useful life to improve battery engineering models, including both realistic geometry and physics.

  13. Nanoscale In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery Electrochemistry Via Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipson, Albert L. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dept. of Chemistry; Ginder, Ryan S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dept. of Chemistry; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy imaging of battery electrodes, using the geometry shown in the figure, is a tool for in situ nanoscale mapping of surface topography and local ion current. Images of silicon and tin electrodes show that the combination of topography and ion current provides insight into the local electrochemical phenomena that govern the operation of lithium ion batteries.

  14. Li ion diffusion mechanism in the crystalline electrolyte -Li3PO4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holzwarth, Natalie

    -interstitial pair (Frenkel pair), which yields1 kTEEkTE fmm eneT /)2/(/ ~ +-- = For doped crystal. extrinsic

  15. Modeling and simulation of Li-ion conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    rechargeable batteries for consumer portable applications. A lithium-ion battery employs a metal oxide/discharge voltage depends on the current and resistance of all battery components. In most solid-state lithium-ion of Computational Physics 227 (2007) 1162­1175 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcp #12;1. Introduction Lithium and lithium-ion

  16. Biphasic Electrode Suspensions for Li-Ion Semi-solid Flow Cells...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Low-Dissipation Flow Authors: Wei, Teng-Sing ; Fan, Frank Y. ; Helal, Ahmed ; Smith, Kyle C. ; McKinley, Gareth H. ; Chiang, Yet-Ming ; Lewis, Jennifer A. 1 ; MIT) 2...

  17. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    it appears in Energy & Environmental Science, 4(6), 2011. BoTheoretical Study", Energy & Environmental Science, 4(6), 3.it appears in Energy & Environmental Science, 4(6), 2011. Bo

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  19. Study of novel nonflammable electrolytes in Sandia-built Li-ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in cells fabricated at Sandia. In particular, we are investigating two solvents as nonflammable additives. These are: (1) 2-trifluoromethyl-3-methoxyperfluoropentane...

  20. Self-limiting lithiation of electrode nanoparticles in Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drozdov, A. D., E-mail: add@teknologisk.dk [Center for Plastics Technology, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 7, Taastrup 2630 (Denmark); Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark); Sommer-Larsen, P. [Center for Plastics Technology, Danish Technological Institute, Gregersensvej 7, Taastrup 2630 (Denmark); Claville Christiansen, J. de [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 16, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)

    2013-12-14

    A model is derived for the viscoplastic behavior of a host medium driven by stress-induced diffusion of guest atoms. The constitutive equations are applied to study development of stresses in a spherical electrode particle subjected to insertion of lithium. Numerical simulation demonstrates the ability of the model to capture basic phenomena observed in anode nanoparticles under lithiation: formation of a sharp interphase between a Li-poor core and a Li-rich shell, slowing down of the interphase motion revealed as self-limiting lithiation, and growth of tensile hoop stresses near the outer surface of a particle leading to its fracture.

  1. High Capacity MoO3 Nanoparticle Li-Ion Battery Anode | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects...

  2. Thermal/Electrical Modeling for Abuse-Tolerant Design of Li-Ion Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G.-H.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2008-11-01

    To help design safe, high-performing batteries, NREL and NASA created and verified a new multicell math model capturing electrical-thermal interactions of cells with PTC devices during thermal abuse.

  3. Computer-Aided Engineering of Batteries for Designing Better Li-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-02-01

    This presentation describes the current status of the DOE's Energy Storage R and D program, including modeling and design tools and the Computer-Aided Engineering for Automotive Batteries (CAEBAT) program.

  4. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  5. Layer cathode methods of manufacturing and materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-01-01

    A positive electrode active material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of general formula Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.A.sub..gamma.O.sub.2 and further wherein A is Mg, Zn, Al, Co, Ga, B, Zr, or Ti and 0

  6. Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion all-solid-state...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRC); Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage (NEES) Sponsoring Org: USDOE SC Office of Basic Energy Sciences (SC-22)...

  7. The Relationship of the Nail Penetration Test to Safety of Li-Ion Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fluorinated...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Anode Material Development for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Sinode Systems at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about high energy anode material...

  10. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. es086srinivasan2010p.pdf More Documents &...

  11. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  12. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  13. Low-Cost Graphite and Olivine-Based Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  14. Modeling and simulation of Li-ion conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitelman, L. [Faculty of Applied Mathematics, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Israeli, M. [Faculty of Computer Science, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Averbuch, A. [School of Computer Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)], E-mail: amir@math.tau.ac.il; Nathan, M. [School of Electrical Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Schuss, Z. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Department of Applied Mathematics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Golodnitsky, D. [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2007-12-10

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) containing a lithium salt (e.g., LiI) serves as a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) in thin-film batteries and its ionic conductivity is a key parameter of their performance. We model and simulate Li{sup +} ion conduction in a single PEO molecule. Our simplified stochastic model of ionic motion is based on an analogy between protein channels of biological membranes that conduct Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and other ions, and the PEO helical chain that conducts Li{sup +} ions. In contrast with protein channels and salt solutions, the PEO is both the channel and the solvent for the lithium salt (e.g., LiI). The mobile ions are treated as charged spherical Brownian particles. We simulate Smoluchowski dynamics in channels with a radius of ca. 0.1 nm and study the effect of stretching and temperature on ion conductivity. We assume that each helix (molecule) forms a random angle with the axis between these electrodes and the polymeric film is composed of many uniformly distributed oriented boxes that include molecules with the same direction. We further assume that mechanical stretching aligns the molecular structures in each box along the axis of stretching (intra-box alignment). Our model thus predicts the PEO conductivity as a function of the stretching, the salt concentration and the temperature. The computed enhancement of the ionic conductivity in the stretch direction is in good agreement with experimental results. The simulation results are also in qualitative agreement with recent theoretical and experimental results.

  15. Develop high energy high power Li-ion battery cathode materials : a first principles computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Bo; Xu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    cycle, a so-called solid-electrolyte-interphase (SEI) layerof a thick amorphous solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) onacross the electrode/ electrolyte (solid/liquid) interface .

  16. Li-Ion polymer cells thermal property changes as a function of cycle-life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maleki, Hossein; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Hallmark, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The impact of elevated temperature chargeedischarge cycling on thermal conductivity (K-value) of Lithium Ion Polymer (LIP) cells of various chemistries from three different manufacturers was investigated. These included high voltage (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.35 V), wide voltage (Si:C/LiCoO2:2.7e4.35 V) and conventional (Graphite/LiCoO2:3.0e4.2 V) chemistries. Investigation results show limited variability within the in-plane and through-plane K-values for the fresh cells with graphite-based anodes from all three suppliers. After 500 cycles at 45 C, in-plane and through-plane K-values of the high voltage cells reduced less vs. those for the wide voltage cells. Such results suggest that high temperature cycling could have a greater impact on thermal properties of Si:C cells than on the LIP cells with graphite (Gr) anode cells we tested. This difference is due to the excess swelling of Si:C-anode based cells vs. Gr-anode cells during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Thermal modeling is used to evaluate the impact of K-value changes, due to cycles at 45 C, on the cells internal heat propagation under internal short circuit condition that leads to localized meltdown of the separator.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  18. Influence of constraints on axial growth reduction of cylindrical Li-ion battery electrode particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevanjyoti Chakraborty; Colin P. Please; Alain Goriely; S. Jonathan Chapman

    2014-11-24

    Volumetric expansion of silicon anode particles in a lithium-ion battery during charging may lead to the generation of undesirable internal stresses. For a cylindrical particle such growth may also lead to failure by buckling if the expansion is constrained in the axial direction due to other particles or supporting structures. To mitigate this problem, the possibility of reducing axial growth is investigated theoretically by studying simple modifications of the solid cylinder geometry. First, an annular cylinder is considered with lithiation either from the inside or from the outside. In both cases, the reduction of axial growth is not found to be significant. Next, explicit physical constraints are studied by addition of a non-growing elasto-plastic material: first, an outer annular constraint on a solid silicon cylinder, and second a rod-like inner constraint for an annular silicon cylinder. In both cases, it is found that axial growth can be reduced if the yield stress of the constraining material is significantly higher than that of silicon and/or the thickness of the constraint is relatively high. Phase diagrams are presented for both the outer and the inner constraint cases to identify desirable operating zones. Finally, to interpret the phase diagrams and isolate the key physical principles two different simplified models are presented and are shown to recover important qualitative trends of the numerical simulation results.

  19. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Role of Surface Structure on Li-ion Energy Storage Capacity of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar (fuels), energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, mechanical behavior, charge transport, materials and...

  1. Transport and Failure in Li-ion Batteries | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign In AboutApril

  2. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Li-Ion Battery Systems - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah861 ANNUAL|FacilityAbout »Faculty

  3. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F Wetlandsof Energy Model RepairCladdings: A Statusof

  4. Model-Experimental Studies on Next-generation Li-ion Materials | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F Wetlandsof Energy Model RepairCladdings: A Statusofof

  5. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F WetlandsofOpen-AccessMotorMultifamily

  6. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F WetlandsofOpen-AccessMotorMultifamilyBatteries |

  7. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F WetlandsofOpen-AccessMotorMultifamilyBatteries |Batteries

  8. Significant Cost Improvement of Li-Ion Cells Through Non-NMP Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo.Hydrogen4 » Searchwith Ultra-DeepwaterShutting the

  9. Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE HydrogenDepartment of Energy

  10. Streamlining the Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE|EnergyDepartment of

  11. Characterization of Li-ion Batteries using Neutron Diffraction and Infrared

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartmentChallengeSuccess Stories from

  12. Characterization of Materials for Li-ion Batteries: Success Stories from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs | DepartmentDepartmentChallengeSuccess Stories fromthe High

  13. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLake PaiuteHanford, IncofWorker ScreeningOhio | Department

  14. Construction of a Li Ion Battery (LIB) Cathode Production Plant in Elyria,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLake PaiuteHanford, IncofWorker ScreeningOhio |

  15. Advanced Li-Ion Polymer Battery Cell Manufacturing Plant in USA |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0DepartmentDepartment of

  16. 2010 DOE, Li-Ion Battery Cell Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  17. Predictive Models of Li-ion Battery Lifetime (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLEDSpeeding accessSpeedingPATENTS- 05The

  18. 3D Printing of Interdigitated Li-Ion Microbattery Architectures (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL Small-scale Friction(TechnicalRandomConnect

  19. Biphasic Electrode Suspensions for Li-Ion Semi-solid Flow Cells with High

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  20. Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion all-solid-state batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  1. Electrolyte Stability Determines Scaling Limits for Solid-State 3D Li Ion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal Article) |ContinuumPhotoactiveMixtures:

  2. Miniature All-solid-state Heterostructure Nanowire Li-ion Batteries as a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent)Inter-NucleonMiniapplications: Vehicles forToll for

  3. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent)Inter-NucleonMiniapplications: Vehicles forToll

  4. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) |(Patent)Inter-NucleonMiniapplications: Vehicles forTolltool

  5. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers' guide.representation (Conference)TurbulentMaterials

  6. Platforms and Methods for In Situ Characterization of Li-ion Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers' guide.representation

  7. Role of Surface Structure on Li-ion Energy Storage Capacity of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Robust emergent climateSciTechTwo-dimensional

  8. Study of novel nonflammable electrolytes in Sandia-built Li-ion cells.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference)Feedback System inStatus ofSmall GTPases withfrom an Isolatedof

  9. Thermally Stable Electrolyte For Li-ion Cells. (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

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  10. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on CleanUpList of EERE Waivers in10 DOE

  11. A Safer Replacement for Highly Flammable Liquids Currently Used in Li-ion

    Office of Science (SC) Website

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  12. Development of Cell/Pack Level Models for Automotive Li-Ion Batteries with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen andExperimental

  13. Development of High Capacity Anode for Li-ion Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  14. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  15. Diagnostic Studies to Improve Abuse Tolerance and Life of Li-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy2 DOE| Department of Energy 2

  16. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilof

  17. Electrolytes and Separators for High Voltage Li Ion Cells | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofAprilofEnergy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

  18. Electrolytes in Support of 5 V Li-ion Chemistries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  19. Hard Carbon Materials for High-Capacity Li-ion Battery Anodes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  20. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  1. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing ProgramsDepartment of¡HighApproaches | 03.25.2015DOE21 DOE

  2. High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

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  3. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Li-ion Batteries: a New Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Enabling the Future of Li-Ion Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  5. Derived Types What Are Derived Types?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Derived Types #12;What Are Derived Types? As usual, a hybrid of two, unrelated concepts C++, Python orientation comes in #12;Simple Derived Types TYPE Wheel INTEGER :: spokes REAL :: diameter, width CHARACTER(LEN=15) :: material END TYPE Wheel That defines a derived type Wheel Using derived types needs a special

  6. Derived Types What Are Derived Types?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Derived Types #12;What Are Derived Types? As usual, a hybrid of two, unrelated concepts C object orientation comes in This course will only describe the former. #12;Simple Derived Types TYPE That defines a derived type Wheel Using derived types needs a special syntax TYPE(Wheel) :: w1 #12;More

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 171 Continuation-Based Quasi-Steady-State Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 21, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 171 Continuation-Based Quasi-Steady-State Analysis Qin Wang, Member, IEEE, Hwachang Song, Member, IEEE, and Venkataramana Ajjarapu, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This paper presents continuation-based quasi-steady- state (CQSS) analysis

  8. Optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policies: A Steady State Analysis Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren and Shao Hong Wan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Optimal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Policies: A Steady State Analysis Author(s): Shmuel S. Oren.S.A. OPTIMAL STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE POLICIES: A STEADY STATE ANALYSIS* SHMUEL S. OREN AND SHAO HONG WAN Petroleum Reserve (SPR) under a variety of supply and demand conditions. The optimal policy variables

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 062141 (2013) Nonequilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically glassy system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    2013-01-01

    an explicit solution for the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath intensities where the NESS is like that of a random walker in a biased Brownian landscape. We investigate nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). Considering the NESS of a mesoscopically glassy system, our working

  10. Absence of a steady-state space charge limited regime for a sheath in a weakly collisional plasma bounded by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Absence of a steady-state space charge limited regime for a sheath in a weakly collisional plasma average kinetic energy in the direction normal to the walls. Electrons are stratified into several groups leads to absence of a steady-state space charge limited regime for a sheath even in presence of a high

  11. Steady-State Impurity Control, Heat Removal and Tritium Recovery by Moving-Belt Plasma-Facing Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    1 Steady-State Impurity Control, Heat Removal and Tritium Recovery by Moving-Belt Plasma-Z getter materials, heat removal and tritium recovery. In order to minimize MHD effects as well as induced is the application of "Moving-Belt Plasma-Facing Components" for steady-state impurity gettering, heat removal

  12. Type: Renewal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaicsStateof Energy TwoEvent at the Pu Facility,Type IV COPV1

  13. Quantitative broadband absorption and scattering spectroscopy in turbid media by combined frequency-domain and steady state methodologies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tromberg, Bruce J. (Irvine, CA); Berger, Andrew J. (Rochester, NY); Cerussi, Albert E. (Lake Forest, CA); Bevilacqua, Frederic (Costa Mesa, CA); Jakubowski, Dorota (Irvine, CA)

    2008-09-23

    A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.

  14. A Numerical Model Without Truncation Error for a Steady-State Analysis of a Once-Through Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang; Eoh, Jae Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To overcome the drawbacks of conventional schemes for a numerical analysis of a steam generator (SG), an efficient numerical model has been developed to analyze the steady state of a once-through-type SG where the feedwater is heated to superheated steam. In the developed model, the temperature and enthalpy are defined at the boundary of a calculation cell, and the exact solutions for the temperature distribution in a calculation cell are utilized. This feature of the developed model frees calculation from the undesirable effects of numerical diffusion, and only a small number of nodes are required. Also, the developed model removes the ambiguity from the parameter values at the inlet and exit of a calculation.The BoSupSG-SS computer code was developed by using the analysis model, and it performed well with only three calculation nodes to analyze a superheated SG. The developed model can be effectively used for the cases where a fast one-dimensional calculation is required such as an SG or system design analysis.

  15. Study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kui, Zhou; Xing, Luo; Xiangyang, Lu; Shengwen, Quan; Jifei, Zhao; Ziqin, Yang

    2014-09-15

    Micro-pulse electron gun (MPG) employs the basic concept of multipacting to produce high-current and short-pulse electron beams from a radio-frequency (RF) cavity. The concept of MPG has been proposed for more than two decades. However, the unstable operating state of MPG vastly obstructs its practical applications. This paper presents a study on the steady operating state of a micro-pulse electron gun with theory and experiments. The requirements for the steady operating state are proposed through the analysis of the interaction between the RF cavity and the beam load. Accordingly, a MPG cavity with the frequency of 2856?MHz has been designed, constructed, and tested. Some primary experiments have been finished. Both the unstable and stable operating states of the MPG have been observed. The stable output beam current has been detected at about 3.8 mA. Further experimental study is under way now.

  16. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high P\\'eclet numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; Cohen, Samuel I A; Yates, Emma V; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chrisopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in p...

  17. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.

  18. Non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Doyon; Andrew Lucas; Koenraad Schalm; M. J. Bhaseen

    2014-09-23

    We construct non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory in arbitrary space dimension $d$ following a local quench. We consider the approach where two independently thermalized semi-infinite systems, with temperatures $T_{\\rm L}$ and $T_{\\rm R}$, are connected along a $d-1$-dimensional hypersurface. A current-carrying steady state, described by thermally distributed modes with temperatures $T_{\\rm L}$ and $T_{\\rm R}$ for left and right-moving modes, respectively, emerges at late times. The non-equilibrium density matrix is the exponential of a non-local conserved charge. We obtain exact results for the average energy current and the complete distribution of energy current fluctuations. The latter shows that the long-time energy transfer can be described by a continuum of independent Poisson processes, for which we provide the exact weights. We further describe the full time evolution of local observables following the quench. Averages of generic local observables, including the stress-energy tensor, approach the steady state with a power-law in time, where the exponent depends on the initial conditions at the connection hypersurface. We describe boundary conditions and special operators for which the steady state is reached instantaneously on the connection hypersurface. A semiclassical analysis of freely propagating modes yields the average energy current at large distances and late times. We conclude by comparing and contrasting our findings with results for interacting theories and provide an estimate for the timescale governing the crossover to hydrodynamics. As a modification of our Klein-Gordon analysis we also include exact results for free Dirac fermions.

  19. An All-Sky Search for Steady VHE Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    1999-01-01

    The Milagrito water Cherenkov detector in the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico took data from February 1997 to April 1998. Milagrito served as a prototype for the larger Milagro detector, which has just begun operations. Milagrito was the first large-aperture gamma-ray detector with sensitivity to gamma rays below 1 TeV. We report here on a search for steady emission from point sources over most of the northern sky using data from Milagrito.

  20. An All-Sky Search for Steady VHE Gamma-Ray Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; M. -L. Chen; D. G. Coyne; R. S. Delay; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; D. Evans; A. Falcone; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; C. M. Hoffman; S. Hugenberger; L. A. Kelley; I. Leonor; J. Macri; M. McConnell; J. F. McCullough; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; J. M. Ryan; M. Schneider; B. Shen; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; T. N. Thompson; O. T. Tumer; K. Wang; M. O. Wascko; S. Westerhoff; D. A. Williams; T. Yang; G. B. Yodh

    1999-06-23

    The Milagrito water Cherenkov detector in the Jemez Mountains near Los Alamos, New Mexico took data from February 1997 to April 1998. Milagrito served as a prototype for the larger Milagro detector, which has just begun operations. Milagrito was the first large-aperture gamma-ray detector with sensitivity to gamma rays below 1 TeV. We report here on a search for steady emission from point sources over most of the northern sky using data from Milagrito.

  1. Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk ; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.

    2014-02-15

    The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

  2. On the energy-minimizing steady states of a thin film equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almut Burchard; Marina Chugunova; Benjamin K. Stephens

    2010-09-21

    Steady states of the thin film equation $u_t+[u^3 (u_xxx + \\alpha^2 u_x -\\sin(x) )]_x=0$ are considered on the periodic domain $\\Omega = (-\\pi,\\pi)$. The equation defines a generalized gradient flow for an energy functional that controls the $H^1$-norm. The main result establishes that there exists for each given mass a unique nonnegative function of minimal energy. This minimizer is symmetric decreasing about $x=0$. For $\\alpha<1$ there is a critical value for the mass at which the minimizer has a touchdown zero. If the mass exceeds this value, the minimizer is strictly positive. Otherwise, it is supported on a proper subinterval of the domain and meets the dry region at zero contact angle. A second result explores the relation between strict positivity and exponential convergence for steady states. It is shown that positive minimizers are locally exponentially attractive, while the distance from a steady state with a dry region cannot decay faster than a power law.

  3. Effects of aging in catastrophe on the steady state and dynamics of a microtubule population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Jemseena; Manoj Gopalakrishnan

    2015-07-01

    Several independent observations have suggested that catastrophe transition in microtubules is not a first-order process, as is usually assumed. Recent {\\it in vitro} observations by Gardner et al.[ M. K. Gardner et al., Cell {\\bf147}, 1092 (2011)] showed that microtubule catastrophe takes place via multiple steps and the frequency increases with the age of the filament. Here, we investigate, via numerical simulations and mathematical calculations, some of the consequences of age dependence of catastrophe on the dynamics of microtubules as a function of the aging rate, for two different models of aging: exponential growth, but saturating asymptotically and purely linear growth. The boundary demarcating the steady state and non-steady state regimes in the dynamics is derived analytically in both cases. Numerical simulations, supported by analytical calculations in the linear model, show that aging leads to non-exponential length distributions in steady state. More importantly, oscillations ensue in microtubule length and velocity. The regularity of oscillations, as characterized by the negative dip in the autocorrelation function, is reduced by increasing the frequency of rescue events. Our study shows that age dependence of catastrophe could function as an intrinsic mechanism to generate oscillatory dynamics in a microtubule population, distinct from hitherto identified ones.

  4. STUDY TYPES What is a "Study Type"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorf, Martin E.

    #12;STUDY TYPES What is a "Study Type"? A Study Type is a defined business process. Study Types work together to streamline workflow, track data & keep users informed. There are 2 Study Types in eCOMS: COMS and IACUC. The COMS Study: The COMS Study is an online form that a Principal Investigator fills

  5. Nonequilibrium steady state transport of collective-qubit system in strong coupling regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen Wang; Ke-Wei Sun

    2015-08-10

    We investigate the steady state photon transport in a nonequilibrium collective-qubit model. By adopting the noninteracting blip approximation, which is applicable in the strong photon-qubit coupling regime, we describe the essential contribution of indirect qubit-qubit interaction to the population distribution, mediated by the photonic baths. The linear relations of both the optimal flux and noise power with the qubits system size are obtained. Moreover, the inversed power-law style for the finite-size scaling of the optimal photon-qubit coupling strength is exhibited, which is proposed to be universal.

  6. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  7. Interaction stabilized steady states in the driven O(N) model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anushya Chandran; Shivaji. L. Sondhi

    2015-06-29

    We study periodically driven bosonic scalar field theories in the infinite N limit. It is well-known that the free theory can undergo parametric resonance under monochromatic modulation of the mass term and thereby absorb energy indefinitely. Interactions in the infinite N limit terminate this increase for any choice of the UV cutoff and driving frequency. The steady state has non-trivial correlations and is synchronized with the drive. The O(N) model at infinite N provides the first example of a clean interacting quantum system that does not heat to infinite temperature at any drive frequency.

  8. U-Tube Steam Generator experiments: steady state and transients analysis using RELAP5/MOD2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanasundaram, Mathangi

    1989-01-01

    by the code. RELAP. The floii. regime sv transitions and heat transfer correlations based on a two phase flow over tube bundles have improved the heat transfer prediction at steady state and transient accident in s. U-tube steam generator. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... two-phase flow and the void distribution in the steam generator to accurately predict PIVR plant response. The 'Alodel Boiler Xo22 (kIB-'2) steani generator is oue such experimental facihty to provide comprehensive data on the behavior of steam...

  9. Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high Péclet numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Müller; Paolo Arosio; Luke Rajah; Samuel I. A. Cohen; Emma V. Yates; Michele Vendruscolo; Chrisopher M. Dobson; Tuomas P. J. Knowles

    2015-10-17

    Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in predefined detection regions. We demonstrate quantitative agreement of the predicted concentration profiles with the results of experiments performed with fluorescent particles in microfluidic channels under continuous flow. This approach is computationally advantageous and readily allows non-trivial initial distributions to be considered. In particular, this method is highly suitable for simulating advective and diffusive transport in microfluidic devices.

  10. Natural equilibria in steady-state neutron diffusion with temperature feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pounders, J. M.; Ingram, R. [Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, P.O. Box 79, West Mifflin, PA 15122-0079 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The critical diffusion equation with feedback is investigated within the context of steady-state multiphysics. It is proposed that for critical configurations there is no need to include the multiplication factor k in the formulation of the diffusion equation. This is notable because exclusion of k from the coupled system of equations precludes the mathematically tenuous notion of a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. On the other hand, it is shown that if the factor k is retained in the diffusion equation, as is currently common practice, then the resulting problem is equivalent to the constrained minimization of a functional representing the critical equilibrium of neutron and temperature distributions. The unconstrained solution corresponding to k = 1 represents the natural equilibrium of a critical system at steady-state. Computational methods for solving the constrained problem (with k) are briefly reviewed from the literature and a method for the unconstrained problem (without k) is outlined. A numerical example is studied to examine the effects of the constraint in the nonlinear system. (authors)

  11. Development of steady-state operation using ICH in the LHD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasahara, H.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, R.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tokitani, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Shoji, M.; Kamio, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tanaka, H.; Yoshimura, S.; Tamura, N.; Yamada, I.; Suzuki, C.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); and others

    2014-02-12

    Long-pulse discharge with the electron density n{sub e0} of 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}, electron temperature T{sub e0} of 2.5 keV, discharge length t{sub dis} of 19 minutes and heating power P{sub inject} of 1MW, is demonstrated using the HAS antenna and the PA antenna for ion cyclotron heating (ICH) and increasing in the power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The HAS antenna is designed to phase dipole and excite ideal fast wave with parallel electric field kept small, and low impurity generation and accumulation are achieved on the steady-state discharge by weak parasitic heating around antennas. On the long-pulse discharge, the radiation measured by bolometer is kept smaller than 20% for injection power, and the heat load to divertor is approximately 60 % with low energetic particle losses. The heat load ratio to divertor is not as a function of injection power around 1MW, and energy confinement has been kept during the steady-state discharge.

  12. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Vega Reyes; Andrés Santos

    2015-11-04

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method) we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called "lifted-tennis-ball" behavior).

  13. Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along 1D frictional interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amundsen, David Skålid; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasi-static velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a 1D spring-block model of an extended frictional interface, for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons--Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates stead...

  14. The Role of Gas In Maintaining Quasi-Steady Spiral Structure In Stellar Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti

    2008-12-03

    We study the dynamical evolution of spiral structure in the stellar disks of isolated galaxies using high resolution Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations that treat the evolution of gas, stars, and dark matter self-consistently. We focus this study on the question of self-excited spiral structure in the stellar disk and investigate the dynamical coupling between the cold, dissipative gaseous component and the stellar component. We find that angular momentum transport from the gas to the stars inside of corotation leads to a roughly time-steady spiral structure in the stellar disk. To make this point clear, we contrast these results with otherwise identical simulations that do not include a cold gaseous component that is able to cool radiatively and dissipate energy, and find that spiral structure, when it is incipient, dies out more rapidly in simulations that do not include gas. We also employ a standard star formation prescription to convert gas into stars and find that our results hold for typical gas consumption time scales that are in accord with the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. We therefore attribute the long-lived roughly time steady spiral structure in the stellar disk to the dynamical coupling between the gas and the stars and the resultant torques that the self-gravitating gaseous disk is able to exert on the stars due to an azimuthal phase shift between the collisionless and dissipative components.

  15. Heating and current drive requirements towards steady state operation in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poli, F. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bonoli, P. T. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batchelor, D. B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Harvey, B.; Petrov, Y. [CompX, Box 2672, Del Mar, CA 92014 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Steady state scenarios envisaged for ITER aim at optimizing the bootstrap current, while maintaining sufficient confinement and stability to provide the necessary fusion yield. Non-inductive scenarios will need to operate with Internal Transport Barriers (ITBs) in order to reach adequate fusion gain at typical currents of 9 MA. However, the large pressure gradients associated with ITBs in regions of weak or negative magnetic shear can be conducive to ideal MHD instabilities, reducing the no-wall limit. The E × B flow shear from toroidal plasma rotation is expected to be low in ITER, with a major role in the ITB dynamics being played by magnetic geometry. Combinations of H/CD sources that maintain weakly reversed magnetic shear profiles throughout the discharge are the focus of this work. Time-dependent transport simulations indicate that, with a trade-off of the EC equatorial and upper launcher, the formation and sustainment of quasi-steady state ITBs could be demonstrated in ITER with the baseline heating configuration. However, with proper constraints from peeling-ballooning theory on the pedestal width and height, the fusion gain and the maximum non-inductive current are below the ITER target. Upgrades of the heating and current drive system in ITER, like the use of Lower Hybrid current drive, could overcome these limitations, sustaining higher non-inductive current and confinement, more expanded ITBs which are ideal MHD stable.

  16. Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY February 2013 Academic Writing Guide Part 2 ­ Assignment Types: This section outlines the basic types of written assignments, providing structural elements and examples. #12;2 II. Assignment Types 1. Essay Writing

  17. A Typed Operational Semantics for Type Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goguen, Healfdene

    Untyped reduction provides a natural operational semantics for type theory. Normalization results say that such a semantics is sound. However, this reduction does not take type information into account and gives no information ...

  18. Steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zippilli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.

  19. Einstein's unified field theory predicts the equilibrium positions of n wires run by steady electric currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvatore Antoci

    2008-03-25

    A particular exact solution of Einstein's Hermitian theory of relativity is examined, after recalling that there is merit in adding phenomenological sources to the theory, and in choosing the metric like it was done long ago by Kursunoglu and Hely. It is shown by intrinsic arguments, relying on the properties of the chosen metric manifold, that the solution describes in Einstein's theory the field of n thin parallel wires at rest, run by steady electric currents, and predicts their equilibrium positions through the injunction that the metric must display cylindrical symmetry in the infinitesimal neighbourhood of each wire. In the weak field limit the equilibrium positions coincide with the ones prescribed by Maxwell's electrodynamics.

  20. Status of steady-state irradiation testing of mixed-carbide fuel designs. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The steady-state irradiation program of mixed-carbide fuels has demonstrated clearly the ability of carbide fuel pins to attain peak burnup greater than 12 at.% and peak fluences of 1.4 x 10/sup 23/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E > 0.1 MeV). Helium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 20.7 at.% (192 MWd/kg), and no breaches have occurred in pins of this design. Sodium-bonded fuel pins in 316SS cladding have achieved peak burnups of 15.8 at.% (146 MWd/kg). Breaches have occurred in helium-bonded fuel pins in PE-16 cladding (approx. 5 at.% burnup) and in D21 cladding (approx. 4 at.% burnup). Sodium-bonded fuel pins achieved burnups over 11 at.% in PE-16 cladding and over 6 at.% in D9 and D21 cladding.

  1. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Pak Yuen

    2007-01-01

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recent...

  2. Advanced fueling system for steady-state operation of a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, R. [Univ. of Washington, AERB 352250, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Steady-state Advanced Tokamak scenarios rely on optimized density and pressure profiles to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. Under this mode of operation, the fuelling system must deposit small amounts of fuel where it is needed, and as often as needed, so as to compensate for fuel losses, but not to adversely alter the established density and pressure profiles. A precision fuelling system has the capability for controlling the fusion burn by maintaining the required pressure profile to maximize the bootstrap current fraction. An advanced fuelling system based on Compact Toroid (CT) injection has the potential to meet these needs while simultaneously simplifying the requirements of the tritium handling systems. Simpler engineering systems would reduce reactor construction and maintenance cost through increased reliability. A CT fueling system is described together with the associated tritium handling requirements. (authors)

  3. Steady-State Dynamics of the Forest Fire Model on Complex Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Many sociological networks, as well as biological and technological ones, can be represented in terms of complex networks with a heterogeneous connectivity pattern. Dynamical processes taking place on top of them can be very much influenced by this topological fact. In this paper we consider a paradigmatic model of non-equilibrium dynamics, namely the forest fire model, whose relevance lies in its capacity to represent several epidemic processes in a general parametrization. We study the behavior of this model in complex networks by developing the corresponding heterogeneous mean-field theory and solving it in its steady state. We provide exact and approximate expressions for homogeneous networks and several instances of heterogeneous networks. A comparison of our analytical results with extensive numerical simulations allows to draw the region of the parameter space in which heterogeneous mean-field theory provides an accurate description of the dynamics, and enlights the limits of validity of the mean-field...

  4. Nonequilibrium density matrix for simultaneous heat and charge steady-state transport in quantum open systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Ness

    2014-12-02

    We suggest a generalisation of the expression of the nonequilibrium density matrix obtained by Hershfield's method for the cases where both heat and charge steady state currents are present in a quantum open system. The finite-size quantum system, connected to two temperature and particle reservoirs, is driven out of equilibrium by the presence of both a temperature gradient and a chemical potential gradient between the two reservoirs. We show that the NE density matrix is given by a generalised Gibbs-like ensemble, and is in full agreement with the general results of the McLennan-Zubarev nonequilibrium ensembles. The extra non-equilibrium terms are related to the entropy production in the system and characterise the fluxes of heat and particle.An explicit example, for the lowest order expansion, is provide for a model system of non-interacting fermions.

  5. Surfkin: A program to solve transient and steady state heterogeneous reaction kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COLTRIN,MICHAEL E.; WIXOM,RYAN R.; DANDY,DAVID S.

    2000-05-01

    Heterogeneous chemical reactions occurring at a gas/surface interface are fundamental in a variety of important applications, such as combustion, catalysis, chemical vapor deposition and plasma processing. Detailed simulation of these processes may involve complex, coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, gas-phase chemistry, in addition to heterogeneous reaction chemistry. This report documents the Surfkin program, which simulates the kinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions. The program is designed for use with the Chemkin and Surface Chemkin (heterogeneous chemistry) programs. It calculates time-dependent or steady state surface site fractions and bulk-species production/destruction rates. The surface temperature may be specified as a function of time to simulate a temperature-programmed desorption experiment, for example. This report serves as a user's manual for the program, explaining the required input and format of the output. Two detailed example problems are included to further illustrate the use of this program.

  6. Magnetic nozzle and plasma detachment model for a steady-state flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breizman, B. N.; Tushentsov, M. R.; Arefiev, A. V. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Plasma propulsion concepts that employ a guiding magnetic field raise the question of how the magnetically controlled plasma can detach from the spacecraft. This paper presents a detachment scenario relevant to high-power thrusters in which the plasma can stretch the magnetic field lines to infinity, similar to the solar wind. In previous work, the corresponding ideal magnetohydrodynamics equations have been solved analytically for a plasma flow in a slowly diverging nozzle. That solution indicates that efficient detachment is feasible if the nozzle is sufficiently long. In order to extend the previous model beyond the idealizations of analytical theory, a Lagrangian code is developed in this work to simulate steady-state kinetic plasma flows and to evaluate nozzle efficiency. The code is benchmarked against the analytical results and then used to examine situations that are not analytically tractable, including plasma behavior in the recent Detachment Demonstration Experiment at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  7. Steady-state, high-dose neutron generation and concentration apparatus and method for deuterium atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    A steady-state source of neutrons is produced within an electrically grounded and temperature controlled chamber confining tritium or deuterium plasma at a predetermined density to effect implantation of ions in the surface of a palladium target rod coated with diffusion barrier material and immersed in such plasma. The rod is enriched with a high concentration of deuterium atoms after a prolonged plasma ion implantation. Collision of the deuterium atoms in the target by impinging ions of the plasma initiates fusion reactions causing emission of neutrons during negative voltage pulses applied to the rod through a high power modulator. The neutrons are so generated at a relatively high dose rate under optimized process conditions.

  8. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  9. Transitions between strongly correlated and random steady-states for catalytic CO-oxidation on surfaces at high-pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Da -Jiang; Evans, James W.

    2015-04-02

    We explore simple lattice-gas reaction models for CO-oxidation on 1D and 2D periodic arrays of surface adsorption sites. The models are motivated by studies of CO-oxidation on RuO2(110) at high-pressures. Although adspecies interactions are neglected, the effective absence of adspecies diffusion results in kinetically-induced spatial correlations. A transition occurs from a random mainly CO-populated steady-state at high CO-partial pressure pCO, to a strongly-correlated near-O-covered steady-state for low pCO as noted. In addition, we identify a second transition to a random near-O-covered steady-state at very low pCO.

  10. The determination of neutron flux in the Texas A & M triga reactor during pulse and steady-state operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, John Joseph

    1983-01-01

    THE DETERMINATION OF NEUTRON FLUX IN THE TEXAS A & M TRIGA REACTOR DURING PULSE AND STEADY-STATE OPERATIONS A Thesis by JOHN JOSEPH O'DONNELL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 6 M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for t'ne degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1983 Ma3 or Sub] ect: Nuclear Engineering THE DETERMINATION OF NEUTRON FLUX IN THE TEXAS A & M TRIGA REACTOR DURING PULSE AND STEADY-STATE OPERATIONS A Thesis by JOHN JOSEPH O'DONNELL Approved...

  11. Materials design from non-equilibrium steady states: driven graphene as a tunable semiconductor with topological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iadecola, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio; Hou, Chang-Yu; Jackiw, Roman; Pi, So-Young; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

  12. Materials design from non-equilibrium steady states: driven graphene as a tunable semiconductor with topological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Iadecola; David Campbell; Claudio Chamon; Chang-Yu Hou; Roman Jackiw; So-Young Pi; Silvia Viola Kusminskiy

    2013-04-26

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

  13. Types of Commissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several commissioning types exist to address the specific needs of equipment and systems across both new and existing buildings. The following commissioning types provide a good overview.

  14. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appointment Types Postdoc Appointment Types Most postdocs will be offered a postdoctoral research associate appointment. Each year, approximately 30 Postdoctoral Fellow...

  15. Bifurcations from steady sliding to stick slip in boundary lubrication A. A. Batista and J. M. Carlson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Bifurcations from steady sliding to stick slip in boundary lubrication A. A. Batista and J. M in models for boundary lubrication introduced in J. M. Carlson and A. A. Batista, Phys. Rev. E 53, 4153 1996 distinguishing features associated with surfaces separated by a few molecular layers of lubricant. Here we find

  16. Wind-Driven Currents The first, and simplest, theory of steady wind-driven flow is due to Ekman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griesel, Alexa

    Wind-Driven Currents The first, and simplest, theory of steady wind-driven flow is due to Ekman gradients are negligible. The goal of this project is to isolate the wind-driven flow using the FASINEX moored measurements of velocity and wind stress. 1. Writing u Uei t = , and assuming a parameterization

  17. Statistical mechanical theory for steady-state systems. III. Heat flow in a Lennard-Jones fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Statistical mechanical theory for steady-state systems. III. Heat flow in a Lennard-Jones fluid March 2005; accepted 4 May 2005; published online 28 June 2005 A statistical mechanical theory for heat distribution for heat flow down an imposed thermal gradient is tested with simulations of a Lennard-Jones fluid

  18. Control Engineering Practice 15 (2007) 12221237 Application of plantwide control to the HDA process. I--steady-state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    process. I--steady-state optimization and self-optimizing control Antonio C.B. de Arau´ jo, Marius of the series. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: HDA process; Self-optimizing control proposed control structures for the HDA process. Section 3 shortly introduces the self-optimizing control

  19. Internet-scale storage systems under churn --A study of the steady-state using Markov models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aberer, Karl

    and a specific maintenance strategy, the system operates in a corresponding steady-state (dynamic equilib- rium the required operational maintenance cost. We also propose a new randomized vari- ant of a lazy-maintenance redundancy, since it ignores the crucial interplay between churn and main- tenance operations, and looks only

  20. A Steady-State Impedance Model for a PEMFC Cathode Qingzhi Guo* and Ralph E. White**,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carolina 29208, USA A model for the simulation of the steady-state impedance response of a polymer to consist of many flooded spherical agglomerate particles surrounded by a small volume fraction of gas pores to take place in the flooded agglomerate particles. Newman's porous electrode theory is applied

  1. Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar wind and interplanetary magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shepherd, Simon

    Cross polar cap potentials measured with Super Dual Auroral Radar Network during quasi-steady solar, or cross polar cap potential, ÈPC. Periods are chosen to satisfy the criteria that (1) the solar wind-based radars to functional forms of the electrostatic potential [Ruohoniemi and Baker, 1998]; and global mag

  2. Steady-state chemical process models. A structural point of view

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    of mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6.3 Heat exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Process streams 5 3 Sources and sinks 5 4 Atomic units 6 4.1 Structural types of the atomic units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 Equations 7 5.1 Type of equations

  3. Types of Lights Types of Lights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Types of Lights Types of Lights q So far we have studied point lights ­ Radiate in all direc7ons q Other lights ­ Direc7onal lights (posi7on-independent) ­ Spotlights #12;2 Direc1onal Lights q Shine in a single, uniform direc7on q All rays

  4. Steady states and linear stability analysis of precipitation pattern formation at geothermal hot springs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pak Yuen Chan; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2007-08-22

    A dynamical theory of geophysical precipitation pattern formation is presented and applied to irreversible calcium carbonate (travertine) deposition. Specific systems studied here are the terraces and domes observed at geothermal hot springs, such as those at Yellowstone National Park, and speleothems, particularly stalactites and stalagmites. The theory couples the precipitation front dynamics with shallow water flow, including corrections for turbulent drag and curvature effects. In the absence of capillarity and with a laminar flow profile, the theory predicts a one-parameter family of steady state solutions to the moving boundary problem describing the precipitation front. These shapes match well the measured shapes near the vent at the top of observed travertine domes. Closer to the base of the dome, the solutions deviate from observations, and circular symmetry is broken by a fluting pattern, which we show is associated with capillary forces causing thin film break-up. We relate our model to that recently proposed for stalactite growth, and calculate the linear stability spectrum of both travertine domes and stalactites. Lastly, we apply the theory to the problem of precipitation pattern formation arising from turbulent flow down an inclined plane, and identify a linear instability that underlies scale-invariant travertine terrace formation at geothermal hot springs.

  5. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2008-11-17

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for al1 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 13 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 12 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-102) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  6. Characterization of the TRIGA Mark II reactor full-power steady state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Cammi; Matteo Zanetti; Davide Chiesa; Massimiliano Clemenza; Stefano Pozzi; Ezio Previtali; Monica Sisti; Giovanni Magrotti; Michele Prata; Andrea Salvini

    2015-03-03

    In this work, the characterization of the full-power steady state of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor of the University of Pavia is performed by coupling Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for neutronics with "Multiphysics" model for thermal-hydraulics. Neutronic analyses have been performed starting from a MC model of the entire reactor system, based on the MCNP5 code, that was already validated in fresh fuel and zero-power configuration (in which thermal effects are negligible) using the available experimental data as benchmark. In order to describe the full-power reactor configuration, the temperature distribution in the core is necessary. To evaluate it, a thermal-hydraulic model has been developed, using the power distribution results from MC simulation as input. The thermal-hydraulic model is focused on the core active region and takes into account sub-cooled boiling effects present at full reactor power. The obtained temperature distribution is then introduced in the MC model and a benchmark analysis is carried out to validate the model in fresh fuel and full-power configuration. The good agreement between experimental data and simulation results concerning full-power reactor criticality, proves the reliability of the adopted methodology of analysis, both from neutronics and thermal-hydraulics perspective.

  7. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-10-26

    This report assesses the steady state flammability level under off normal ventilation conditions in the tank headspace for 28 double-shell tanks (DST) and 149 single shell-tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. Flammability was calculated using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule, and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. This revision updates the hydrogen generation rate input data for all 177 tanks using waste composition information from the Best Basis Inventory Detail Report (data effective as of August 4,2008). Assuming only barometric breathing, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 11 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-10l) and 36 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203). Assuming zero ventilation, the shortest time to reach 25% of the lower flammability limit is 10 days for DSTs (i.e., tank 241-AZ-101) and 34 days for SSTs (i.e., tank 241-B-203).

  8. Steady-State Thermal Performance Evaluation of Steel-Framed Wall Assembly with Local Foam Insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, Jan [ORNL] [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL] [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    During January and May, 2009, two configurations of steel-framed walls constructed with conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with R-19 ~14cm. (5.5-in. thick) and R-13 ~9cm. (3.5-in. thick) fiberglass insulation batts were tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) guarded hot-box using ASTM C1363 test procedure. The first test wall used conventional 2 4 steel studs insulated with 2.5-cm. (1-in.) thick foam profiles, called stud snugglers. These stud snugglers converted the 2 4 wall assembly into a 2 6 assembly allowing application of R-19 fiberglass insulation. The second wall tested for comparison was a conventional 2 4 steel stud wall using R-13 insulation batts. Further, numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the steady-state thermal performance of various wood- and steel-framed wall assemblies. The effects of adding the stud-snugglers to the wood and steel studs were also investigated numerically. Different combinations of insulation and framing factor were used in the simulations.

  9. Non-equilibrium steady state and subgeometric ergodicity for a chain of three coupled rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé Cuneo; Jean-Pierre Eckmann; Christophe Poquet

    2015-09-03

    We consider a chain of three rotors (rotators) whose ends are coupled to stochastic heat baths. The temperatures of the two baths can be different, and we allow some constant torque to be applied at each end of the chain. Under some non-degeneracy condition on the interaction potentials, we show that the process admits a unique invariant probability measure, and that it is ergodic with a stretched exponential rate. The interesting issue is to estimate the rate at which the energy of the middle rotor decreases. As it is not directly connected to the heat baths, its energy can only be dissipated through the two outer rotors. But when the middle rotor spins very rapidly, it fails to interact effectively with its neighbors due to the rapid oscillations of the forces. By averaging techniques, we obtain an effective dynamics for the middle rotor, which then enables us to find a Lyapunov function. This and an irreducibility argument give the desired result. We finally illustrate numerically some properties of the non-equilibrium steady state.

  10. Modelling of Quench Limit for Steady State Heat Deposits in LHC Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bocian, D; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    A quench, the transition of a conductor from the superconducting to the normal conducting state, occurs irreversibly in the accelerator magnets if one of the three parameters: temperature, magnetic field or current density exceeds a critical value. Energy deposited in the superconductor by the particle beams provokes quenches detrimental for the accelerator operation. In particular if particles impacting on the vacuum chamber and their secondary showers depose energy in the magnet coils. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) nominal beam intensity is 3.2 ldr 10^14 protons. A quench occurs if a fraction of the order of 10^7 protons per second is lost locally. A network model is used to simulate the thermodynamic behaviour of the magnets. The heat flow in the network model was validated with measurements performed in the CERN magnet test facility. A steady state heat flow was introduced in the coil by using the quench heaters implemented in the LHC magnets. The value of the heat source current is determined by the ne...

  11. Quantum Entanglement at High Temperatures? II. Bosonic Systems in Nonequilibrium Steady State

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures $T_1 > T_2$. For \\textit{constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling} studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal bath...

  12. D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San Diego, February 2005 PLASMA SHAPE, PROFILES AND FLUX CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High · Conclusion #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks

  13. J.E. Menard -IEA Workshop 59 -Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks 1 Ideal MHD stability scaling with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J.E. Menard - IEA Workshop 59 - Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady Physics Laboratory IEA Workshop 59 February 14, 2005 General Atomics - San Diego, CA #12;J.E. Menard - IEA, February 2003 #12;J.E. Menard - IEA Workshop 59 - Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady

  14. Non-equilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically-glassy system: interplay of resistor-network theory and Sinai physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Doron

    -equilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath, and is driven by an external hot source to glassy systems. Conse- quently there is a wide range of driving intensities where the NESS is like- equilibrium steady state (NESS). Considering the NESS of a mesoscopically glassy sys- tem, our working

  15. Progress towards steady state on NSTX (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Number(s): UCRL-JRNL-221039 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nuclear Fusion, vol. 46, na, May 3, 2006, S22-S28...

  16. Conformational stability, flexibility, and steady-state activity of Ribonuclease T1 variants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hubbard, Brian Judson

    1995-01-01

    ., 1992; Thomson et al., 1989). We observe a relationship between the variants' conformational stability and the determined Kcat/Km values. With the exception of three mutations made to the active site, differences from wild-type activity are believed...

  17. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  18. Development of microbial-enzyme-mediated decomposition model parameters through steady-state and dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M; Mayes, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Microbial-ENzyme-mediated Decomposition (MEND) model, based on the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that describes the dynamics of physically defined pools of soil organic matter (SOC). These include particulate, mineral-associated, dissolved organic matter (POC, MOC, and DOC, respectively), microbial biomass, and associated exoenzymes. The ranges and/or distributions of parameters were determined by both analytical steady-state and dynamic analyses with SOC data from the literature. We used an improved multi-objective parameter sensitivity analysis (MOPSA) to identify the most important parameters for the full model: maintenance of microbial biomass, turnover and synthesis of enzymes, and carbon use efficiency (CUE). The model predicted an increase of 2 C (baseline temperature =12 C) caused the pools of POC-Cellulose, MOC, and total SOC to increase with dynamic CUE and decrease with constant CUE, as indicated by the 50% confidence intervals. Regardless of dynamic or constant CUE, the pool sizes of POC, MOC, and total SOC varied from 8% to 8% under +2 C. The scenario analysis using a single parameter set indicates that higher temperature with dynamic CUE might result in greater net increases in both POC-Cellulose and MOC pools. Different dynamics of various SOC pools reflected the catalytic functions of specific enzymes targeting specific substrates and the interactions between microbes, enzymes, and SOC. With the feasible parameter values estimated in this study, models incorporating fundamental principles of microbial-enzyme dynamics can lead to simulation results qualitatively different from traditional models with fast/slow/passive pools.

  19. Decomposition of toluene in a steady-state atmospheric-pressure glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trushkin, A. N.; Grushin, M. E.; Kochetov, I. V.; Trushkin, N. I.; Akishev, Yu. S.

    2013-02-15

    Results are presented from experimental studies of decomposition of toluene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}) in a polluted air flow by means of a steady-state atmospheric pressure glow discharge at different water vapor contents in the working gas. The experimental results on the degree of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} removal are compared with the results of computer simulations conducted in the framework of the developed kinetic model of plasma chemical decomposition of toluene in the N{sub 2}: O{sub 2}: H{sub 2}O gas mixture. A substantial influence of the gas flow humidity on toluene decomposition in the atmospheric pressure glow discharge is demonstrated. The main mechanisms of the influence of humidity on C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} decomposition are determined. The existence of two stages in the process of toluene removal, which differ in their duration and the intensity of plasma chemical decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3} is established. Based on the results of computer simulations, the composition of the products of plasma chemical reactions at the output of the reactor is analyzed as a function of the specific energy deposition and gas flow humidity. The existence of a catalytic cycle in which hydroxyl radical OH acts a catalyst and which substantially accelerates the recombination of oxygen atoms and suppression of ozone generation when the plasma-forming gas contains water vapor is established.

  20. CPR methodology with new steady-state criterion and more accurate statistical treatment of channel bow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgartner, S.; Bieli, R.; Bergmann, U. C.

    2012-07-01

    An overview is given of existing CPR design criteria and the methods used in BWR reload analysis to evaluate the impact of channel bow on CPR margins. Potential weaknesses in today's methodologies are discussed. Westinghouse in collaboration with KKL and Axpo - operator and owner of the Leibstadt NPP - has developed an optimized CPR methodology based on a new criterion to protect against dryout during normal operation and with a more rigorous treatment of channel bow. The new steady-state criterion is expressed in terms of an upper limit of 0.01 for the dryout failure probability per year. This is considered a meaningful and appropriate criterion that can be directly related to the probabilistic criteria set-up for the analyses of Anticipated Operation Occurrences (AOOs) and accidents. In the Monte Carlo approach a statistical modeling of channel bow and an accurate evaluation of CPR response functions allow the associated CPR penalties to be included directly in the plant SLMCPR and OLMCPR in a best-estimate manner. In this way, the treatment of channel bow is equivalent to all other uncertainties affecting CPR. Emphasis is put on quantifying the statistical distribution of channel bow throughout the core using measurement data. The optimized CPR methodology has been implemented in the Westinghouse Monte Carlo code, McSLAP. The methodology improves the quality of dryout safety assessments by supplying more valuable information and better control of conservatisms in establishing operational limits for CPR. The methodology is demonstrated with application examples from the introduction at KKL. (authors)

  1. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  2. STEADY-STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU TA

    2007-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The methodology of flammability analysis for Hanford tank waste is developed. The hydrogen generation rate model was applied to calculate the gas generation rate for 177 tanks. Flammability concentrations and the time to reach 25% and 100% of the lower flammability limit, and the minimum ventilation rate to keep from 100 of the LFL are calculated for 177 tanks at various scenarios.

  3. No steady water waves of small amplitude are supported by a shear flow with still free surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Kozlov; Nikolay Kuznetsov

    2012-09-17

    The two-dimensional free-boundary problem describing steady gravity waves with vorticity on water of finite depth is considered. It is proved that no small-amplitude waves are supported by a horizontal shear flow whose free surface is still in a coordinate frame such that the flow is time-independent in it. The class of vorticity distributions for which such flows exist includes all positive constant distributions, as well as linear and quadric ones with arbitrary positive coefficients.

  4. Three-phase model for the reversible lithiation/delithiation of SnO anodes in Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a microscopic model to explain the reversible lithiation/delithiation of tin-oxide anodes in lithium-ion batteries. When the irreversible regime ends, the anode grains consist of layers of Li-oxide separated by Sn bilayers. During the following reversible lithiation, the Li-oxide undergoes two phase transformations that give rise to a Li-enrichment of the oxide and the formation of a SnLi composite. The anode grain structure stays layered and ordered with an effective theoretical reversible capacity of 4.5 Li per Sn atom. The predicted anode volume expansion and voltage profile agree well with experiments, contrary to existing models.

  5. PHEV/EV Li-Ion Battery Second-Use Project, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newbauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-05-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (Evs) have great potential to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and emissions. Battery costs need to be reduced by ~50% to make PHEVs cost competitive with conventional vehicles. One option to reduce initial costs is to reuse the battery in a second application following its retirement from automotive service and offer a cost credit for its residual value.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Real-time Metrology for Li-ion Battery R&D and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Spectra, Inc at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about real-time metrology for...

  7. Study of Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using "Gen3" Electrode Materials: Summary of Stage 1-3 Experiments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  8. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaiswal, A.; Horne, C.R.; Chang, O.; Zhang, W.; Kong, W.; Wang, E.; Chern, T.; Doeff, M. M.

    2009-08-04

    The electrochemical performances of nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 materials are described in this communication. The nanomaterials were synthesized by pyrolysis of an aerosol precursor. Both compositions required moderate heat-treatment to become electrochemically active. LiFePO4 nanoparticles were coated with a uniform, 2-4 nm thick carbon-coating using an organic precursor in the heat treatment step and showed high tap density of 1.24 g/cm3, in spite of 50-100 nm particle size and 2.9 wtpercent carbon content. Li4Ti5O12 nanoparticles were between 50-200 nm in size and showed tap density of 0.8 g/cm3. The nanomaterials were tested both in half cell configurations against Li-metal and also in LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO4 showed high discharge rate capability with values of 150 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 charges. Nano-Li4Ti5O12 also showed high charge capability with values of 148 and 138 mAh/g at C/25 and 5C, respectively, after constant C/25 discharges; the discharge (lithiation) capability was comparatively slower. LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 full cells deliver charge/discharge capacity values of 150 and 122 mAh/g at C/5 and 5C, respectively.

  9. Thermal Model for a Li-Ion Cell Karthikeyan Kumaresan,* Godfrey Sikha,** and Ralph E. White***,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the performance of the battery under various operating conditions such as charge/discharge rate, temperature, etc the performance of the battery under different operating conditions, thus reducing the experimental efforts re, 2007. The comparison of experimental charge and discharge data with mathematical models helps battery

  10. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Giga Life Cycle: Manufacture of Cells from Recycled EV Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by OnTo Technology at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Giga Life Cycle: manufacture...

  12. Nanoscale LiFePO4 and Li4Ti5O12 for High Rate Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, A.

    2010-01-01

    a LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 full-cell at several different4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 coin full-cell. Figure 1. 0.2 µ m (a) (b)in LiFePO 4 /Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 full cells. Nano-LiFePO 4 showed

  13. Modeling- Scale-Bridging Simulations Active Materials in Li-ion Batteries, and Validation in BATT Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland.

  14. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  15. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Matthew T. McDowell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    energy storage has become a critical technology for a variety of applications, including grid storage To meet the increasing demand for energy storage capability, novel electrode materials with higher: Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries

  16. Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Li-Ion Battery Model for Better Design and Management (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G.-H.; Smith, K.

    2008-10-01

    The developed model used is to provide a better understanding and help answer engineering questions about improving the design, operational strategy, management, and safety of cells.

  17. Development of a Novel Test Method for On-Demand Internal Short Circuit in a Li-Ion Cell (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.; Long, D.; Jung, Y. S.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.; McCarthy, B.; Patrick, L.; Kruger, C.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation describes a cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, produces consistent and reproducible test results, can establish the locations and temperatures/power/SOC conditions where an internal short circuit will result in thermal runaway, and provides relevant data to validate internal short circuit models.

  18. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-407

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    Creare was awarded a Phase 1 STTR contract from the US Office of Naval Research, with a seven month period of performance from 6/28/2010 to 1/28/2011. The objectives of the STTR were to determine the feasibility of developing a software package for estimating reliability of battery packs, and develop a user interface to allow the designer to assess the overall impact on battery packs and host platforms for cell-level faults. NREL served as sub-tier partner to Creare, providing battery modeling and battery thermal safety expertise.

  19. Platform Li-Ion Battery Risk Assessment Tool: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-01-406

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2012-07-01

    The pressure within a lithium-ion cell changes due to various chemical reactions. When a battery undergoes an unintended short circuit, the pressure changes are drastic - and often lead to uncontrolled failure of the cells. As part of work for others with Oceanit Laboratories Inc. for the NAVY STTR, NREL built Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations that can identify potential weak spots in the battery during such events, as well as propose designs to control violent failure of batteries.

  20. Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing of High Capacity Prismatic Li-Ion Cell Alloy Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Chemically anchored NiOxcarbon composite fibers for Li-ion batteries with long cycle-life and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    the research hot-pot of NiO based anodes for LIBs. Amorphous carbon, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon enhanced properties.16,17 Carbon nanotubes were also used to prepare NiO­carbon composites via a surfaceO­gra- phene commonly began with nickel salts and graphene oxide, and the resultant NiO­graphene composites

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Real-time Metrology for Li-ion Battery R&D and Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Applied Spectra at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about real-time metrology for Li...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Low-cost, High Energy Si/Graphene Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XG Sciences at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about low-cost, high energy Si/graphene...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Li-ion Anode Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by University of Pittsburgh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanoscale...

  5. Microstructure Reconstruction and Direct Evaluation of Li-Ion Battery Cathodes Fuqiang Liu* and N A Siddique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Fuqiang

    in the solid phase, ion species diffusion and migration through the electrolyte/electrode interface (e.g., solid electrolyte interface or SEI), Li diffusion inside the electrode materials, and the (de- based battery. SEI is the solid electrolyte interface at both the anode and cathode. Moreover, there has

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Efficient Safety and Degradation Modeling of Automotive Li-ion Cells and Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC-Power at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient safety and degradation...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Efficient Safety and Degradation Modeling of Automotive Li-ion Cells and Pack

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by EC Power at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about efficient safety and degradation...

  8. Particle-Level Modeling of the Charge-Discharge Behavior of Nanoparticulate Phase-Separating Li-Ion Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orvananos, Bernardo; Yu, Hui-Chia; Bazant, Martin Z; Thornton, Katsuyo

    2013-01-01

    In nanoparticulate phase-separating electrodes, phase separation inside the particles can be hindered during their charge/discharge cycles even when a thermodynamic driving force for phase separation exists. In such cases, particles may (de)lithiate discretely in a process referred to as mosaic instability. This instability could be the key to elucidating the complex charge/discharge dynamics in nanoparticulate phase-separating electrodes. In this paper, the dynamics of the mosaic instability is studied using Smoothed Boundary Method simulations at the particle level, where the concentration and electrostatic potential fields are spatially resolved around individual particles. Two sets of configurations consisting of spherical particles with an identical radius are employed to study the instability in detail. The effect of an activity-dependent exchange current density on the mosaic instability, which leads to asymmetric charge/discharge, is also studied. While we show that our model reproduces the results of...

  9. Thermal Stability of LiPF 6 Salt and Li-ion Battery Electrolytes Containing LiPF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer Coating

  10. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto de la Cruz; Pilar Guerrero; Fabian Spill; Tomás Alarcón

    2015-08-12

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under1 quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the Chemical Master Equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provide the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually-inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species are order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  11. The SW Sex-type star 2MASS J01074282+4845188: an unusual bright accretion disk with non-steady emission and a hot white dwarf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khruzina, T; Kjurkchieva, D; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220385

    2013-01-01

    We present new photometric and spectral observations of the newly discovered nova-like eclipsing star 2MASS J01074282+4845188. To obtain a light curve solution we used model of a nova-like star whose emission sources are a white dwarf surrounded by an accretion disk, a secondary star filling its Roche lobe, a hot spot and a hot line. 2MASS J01074282+4845188 shows the deepest permanent eclipse among the known nova-like stars. It is reproduced by covering the very bright accretion disk by the secondary component. The luminosity of the disk is much bigger than that of the rest light sources. The determined high temperature of the disk is typical for that observed during the outbursts of CVs. The primary of 2MASS J01074282+4845188 is one of the hottest white dwarfs in CVs. The temperature of 5090 K of its secondary is also quite high and more appropriate for a long-period SW Sex star. It might be explained by the intense heating from the hot white dwarf and the hot accretion disk of the target. The high mass accr...

  12. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fahey, Mark R.; Candy, Jeff

    2013-11-07

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO ? a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two decades. The design of an efficient feedback algorithm is a serious numerical challenge. Although the power source and transport balance coding in the master are standard, it is nontrivial to design a feedback loop that can cope with outputs that are both intermittent and extremely expensive. A prototypical feedback scheme has already been successfully demonstrated for a single global GYRO simulation, although the robustness and efficiency are likely far from optimal. Once the transport feedback scheme is perfected, it could, in principle, be embedded into any of the more elaborate transport codes (ONETWO, TRANSP, and CORSICA), or adopted by other FSP-related multi-scale projects.

  13. High spatial resolution brain functional MRI using submillimeter balanced steady-state free precession acquisition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Pei-Hsin; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Tsai, Ping-Huei; Wu, Ming-Long; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Shih, Yi-Yu; Huang, Teng-Yi

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: One of the technical advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is its precise localization of changes from neuronal activities. While current practice of fMRI acquisition at voxel size around 3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} achieves satisfactory results in studies of basic brain functions, higher spatial resolution is required in order to resolve finer cortical structures. This study investigated spatial resolution effects on brain fMRI experiments using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging with 0.37 mm{sup 3} voxel volume at 3.0 T. Methods: In fMRI experiments, full and unilateral visual field 5 Hz flashing checkerboard stimulations were given to healthy subjects. The bSSFP imaging experiments were performed at three different frequency offsets to widen the coverage, with functional activations in the primary visual cortex analyzed using the general linear model. Variations of the spatial resolution were achieved by removing outerk-space data components. Results: Results show that a reduction in voxel volume from 3.44 × 3.44 × 2 mm{sup 3} to 0.43 × 0.43 × 2 mm{sup 3} has resulted in an increase of the functional activation signals from (7.7 ± 1.7)% to (20.9 ± 2.0)% at 3.0 T, despite of the threefold SNR decreases in the original images, leading to nearly invariant functional contrast-to-noise ratios (fCNR) even at high spatial resolution. Activation signals aligning nicely with gray matter sulci at high spatial resolution would, on the other hand, have possibly been mistaken as noise at low spatial resolution. Conclusions: It is concluded that the bSSFP sequence is a plausible technique for fMRI investigations at submillimeter voxel widths without compromising fCNR. The reduction of partial volume averaging with nonactivated brain tissues to retain fCNR is uniquely suitable for high spatial resolution applications such as the resolving of columnar organization in the brain.

  14. A Proof of Existence of Perturbed Steady Transonic Shocks via a Free

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canic, Suncica

    where the flow is supersonic, and elliptic in the downstream subsonic region. To study the stability of transonic shock waves of the type that appear, for example, over the wing of an airplane, along an airfoil, or as bow shocks in a flow with a supersonic free­stream velocity. Key words. Transonic small disturbance

  15. TYPES OF NONIMMIGRANT VISAS Type Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for pleasure and cannot receive any type of payments. C-1*, Aliens in travel status while travelling directly through the C-2*, United States. C-3* D-1 Alien crewman on shore leave or transferring to another vessel is grounds for deportation. E-1 Aliens who conduct trade or inventories between the United States

  16. Fractal dimension of cohesive sediment flocs at steady state under seven shear flow conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Zhongfan; Yu, Jingshan; Wang, Hongrui; Dou, Jie; Wang, Cheng

    2015-08-12

    The morphological properties of kaolin flocs were investigated in a Couette-flow experiment at the steady state under seven shear flow conditions (shear rates of 5.36, 9.17, 14, 24, 31, 41 and 53 s-1). These properties include a one-dimensional (1-D) fractal dimension (D1), a two-dimensional (2-D) fractal dimension (D2), a perimeter-based fractal dimension (Dpf) and an aspect ratio (AR). They were calculated based on the projected area (A), equivalent size, perimeter (P) and length (L) of the major axis of the floc determined through sample observation and an image analysis system. The parameter D2, which characterizes the relationship between the projectedmore »area and the length of the major axis using a power function, A ? LD2, increased from 1.73 ± 0.03, 1.72 ± 0.03, and 1.75 ± 0.04 in the low shear rate group (G = 5.36, 9.17, and 14 s-1) to 1.92 ± 0.03, 1.82 ± 0.02, 1.85 ± 0.02, and 1.81 ± 0.02 in the high shear rate group (24, 31, 41 and 53 s-1), respectively. The parameter D1 characterizes the relationship between the perimeter and length of the major axis by the function P ? LD1 and decreased from 1.52 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02, 1.55 ± 0.02, and 1.63 ± 0.02 in the low shear group (5.36, 9.17, 14 and 24 s-1) to 1.45 ± 0.02, 1.39 ± 0.02, and 1.39 ± 0.02 in the high shear group (31, 41 and 53 s-1), respectively. The results indicate that with increasing shear rates, the flocs become less elongated and that their boundary lines become tighter and more regular, caused by more breakages and possible restructurings of the flocs. The parameter Dpf, which is related to the perimeter and the projected area through the function , decreased as the shear rate increased almost linearly. The parameter AR, which is the ratio of the length of the major axis and equivalent diameter, decreased from 1.56, 1.59, 1.53 and 1.51 in the low shear rate group to 1.43, 1.47 and 1.48 in the high shear rate group. These changes in Dpf and AR show that the flocs become less convoluted and more symmetrical and that their boundaries become smoother and more regular in the high shear rate group than in the low shear rate group due to breakage and possible restructuring processes. To assess the effects of electrolyte and sediment concentration, 0.1 mol/L calcium chloride (CaCl2) and initial sediment concentration from 7.87 × 10-5 to 1.57 × 10-5 were used in this preliminary study. The addition of electrolyte and increasing sediment concentration could produce more symmetrical flocs with less convoluted and simpler boundaries. In addition, some new information on the temporal variation of the median size of the flocs during the flocculation process is presented.« less

  17. Typed Self-Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matt

    2013-01-01

    type T y[O]. The operator IsIs is self-applicative, in thatargument t is any of Is[O] or IsIs, and otherwise behavesproof constant introduced by IsIs proves that the type of t

  18. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Sensitivity to Steady and Transient Sources of Gamma Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory is designed to record air showers produced by cosmic rays and gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Because of its large field of view and high livetime, HAWC is well-suited to measure gamma rays from extended sources, diffuse emission, and transient sources. We describe the sensitivity of HAWC to emission from the extended Cygnus region as well as other types of galactic diffuse emission; searches for flares from gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei; and the first measurement of the Crab Nebula with HAWC-30.

  19. Studies of Local Degradation Phenomena in Composite Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerlau, M.; Marcinek, M.; Srinivasan, V.; Kostecki, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Composite Cathodes for Li-ion Batteries Marie Kerlau, Marekfrom commercial Li-ion batteries and mode cells which

  20. Nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relations for one- and two-particle correlation functions in steady-state quantum transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, H., E-mail: herve.ness@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, School of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, King's College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium); Dash, L. K. [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium) [European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Liege (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    We study the non-equilibrium (NE) fluctuation-dissipation (FD) relations in the context of quantum thermoelectric transport through a two-terminal nanodevice in the steady-state. The FD relations for the one- and two-particle correlation functions are derived for a model of the central region consisting of a single electron level. Explicit expressions for the FD relations of the Green's functions (one-particle correlations) are provided. The FD relations for the current-current and charge-charge (two-particle) correlations are calculated numerically. We use self-consistent NE Green's functions calculations to treat the system in the absence and in the presence of interaction (electron-phonon) in the central region. We show that, for this model, there is no single universal FD theorem for the NE steady state. There are different FD relations for each different class of problems. We find that the FD relations for the one-particle correlation function are strongly dependent on both the NE conditions and the interactions, while the FD relations of the current-current correlation function are much less dependent on the interaction. The latter property suggests interesting applications for single-molecule and other nanoscale transport experiments.

  1. SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L.

    1993-12-01

    SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

  2. Hybrid type checking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, C

    2006-01-01

    O’Callahan and J. -D. Choi. Hybrid dynamic data race detec-subtyping is sound, the hybrid compilation algorithmHybrid Type Checking Cormac Flanagan Department of Computer

  3. Fejer-type inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitroi, F C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some new Fejer-type results for convex functions. Improvements of Young's inequality (the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality) and other applications to special means are pointed as well.

  4. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of events adopts a 1D heat flow that reassembles the conditions of the 1D simple model (for the assessed USC duct geometry); 1D heat flow through the top and bottom fins/sheets as the duct wall reassembles a state of adiabatic condition. (author)

  5. Type Ia Supernovae

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two Electron Holes in HematiteType Ia Supernovae Type Ia

  6. Agreement Type Union

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nucleara min [Type the abstract of theType

  7. Contraction and stability analysis of steady-states for open quantum systems described by Lindblad differential equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Rouchon; Alain Sarlette

    2013-02-27

    For discrete-time systems, governed by Kraus maps, the work of D. Petz has characterized the set of universal contraction metrics. In the present paper, we use this characterization to derive a set of quadratic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems, governed by Lindblad differential equations, that have a steady-state with full rank. An extremity of this set is given by the Bures metric, for which the quadratic Lyapunov function is obtained by inverting a Sylvester equation. We illustrate the method by providing a strict Lyapunov function for a Lindblad equation designed to stabilize a quantum electrodynamic "cat" state by reservoir engineering. In fact we prove that any Lindblad equation on the Hilbert space of the (truncated) harmonic oscillator, which has a full-rank equilibrium and which has, among its decoherence channels, a channel corresponding to the photon loss operator, globally converges to that equilibrium.

  8. Non-Markovian dynamics and steady-state entanglement of cavity arrays in finite-bandwidth squeezed reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Zippilli; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2014-02-16

    When two chains of quantum systems are driven at their ends by a two-mode squeezed reservoir, they approach a steady state characterized by the formation of many entangled pairs. Each pair is made of one element of the first and one of the second chain. This effect has been already predicted under the assumption of broadband squeezing. Here we investigate the situation of finite-bandwidth reservoirs. This is done by modeling the driving bath as the output field of a non-degenerate parametric oscillator. The resulting non-Markovian dynamics is studied within the theoretical framework of cascade open quantum systems. It is shown that the formation of pair-entangled structures occurs as long as the normal-mode splitting of the arrays does not overcome the squeezing bandwidth of the reservoir.

  9. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Wang, D.; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  10. Compact steady-state and high-flux Falcon ion source for tests of plasma-facing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girka, O.; Bizyukov, I.; Sereda, K.; Bizyukov, A. [School of Physics and Technologies, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, 61022 (Ukraine); Gutkin, M. [Micron Surface Technologies, 5033 Dantes View Dr., Calabasas, California 91301 (United States); Sleptsov, V. [Moscow State Aviation Technological University, Moscow 121552 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-15

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Falcon ion source. It is based on conventional design of anode layer thrusters. This ion source is a versatile, compact, affordable, and highly functional in the research field of the fusion materials. The reversed magnetic field configuration of the source allows precise focusing of the ion beam into small spot of Almost-Equal-To 3 mm and also provides the limited capabilities for impurity mass-separation. As the result, the source generates steady-state ion beam, which irradiates surface with high heat (0.3 - 21 MW m{sup -2}) and particle fluxes (4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21}- 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} m{sup -2}s{sup -1}), which approaches the upper limit for the flux range expected in ITER.

  11. Debye-Hueckel solution for steady electro-osmotic flow of a micropolar fluid in a cylindrical microcapillary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddiqui, Abuzar A

    2011-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the speed, flux, microrotation, stress, and couple stress in a micropolar fluid exhibiting steady, symmetric and one-dimensional electro-osmotic flow in a uniform cylindrical microcapillary were derived under the constraint of the Debye-Hueckel approximation, which is applicable when the cross-sectional radius of the microcapillary exceeds the Debye length, provided that the zeta potential is sufficiently small in magnitude. As the aciculate particles in a micropolar fluid can rotate without translation, micropolarity influences fluid speed, fluid flux, and one of the two non-zero components of the stress tensor. The axial speed in a micropolar fluid intensifies as the radius increases. The stress tensor is confined to the region near the wall of the microcapillary but the couple stress tensor is uniform across the cross-section.

  12. Basics, types Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crenshaw, Michael

    to nuclear fusion. · Novae radiate primarily in the UV to X-ray region. · Types: ­ Classical Novae: only one is hot enough for explosive fusion. For classical novae, this happens on a time scale of 103 ­ 105 years. · Thermonuclear runaway (TNR): capture of protons by heavy elements (CNO cycle), happens in seconds #12;5 Novae

  13. Steady State Sputtering Yields and Surface Compositions of Depleted Uranium and Uranium Carbide bombarded by 30 keV Gallium or 16 keV Cesium Ions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siekhaus, W. J.; Teslich, N. E.; Weber, P. K.

    2014-10-23

    Depleted uranium that included carbide inclusions was sputtered with 30-keV gallium ions or 16-kev cesium ions to depths much greater than the ions’ range, i.e. using steady-state sputtering. The recession of both the uranium’s and uranium carbide’s surfaces and the ion corresponding fluences were used to determine the steady-state target sputtering yields of both uranium and uranium carbide, i.e. 6.3 atoms of uranium and 2.4 units of uranium carbide eroded per gallium ion, and 9.9 uranium atoms and 3.65 units of uranium carbide eroded by cesium ions. The steady state surface composition resulting from the simultaneous gallium or cesium implantation and sputter-erosion of uranium and uranium carbide were calculated to be U??Ga??, (UC)??Ga?? and U??Cs?, (UC)??Cs??, respectively.

  14. Dispersed-flow film boiling in rod-bundle geometry: steady-state heat-transfer data and correlation comparisons. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder, G. L.; Morris, D. G.; Mullins, C. B.; Ott, L. J.; Reed, D. A.

    1982-03-01

    Assessment of six film boiling correlations and one single-phase vapor correlation has been made using data from 22 steady state upflow rod bundle tests (series 3.07.9). Bundle fluid conditions were calculated using energy and mass conservation considerations. Results of the steady state film boiling tests support the conclusions reached in the analysis of prior transient tests 3.03.6AR, 3.06.6B, and 3.08.6C. Comparisons between experimentally determined and correlation-predicted heat transfer coefficients, are presented.

  15. Energy.gov Page Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the standard page types available in the Energy.gov Drupal content management system. For information about other available page types, or to request a new kind of page type, contact...

  16. Practical pluggable types for Java

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papi, Matthew M

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the Checker Framework, which supports adding pluggable type systems to the Java language in a backward-compatible way. A type system designer defines type qualifiers and their semantics, and a compiler ...

  17. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    aluminum or vinyl cladding reduces maintenance requirements. Types of Window Glazing or Glass In addition to choosing a frame type, you will need to consider what type of glazing...

  18. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-01-01

    Dust around Type Ia supernovae Lifan Wang 1,2 LawrenceIa. Subject headings: Supernovae: General, Dust, Extinctionline) bands for Type Ia supernovae. (a), upper panel, shows

  19. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE [SEC 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HU, T.A.

    2003-09-30

    Flammable gases such as hydrogen, ammonia, and methane are observed in the tank dome space of the Hanford Site high-level waste tanks. This report assesses the steady-state flammability level under normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell tanks and single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The steady-state flammability level was estimated from the gas concentration of the mixture in the dome space using estimated gas release rates, Le Chatelier's rule and lower flammability limits of fuels in an air mixture. A time-dependent equation of gas concentration, which is a function of the gas release and ventilation rates in the dome space, has been developed for both soluble and insoluble gases. With this dynamic model, the time required to reach the specified flammability level at a given ventilation condition can be calculated. In the evaluation, hydrogen generation rates can be calculated for a given tank waste composition and its physical condition (e.g., waste density, waste volume, temperature, etc.) using the empirical rate equation model provided in Empirical Rate Equation Model and Rate Calculations of Hydrogen Generation for Hanford Tank Waste, HNF-3851. The release rate of other insoluble gases and the mass transport properties of the soluble gas can be derived from the observed steady-state gas concentration under normal ventilation conditions. The off-normal ventilation rate is assumed to be natural barometric breathing only. A large body of data is required to do both the hydrogen generation rate calculation and the flammability level evaluation. For tank waste that does not have sample-based data, a statistical-based value from probability distribution regression was used based on data from tanks belonging to a similar waste group. This report (Revision 3) updates the input data of hydrogen generation rates calculation for 177 tanks using the waste composition information in the Best-Basis Inventory Detail Report in the Tank Waste Information Network System, and the waste temperature data in the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) (dated July 2003). However, the release rate of methane, ammonia, and nitrous oxide is based on the input data (dated October 1999) as stated in Revision 0 of this report. Scenarios for adding waste to existing waste levels (dated July 2003) have been studied to determine the gas generation rates and the effect of smaller dome space on the flammability limits to address the issues of routine water additions and other possible waste transfer operations. In the flammability evaluation with zero ventilation, the sensitivity to waste temperature and to water addition was calculated for double-shell tanks 241-AY-102, 241-AN-102,241-AZ-101,241-AN-107,241-AY-101 and 241-AZ-101. These six have the least margin to flammable conditions among 28 double-shell tanks.

  20. Plug-In Electric Vehicles' Charging Dr. Alireza Khaligh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    type Price Battery On-Board Charger E-Range Connector type Level 2 Nissan leaf EV $21,300 24kWh LiWh Li-ion 3.3 kW OBC 68 mi SAE J1772 6 hrs Tesla Model S 60kWh EV $71,000 60 kWh Li-ion 10 kW OBC 208 mi battery voltage 320 V ~ 420 V Maximum output power 1 kW Output voltage ripple