National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for type hydrothermal gea

  1. GEA Industry Briefing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Briefing GEA Industry Briefing U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the geothermal resource there. Source: Wyoming State Geological Survey U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment

  2. GEA Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: GEA Group Place: Bochum, Germany Zip: 44809 Sector: Biofuels, Solar Product: Bochum-based, engineering group specialising in process engineering...

  3. GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders December 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. (December 9, 2013) The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) has announced the winners for the GEA Honors, which recognize companies and individuals that have made significant contributions during the past year to advancing technology, spurring economic development and protecting the environment. The winners were selected in categories including Technological Advancement, Economic

  4. CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop Mapping ...

  5. GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd GEA geothermal energy industry briefing presentation on February 26, 2013 in Washington, D.C. by Lauren Boyd of the U.S. Department of Energys Geothermal Technologies Office. gea_boyd_2-26-2013.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications Stanford Geothermal Workshop - Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review Opening Plenary Presentation Geothermal Technologies Program GRC Presentation,

  6. GEA Caldemon formerly known as Caldemon Iberica | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as Caldemon Iberica) Place: Spain Sector: Solar Product: GEA Caldemon manufacturers shell and tube heat exchangers and surface condensers, commonly used in solar thermal power...

  7. GEA Wiegand GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEA Wiegand GmbH Place: Ettlingen, Germany Zip: 76275 Product: Designs and builds distillation, evaporation, crystallisation and membrane filtration plants used in the production...

  8. GEA's National Geothermal Summit 2016 | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 7, 2016 8:00AM EDT to June 8, 2016 5:00PM EDT GEA's National Geothermal Summit 2016 Reno, Nevada http:www.geo-energy.orgnationalgeothermalsummitmain.aspx Careers & ...

  9. The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's GEA Honors Awardees

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 10, the Geothermal Energy Association announced its 2013 GEA Honors awards for advances and achievements in geothermal energy. Among this year's eleven winners and honorable mentions are five projects that the Energy Department investe

  10. GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo October 23, 2016 9:00AM EDT to October 26, 2016 5:00PM EDT GRC Annual Meeting & GEA Geothermal Energy Expo October 23-26, Sacramento, California, USA http://www.geothermal.org/meet-new.html

  11. CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop | Department of Energy CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping & Database Workshop Mapping and database workshop presentation presented at the Canadian Geothermal Energy Association Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference on March 21, 2013 by Arlene Anderson, Physical Scientist Lead for Geothermal Data Provision, Resource Mapping and Energy and Water Life Cycle Analysis

  12. Property:IdentifiedHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ntifiedHydrothermalPotential Property Type Quantity Description Conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from identified hydrothermal sites, as determined by the...

  13. Property:UndiscoveredHydrothermalPotential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Type Quantity Description Estimated conventional hydrothermal electricity generation potential from undiscovered hydrothermal sites, as determined by...

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  15. Geothermal hydrothermal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The geothermal hydrothermal section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  16. Newdale Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  17. Mary's River Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  18. Mary's River SW Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  19. Snake River Plain Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Standard Steam Trust Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase I - Resource Procurement and...

  20. New York Canyon Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Terra-Gen Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase III - Permitting and Initial...

  1. Coyote Canyon Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Resource Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Terra-Gen Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase IV - Resource Production and...

  2. El Centro/Superstition Hills Geothermal Project (2) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    County, NV Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Navy Geothermal Program Project Type Hydrothermal Systems GEA Development Phase Phase II -...

  3. White Mountain Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location County Geothermal Area Geothermal Region Geothermal Project Profile Developer Eureka Green Systems Project Type Hydrothermal GEA Development Phase Phase II - Resource...

  4. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-08-31

    This two-page fact sheet provides an overview of hydrothermal resources and hydrothermal reservoir creation and operation.

  5. Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Numerous types of colorful hydrothermal alterations compose the landscape at Kerlingarfjoll Geothermal area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified...

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Process Design and Economics for Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction, a paper from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. Hydrothermal Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Hydrothermal Projects Geothermal electricity production has grown steadily, tapping a reliable, nearly inexhaustible reserve of hydrothermal systems where fluid, heat, and permeability intersect naturally in the subsurface. The United States Geological Survey estimates that 30 GW of hydrothermal resources lie beneath the surface--ten times the current installed capacity. Hydrothermal Projects Projects Database Program Links What is Play Fairway

  8. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2010-12-10

    Canada to investigate kelp (seaweed) as a biomass feedstock. The collaborative project includes process testing of the kelp in HydroThermal Liquefaction in the bench-scale unit at PNNL. HydroThermal Liquefaction at PNNL is performed in the hydrothermal processing bench-scale reactor system. Slurries of biomass are prepared in the laboratory from whole ground biomass materials. Both wet processing and dry processing mills can be used, but the wet milling to final slurry is accomplished in a stirred ball mill filled with angle-cut stainless steel shot. The PNNL HTL system, as shown in the figure, is a continuous-flow system including a 1-litre stirred tank preheater/reactor, which can be connected to a 1-litre tubular reactor. The product is filtered at high-pressure to remove mineral precipitate before it is collected in the two high-pressure collectors, which allow the liquid products to be collected batchwise and recovered alternately from the process flow. The filter can be intermittently back-flushed as needed during the run to maintain operation. By-product gas is vented out the wet test meter for volume measurement and samples are collected for gas chromatography compositional analysis. The bio-oil product is analyzed for elemental content in order to calculate mass and elemental balances around the experiments. Detailed chemical analysis is performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13-C nuclear magnetic resonance is used to evaluate functional group types in the bio-oil. Sufficient product is produced to allow subsequent catalytic hydroprocessing to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. The product bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction is typically a more viscous product compared to fast pyrolysis bio-oil. There are several reasons for this difference. The HTL bio-oil contains a lower level of oxygen because of more extensive secondary reaction of the pyrolysis products. There are less amounts of the many light oxygenates derived from the carbohydrate

  9. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Systems: A hydrothermal system is one that included fluid, heat, and permeability in a naturally occurring geological formation for the production of electricity....

  10. Synthesis of Nanoparticles via Solvothermal and Hydrothermal Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianlin; Wu, Qingliu; Wu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the synthesis of various types of nanoparticles as well as surface modifications of nanomaterials using hydrothermal and solvothermal methods. First, the definition, history, instrumentation, and mechanism of hydrothermal and solvothermal methods as well as the important parameters af-fecting the nucleation and crystal growth of nanomaterials are briefly introduced. Then the specific hydrothermal and solvothermal methods used to grow oxides, Group II-VI, III-V, IV, transitional metals, and metal-organic framework nanoparticles are summarized. Finally, the hydrothermal and solvothermal strategies used for the surface modification of nanomaterials are discussed.

  11. Hydrothermal Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About the Geothermal Technologies Office » Hydrothermal Resources Hydrothermal Resources The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The Geysers geothermal field in California is still the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The development of advanced exploration tools and technologies will accelerate the discovery and utilization of the U.S. Geological Survey's estimated 30,000 MWe of undiscovered hydrothermal

  12. Hydrothermal Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    been provided for this term. Add a Definition Opalized rock is often valued for its spectacular colors and it may indicate past hydrothermal activity (reference: https:...

  13. Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's Hydrothermal Resource Base - An Assessment Author...

  14. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  15. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal...

  16. W-026, acceptance test report gamma energy assay (GEA) system A(submittal {number_sign}39.8) C3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, T. L.

    1997-01-28

    This test procedure is designed to test all of the functions of the GEA system at the WRAP facility at Hanford, Washington. The procedure is designed to be executed in the sequence given, starting with: * verification of components and labeling * verification or entry of all of the setup parameters * performing the calibrations (energy, efficiency, transmission, and reference peak) * performing the measurements in local mode * performing the measurements in remote mode * confirming the message formats * utility operations (LN2 fill, archiving, password maintenance) The system is designed to be operated in a remote mode in which all commands are received over a network, and the results are returned over the same network. A manual mode is provided for the setup and calibration operations, and for maintenance functions. The system is designed to start up in remote mode. The user can go to local mode when at the keyboard by selecting Exit on the screen shown during remote mode. A user logon screen, requiring 2 username and password, limits access to local mode.

  17. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  18. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet Overview of hydrothermal resources Hydrothermal Fact Sheet.pdf (3.53 MB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager for the Geothermal Technologies Office presented. Exploration drilling in the Wind River Valley basin validates the

  19. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3A—Conversion Technologies III: Energy from Our Waste—Will we Be Rich in Fuel or Knee Deep in Trash by 2025? Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes James R. Oyler, President, Genifuel Corporation

  20. Hydrothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Exploration methods are categorized into five groups: Geology Characterizing geology-rock types, structures, faults, and temperatures- is a fundamental step in discovering new ...

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic performance of hierarchical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANNEALING; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; CATALYSTS; CITRATES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS; ION ...

  2. GEA International Geothermal Energy Showcase

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    What are the building blocks for successful geothermal projects? Find out March 17, 2016 at the Geothermal Energy Association's 2016 U.S. and International Geothermal Energy Showcase at the Ronald...

  3. GEA | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    .presentationml.presentation icon 1. NEPA Database - Presentation applicationvnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.presentationml.presentation icon GRR Status Update Syndicate content...

  4. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Success Stories Hydrothermal Success Stories June 9, 2015 Hydrothermal Success Stories Energy Department Honored for Inroads in Geothermal Energy As renewable energy takes a stronger role in supplying the U.S. grid, geothermal power could support a more flexible role to balance the intermittent and variable capacity of wind and solar. June 5, 2015 Geothermal energy, traditionally a baseload power source among renewables, is poised to emerge also as a flexible power source, balancing

  5. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013 This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for

  6. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis presentation by Kate Young, Dan Getman, and Ariel Esposito at the 2012 Peer Review Meeting on May 10, 2012

  7. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  8. Hydrothermally Altered Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleochori cliffs Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermal alteration refers to rocks that have been altered from their original...

  9. Basement Structure and Implications for Hydrothermal Circulation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Abstract Detailed surface mapping, subsurface drill hole data, and geophysical modeling are the basis of a structural and hydrothermal model for the western part of Long...

  10. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  11. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  12. Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Exploration Data Gap Analysis Update GTP Peer Review Lunch Presentation Westminster, CO Kate Young Dan Getman Ariel Esposito May 10, 2012 2 Data Gap Analysis PROJECT ...

  13. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado's hydrothermal resource base---an assessment Author...

  14. Surficial Extent And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Conceptual Model Of Hydrothermal System At Mount Rainier, Washington Abstract A once massive hydrothermal system was disgorged from the summit of Mount Rainier in a highly...

  15. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for EGS Project objective: Build and demonstrate a working prototype ...

  16. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Davis, R.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  17. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2008-05-06

    A recent development in biomass gasification is the use of a pressurized water processing environment in order that drying of the biomass can be avoided. This paper reviews the research undertaken developing this new option for biomass gasification. This review does not cover wet oxidation or near-atmospheric-pressure steam-gasification of biomass. Laboratory research on hydrothermal gasification of biomass focusing on the use of catalysts is reviewed here, and a companion review focuses on non-catalytic processing. Research includes liquid-phase, sub-critical processing as well as super-critical water processing. The use of heterogeneous catalysts in such a system allows effective operation at lower temperatures, and the issues around the use of catalysts are presented. This review attempts to show the potential of this new processing concept by comparing the various options under development and the results of the research.

  18. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  19. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  20. Petroleum generation and migration in submarine hydrothermal systems; An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.T. )

    1990-03-01

    The conversion of organic matter to petroleum by hydrothermal activity is an easy process,occurring in nature in many types of environments. Geologically immature organic matter of mariner sediments is being altered by this process in Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California), Escanaba Trough and Middle Valley (northeast Pacific), Bransfield Strait (Antarctica), and Atlantis II and Kebrit Deeps (Red Sea). Contemporary organic detritus and viable microorganisms are also converted in part to petroleum-like products by the same process when present to become entrained, as for example on the East Pacific Rise at 13{degrees}N and 21{degrees}N and on the mid-Atlantic Ridge at 26{degrees}N. The hydrocarbon products (methane to asphalt) generated in all these areas have been elucidated in terms of composition, organic matter sources, and analogy to reservoir petroleum. This petroleum represents a major input of carbon to the primary chemosynthetic productivity of hydrothermal vent systems and may be important to interactions with metals in hydrothermal ore formation.

  1. Hydrothermal Exploration at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal Technologies Office, Department of Energy, explored hydrothermal potential at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska and discovered a resource siginificant enough for a spectrum of geothermal energy developments, including on-site power generation.

  2. Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

  3. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    2015-01-29

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  4. Characterization of advanced preprocessed materials (Hydrothermal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rachel Emerson; Garold Gresham

    2012-09-01

    The initial hydrothermal treatment parameters did not achieve the proposed objective of this effort; the reduction of intrinsic ash in the corn stover. However, liquid fractions from the 170°C treatments was indicative that some of the elements routinely found in the ash that negatively impact the biochemical conversion processes had been removed. After reviewing other options for facilitating ash removal, sodium-citrate (chelating agent) was included in the hydrothermal treatment process, resulting in a 69% reduction in the physiological ash. These results indicated that chelation –hydrothermal treatment is one possible approach that can be utilized to reduce the overall ash content of feedstock materials and having a positive impact on conversion performance.

  5. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Atchley, Adam; Painter, Scott; Harp, Dylan; Coon, Ethan; Wilson, Cathy; Liljedahl, Anna; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is used to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. Each column was used in a coupled calibration to identify moss, peat and mineral soil hydrothermal properties to be used in up-scaled simulations. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK (Area C) is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Advanced Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. Simulation results are a list of calibrated hydrothermal parameters for moss, peat, and mineral soil hydrothermal parameters.

  6. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquefaction Technology Pathway Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Whole Algae Hydrothermal

  7. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with

  8. The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

  9. Geothermal reservoirs in hydrothermal convection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly exist in hydrothermal convection systems involving fluid circulation downward in areas of recharge and upwards in areas of discharge. Because such reservoirs are not isolated from their surroundings, the nature of thermal and hydrologic connections with the rest of the system may have significant effects on the natural state of the reservoir and on its response to development. Conditions observed at numerous developed and undeveloped geothermal fields are discussed with respect to a basic model of the discharge portion of an active hydrothermal convection system. Effects of reservoir development on surficial discharge of thermal fluid are also delineated.

  10. GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OR Cross-Cutting Research & Development: * CSI Technologies AltaRock- Diverters * Baker Hughes - Ultrasonic Fracture Imager * Sandia National Lab - PDC Bits Desert Peak, NV ...

  11. QER- Comment of Geotherman Energy Association (GEA)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hi the Geothermal Energy Association would like to submit the attached comments for the 2014 QER process. Thanks,

  12. GEA Development Phases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reporting Terms and Definitions serve to increase the consistency, accuracy, and reliability of industry information presented in the development updates. These updates are a...

  13. SaGea | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    installs and maintains equipment for solar energy generation for both private and corporate users. Coordinates: 39.214525, 9.110492 Show Map Loading map......

  14. Iridium material for hydrothermal oxidation environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hong, Glenn T.; Zilberstein, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    A process for hydrothermal oxidation of combustible materials in which, during at least a part of the oxidation, corrosive material is present and makes contact with at least a portion of the apparatus over a contact area on the apparatus. At least a portion of the contact surface area comprises iridium, iridium oxide, an iridium alloy, or a base metal overlaid with an iridium coating. Iridium has been found to be highly resistant to environments encountered in the process of hydrothermal oxidation. Such environments typically contain greater than 50 mole percent water, together with oxygen, carbon dioxide, and a wide range of acids, bases and salts. Pressures are typically about 27.5 to about 1000 bar while temperatures range as high as 800.degree. C.

  15. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  16. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Davis, Ryan; Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the feasibility of using whole wet microalgae as a feedstock for conversion via hydrothermal liquefaction. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  17. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  18. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  19. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In...

  1. Characterization of past hydrothermal fluids in the Humboldt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    has permitted hydrothermal circulation, producing both the geothermal area and nearby gold deposits. A total of five wells have been drilled with three obtaining core....

  2. Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inferences On The Hydrothermal System Beneath The Resurgent Dome In Long Valley Caldera, East-Central California, USA, From Recent Pumping Tests And Geochemical Sampling Jump to:...

  3. The Hydrothermal System of Long Valley Caldera, California |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a deep subsystem or hydrothermal reservoir in the welded tuff containing relatively hot ground water. Hydrologic, isotopic, and thermal data indicate that recharge to the...

  4. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  5. A Hydrothermal Model of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Area, Utah...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system appears to be controlled to some extent by the details of the permeability structure in the immediate vicinity if the high surface heat flow region. Authors...

  6. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  7. Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of NITE-SiC with Various Sintering Additives Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication and Hydrothermal Corrosion of ...

  8. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake

  9. Direct use of hydrothermal energy: a review of environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Banion, K.; Layton, D.

    1981-08-28

    The potential environmental impacts of the exploration, development, and production of hydrothermal geothermal energy for direct use applications are reviewed and evaluated. Mitigation strategies and research and development needs are included. (MHR)

  10. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Long Valley Caldera Citation Arthur H. Lachenbruch,Michael L. Sorey,Robert Edward Lewis,John H. Sass. 1976. The Near-Surface Hydrothermal Regime of Long Valley Caldera....

  11. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction: 2014 State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Anderson, Daniel; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2014-07-30

    This report describes the base case yields and operating conditions for converting whole microalgae via hydrothermal liquefaction and upgrading to liquid fuels. This serves as the basis against which future technical improvements will be measured.

  12. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Chris M.; Musich, Mark A.; Mann, Michael D.; DeWall, Raymond A.; Richter, John J.; Potas, Todd A.; Willson, Warrack G.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

  13. track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review track 2: hydrothermal | geothermal 2015 peer review Inability to accurately predict temperature and permeability of the geothermal reservoir from the surface is a major cost and exploration risk for geothermal systems. While the majority of known geothermal resources across America have been identified, the USGS predicts that more than 30 gigawatts of geothermal energy potential - enough to power about 30 million homes - resides deep in the earth in

  14. Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rush, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Fractionation of Boron Isotopes in Icelandic Hydrothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, J.K.; Palmer, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Boron isotope ratios have been determined in a variety of different geothermal waters from hydrothermal systems across Iceland. Isotope ratios from the high temperature meteoric water recharged systems reflect the isotope ratio of the host rocks without any apparent fractionation. Seawater recharged geothermal systems exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B values than the meteoric water recharged geothermal systems. Water/rock ratios can be assessed from boron isotope ratios in the saline hydrothermal systems. Low temperature hydrothermal systems also exhibit more positive {delta}{sup 11}B than the high temperature systems, indicating fractionation of boron due to adsorption of the lighter isotope onto secondary minerals. Fractionation of boron in carbonate deposits may indicate the level of equilibrium attained within the systems.

  16. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal...

  17. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ...

  18. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Hydrothermal Alteration Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This is a hydrothermal alteration map of the Tularosa Basin area, New Mexico and Texas that was created using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) multispectral data band ratios based upon diagnostic features of clay, calcite, silica, gypsum, ferric iron, and ferrous iron. Mesoproterozoic granite in the San Andreas Range often appeared altered, but this may be from clays produced by weathering or, locally, by hydrothermal alteration. However, no field checking was done. This work was done under U.S. D.O.E. Contract #DE-EE0006730

  19. Integration of hydrothermal-energy economics: related quantitative studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of ten models for computing the cost of hydrothermal energy is presented. This comparison involved a detailed examination of a number of technical and economic parameters of the various quantitative models with the objective of identifying the most important parameters in the context of accurate estimates of cost of hydrothermal energy. Important features of various models, such as focus of study, applications, marked sectors covered, methodology, input data requirements, and output are compared in the document. A detailed sensitivity analysis of all the important engineering and economic parameters is carried out to determine the effect of non-consideration of individual parameters.

  20. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 | Department of Energy Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing highly stable, sulfur-tolerant oxidation catalysts that use less Pt via surface modification of silica supports

  1. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts via Surface Modification of SiO2 with TiO2 and ZrO2 This study ...

  2. Low-Temperature Hydrothermal Resource Potential Estimate

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-30

    Compilation of data (spreadsheet and shapefiles) for several low-temperature resource types, including isolated springs and wells, delineated area convection systems, sedimentary basins and coastal plains sedimentary systems. For each system, we include estimates of the accessible resource base, mean extractable resource and beneficial heat. Data compiled from USGS and other sources. The paper (submitted to GRC 2016) describing the methodology and analysis is also included.

  3. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  4. Instabilities during liquid migration into superheated hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1995-01-26

    Hydrothermal systems typically consist of hot permeable rock which contains either liquid or liquid and saturated steam within the voids. These systems vent fluids at the surface through hot springs, fumaroles, mud pools, steaming ground and geysers. They are simultaneously recharged as meteoric water percolates through the surrounding rock or through the active injection of water at various geothermal reservoirs. In a number of geothermal reservoirs from which significant amounts of hot fluid have been extracted and passed through turbines, superheated regions of vapor have developed. As liquid migrates through a superheated region of a hydrothermal system, some of the liquid vaporizes at a migrating liquid-vapor interface. Using simple physical arguments, and analogue laboratory experiments we show that, under the influence of gravity, the liquid-vapor interface may become unstable and break up into fingers.

  5. Preliminary evidence for fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes in ore-forming hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastoe, C.J.; Guilbert, J.M. ); Kaufmann, R.S. )

    1989-03-01

    Chloride from fluid inclusions in hydrothermal minerals is found to have variable and distinctive {delta}{sup 37}Cl values spanning the range -1.1 0/{per thousand} to +0.8 {per thousand}. In Mississippi Valley-type deposits of Tennessee, brines of high (>0{per thousand}) and low (near -1{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 37}Cl are present. High {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines may be saline formation waters, but low {delta}{sup 37}Cl brines remain unexplained. In porphyry copper deposits, both high {delta}{sup 37}Cl (0.8{per thousand}, 0.3{per thousand}) and low {delta}{sup 37}Cl (-1.1{per thousand}, 0.7{per thousand}) hypersaline brines of probable magmatic origin occur. High-salinity magmatic brines with low {delta}{sup 37}Cl values contrast isotopically with high {delta}{sup 37}Cl, less concentrated brines responsible for quartz-sericite-pyrite assemblages.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of zirconia based catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillot, T. Salama, Z.; Chanut, N.; Cadete Santos Aires, F.J.; Bennici, S.; Auroux, A.

    2013-07-15

    In this work, three equimolar mixed oxides ZrO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a reference ZrO{sub 2} have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and surface properties of these materials have been fully characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, surface area measurement, chemical analysis, XPS, infrared spectroscopy after adsorption of pyridine and adsorption microcalorimetry of NH{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} probe molecules. All investigated mixed oxides are amphoteric and possess redox centers on their surface. Moreover, hydrothermal synthesis leads to catalysts with higher surface area and with better acidbase properties than classical coprecipitation method. Both Lewis and Brnsted acid sites are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. Compared to the other samples, the ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} material appears to be the best candidate for further application in acidbase catalysis. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous amorphous phase with a high surface area of titania zirconia mixed oxide obtained by hydrothermal preparation. - Highlights: Three zirconia based catalysts and a reference were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Mixed oxides present larger surface areas than the reference ZrO{sub 2}. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents a mesoporous structure with high surface area. ZrO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst presents simultaneously strong acidic and basic properties.

  7. Raman spectroscopic investigations of hydrothermal solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There is still very little information about the stoichiometries, structures and stabilities of metal complexes at high temperatures and pressures. Raman spectroscopy is ideally suited to probe and study concentrated electrolyte solutions at the molecular level. This thesis includes the design and construction of a Raman cell operable up to 300C and 15MPa. In order to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information from Raman spectroscopic measurements, a chemically inert internal standard must be used. Perchlorate is commonly used for this purpose at low temperatures, but it may be unstable at high temperatures and its explosive properties make it undesirable. A new preferred internal standard; trifluoromethanesulfonic acid is introduced and its spectra p to 300C discussed. The use of this compound as a high temperature internal standard enabled stepwise stability constants of zinc-bromo complexes to be determined. Although bromide is not an important ligand in geologic systems, its chemical similarity to chloride can provide insights into the study of zinc-chloro species which do not have very informative Raman spectra. The importance of organic ligands in geologic settings such as the Mississippi-Valley Type Pb-Zn sulfide deposits is now being realized. Chapter four presents the first high temperature spectroscopic measurements of lead and zinc acetate aqueous solutions. Not only do these studies verify the stability of lead and zinc acetate complexes up to 250 C but they also show that the type of complex formed is a function of pH, metal-ligand ratio and temperature, thus having important implications for zoning of Pb-Zn sulfide deposits.

  8. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; Sims, Kenneth W.W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). School of Energy Resources; Pluda, Allison R. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Wyoming High-Precision Isotope Lab.

    2014-03-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  9. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  10. Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, T.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

  11. Products of an Artificially Induced Hydrothermal System at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Levy

    2000-08-07

    Studies of mineral deposition in the recent geologic past at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, address competing hypotheses of hydrothermal alteration and deposition from percolating groundwater. The secondary minerals being studied are calcite-opal deposits in fractures and lithophysal cavities of ash-flow tuffs exposed in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a 7.7-km tunnel excavated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project within Yucca Mountain. An underground field test in the ESF provided information about the minerals deposited by a short-lived artificial hydrothermal system and an opportunity for comparison of test products with the natural secondary minerals. The heating phase lasted nine months, followed by a nine-month cooling period. Natural pore fluids were the only source of water during the thermal test. Condensation and reflux of water driven away from the heater produced fluid flow in certain fractures and intersecting boreholes. The mineralogic products of the thermal test are calcite-gypsum aggregates of less than 4-micrometer crystals and amorphous silica as glassy scale less than 0.2 mm thick and as mounds of tubules with diameters less than 0.7 micrometers. The minute crystal sizes of calcite and gypsum from the field test are very different from the predominantly coarser calcite crystals (up to cm scale) in natural secondary-mineral deposits at the site. The complex micrometer-scale textures of the amorphous silica differ from the simple forms of opal spherules and coatings in the natural deposits, even though some natural spherules are as small as 1 micrometer. These differences suggest that the natural minerals, especially if they were of hydrothermal origin, may have developed coarser or simpler forms during subsequent episodes of dissolution and redeposition. The presence of gypsum among the test products and its absence from the natural secondary-mineral assemblage may indicate a higher degree of evaporation during the test than

  12. CanGEA Fifth Annual Geothermal Conference Presentation - Mapping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Documentation and registration of data set describing 554 Geothermal Wells in Klamath Falls area Documentation and registration of data set describing 404 Co-located Sites In ...

  13. GRC ANNUAL MEETING & GEA GEOEXPO+ | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on NEPA Analyses | Department of Energy GAO Report -- National Environmental Policy Act: Little Information Exists on NEPA Analyses GAO Report -- National Environmental Policy Act: Little Information Exists on NEPA Analyses A report by the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) on the costs, time frames, and benefits of the NEPA process. The report posted here has been modified through the addition of yellow highlighting to denote text referring to DOE or DOE data. The original

  14. Category:GEA Development Phases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this category, out of 5 total. G Property:GEADevelopmentPhase P Phase I - Resource Procurement and Identification Phase II - Resource Exploration and Confirmation Phase III -...

  15. Hydrothermal industrialization electric-power systems development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-03-01

    The nature of hydrothermal resources, their associated temperatures, geographic locations, and developable capacity are described. The parties involved in development, required activities and phases of development, regulatory and permitting requirements, environmental considerations, and time required to complete development activities ae examined in detail. These activities are put in proper perspective by detailing development costs. A profile of the geothermal industry is presented by detailing the participants and their operating characteristics. The current development status of geothermal energy in the US is detailed. The work on market penetration is summarized briefly. Detailed development information is presented for 56 high temperature sites. (MHR)

  16. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-05-15

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles [1-2], among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials [3] and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique [4], including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak

  17. Comparison of LiMnPO4 made by Combustion and Hydrothermal Syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jiajun; Doeff, Marca M.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-10-12

    Among the olivine-structured metal phosphate family, LiMnPO{sub 4} exhibits a high discharge potential (4V), which is still compatible with common electrolytes, making it interesting for use in the next generation of Li ion batteries. The extremely low electronic conductivity of this material severely limits its electrochemical performance, however. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to make LiMnPO{sub 4} nanoparticulate to decrease the diffusion distance. Another is to add a carbon or other conductive coating in intimate contact with the nanoparticles of the main phase, as is commonly done with LiFePO{sub 4}. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} is highly dependent on the quality of the carbon coatings on the particles, among other variables. Combustion synthesis allows the co-synthesis of nanoparticles coated with carbon in one step. Hydrothermal synthesis is used industrially to make LiFePO{sub 4} cathode materials and affords a good deal of control over purity, crystallinity, and particle size. A wide range of olivine-structured materials has been successfully prepared by this technique, including LiMnPO{sub 4} in this study. In this paper, we report on the new synthesis of nano-LiMnPO{sub 4} by a combustion method. The purity is dependent upon the conditions used for synthesis, including the type of fuel and precursors that are chosen. The fuel to nitrate ratio influences the combustion temperature, which determines the type and amount of carbon found in the LiMnPO{sub 4} composites. This can further be modified by use of carbon structural modifiers added during a subsequent (optional) calcination step. Figure 1 shows a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the spherical nano-sized LiMnPO{sub 4} particles typically formed by combustion synthesis. The average particle size is around 30 nm, in agreement with values obtained by the Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns. The small size of the particles cause the peak broadening evident

  18. Methods and apparatus for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Butner, Robert Scott; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-08-14

    Continuous processing of wet biomass feedstock by catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent separation of sulfur contaminants, or combinations thereof. Treatment further includes separating the precipitates out of the wet feedstock, removing sulfur contaminants, or both using a solids separation unit and a sulfur separation unit, respectively. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfur that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  19. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  20. Vanadium oxides nanostructures: Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mjejri, I.; Etteyeb, N.; Sediri, F.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium oxides nanostructures were synthesized hydrothermally. • Reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process. • Doping/dedoping is easier for Li{sup +} to Na{sup +}. • Energy-related applications such as cathodes in lithium batteries. - Abstract: A facile and template-free one-pot strategy is applied to synthesize nanostructured vanadium oxide particles via a hydrothermal methodology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the structure and morphology of the samples. The products are gradually changed from sheet-shaped VO{sub 2}(B) to rod-like V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O with decreasing cyclohexanediol as both protective and reducing agent. The specific surface area of the VO{sub 2}(B) nanosheets and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O nanorods was found to be 22 and 16 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, respectively. Thin films of VO{sub 2}(B) and V{sub 3}O{sub 7}·H{sub 2}O deposited on ITO substrates were electrochemically characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The voltammograms show reversible redox behavior with doping/dedoping process corresponding to reversible cation intercalation/de-intercalation into the crystal lattice of the nanorods/nanosheets. This process is easier for the small Li{sup +} cation than larger ones Na{sup +}.

  1. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Wednesday, 29 April 2009 00:00 Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in

  2. Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Response-time improved hydrothermal-method-grown ZnO scintillator for soft x-ray free-electron laser timing-observation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response-time...

  3. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  4. Google Earth locations of USA and seafloor hydrothermal vents with associated rare earth element data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2016-02-10

    Google Earth .kmz files that contain the locations of geothermal wells and thermal springs in the USA, and seafloor hydrothermal vents that have associated rare earth element data. The file does not contain the actual data, the actual data is available through the GDR website in two tier 3 data sets entitled "Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge (MOR) Hydrothermal Vents" and "Rare earth element content of thermal fluids from Surprise Valley, California"

  5. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2003-12-23

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  6. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  7. SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials with enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yingyong; Jin, Guoqiang; Tong, Xili; Guo, Xiangyun

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials were synthesized by adding silicon carbide suspension in the molecular sieve precursor solvent followed by in situ hydrothermal synthesis. The dopped materials have a wormhole-like mesoporous structure and exhibit enhanced thermal and hydrothermal stabilities. Highlights: {yields} SiC-dopped MCM-41 was synthesized by in situ hydrothermal synthesis of molecular sieve precursor combined with SiC. {yields} The dopped MCM-41 materials show a wormhole-like mesoporous structure. {yields} The thermal stability of the dopped materials have an increment of almost 100 {sup o}C compared with the pure MCM-41. {yields} The hydrothermal stability of the dopped materials is also better than that of the pure MCM-41. -- Abstract: SiC-dopped MCM-41 mesoporous materials were synthesized by the in situ hydrothermal synthesis, in which a small amount of SiC was added in the precursor solvent of molecular sieve before the hydrothermal treatment. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N{sub 2} physical adsorption and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The results show that the thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of MCM-41 materials can be improved obviously by incorporating a small amount of SiC. The structure collapse temperature of SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials is 100 {sup o}C higher than that of pure MCM-41 according to the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. Hydrothermal treatment experiments also show that the pure MCM-41 will losses it's ordered mesoporous structure in boiling water for 24 h while the SiC-dopped MCM-41 materials still keep partial porous structure.

  8. Development of a Hydrothermal Spallation Drilling System for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System for EGS Project Type Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and DevelopmentAnalysis Project Type Topic 2 Drilling Systems Project...

  9. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  10. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M.; Ljubicic, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  11. Hydrogeochemistry and hydrogeology of the Canino Hydrothermal System (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiodini, G.; Giaquinto, S.; Frondini, F.; Santucci, A. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the Canino area, central Italy, is characterized by the discharge of a large quantity of Ca-SO{sub 4} thermal waters, the total flow rate of which is estimated to be 200 l/s. Ten to twenty l/s of the thermal flow are of an Na-Cl component from a deep source, which was identified by means of the B, Cl, Cs, Na, and Li contents of the waters. The Canino Na-Cl fluids have ratios among these species close to those of the geothermal fluids of Latera. The Canino hydrothermal system, which is located within buried carbonate structures, is therefore made up of a shallower zone, where the Ca-SO{sub 4} hydrotype is prevalent, and another deeper zone where an Na-Cl brine is present. For the sulphate fluids circulating in the upper levels of the system, a temperature of 70-100{degrees} C has been estimated, while a possible higher enthalpy resource may be represented by the chloride aqueous solutions circulating at deeper levels.

  12. Hydrothermal model of the Momotombo geothermal system, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, M.P.; Martinez, E.; Sanchez, M.; Miranda, K.; Gerardo, J.Y.; Araguas, L.

    1996-01-24

    The Momotombo geotherinal field is situated on the northern shore of Lake Managua at the foot of the active Momotombo volcano. The field has been producing electricity since 1983 and has an installed capacity of 70 MWe. The results of geological, geochemical and geophysical studies have been reported in various internal reports. The isotopic studies were funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna to develop a hydrothermal model of the geothermal system. The chemical and stable isotopic data (δ18O and δD) of the geothermal fluid suggest that the seasonal variation in the production characteristics of the wells is related to the rapid infiltration of local precipitation into the reservoir. The annual average composition of Na+, K+ and Mg2+ plotted on the Na- K-Mg triangular diagram presented by Giggenbach (1988) to identify the state of rock-water interaction in geothermal reservoirs, shows that the fluids of almost every well are shifting towards chemically immature water due to resenroir exploitation. This effect is prominent in wells Mt-2. Mt-12, Mt-22 and Mt-27. The local groundwaters including surface water from Lake Managua have much lower tritium concentrations than sonic of the geothermal well fluids, which have about 6 T.U. The high-tritium wells are located along a fault inferred froin a thermal anomaly. The tritium concentration is also higher in fluids from wells close to the lake. This could indicate that older local precipitation waters are stored in a deep layer within the lake and that they are infiltrating into the geothermal reservoir.

  13. Thermal conversion of municipal solid waste via hydrothermal carbonization: Comparison of carbonization products to products from current waste management techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Xiaowei; Jordan, Beth; Berge, Nicole D.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HTC converts wastes into value-added resources. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization integrates majority of carbon into solid-phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonization results in a hydrochar with high energy density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using hydrochar as an energy source may be beneficial. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a novel thermal conversion process that may be a viable means for managing solid waste streams while minimizing greenhouse gas production and producing residual material with intrinsic value. HTC is a wet, relatively low temperature (180-350 Degree-Sign C) thermal conversion process that has been shown to convert biomass to a carbonaceous residue referred to as hydrochar. Results from batch experiments indicate HTC of representative waste materials is feasible, and results in the majority of carbon (45-75% of the initially present carbon) remaining within the hydrochar. Gas production during the batch experiments suggests that longer reaction periods may be desirable to maximize the production of energy-favorable products. If using the hydrochar for applications in which the carbon will remain stored, results suggest that the gaseous products from HTC result in fewer g CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions than the gases associated with landfilling, composting, and incineration. When considering the use of hydrochar as a solid fuel, more energy can be derived from the hydrochar than from the gases resulting from waste degradation during landfilling and anaerobic digestion, and from incineration of food waste. Carbon emissions resulting from the use of the hydrochar as a fuel source are smaller than those associated with incineration, suggesting HTC may serve as an environmentally beneficial alternative to incineration. The type and extent of environmental benefits derived from

  14. Fish debris record the hydrothermal activity in the Atlantis II deep sediments (Red Sea)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudin, E.; Cocherie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The REE and U, Th, Zr, Hf, Sc have been analyzed in samples from Atlantis II and Shaban/Jean Charcot Deeps in the Red Sea. The high Zr/Hf ratio in some sediments indicates the presence of fish debris or of finely crystallized apatite. The positive ..sigma..REE vs P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and ..sigma..REE vs Zr/Hf correlations show that fish debris and finely crystallized apatite are the main REE sink in Atlantis II Deep sediments as in other marine environments. The hydrothermal sediments and the fish debris concentrates have similar REE patterns, characterized by a LREE enrichment and a large positive Eu anomaly. This REE pattern is also observed in E.P.R. hydrothermal solutions. Fish debris from marine environments acquire their REE content and signature mostly from sea water during early diagenesis. The hydrothermal REE signature of Atlantis II Deep fish debris indicate that they probably record the REE signature of their hydrothermal sedimentation and diagenetic environment. The different REE signatures of the Shaban/Jean Charcot and Atlantis II Deep hydrothermal sediments suggest a sea water-dominated brine in the Shaban/Jean Charcot Deep as opposed to the predominantly hydrothermal brine in Atlantis II Deep. Atlantis II Deep fish debris are also characterized by their high U but low Th contents. Their low Th contents probably reflect the low Th content of the various possible sources (sea water, brine, sediments). Their U contents are probably controlled by the redox conditions of sedimentation.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Algal Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Anderson, Daniel B.; Hallen, Richard T.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hart, Todd R.; Butcher, Mark G.; Drennan, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Davis, Ryan; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-03-20

    This report provides a preliminary analysis of the costs associated with converting whole wet algal biomass into primarily diesel fuel. Hydrothermal liquefaction converts the whole algae into an oil that is then hydrotreated and distilled. The secondary aqueous product containing significant organic material is converted to a medium btu gas via catalytic hydrothermal gasification.

  16. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and othermore » conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  17. Prediction of microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction products from feedstock biochemical composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leow, Shijie; Witter, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Guest, Jeremy S.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2015-05-11

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) uses water under elevated temperatures and pressures (200–350 °C, 5–20 MPa) to convert biomass into liquid “biocrude” oil. Despite extensive reports on factors influencing microalgae cell composition during cultivation and separate reports on HTL products linked to cell composition, the field still lacks a quantitative model to predict HTL conversion product yield and qualities from feedstock biochemical composition; the tailoring of microalgae feedstock for downstream conversion is a unique and critical aspect of microalgae biofuels that must be leveraged upon for optimization of the whole process. This study developed predictive relationships for HTL biocrude yield and other conversion product characteristics based on HTL of Nannochloropsis oculata batches harvested with a wide range of compositions (23–59% dw lipids, 58–17% dw proteins, 12–22% dw carbohydrates) and a defatted batch (0% dw lipids, 75% dw proteins, 19% dw carbohydrates). HTL biocrude yield (33–68% dw) and carbon distribution (49–83%) increased in proportion to the fatty acid (FA) content. A component additivity model (predicting biocrude yield from lipid, protein, and carbohydrates) was more accurate predicting literature yields for diverse microalgae species than previous additivity models derived from model compounds. FA profiling of the biocrude product showed strong links to the initial feedstock FA profile of the lipid component, demonstrating that HTL acts as a water-based extraction process for FAs; the remainder non-FA structural components could be represented using the defatted batch. These findings were used to introduce a new FA-based model that predicts biocrude oil yields along with other critical parameters, and is capable of adjusting for the wide variations in HTL methodology and microalgae species through the defatted batch. Lastly, the FA model was linked to an upstream cultivation model (Phototrophic Process Model

  18. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  19. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  20. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  1. Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preservation of Fe(II) by Carbon-Rich Matrices in Hydrothermal Plumes Print Despite the considerable amount of iron that enters the oceans from the continents and from hydrothermal vents at mid-ocean ridges on the seafloor, there are large regions of the global ocean where iron availability is so low that it limits life. Oceanographers have long explained this anomaly by assuming that the iron in the sea is primarily incorporated as Fe(III) into inorganic minerals that lack both the mobility to

  2. TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposite via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy for visible light photodegradation of eosin Y

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yingliang; Pei, Fuyun Lu, Ruijuan; Xu, Shengang; Cao, Shaokui

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is synthesized via in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are chemically anchored on N-graphene nanosheets. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene is red-shifted from neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. 5-NGT nanocomposite has the best visible light photodegradation performance. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites are synthesized via a facile in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy in order to improve the photocatalytic efficiency for pollutant photodegradation under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared nanocomposites are respectively characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Results indicated that neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have an average diameter about 6.70 nm while TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites synthesized through in-situ hydrothermal solgel strategy bear an average diameter of ?1 nm and are anchored on N-graphene nanosheets via chemical bonding. Both neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and chemically anchored TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites take on the crystal type of anatase. The band gap of TiO{sub 2}/N-graphene nanocomposites is red-shifted compared with neat TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The evaluation of photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation suggested that the nanocomposite with 5 wt% N-graphene content has the best visible light photodegradation performance.

  3. A study of thermal properties of sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preda, Silviu; Rutar, Melita; Umek, Polona; Zaharescu, Maria

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The microwave-assisted hydrothermal route was used for titanate nanotubes synthesis. • Conversion to single-phase nanotube morphology completes after 8 h reaction time. • The nanotube morphology is stable up to 600 °C, as determined by in-situ XRD and SEM. • Sodium ions migrate to the surface due to thermal motion and structure condensation. - Abstract: Sodium titanate nanotubes (NaTiNTs) were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO{sub 2}, at constant temperature (135 °C) and different irradiation times (15 min, 1, 4, 8 and 16 h). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and specific surface area measurements. The irradiation time turned out to be the key parameter for morphological control of the material. Nanotubes were observed already after 15 min of microwave irradiation. The analyses of the products irradiated for 8 and 16 h confirm the complete transformation of the starting TiO{sub 2} powder to NaTiNTs. The nanotubes are open ended with multi-wall structures, with the average outer diameter of 8 nm and specific surface area up to 210 m{sup 2}/g. The morphology, surface area and crystal structure of the sodium titanate nanotubes synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method were similar to those obtained by conventional hydrothermal method.

  4. Hydrothermal Phase Relations Among Uranyl Minerals at the Nopal I Analog Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, William M.

    2007-07-01

    Uranyl mineral paragenesis at Nopal I is an analog of spent fuel alteration at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic studies suggest a variety of possible hydrothermal conditions for uranium mineralization at Nopal I. Calculated equilibrium phase relations among uranyl minerals show uranophane stability over a broad range of realistic conditions and indicate that uranyl mineral variety reflects persistent chemical potential heterogeneity. (author)

  5. Synthesis of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by hydrothermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machmudah, Siti Widiyastuti, W. Prastuti, Okky Putri Nurtono, Tantular Winardi, Sugeng; Wahyudiono,; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2014-02-24

    Zirconium oxide (zirconia, ZrO{sub 2}) is the most common material used for electrolyte of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Zirconia has attracted attention for applications in optical coatings, buffer layers for growing superconductors, thermal-shield, corrosion resistant coatings, ionic conductors, and oxygen sensors, and for potential applications including transparent optical devices and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, fuel cells, catalysts, and advanced ceramics. In this work, zirconia particles were synthesized from ZrCl{sub 4} precursor with hydrothermal treatment in a batch reactor. Hydrothermal treatment may allow obtaining nanoparticles and sintered materials with controlled chemical and structural characteristics. Hydrothermal treatment was carried out at temperatures of 150 200C with precursor concentration of 0.1 0.5 M. Zirconia particles obtained from this treatment were analyzed by using SEM, PSD and XRD to characterize the morphology, particle size distribution, and crystallinity, respectively. Based on the analysis, the size of zirconia particles were around 200 nm and it became smaller with decreasing precursor concentration. The increasing temperature caused the particles formed having uniform size. Zirconia particles formed by hydrothermal treatment were monoclinic, tetragonal and cubic crystal.

  6. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal Liquefaction Reactor Design: April 5, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knorr, D.; Lukas, J.; Schoen, P.

    2013-11-01

    This report provides detailed reactor designs and capital costs, and operating cost estimates for the hydrothermal liquefaction reactor system, used for biomass-to-biofuels conversion, under development at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Five cases were developed and the costs associated with all cases ranged from $22 MM/year - $47 MM/year.

  7. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  8. Optical characteristics of ZnO single crystal grown by the hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. Z.; Yin, J. G. E-mail: yjg@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, L. H.; Zhang, P. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, Y. C.; Zhang, C. L.; Gu, S. L.; Hang, Y.

    2015-12-15

    ZnO single crystals have been grown by the hydrothermal method. Raman scattering and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) have been used to study samples of ZnO that were unannealed or annealed in different ambient gases. It is suggested that the green emission may originate from defects related to copper in our samples.

  9. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  10. Compilation of Rare Earth Element Analyses from US Geothermal Fields and Mid Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-10-01

    Compilation of rare earth element and associated major and minor dissolved constituent analytical data for USA geothermal fields and global seafloor hydrothermal vents. Data is in original units. Reference to and use of this data should be attributed to the original authors and publications according to the provisions outlined therein.

  11. Award Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Awards Team (505) 667-7824 Email Types of Awards The Awards Office, sponsored by the Technology Transfer Division and the Science and Technology Base Program Office, coordinates...

  12. Enhanced performance of wearable piezoelectric nanogenerator fabricated by two-step hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Yu; Lei, Jixue; Yin, Bing; Zhang, Heqiu; Ji, Jiuyu; Hu, Lizhong; Bian, Jiming; Liu, Yanhong; Zhao, Yu; Luo, Yingmin

    2014-03-17

    A simple two-step hydrothermal process was proposed for enhancing the performance of the nanogenerator on flexible and wearable terylene-fabric substrate. With this method, a significant enhancement in output voltage of the nanogenerator from ∼10 mV to 7 V was achieved, comparing with the one by conventional one-step process. In addition, another advantage with the devices synthesized by two-step hydrothermal process was that their output voltages are only sensitive to strain rather than strain rate. The devices with a high output voltage have the ability to power common electric devices and will have important applications in flexible electronics and wearable devices.

  13. Highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires via hydrothermal synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowland, Christopher C.; Zhou, Zhi; Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the development of a hydrothermal synthesis procedure that results in the growth of highly aligned arrays of high aspect ratio barium titanate nanowires. Using a multiple step, scalable hydrothermal reaction, a textured titanium dioxide film is deposited on titanium foil upon which highly aligned nanowires are grown via homoepitaxy and converted to barium titanate. Scanning electron microscope images clearly illustrate the effect the textured film has on the degree of orientation of the nanowires. The alignment of nanowires is quantified by calculating the Herman's Orientation Factor, which reveals a 58% improvement in orientation as compared to growth in the absence of the textured film. The ferroelectric properties of barium titanate combined with the development of this scalable growth procedure provide a powerful route towards increasing the efficiency and performance of nanowire-based devices in future real-world applications such as sensing and power harvesting.

  14. Interfacial hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods towards photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, L.R. Lian, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, L.H.; Yuan, C.Z.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy was developed. 1D SnO{sub 2} nanorods as an advanced photocatalyst. SnO{sub 2} nanorods exhibit photocatalytic degradation of the MO. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) SnO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) have been successfully synthesized by means of an efficient interfacial hydrothermal strategy. The resulting product was physically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope, etc. The as-fabricated SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited excellent photocatalytic degradation of the methyl orange with high degradation efficiency of 99.3% with only 60 min ultra violet light irradiation. Meanwhile, the 1D SnO{sub 2} NRs exhibited intriguing photostability after four recycles.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of NiO microspheres with different nanoscale building blocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Ling; Hao Yanjing; Zhao Yan; Lai Qiongyu; Xu Xiaoyun

    2010-11-15

    NiO microspheres were successfully obtained by calcining the Ni(OH){sub 2} precursor, which were synthesized via the hydrothermal reaction of nickel chloride, glucose and ammonia. The products were characterized by TGA, XRD and SEM. The influences of glucose and reaction temperature on the morphologies of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible growth mechanism for the spherical morphology was proposed. The charge/discharge test showed that the as-prepared NiO microspheres composed of nanoparticles can serve as an ideal electrode material for supercapacitor due to the spherical hollow structure. -- Graphical Abstract: Fig. 5 is the SEM image of NiO that was prepared in the different hydrothermal reaction temperatures. It showed that reaction temperature played a crucial role for the morphology of products.

  16. Sonochemical and hydrothermal synthesis of PbTe nanostructures with the aid of a novel capping agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fard-Fini, Shahla Ahmadian; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mohandes, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PbTe nanostructures were prepared with the aid of Schiff-base compound. • Sonochemical and hydrothermal methods were employed to fabricate PbTe nanostrucrues. • The effect of preparation parameters on the morphology of PbTe was investigated. - Abstract: In this work, a new Schiff-base compound derived from 1,8-diamino-3,6-dioxaoctane and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde marked as (2-HyNa)-(DaDo) was synthesized, characterized, and then used as capping agent for the preparation of PbTe nanostructures. To fabricate PbTe nanostructures, two different synthesis methods; hydrothermal and sonochemical routes, were applied. To further investigate, the effect of preparation parameters like reaction time and temperature in hydrothermal synthesis and sonication time in the presence of ultrasound irradiation on the morphology and purity of the final products was tested. The products were analyzed with the aid of SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, and EDS. Based on the obtained results, it was found that pure cubic phased PbTe nanostructures have been obtained by hydrothermal and sonochemical approaches. Besides, SEM images showed that cubic-like and rod-like PbTe nanostructures have been formed by hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, respectively. Sonochemical synthesis of PbTe nanostructures was favorable, because the synthesis time of sonochemical method was shorter than that of hydrothermal method.

  17. Hydrothermal pretreatment to prevent scale during liquefaction of certain solid carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, John B.; Floyd, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    Scale formation during the liquefaction of lower ranking coals and similar carbonaceous materials is significantly reduced and/or prevented by hydrothermal pretreatment. The said pretreatment is believed to convert the scale-forming components to the corresponding carbonate prior to liquefaction. The said pretreatment is accomplished at a total pressure within the range from about 1000 to about 4400 psia. Temperature during said pretreatment will generally be within the range from about 500.degree. to about 700.degree. F.

  18. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  19. Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrothermal Processing of Biomass March 26, 2015 Thermochemical Conversion Doug Elliott, Rich Hallen, and Andy Schmidt Pacific Northwest National Laboratory This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement Advance HTL technology towards 2020 goal of $3/gge at 50% reduced GHG. Improve overall process performance and economics Determine the value and best pathway to market for the product Demonstrate high process and carbon

  20. Synthesis of lithium cobalt oxide by single-step soft hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Bokinala, Kiran; CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac F-33608; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara ; Pollet, M.; Artemenko, A.; Miclau, M.; Grozescu, I; Universitatea Politehnica, Timisoara

    2013-02-15

    Lithium cobalt double oxide LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized at 220 Degree-Sign C by soft hydrothermal method using Co(OH){sub 2} and LiOH as precursors, LiOH/NaOH as mineralizers and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as oxidant. The soft hydrothermal synthesis method offers the dual advantage of a much lower synthesis time and a higher purity in comparison with other synthesis methods. The compound was identified by X-ray diffraction and its purity was checked by magnetic and electron magnetic resonance measurements. The grain morphology was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy and an exponential growth of particle size with synthesis time was observed. - Graphical abstract: Concave cuboctohedrons obtained after 60 h reaction time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An optimized soft hydrothermal method for a fast synthesis of high purity LiCoO{sub 2} compound is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both lamellar and cuboctahedral particles could be stabilized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phases content is lower than 0.1%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Close to surface defects were evidenced using EMR.

  1. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  2. Graphitic biocarbon from metal-catalyzed hydrothermal carbonization of lignin

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demir, Muslum; Kahveci, Zafer; Aksoy, Burak; Palapati, Naveen K. R.; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Cullinan, Harry T.; El-Kaderi, Hani M.; Harris, Charles T.; Gupta, Ram B.

    2015-10-09

    Lignin is a high-volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and process heat. Moreover, the industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve the process economics. In addition, battery manufacturers are seeking nonfossil sources of graphitic carbon for environmental sustainability. In our work, lignin (which is a cross-linked polymer of phenols, a component of biomass) is converted into graphitic porous carbon using a two-step conversion. Lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 1500 psi to produce biochar, which is then graphitized using a metal nitratemore » catalyst at 900–1100 °C in an inert gas at 15 psi. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts—iron, cobalt, and manganese nitrates—is examined. The product is analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both temperature and catalyst type influenced the degree of graphitization. A good quality graphitic carbon was obtained using catalysis by Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C and Co(NO3)2 at 1100 °C.« less

  3. Graphitic biocarbon from metal-catalyzed hydrothermal carbonization of lignin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demir, Muslum; Kahveci, Zafer; Aksoy, Burak; Palapati, Naveen K. R.; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Cullinan, Harry T.; El-Kaderi, Hani M.; Harris, Charles T.; Gupta, Ram B.

    2015-10-09

    Lignin is a high-volume byproduct from the pulp and paper industry and is currently burned to generate electricity and process heat. Moreover, the industry has been searching for high value-added uses of lignin to improve the process economics. In addition, battery manufacturers are seeking nonfossil sources of graphitic carbon for environmental sustainability. In our work, lignin (which is a cross-linked polymer of phenols, a component of biomass) is converted into graphitic porous carbon using a two-step conversion. Lignin is first carbonized in water at 300 °C and 1500 psi to produce biochar, which is then graphitized using a metal nitrate catalyst at 900–1100 °C in an inert gas at 15 psi. Graphitization effectiveness of three different catalysts—iron, cobalt, and manganese nitrates—is examined. The product is analyzed for morphology, thermal stability, surface properties, and electrical conductivity. Both temperature and catalyst type influenced the degree of graphitization. A good quality graphitic carbon was obtained using catalysis by Mn(NO3)2 at 900 °C and Co(NO3)2 at 1100 °C.

  4. Direct synthesis of Al-SBA-15 containing aluminosilicate species plugs in an acid-free medium and structural adjustment by hydrothermal post-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Lei; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Na; Lin, Sen; Li, Xiangping; Guo, Peng; Li, Xuebing

    2013-07-15

    A series of Al-SBA-15 with controllable aluminosilicate plug structures inside straight mesopores has been hydrothermally synthesized in a one-step synthesis in an environmentally friendly acid-free medium, using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as a structure-directing agent, water as solvent, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and aluminum nitrate (Al(NO){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O) as silica and aluminum sources, respectively. The effects of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution and aging temperature on the structural properties of the resulting materials were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption at 77 K, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric (TG), FT-IR spectra and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analyses. The nature of the Al species and the acidity of the resultant samples were studied by solid state {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and pyridine adsorption measurements. The specific surface area (935–755 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}), pore volume (1.03–0.56 cm{sup 3}g{sup −1}) and especially the concentration and distribution of open type mesopores (0–68% to the total pores) of the synthesized Al-SBA-15 can be controlled by a simple adjustment of the P123/Si molar ratio in the initial solution. Moreover, increasing the aging temperature higher than 363 K can remarkably decrease the formation of plug structures to obtain “open” form mesopores. The observation by TEM of alternate defined gray and white areas inside the mesopores gives the strong evidence of isolated microporous aluminosilicate plugs inside the channels. In addition, a moderate hydrothermal post-treatment can finely modify the mesostructures through the partial or complete dissolution of the aluminosilicate plugs. - Graphical abstract: The plugs-containing structures can be interpreted as the distribution of individual isolated plugs along the mesoporous channel. - Highlights: • Al-SBA-15 with controllable

  5. Type: Renewal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 INCITE Awards Type: Renewal Title: -Ab Initio Dynamical Simulations for the Prediction of Bulk Properties‖ Principal Investigator: Theresa Windus, Iowa State University Co-Investigators: Brett Bode, Iowa State University Graham Fletcher, Argonne National Laboratory Mark Gordon, Iowa State University Monica Lamm, Iowa State University Michael Schmidt, Iowa State University Scientific Discipline: Chemistry: Physical INCITE Allocation: 10,000,000 processor hours Site: Argonne National

  6. Facility Type!

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ITY: --&L~ ----------- srct-r~ -----------~------~------- if yee, date contacted ------------- cl Facility Type! i I 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis ] Production 1 Diepasal/Storage 'YPE OF CONTRACT .--------------- 1 Prime J Subcontract&- 1 Purchase Order rl i '1 ! Other information (i.e., ---------~---~--~-------- :ontrait/Pirchaee Order # , I C -qXlJ- --~-------~~-------~~~~~~ I I ~~~---~~~~~~~T~~~ FONTRACTING PERIODi IWNERSHIP: ,I 1 AECIMED AECMED GOVT GOUT &NTtiAC+OR

  7. Perovskite-type La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} mesoporous photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onozuka, K.; Kawakami, Y.; Imai, H.; Yokoi, T.; Tatsumi, T.; Kondo, J.N.

    2012-08-15

    Crystalline particles of mesoporous La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, a perovskite-type material, were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 210 Degree-Sign C in the presence of structure directing agent. Crystallization and simultaneous sintering occurred in the time course of the hydrothermal treatment, resulting in the improvement in crystallinity with a sacrifice of the decrease in surface area. The photocatalytic property was evaluated by hydrogen evolution from water with methanol sacrificial agent. The increase and the decrease of the material in crystallinity and surface area were responsible for the photocatalytic activity: the activity was improved by crystallization but the concurrent decrease in surface area (increase in size) of crystalline particles was disadvantageous. - Graphical abstract: A homogeneous mixture of La and Ti oxide with amorphous inorganic network was hydrothermally crystallized at low temperatures to a perovskite-type La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The small La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} particles with high crystallinity showed a potential as a photocatalyst for H{sub 2} evolution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystalline mesopourous La{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment encouraged low temperature crystallization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small crystalline domain was advantageous to a photocatalytic reaction.

  8. Fabrication of hollow mesoporous NiO hexagonal microspheres via hydrothermal process in ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jinbo; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Wu, Lili; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan ; Zou, Ke; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, 250061, Jinan

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors were synthesized in ionic liquid and water solution by hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were prepared by thermal treatment of Ni(OH){sub 2} precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO hollow microspheres were self-assembled by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals with high specific surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mesoporous structure is stable at 773 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ionic liquid absorbed on the O-terminate surface of the crystals to form hydrogen bond and played key roles in determining the final shape of the NiO novel microstructure. -- Abstract: The novel NiO hexagonal hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by annealing Ni(OH){sub 2}, which was synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The results show that the hollow NiO microstructures are self-organized by mesoporous cubic and hexagonal nanocrystals. The mesoporous structure possessed good thermal stability and high specific surface area (ca. 83 m{sup 2}/g). The ionic liquid 1-butyl-3methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF{sub 4}]) was found to play a key role in controlling the morphology of NiO microstructures during the hydrothermal process. The special hollow mesoporous architectures will have potential applications in many fields, such as catalysts, absorbents, sensors, drug-delivery carriers, acoustic insulators and supercapacitors.

  9. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  10. Template-free hydrothermal derived cobalt oxide nanopowders: Synthesis, characterization, and removal of organic dyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Mostafa Y.; Ahmed, Ibrahim S.

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of the products obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 160 C for 24 h, and at different [Co{sup 2+}]/[CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}] ratios: (a) 1:6, (b) 1:3, (c) 1:1.5, (d) 1:1, (e) 1:0.5. Highlights: ? Spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles with different morphologies were prepared by hydrothermal approach. ? The optical characteristics of the as-prepared cobalt oxide revealed the presence of two band gaps. ? Adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated and the percent uptake was found to be >99% in 24 h. -- Abstract: Pure spinel cobalt oxide nanoparticles were prepared through hydrothermal approach using different counter ions. First, the pure and uniform cobalt carbonate (with particle size of 21.829.8 nm) were prepared in high yield (94%) in an autoclave in absence unfriendly organic surfactants or solvents by adjusting different experimental parameters such as: pH, reaction time, temperature, counter ions, and (Co{sup 2+}:CO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) molar ratios. Thence, the spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (with mean particle size of 30.547.35 nm) was produced by thermal decomposition of cobalt carbonate in air at 500 C for 3 h. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis (TA). Also, the optical characteristics of the as-prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles revealed the presence of two band gaps (1.451.47, and 1.831.93 eV). Additionally, adsorption of methylene blue dye on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was investigated and the uptake% was found to be >99% in 24 h.

  11. Review and Assessment of Commercial Vendors/Options for Feeding and Pumping Biomass Slurries for Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berglin, Eric J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2012-11-01

    The National Advanced Biofuels Consortium is working to develop improved methods for producing high-value hydrocarbon fuels. The development of one such method, the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process, is being led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The HTL process uses a wet biomass slurry at elevated temperatures (i.e., 300 to 360°C [570 to 680°F]) and pressures above the vapor pressure of water (i.e., 15 to 20 MPa [2200 to 3000 psi] at these temperatures) to facilitate a condensed-phase reaction medium. The process has been successfully tested at bench-scale and development and testing at a larger scale is required to prove the viability of the process at production levels. Near-term development plans include a pilot-scale system on the order of 0.5 to 40 gpm, followed by a larger production-scale system on the order of 2000 dry metric tons per day (DMTPD). A significant challenge to the scale-up of the HTL process is feeding a highly viscous fibrous biomass wood/corn stover feedstock into a pump system that provides the required 3000 psi of pressure for downstream processing. In October 2011, PNNL began investigating commercial feed and pumping options that would meet these HTL process requirements. Initial efforts focused on generating a HTL feed and pump specification and then providing the specification to prospective vendors to determine the suitability of their pumps for the pilot-scale and production-scale plants. Six vendors were identified that could provide viable equipment to meet HTL feed and/or pump needs. Those six vendors provided options consisting three types of positive displacement pumps (i.e., diaphragm, piston, and lobe pumps). Vendors provided capabilities and equipment related to HTL application. This information was collected, assessed, and summarized and is provided as appendices to this report.

  12. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Lignin-Rich Biorefinery Residues and Algae Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Zacher, Alan H.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Jones, Susanne B.; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.

    2009-11-03

    This report describes the results of the work performed by PNNL using feedstock materials provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, KL Energy and Lignol lignocellulosic ethanol pilot plants. Test results with algae feedstocks provided by Genifuel, which provided in-kind cost share to the project, are also included. The work conducted during this project involved developing and demonstrating on the bench-scale process technology at PNNL for catalytic hydrothermal gasification of lignin-rich biorefinery residues and algae. A technoeconomic assessment evaluated the use of the technology for energy recovery in a lignocellulosic ethanol plant.

  13. System and process for efficient separation of biocrudes and water in a hydrothermal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Oyler, James R.; Rotness, Jr, Leslie J.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-02

    A system and process are described for clean separation of biocrudes and water by-products from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) product mixtures of organic and biomass-containing feedstocks at elevated temperatures and pressures. Inorganic compound solids are removed prior to separation of biocrude and water by-product fractions to minimize formation of emulsions that impede separation. Separation may be performed at higher temperatures that reduce heat loss and need to cool product mixtures to ambient. The present invention thus achieves separation efficiencies not achieved in conventional HTL processing.

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundarayya, Y. Kumar, K. Ashwini Sondge, Rajesh Srinath, S. Kaul, S. N.

    2014-04-24

    Homogeneous single phase ErCrO{sub 4} nanoparticles have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel followed by hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction reveals that the compound crystallizes into tetragonal structure with space group I41/amd. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 21(1) nm. Morphological analysis of the sample confirms uniform particles of size 20 nm. DC magnetic measurements show that ErCrO{sub 4} undergoes a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition at 16 K, due to the superexchange Er-O-Cr-O-Er antiferromagnetic interactions.

  15. Type here

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Injury at the Savannah River National Laboratory | Department of Energy January 10, 2006, Flash Fire and Injury at the Savannah River National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the January 10, 2006, Flash Fire and Injury at the Savannah River National Laboratory February 1, 2006 On January 10, 2006, at approximately 7:47 a.m., a first-line manager (FLM) at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) received first- and second-degree burns to his head, face, neck, and left hand

  16. Property:ProjectType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (previous 25) (next 25) A Akutan Geothermal Project + Hydrothermal Systems + Alasehir Geothermal Power Plant + GeothermalExploration + Alligator Geothermal Geothermal Project...

  17. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  18. Faults and gravity anomalies over the East Mesa hydrothermal-geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N.E.; Carle, S.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed interpretations of gravity anomalies over geothermal systems may be extremely useful for mapping the fracture or fault systems that control the circulation of the thermal waters. This approach seems to be particularly applicable in areas like the Salton Trough where reactions between the thermal waters and the porous sediments produce authigenic-hydrothermal minerals in sufficient quantity to cause distinct gravity anomalies at the surface. A 3-D inversion of the residual Bouguer gravity anomaly over the East Mesa geothermal field was made to examine the densified volume of rock. We show that the data not only resolve a north-south and an intersecting northwest structure, but that it may be possible to distinguish between the active present-day hydrothermal system and an older and cooler part of the system. The densified region is compared spatially to self-potential, thermal and seismic results and we find a good concordance between the different geophysical data sets. Our results agree with previous studies that have indicated that the main feeder fault recharging the East Mesa reservoir dips steeply to the west.

  19. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  20. Pencil-like zinc oxide micro/nano-scale structures: Hydrothermal synthesis, optical and photocatalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been synthesized hydrothermally. Photocatalytic activity has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation. ZnO nanopencils exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than the commercial ZnO. - Abstract: Zinc oxide micro/nanopencils have been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and diamines as structure-directing agents. The morphology, the structure, the crystallinity and the composition of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of synthesized ZnO were investigated by UVvis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the material has been evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. As a result, after the lapse of 150 min, around 82% bleaching was observed, with ZnO nanopencils yielding more photodegradation compared to that of commercial ZnO (61%)

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanostructured zinc oxide and study of their optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moulahi, A.; Sediri, F.; Gharbi, N.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructured ZnO were successfully obtained by a hydrothermal route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inorganic precursor and molar ratio are key factors for morphology and particle size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties were also studied. -- Abstract: Nanostructured ZnO (nanorods, nanoshuttles) have been synthesized by hydrothermal approach using ZnCl{sub 2} or Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O as zinc sources and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as structure-directing agent. Techniques X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to characterize the structure, morphology and composition of the nanostructured zinc oxide. The optical properties of the as-obtained materials were also studied and showing that it is possible to apply the ZnO nanoshuttles and nanorods on the UV filter, photocatalysis, and special optical devices.

  2. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Hongji; Yu, Lili; Zhao, Han; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. BiVO{sub 4} sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UVvis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UVvis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L{sup ?1}) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample and bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample was further investigated.

  3. Low temperature hydrothermal maturation of organic matter in sediments form the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simoneit, B.R.; Grimalt, J.O.; Hayes, J.M.; Hartman, H.

    1987-04-01

    Hydrocarbons and bulk organic matter of two sediment cores located within the Atlantis II Deep have been analyzed. Although the brines overlying the coring areas were reported to be sterile, microbial inputs and minor terrestrial sources represent the major sedimentary organic material. This input is derived from the upper water column above the brines. Both steroid and triterpenoid hydrocarbons show that extensive acid-catalyzed reactions are occurring in the sediments. In comparison with other hydrothermal or intrusive systems, the Atlantis II Deep exhibits a lower degree of thermal maturation. This is easily deduced from the elemental composition of the kerogens and the absence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of a pyrolytic origin in the bitumen. The lack of carbon number preference among the n-alkanes suggests, especially in the case of the long chain homologs, that the organic matter of Atlantis II Deep sediments has undergone some degree catagenesis. However, the yields of hydrocarbons are much lower than those observed in other hydrothermal areas. The effect of lower temperature and poor source-rock characteristics appear to be responsible for the differences.

  4. The low temperature hydrothermal system of Campiglia, Tuscany (Italy); A geochemical approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celati, R.; Grassi, S.; D'Amore, F.; Marcolini, L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Campiglia hydrothermal system which is a low temperature hydrothermal system located in southwestern Tuscany, a region of Italy characterized by intense geothermal activity and by the presence of high temperature exploited geothermal reservoirs. Six water-points, with temperatures ranging between 20 and 47{degrees} C and different chemical and isotopic compositions, are found close to the margins of outcrops of the main regional aquifer formation. Systematic hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic observations and temperature measurements were carried out on the different springs and wells for a period of three years (1984-1986). Constant water characteristics with time were observed in four water-points; two wells had variable trends depending on mixing processes. A groundwater circulation model characterized by flowpaths of different length and depth is suggested by the variety of chemical and isotopic characteristics and is consistent with geothermometry, which indicates temperatures up to 25{degrees} C higher than those measured at the spring emergencies. An important water supply to the system comes from local recharge, although regional circulation may also be present, particularly in the eastern part of the investigated area.

  5. Hydrothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SubTER Crosscut The US Energy Department and National Laboratories have created a crosscutting initiative focused on revolutionizing sustainable subsurface energy production and ...

  6. Hydrothermal Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These geothermal systems can occur in widely diverse geologic settings, sometimes without clear surface manifestations of the underlying resource. In 2008, the U.S. Geological ...

  7. Funding Opportunity: Geothermal Technologies Program Seeks Technologies to Reduce Levelized Cost of Electricity for Hydrothermal Development and EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technologies Program seeks non-prime mover technologies that have the potential to contribute to reducing the levelized cost of electricity from new hydrothermal development to 6¢/ kWh by 2020 and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to 6¢/ kWh by 2030.

  8. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X

  9. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  10. Evaluation of hydrothermal resources of North Dakota. Phase III final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, K.L.; Howell, F.L.; Wartman, B.L.; Anderson, S.B.

    1982-08-01

    The hydrothermal resources of North Dakota were evaluated. This evaluation was based on existing data on file with the North Dakota Geological Survey (NDGS) and other state and federal agencies, and field and laboratory studies conducted. The principal sources of data used during the study were WELLFILE, the computer library of oil and gas well data developed during the Phase I study, and WATERCAT, a computer library system of water well data assembled during the Phase II study. A field survey of the shallow geothermal gradients present in selected groundwater observation holes was conducted. Laboratory determinations of the thermal conductivity of core samples were done to facilitate heat-flow calculations on those holes-of-convenience cased.

  11. Process improvement studies on the Battelle Hydrothermal Coal Process. Final report, April 1978-April 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stambaugh, E.P.; Miller, J.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Mezey, E.J.; Smith, R.K.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives results of a study to improve the economic viability of the Battelle Hydrothermal (HT) Coal Process by reducing the costs associated with liquid/solid separation and leachant regeneration. Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate process improvements for (1) separating the spent leachant and residual sodium from the coal product, (2) reducing the moisture content of the coal product, and (3) regenerating the leachant. In addition, coal desulfurization experiments were performed and economic studies were conducted to evaluate the impacts of process improvements on coal desulfurization costs. Using countercurrent washing, the optimum washing circuit was composed of four disc-filter stages, six belt-filter stages to separate spent leachant and sodium from the clean coal, and a centrifuge stage to dewater the coal. Several regenerates were found to be effective in removing greater than about 85% of the total sulfide sulfur from the spent leachant: iron carbonate was the leading candidate.

  12. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James R

    2014-11-04

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogeneous catalyst for gasification.

  13. Methods for sulfate removal in liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C; Oyler, James

    2013-12-17

    Processing of wet biomass feedstock by liquid-phase catalytic hydrothermal gasification must address catalyst fouling and poisoning. One solution can involve heating the wet biomass with a heating unit to a pre-treatment temperature sufficient for organic constituents in the feedstock to decompose, for precipitates of inorganic wastes to form, for preheating the wet feedstock in preparation for subsequent removal of soluble sulfate contaminants, or combinations thereof. Processing further includes reacting the soluble sulfate contaminants with cations present in the feedstock material to yield a sulfate-containing precipitate and separating the inorganic precipitates and/or the sulfate-containing precipitates out of the wet feedstock. Having removed much of the inorganic wastes and the sulfate contaminants that can cause poisoning and fouling, the wet biomass feedstock can be exposed to the heterogenous catalyst for gasification.

  14. Ionic liquid assisted hydrothermal fabrication of hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Zhe; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Guangci; Hu, Xiaofu; Liu, Chenguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► The γ-AlOOH hollow spheres were synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal treatment. ► Ionic liquid plays an important role in the morphology of the product. ► Ionic liquid can be easily removed from the product and reused in next experiment. ► A “aggregation–solution–recrystallization” formation mechanism may occur in the system. -- Abstract: Hierarchically organized γ-AlOOH hollow spheres with nanoflake-like porous surface texture have been successfully synthesized via an ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal synthesis method in citric acid monohydrate (CAMs). It was found that ionic liquid [bmim]{sup +}Cl{sup −} played an important role in the morphology of the product due to its strong interactions with reaction particles. The samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The results show that the product has narrow particle size distribution (500–900 nm particle diameter range), high specific surface area (240.5 m{sup 2}/g) and large pore volume (0.61 cm{sup 3}/g). The corresponding γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hollow spheres can be obtained by calcining it at 550 °C for 3 h. The proposed formation mechanism and other influencing factors of the γ-AlOOH hollow sphere material, such as reaction temperature, reaction duration, CAMs and urea, have also been investigated.

  15. Characterizing Microbial Community and Geochemical Dynamics at Hydrothermal Vents Using Osmotically Driven Continuous Fluid Samplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robidart, Julie C.; Callister, Stephen J.; Song, Peng F.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Wheat, Charles G.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2013-05-07

    Microbes play a key role in mediating all aquatic biogeochemical cycles, and ongoing efforts are aimed at better understanding the relationships between microbial phylogenetic and physiological diversity, and habitat physical and chemical characteristics. Establishing such relationships is facilitated by sampling and studying microbiology and geochemistry at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales, to access information on the past and current environmental state that contributes to observed microbial abundances and activities. A modest number of sampling systems exist to date, few of which can be used in remote, harsh environments such as hydrothermal vents, where the ephemeral nature of venting underscores the necessity for higher resolution sampling. We have developed a robust, continuous fluid sampling system for co-registered microbial and biogeochemical analyses. The osmosis-powered bio-osmosampling system (BOSS) use no electricity, collects fluids with daily resolution or better, can be deployed in harsh, inaccessible environments and can sample fluids continuously for up to five years. Here we present a series of tests to examine DNA, RNA and protein stability over time, as well as material compatability, via lab experiments. We also conducted two field deployments at deep-sea hydrothermal vents to assess changes in microbial diversity and protein expression as a function of the physico-chemical environment. Our data reveal significant changes in microbial community composition co-occurring with relatively modest changes in the geochemistry. These data additionally provide new insights into the distribution of an enigmatic sulfur oxidizing symbiont in its free-living state. Data from the second deployment reveal differences in the representation of peptides over time, underscoring the utility of the BOSS in meta-proteomic studies. In concert, these data demonstrate the efficacy of this approach, and illustrate the value of using this method to study

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of anions-doped calcium molybdate red powder phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Shikao; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Ji

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Four anion-doped CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} red phosphors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. Some samples exhibit nearly spherical morphology and well-distributed fine particles. The red luminescence can be obviously enhanced after certain amount of anion doping. The improved phosphor system is a potential candidate for white LED applications. - Abstract: Applying hydrothermal and subsequent heat-treatment process, CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} was doped with four anions (SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}) to prepare fine red powder phosphors. The introduction of small amount of anions into the host had little influence on the structure, which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction patterns. The anion-doped phosphor samples (except SiO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) exhibited nearly spherical morphology, and the particle sizes were in the range of 0.30.4 ?m for SO{sub 4}{sup 2?}-doped samples, and 0.81.2 ?m for PO{sub 4}{sup 3?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples. Excited with 395 nm near-UV light, all samples showed typical Eu{sup 3+} red emission at 615 nm, and PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2?} and ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped samples enhanced the red luminescence as compared with the individual CaMoO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} sample. In particular, relative emission intensity for optimum ClO{sub 3}{sup ?}-doped phosphors reached more than 6-fold that of the commercial red phosphor, which is highly desirable for the powder phosphors used in the solid-state lighting industry.

  17. Characterization of the Aqueous Fractions from Hydrotreatment and Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panisko, Ellen A.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Howe, Daniel T.

    2015-03-01

    In this study the aqueous phases resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass and the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis bio-oils were analyzed via TC, COD, GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC, and ICP-OES to determine the organic and inorganic species present and the quantitative amounts of each. This work is necessary to address a significant knowledge gap in the literature related to the aqueous phases from thermochemical processes. Results showed that water from the hydrotreatment of eight different bio-oils contained less than 1 wt% total carbon, in many cases less than 0.2%. Negligible organic carbon was observed. Hydrothermal liquefaction samples contained between 1-2 wt% carbon, accounting for 34 – 45% of the total carbon sent to the reactor. The majority of this carbon was present as acids, with glycolic acid and acetic acid having the highest concentrations. Alcohols, specifically methanol and ethanol, were also present. Numerous ketones were observed, consisting of mainly acetone and cyclopenta-ones. The amount of the total carbon identified and quantified in the HTL samples ranged from 64 – 82%. Inorganic species present in the HT samples were sodium, silicon, and sulfur. The highest levels of sulfur were observed in the grasses and agricultural residue (corn stover). The HTL samples exhibited much higher inorganic content, with very high levels of sodium and potassium. Alkali and alkali earth metals, as well as sulfur, were also present at levels high enough to raise concerns for the use of catalysts in downstream upgrading or reforming processes.

  18. Eruptive history and petrochemistry of the Bulusan volcanic complex: Implications for the hydrothermal system and volcanic hazards of Mt. Bulusan, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delfin, F.G. Jr.; Panem, C.C.; Defant, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Two contrasting conceptual models of the postcaldera magmatic system of the Bulusan volcanic complex are constructed on the basis of a synthesis of volcanological, petrochemical, and petrologic data. These models predict that hydrothermal convection below the complex will occur either in discrete, structurally-focused zones or over a much broader area. Both models, however, agree that hydrothermal fluids at depth will be highly acidic and volcanic-related. Future ash-fall eruptions and mudflows are likely to affect the area previously chosen for possible drilling. Such risks, combined with the expected acidic character of the hydrothermal system, argue against drilling into this system.

  19. Integrated model for the natural flow regime in the Cerro Prieto hydrothermal system, B. C. , Mexico, based upon petrological and isotope geochemical criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Studies of cuttings and core at Cerro Prieto have now been extended to more than 50 boreholes. The aims of this petrological and isotopic work are to determine the shape of the reservoir, its physical properties, and its temperature distribution and flow regime before the steam field was produced. A map showing the first occurrence of hydrothermal epidote shows a dome-shaped top to the steam-producing zone. The hottest of the mapped mineral zones - the biotite vermiculite zone - shows a dome displaced to the northeast relative to the epidote zone. Patterns of mineral zones observed in wells are consistent with patterns of oxygen isotopic ratios in calcite and quartz. Using both criteria all of the boreholes so far studied were classified as belonging to one of four different regimes. These are: (a) the thermal plume of upward flowing water close to boiling, marked by a regular sequence of prograde mineral zones and large isotopic shifts; (b) the discharge system where fluid leaks to the surface, as indicated by the occurrence of only a few low temperature mineral zones, which extend over large depth intervals with little isotope exchange; (c) the horizontal flow zone, in which boreholes penetrate reversals of both mineral zones and isotope shifts with increasing depth; and (d) the recharge zone where cold water is descending. Plotting these four types of boreholes on a map reveals a simple, consistent, pattern. This is interpreted to have been produced by a thermal plume dipping at 45/sup 0/ to the northeast.

  20. Luminescent nanocrystals in the rare-earth niobatezirconia system formed via hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, Masanori Dozono, Hayato

    2013-08-15

    Luminescent nanocrystals based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}, were hydrothermally formed as cubic phase under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The lattice parameter of the as-prepared nanoparticles corresponding to the composition of Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7}4ZrO{sub 2} that was estimated as a single phase of cubic gradually increased as the content of europium x increased. The existence of small absorbance peaks at 395 and 466 nm corresponding to the Eu{sup 3+7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}L{sub 6}, and {sup 7}F{sub 0}?{sup 5}D{sub 2} excitation transition, respectively, was clearly observed in the diffuse reflectance spectra of the as-prepared samples containing europium. The optical band gap of the as-prepared samples was in the range from 3.5 to 3.7 eV. The photoluminescence spectra of the as-prepared nanocrystals containing europium showed orange and red luminescences with main peaks at 590 and 610 nm, corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 1} and {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions of Eu{sup 3+}, respectively, under excitation at 395 nm Xe lamp. The emission intensity corresponding to {sup 5}D{sub 0}?{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition increased as heat-treatment temperature rose from 800 to 1200 C. - Graphical abstract: This graphical abstract shows the excitation and emission spectra and a transmission electron microscopy image of nanocrystals (with composition based on the rare-earth niobates (Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7}, Ln=Y, Eu) and zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) that were composed of 50 mol% Ln{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2}) formed via hydrothermal route. Display Omitted - Highlights: Nanocrystals composed of 50 mol% Y{sub 3?x}Eu{sub x}NbO{sub 7} and 50 mol% ZrO{sub 2} was directly formed. The nanocrystals were hydrothermally formed under weakly basic conditions at 240 C. The Y{sub 3}NbO{sub 7} showed an UV-blue and broad

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles and their application for lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Zhigang; Zheng, Feng; Yu, Hongchun; Jiang, Ziran; Liu, Kanglian

    2013-02-15

    SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the as-prepared flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles consist of tetragonal nanorods with size readily tunable. Their electrochemical properties and application as anode for lithium-ion battery were evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge testing and cycle voltammetry. SnO{sub 2} nanorod flowers possess improved discharge capacity of 694 mA h g{sup −1} up to 40th cycle at 0.1 C. - Highlights: ► The flowerlike SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ► SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles with tunable size by controlling concentration of SnCl{sub 4}. ► A probable formation mechanism of SnO{sub 2} nanorod bundles has been proposed.

  2. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic performance of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Fei; Zhu, Rongshu; Song, Kelin; Niu, Minli; Ouyang, Feng; Cao, Gang

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) was prepared. • The activities splitting water to hydrogen under visible light were evaluated. • The activity achieved the best when hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. • The activity order is related to the surface morphology and surface defects. - Abstract: A series of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method with different hydrothermal temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) and characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV–vis, XRD, SEM, BET and PL. The results indicated that these photocatalysts had a similar band gap. The hydrothermal temperature had a huge influence on the properties of the photocatalysts such as the BET surface area, the total pore volume, the average pore diameter, the defects and the morphology. The photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated based on photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible-light irradiation. The activity order is attributed to the coefficient of the surface morphology and the surface defects. The hydrogen production efficiency achieved the best when the hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. On the basis of the characterization of the catalysts, the effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were discussed.

  3. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  4. Temporal relations of volcanism and hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WoldeGabriel, G.; Goff, F. )

    1989-11-01

    Two hydrothermal alteration events (8.07 Ma, one sample; 6.51-5.60 Ma, six samples) related to the waning stages of late Miocene volcanism ({ge} 13 to {le} 5.8 Ma) are recognized at the Cochiti district (southeast Jemez Mountains). Most of the K/Ar dates (0.83 {plus minus} 0.11-0.66 {plus minus} 0.21 Ma, four samples) in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A at Sulfur Springs, Valles caldera, indicate post-Valles caldera hydrothermal alteration. A sample from acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole was too young to be dated by the K/Ar method and is possibly associated with current hot-spring activity and the youngest pulses of volcanism. Oxygen-isotope data from illite/smectite clays in the Cochiti district are zonally distributed and range from {minus}2.15{per thousand} to {plus}7.97{per thousand} (SMOW), depending upon temperature, extent of rock-fluid interaction, and composition. The samples from VC-2A get lighter with depth ({minus}0.20{per thousand} to {plus}1.62{per thousand}). The K/Ar and oxygen-isotope data provide strong evidence that the epithermal quartz-vein-hosted gold-silver mineralization at Cochiti and the sub-ore grade molybdenite at VC-2A were deposited in the late Miocene (5.99-5.60 Ma) and mid-Quaternary ({approximately}0.66 Ma), respectively, by hydrothermal fluids composed primarily of meteoric water.

  5. Acid-base behavior in hydrothermal processing of wastes. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    'A major obstacle to the development of hydrothermal technology for treating DOE wastes has been a lack of scientific knowledge of solution chemistry, thermodynamics and transport phenomena. The progress over the last year is highlighted in the following four abstracts from manuscripts which have been submitted to journals. The authors also have made considerable progress on a spectroscopic study of the acid-base equilibria of Cr(VI). They have utilized novel spectroscopic indicators to study acid-base equilibria up to 380 C. Until now, very few systems have been studied at such high temperatures, although this information is vital for hydrothermal processing of wastes. The pH values of aqueous solutions of boric acid and KOH were measured with the optical indicator 2-naphthol at temperatures from 300 to 380 C. The equilibrium constant Kb-l for the reaction B(OH)3 + OH{sup -} = B(OH){sup -4} was determined from the pH measurements and correlated with a modified Born model. The titration curve for the addition of HCl to sodium borate exhibits strong acid-strong base behavior even at 350 C and 24.1 MPa. At these conditions, aqueous solutions of sodium borate buffer the pH at 9.6 t 0.25. submitted to Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. Acetic Acid and HCl Acid-base titrations for the KOH-acetic acid or NH{sub 3} -acetic acid systems were monitored with the optical indicator 2-naphthoic acid at 350 C and 34 MPa, and those for the HCl;Cl- system with acridine at 380 C and up to 34 MPa (5,000 psia ). KOH remains a much stronger base than NH,OH at high temperature. From 298 K to the critical temperature of water, the dissociation constant for HCl decreases by 13 orders of magnitude, and thus, the basicity of Cl{sup -} becomes significant. Consequently, the addition of NaCl to HCl raises the pH. The pH titration curves may be predicted with reasonable accuracy from the relevant equilibrium constants and Pitzer''s formulation of the Debye- Htickel equation for the activity coefficients.'

  6. Flower-like NiO structures: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Hui; Chen, Xuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Jia, Dianzeng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Bao, Shujuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Zhou, Wanyong

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained via thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process using hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors (ECs), which may be attributed to the unique microstrcture of NiO. Data analyses indicated that NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical and large-scale applications in electrochemical capacitors. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis and characterization of NiO with novel porous structure is presented in this work. ? The electrochemical performance of product was examined. ? NiO with excellent performance as electrode materials may be due to the unique microstrcture. ? NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical with high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}). -- Abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained by thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process with hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resulting structures of NiO exhibited porous like petal building blocks. The electrochemical measurements results demonstrated that flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

  7. Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanotubes as novel lithium adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moazeni, Maryam; Hajipour, Hengameh; Askari, Masoud; Nusheh, Mohammad

    2015-01-15

    The ion exchange process is a promising method for lithium extraction from brine and seawater having low concentrations of this element. To achieve this goal, it is vital to use an effective adsorbent with maximum lithium adsorption potential together with a stable structure during extraction and insertion of the ions. In this study, titanium dioxide and then lithium titanate spinel with nanotube morphology was synthesized via a simple two-step hydrothermal process. The produced Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} spinel ternary oxide nanotube with about 70 nm diameter was then treated with dilute acidic solution in order to prepare an adsorbent suitable for lithium adsorption from local brine. Morphological and phase analysis of the obtained nanostructured samples were done by using transmission and scanning electron microscopes along with X-ray diffraction. Lithium ion exchange capacity of this adsorbent was finally evaluated by means of adsorption isotherm. The results showed titanium dioxide adsorbent could recover 39.43 mg/g of the lithium present in 120 mg/L of lithium solution.

  9. One-step synthesis of titanium oxide nanocrystal- rutile by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Evyan Yang Chia; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2014-09-03

    Pure rutile phase titanium oxides (TiO{sub 2}) nanocrystals were synthesized via hydrothermal method with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and water (H{sub 2}O) treated in an autoclave. The particle size and phase assemblages were characterized using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. Band gap energy (E{sub g}) of the nanocrystals was estimated from the Ultra violet – visible light (UV-vis) absorption spectra. It was demonstrated that TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be prepared through increasing of temperature and period of treatment. It is believed that the presence of acid chloride (HCl) as by-product during the hydrolysis played an important role in controlling the growth of morphology and crystal structures. The E{sub g} of the samples were estimated from the plot of modified Kubelka-Munk function were in the range of 3.04 – 3.26eV for the samples synthesized at temperature ranging from 50 to 200°C for 16 hours.

  10. Petrology and geochemistry of Alto Peak, a vapor-cored hydrothermal system, Leyte Province, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, A.G.; Giggenbach, W.F.; Saleras, J.R.M.; Salonga, N.D.; Vergara, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    Based on detailed petrological information on secondary mineral assemblages and the composition of fluids trapped in inclusions and discharged from five wells, the Alto Peak geothermal field was found to represent a combined vapor and liquid-dominated system. A central core or chimney, with a diameter of about 1 km, a height of some 3 km and occupied by a high gas vapor (1.1 to 5.6 molal CO{sub 2}), is surrounded by an envelope of intermediate salinity water (7,000 mg/kg Cl) with temperatures between 250 and 350 C. The transition from purely vapor-dominated to liquid-dominated zones takes place via two-phase zones occupied by fluid mixtures of highly variable compositions. Much of the lower temperature, mature neutral pH Cl water is likely to have formed during an earlier stage in the evolution of the system. High temperatures of > 300 C, and associated alteration, are limited to wells AP-1D and the lower parts of AP-2D and are ascribed to re-heating by recent magmatic intrusions. The isotopic composition of the well discharges suggests that they contain some 40 to 50% of magmatic water. Alto Peak is considered a typical example of hydrothermal systems associated with many dormant volcanoes.

  11. Chemical and isotopic kinetics of sulfate reduction by organic matter under hydrothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of nonbacterial sulfate reduction by organic matter in geologic environments. Sulfate is reduced by dextrose under acidic conditions at temperatures of 230-270 C. Reaction products include sulfide and organic-sulfur compounds; sulfite, thiosulfate and elemental sulfur were not detected. The rate law for the initial one- or two-electron reduction of sulfate at 250C is first-order in bisulfate and about one-half-order in initial dextrose concentration, and shows a very strong dependence on pH. The kinetics of sulfate reduction by fructose at 250C are virtually the same. The lack of sulfate reduction by formaldehyde, methanol, ethanol and acetic acid at 250 C indicates that the reducing power of dextrose and fructose cannot be attributed to carbonyl, carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups. The form of the rate law for sulfate reduction by dextrose and the presence of an induction period rather suggest that the initial reduction of sulfate occurs with free radicals derived from the thermal decomposition of the hexoses or their alteration products. The inferred sulfate-reduction reaction mechanism suggest that aqueous sulfate may be reduced to sulfide in geologic environments such as deep sedimentary basins. The observed acid-catalysis of the reaction in the laboratory may be supplanted by clay-mineral catalysis in geologic environments. Sulfur isotopes are fractionated during the reduction of sulfate by dextrose under hydrothermal conditions. Computer simulations of the isotopic evolution of the experiments suggest that sulfate-sulfide isotopic exchange largely controls the isotopic composition of sulfate and sulfide. The extent of isotopic fractionation due solely to sulfate reduction thus cannot be determined from the experiments

  12. Contact metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals in the SH2 deep well, Sabatini Volcanic District, Latium, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavarretta, G.; Tecce, F.

    1987-01-01

    Metasomatic and hydrothermal minerals were logged throughout the SH2 geothermal well, which reached a depth of 2498 m in the Sabatini volcanic district. Below 460 m of volcanics, where the newly formed minerals were mainly chlorite, calcite and zeolites (mostly phillipsite), drilling entered the Allochthonous Flysch Complex. Evidence of the ''Cicerchina facies'' was found down to 1600 m depth. Starting from 1070 m, down to hole bottom, a contact metasomatic complex was defined by the appearance of garnet. Garnet together with K-fledspar, vesuvianite, wilkeite, cuspidine, harkerite, wollastonite and apatite prevail in the top part of the contact metasomatic complex. Vesuvianite and phlogopite characterize the middle part. Phlogopite, pyroxene, spinel and cancrinite predominate in the bottom part. The 1500 m thick metasomatic complex indicates the presence at depth of the intrusion of a trachytic magma which released hot fluids involved in metasomatic mineral-forming reactions. Minerals such as harkerite, wilkeite, cuspidine, cancrinite, vesuvianite and phlogopite indicate the intrusive melt had a high volatile content which is in agreement with the very high explosivity index of this volcanic district. The system is at present sealed by abundant calcite and anhydrite. It is proposed that most, if not all, of the sulphates formed after reaction of SO/sub 2/ with aqueous calcium species rather than from sulphates being remobilized from evaporitic (Triassic) rocks as previously inferred. The hypothesis of a CO/sub 2/-rich deep-derived fluid ascending through major fracture systems and contrasting cooling in the hottest areas of Latium is presented.

  13. Hydrothermal synthesis and afterglow luminescence properties of hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres for potential application in drug delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiachi Qin, Qingsong; Hu, Rui; Wang, Yuhua

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We designed a novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} for the first time. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres with afterglow were prepared by hydrothermal method. Hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} is a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery. - Abstract: A novel afterglow labeling material SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} with hollow sphere shape and intense afterglow luminescence is prepared by hydrothermal method at 180 C for the first time. The morphology and the sphere growth process of this material are investigated by scanning electron microscopy in detail. The afterglow measurement shows that this hydrothermal obtained material exhibits obvious red afterglow luminescence (550700 nm) of Sm{sup 3+} which can last for 542 s (0.32 mcd/m{sup 2}). The depth of traps in this hydrothermal obtained material is calculated to be as shallow as 0.58 eV. The results demonstrate that although it is necessary to further improve the afterglow performance of the hydrothermal derived hollow SnO{sub 2}:Sm{sup 3+},Zr{sup 4+} spheres, it still can be regarded as a potential afterglow labeling medium for drug delivery.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Cloud type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as cirrus, stratus, cumulus etc Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  15. Effect of reductant and PVP on morphology and magnetic property of ultrafine Ni powders prepared via hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jun Wang, Xiucai; Li, Lili; Li, Chengxuan; Peng, Shuge

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The ultrafine Ni powders with the shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using different reductants. Their saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity sequentially increase, and the coercivity of hexagonal sheet-like Ni powders increases by 25% compared with the Ni bulk counterpart. - Highlights: • The ultrafine Ni powders with various shapes of sphere, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet, etc. • Facile and one-step hydrothermal reduction using three reductants and PVP additive was developed. • Magnetic properties of the ultrafine Ni powders with different shapes were measured. • Compared with bulk Ni material, coercivity of hexagonal sheet Ni increases by 25%. • The formation mechanism of the shapes was suggested. - Abstract: The ultrafine nickel particles with different shapes including sphere, pearl-string, leaf, fish-bone, hexagonal sheet and silknet were prepared through one-step hydrothermal reduction using hydrazine hydrate, sodium hypophosphite and ethylene glycol as reductants, polyvinylpyrrolidone as structure-directing agent. It has been verified with the characterization of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission/scanning electronic microscopy that as-prepared products belong to face-centered cubic structure of nickel microcrystals with high purity and fine dispersity. The magnetic hysteresis loops measured at room temperature reveal that the values of saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization and coercivity rise sequentially from silknet, sphere to hexagonal sheet. In comparison with nickel bulk counterpart, the coercivity of the hexagonal sheet nickel powders increases by 25%.

  16. Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain alkanes in hydrothermal sediments: potential influences on sulfur cycling and microbial diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, MM; Hoarfrost, AL; Bose, A; Joye, SB; Girguis, PR

    2013-05-14

    Short-chain alkanes play a substantial role in carbon and sulfur cycling at hydrocarbon-rich environments globally, yet few studies have examined the metabolism of ethane (C-2), propane (C-3), and butane (C-4) in anoxic sediments in contrast to methane (C-1). In hydrothermal vent systems, short-chain alkanes are formed over relatively short geological time scales via thermogenic processes and often exist at high concentrations. The sediment-covered hydrothermal vent systems at Middle Valley (MV Juan de Fuca Ridge) are an ideal site for investigating the anaerobic oxidation of C-1-C-4 alkanes, given the elevated temperatures and dissolved hydrocarbon species characteristic of these metalliferous sediments. We examined whether MV microbial communities oxidized C-1-C-4 alkanes under mesophilic to thermophilic sulfate-reducing conditions. Here we present data from discrete temperature (25, 55, and 75 degrees C) anaerobic batch reactor incubations of MV sediments supplemented with individual alkanes. Co-registered alkane consumption and sulfate reduction (SR) measurements provide clear evidence for C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation linked to SR over time and across temperatures. In these anaerobic batch reactor sediments, 16S ribosomal RNA pyrosequencing revealed that Deltaproteobacteria, particularly a novel sulfate-reducing lineage, were the likely phylotypes mediating the oxidation of C-2-C-4 alkanes. Maximum C-1-C-4 alkane oxidation rates occurred at 55 degrees C, which reflects the mid-core sediment temperature profile and corroborates previous studies of rate maxima for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). Of the alkanes investigated, C-3 was oxidized at the highest rate over time, then C-4, C-2, and C-1, respectively. The implications of these results are discussed with respect to the potential competition between the anaerobic oxidation of C-2-C(4)alkanes with AOM for available oxidants and the influence on the fate of C-1 derived from these hydrothermal systems.

  17. Origin of fluids and the evolution of the Atlantis II deep hydrothermal system, Red Sea: Strontium isotope study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anschutz, P.; Blanc, G.; Stille, P.

    1995-12-31

    Atlantis II is the largest and most mineralized of the deeps along the axis of the Red Sea spreading center. Its basaltic substratum is covered by recent layered metalliferous sediments, which precipitated from an overlying brine pool. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio and the strontium concentration of interstitial waters within these sediments range between 0.70708 and 0.70725 and between 43 and 53 ppm, respectively. They are close to what is found for the present-day deep brine pool (0.707105, 45.10 ppm). The strontium concentration and the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of the Atlantis II Deep brines can be derived from those of the interstitial waters of the surrounding Miocene evaporite by hydrothermal interaction with oceanic basaltic rocks at a maximal water/rock ratio 2-3. This water/rock ratio is similar to that calculated for oceanic hydrothermal systems on sediment-free ridges. Interstitial waters show a linear trend on plot of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr vs. 1/Sr. The highest strontium concentration and the most radiogenic interstitial waters correspond to sediment samples enriched in iron and manganese oxide minerals. These waters reflect the diagenetic release of strontium by oxide minerals and initially precipitated at the interface between the brine pool and more radiogenic seawater. The solid fraction of the sediment has {sup 87}sr{sup 86}Sr isotopic compositions intermediate to those of the brines and seawater. The solid fraction of the sediment has {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic compositions intermediate to those of the brines and seawater. The most radiogenic strontium values were observed in samples strongly enriched in marine microbiota. The gradual isotopic evolution in the lowest part of the western basin sediments testifies to the gradual influence of the hydrothermal activity in the deep in the beginning of the Atlantis II Deep sedimentary history. 62 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oil and Hydrotreated Product from Pine Feedstock Characterized by Heteronuclear Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy and FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R.; Hallen, Richard T.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) crude oil and hydrotreated product from pine tree farm waste (forest product residual, FPR) have been analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes and high-resolution twodimensional heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class (heteroatom content), type (number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents (DBE) and carbon number (degree of alkylation). Heteronuclear 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison. Generally, pyrolysis oil is comprised of a more diverse distribution of heteroatom classes with higher oxygen number relative to HTL oil as shown by both positive- and negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS. A total of 300 N1, 594 O1 and 267 O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. The relative abundance of N1O1, N1O2, N1O3, N2, N2O1, N2O2 and O3 compounds are reduced to different degrees after hydrotreatment and other higher heteroatom containing species (O4-O10, N1O4, N1O5 and N2O3) are completely removed by hydrotreatment.

  19. Moeck-Beardsmore Play Types | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magmatic-hydrothermal Circulation --- Extensive Low Permeability Clay-rich Layers Java CV-1b: Intrusive Magmatic Arcs, Mid Oceanic Ridges, Hot Spots Active Volcanism, Shallow...

  20. Hydrothermal corrosion of SiC in LWR coolant environments in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Nuclear Materials; Journal Volume: 465 Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Sponsoring Org: ...

  1. Extrinsic and intrinsic properties in metalinsulator transition of hydrothermally prepared vanadium dioxide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2014-03-01

    The clear insulator (monoclinic-VO{sub 2}) to metal (rutile-VO{sub 2}) transition (IMT) was observed in electrical conductivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements at around 340 K, which is IMT temperature (T{sub H}), in the hydrothermally prepared VO{sub 2} crystals. The occurrence of metal to insulator transition (MIT) temperature (T{sub C}) was observed below 333 K during the first resistance measurement cycle in the most of cases. The sudden jump of the electrical resistance at IMT and MIT points was amplified several times than that of the first cycle during the repeated successive thermal cycles (heating and cooling across the IMT and MIT temperatures). T{sub C} and T{sub H} shifted to higher temperature by the repeated successive thermal cycles. This shift and the amplified jump might be related to the mechanical stress between the VO{sub 2} crystals, i.e. extrinsic properties. However, the starting point of MIT, T{sub CS} = ? 336 K, and the starting point of IMT, T{sub HS} = ? 338 K, kept almost constant during the repeated thermal cycles (< 10 times). These two temperatures may be related to the intrinsic properties of the VO{sub 2}: the phase transitions initiated at these temperatures regardless of the number of the repeated thermal cycles. The neat surface of the VO{sub 2} crystals was severely damaged and the average size of particles reduced from 110 nm to 7090 nm after extensively repeated thermal cycles (> 70 times). The damaged surface and the smaller particles, which would be originated from the mechanical stress caused by crystal volume change during the first order transition of the VO{sub 2}, would weaken the electrical conduction path (loosen grain boundaries) between the VO{sub 2} single crystals and would result in the amplified jump at the following MIT. This report may boost the study for the improved stability and lifetime of the VO{sub 2} based electronic devices. - Highlights: The sharp phase transition in

  2. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Novel Zn-Triazole-Benzenedicarboxylate Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyunsoo; Moureau, David M.; Parise, John B.

    2008-10-03

    Three new metal-organic coordination polymers were synthesized hydrothermally using Zn2+ ion, 1,2,4-triazole, and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC): Zn5(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)3 {center_dot} 3.9H2O (1), Zn2(C2H2N3)2(C2H3N3)(C8H4O4) {center_dot} 2.5H2O (2), and Zn4(H2O)2(C2H2N3)4(C8H4O4)2 {center_dot} 14H2O (3). Their crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their thermal properties were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Structure 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 10.192(2) {angstrom}, b = 17.764(4) {angstrom}, c = 24.437(5) {angstrom}, {beta} = 91.19(3){sup o}, and V = 4423.3(15) {angstrom}3. Structure 2 crystallizes in the triclinic P space group with a = 7.797(2) {angstrom}, b = 10.047(2) {angstrom}, c = 13.577(3) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 110.18(3){sup o}, {beta} = 105.46(3){sup o}, {gamma} = 93.90(3){sup o}, and V = 947.0(3) {angstrom}3. Structure 3 crystallizes in monoclinic P21/n space group with a = 13.475(3) {angstrom}, b = 26.949(5) {angstrom}, c = 13.509(3) {angstrom}, {beta} = 95.18(3){sup o}, and V = 4885.7(17) {angstrom}3. In structure 1, the units of the triazole-Zn polyhedra are linked by BDC in a zigzag fashion to create the stacking of phenyl groups along the a axis. In structure 2, both triazole and BDC bridge Zn polyhedra in the (011) plane, resulting in the eight-membered channels along the a axis. In the case of structure 3, the BDC links the Zn polyhedra along the b axis to form a pillared open framework. This structure is the most porous of the compounds presented in this work.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn vanadate nanosheets and visible-light photocatalytic performance for the degradation of methyl blue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.Z. Xie, Y.K.; Pei, Y.Q.; Jiang, Y.X.; Yu, H.Y.; Cai, Z.Y.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. The formation of Mn vanadate nanosheets can be controlled by growth conditions. Mn vanadate nanosheets exhibit good photocatalytic activities for methyl blue. - Abstract: Mn vanadate nanosheets have been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route using ammonium metavanadate and Mn acetate as the raw materials, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the Mn vanadate nanosheets are composed of monoclinic MnV{sub 2}O{sub 6} phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation indicates that the nanosheets have the average thickness of about 50 nm, length of 210 ?m and width of 800 nm to 2 ?m. The growth process of the Mn vanadate nanosheets has also been discussed based on the analysis of the roles of the growth conditions on the formation of the Mn vanadate nanosheets. The nanosheets show good photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. About 72.96% MB can be degraded after visible light irradiation for 1 h over 10 mg Mn vanadate nanosheets in 10 mL MB solution with the concentration of 10 mg L{sup ?1}.

  4. Investigation of the long-term performance of betafite and zirconolite in hydrothermal veins from Adamello, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumpkin, G.R.; Day, R.A.; McGlinn, P.J.; Payne, T.E.; Giere, R.; Williams, C.T.

    1999-07-01

    Betafite and zirconolite occur in Ti-rich hydrothermal veins emplaced within dolomite marble in the contact aureole of the Adamello batholith, northern Italy. Zirconolite contains up to 18 wt% ThO{sub 2} and 24 wt% UO{sub 2}, and exhibits strong compositional zoning. Some zirconolite grains were corroded by the hydrothermal fluid. Betafite, the Ti-rich member of the pyrochlore group, often occurs as overgrowths on zirconolite. The betafite is weakly zoned and contains 29--34 wt% UO{sub 2}. In terms of end-members, betafite contains approximately 50 mole percent CaUTi{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is the closest known natural composition to the pyrochlore phase proposed for use in titanate waste forms. Amorphization and volume expansion of the betafite caused cracks to form in the enclosing silicate mineral grains. Backscattered electron images reveal that betafite was subsequently altered along crystal rims, particularly near the cracks. EPMA data reveal little difference in composition between altered and unaltered areas, except for lower totals, suggesting that alteration is primarily due to hydration. The available evidence demonstrates that both betafite and zirconolite retained actinides for approximately 40 million years after the final stage of vein formation. During this time, betafite and zirconolite accumulated a total alpha-decay dose of 3--4 x 10{sup 16} and 0.2--2 x 10{sup 16} {alpha}/mg, respectively.

  5. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  6. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Irradiation Contamination Incorporation Biological Effects of Acute, Total Body Irradiation Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Types of radiation ...

  7. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appointment Types Postdoc Appointment Types Most postdocs will be offered a postdoctoral research associate appointment. Each year, approximately 30 Postdoctoral Fellow appointments, including the Distinguished Fellows, are awarded. Postdoc appointment types offer world of possibilities Meet the current LANL Distinguished Postdocs Research Associates Research Associates pursue research as part of ongoing LANL science and engineering programs. Sponsored postdoctoral candidate packages are

  8. Natural input of arsenic into a coral-reef ecosystem by hydrothermal fluids and its removal by Fe(III) oxyhydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pichler, T.; Veizer, J.; Hall, G.E.M.

    1999-05-01

    The coral reef that circles Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea, is exposed to the discharge of a hot, mineralized hydrothermal fluid. The hydrothermal fluids have a pH of {approximately}6 and are slightly reducing and rich in As. Seven individual vents discharge an estimated 1500 g of As per day into an area of approximately 50 x 100 m that has an average depth of 6 m. Despite the amount of As released into the bay, corals, clams, and fish do not show a response to the elevated values. The authors analyzed hydrothermal precipitates for their chemical and mineralogical composition in order to determine As sinks. Two mechanisms efficiently control and buffer the As concentration: (1) dilution by seawater and (2) incorporation in and adsorption on Fe(III) oxyhydroxides that precipitate when the hydrothermal fluids mix with ambient seawater. Fe(III) oxyhydroxides contain up to 76,000 ppm As, by an order of magnitude the highest As values found in a natural marine environment. Following adsorption, As is successfully retained in the Fe(III) oxyhydroxide deposits because oxidizing conditions prevail and high As activity allows for the formation of discrete As minerals, such as claudetite, arsenic oxide, and scorodite.

  9. Study concerning the utilization of the ocean spreading center environment for the conversion of biomass to a liquid fuel. (Includes Appendix A: hydrothermal petroleum genesis). [Supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steverson, M.; Stormberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    This document contains a report on the feasibility of utilizing energy obtained from ocean spreading centers as process heat for the conversion of municipal solid wastes to liquid fuels. The appendix contains a paper describing hydrothermal petroleum genesis. Both have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  10. Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muramoto, F.S.; Elders, W.A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to the physical properties of the rocks. Three hydrothermal and one unaltered zone can be identified from log data on shales. These are: (1) the unaltered montmorillonite zone (<100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C); (2) the illite zone (100/sup 0/ to 190/sup 0/C to 230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C); (3) the chlorite zone (230/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C to 290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C); and (4) the feldspar zone (>290/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C). The characteristic responses on well logs by which these zones are identified result primarily from changes in clay mineralogy of the shales and increases in density with progressive hydrothermal metamorphism. In the Westmorland geothermal field, differentiating mineral zones from log responses was only partially successful. However, analyses of both well log and petrologic data for wells Landers 1 and Kalin Farms 1 suggest that the former is heating up and the latter is cooling.

  11. Synthesis of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite via facile hydrothermal method and their photocatalytic activities under visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Wai Kian; Abdul Razak, Khairunisak; Lockman, Zainovia; Kawamura, Go; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2014-03-15

    ZnO composite films consisting of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets were prepared by low-temperature hydrothermal processing at 80 C on seeded glass substrates. The seed layer was coated on glass substrates by solgel dip-coating and pre-heated at 300 C for 10 min prior to hydrothermal growth. The size of the grain formed after pre-heat treatment was ?40 nm. A preferred orientation seed layer at the c-axis was obtained, which promoted vertical growth of the ZnO nanorod arrays and formation of the ZnO nanosheets. X-ray diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) images confirmed that the ZnO nanorods and nanosheets consist of single crystalline and polycrystalline structures, respectively. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite films exhibited band-edge ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission (blue and green) indicating the formation of ZnO crystals with good crystallinity and are supported by Raman scattering results. The formation of one-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorod arrays and two-dimensional (2D) ZnO nanosheet films using seeded substrates in a single low-temperature hydrothermal step would be beneficial for realization of device applications that utilize substrates with limited temperature stability. The ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure demonstrated higher photocatalytic activity during degradation of aqueous methylene blue under visible-light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of ZnO nanorodnanosheet composite structure formation by hydrothermal at low-temperature of 80 C against time. Highlights: Novel simultaneous formation of ZnO nanorods and nanosheets composite structure. Facile single hydrothermal step formation at low-temperature. Photoluminescence showed ultraviolet and visible emission. Feasible application on substrates with low temperature stability. Improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation.

  12. Surfactant free hydrothermal synthesis of SnO{sub 2} nanorods with their microstructure and Raman studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amutha, A.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Amirthapanian, S.; Thangadurai, P.

    2014-04-24

    SnO{sub 2} nanorods were prepared by hydrothermal method without any surfactant. Their microstructure was studied with X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The range of nanorods diameter size is ∼3 to 19 nm. The crystal structure was confirmed to be SnO{sub 2} rutile tetragonal structure. The nanorods were single crystalline in nature as confirmed by HRTEM. Electron energy loss studies were carried out. EELS analysis showed presence SnO{sub 2} phase and SnO phase was not observed. New Raman modes (352 and 579 cm{sup −1}) corresponding to small size effects were observed for the SnO{sub 2} nanorods.

  13. Geothermal Update NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES / NOVEMBER 4, 2013 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Update NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES / NOVEMBER 4, 2013 Geothermal Update NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES / NOVEMBER 4, 2013 GTO-NAS.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents & Publications GEA Geothermal Summit Presentation … Lauren Boyd Geothermal R&D: The DOE Perspective U.S. Department of Energy progress in geothermal energy deployment was addressed at the State of the Industry Geothermal Briefing in Washington, DC on February 24, 2015. Eric Hass, hydrothermal program manager

  14. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhixin; Li Danzhen; Xiao Guangcan; He Yunhui; Xu Yijun

    2012-02-15

    Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method with the temperature ranging from 80 to 195 Degree-Sign C. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption analysis, UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that the crystallographic structure and optical property of the products synthesized at different temperatures were almost the same. The degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the visible light irradiation has been used as a probe reaction to investigate the photocatalytic activity of as-prepared ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}, which shows that the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} sample synthesized at 195 Degree-Sign C shows the best photocatalytic activity for MO degradation. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of all the samples prepared by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method are better than those prepared by a normal hydrothermal method, which could be attributed to the formation of more defect sites during the microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a fast microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 80-195 Degree-Sign C with a very short reaction time of 10 min. The as-prepared ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} sample can be used as visible light photocatalyst for degradation of organic dyes. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal structure and optical property of the products were almost the same. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increment of the temperature renders high surface area due to the bubbling effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} synthesized at 195 Degree-Sign C shows the best visible catalytic activity for MO.

  15. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  16. Fluid rare earth element anlayses from geothermal wells located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland and Middle Valley seafloor hydrothermal system on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-05-01

    Results for fluid rare earth element analyses from four Reykjanes peninsula high-temperature geothermal fields. Data for fluids from hydrothermal vents located 2400 m below sea level from Middle Valley on the Juan de Fuca Ridge are also included. Data have been corrected for flashing. Samples preconcentrated using a chelating resin with IDA functional group (InertSep ME-1). Analyzed using an Element magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and characteristics of 3-D hydrated bismuth oxalate coordination polymers with open-channel structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Xinxiang; Cao Yanning; Zhang Hanhui Chen Yiping; Chen Xuehuan; Chai Xiaochuan

    2008-05-15

    Two new 3-D porous bismuth coordination polymers, (C{sub 5}NH{sub 6}){sub 2}[Bi{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 4}].2H{sub 2}O 1 and (NH{sub 4})[Bi(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O 2, have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic symmetry, P2{sub 1}/c space group with a=10.378(2) A, b=17.285(3) A, c=16.563(5) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=119.66(2) deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=2581.8(10) A{sup 3}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0355 and wR{sub 2}=0.0658 for unique 4713 reflections I >2{sigma}(I). Compound 2 crystallizes in the tetragonal symmetry, I4{sub 1}/amd space group with a=11.7026(17) A, b=11.7026(17) A, c=9.2233(18) A, {alpha}=90 deg., {beta}=90 deg., {gamma}=90 deg., V=1263.1(4) A{sup 3}, Z=32, R{sub 1}=0.0208 and wR{sub 2}=0.0518 for unique 359 reflections I> 2{sigma}(I). Compounds 1 and 2 are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers, study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the open-channel frameworks are thermally stable up to 200 deg. C, and other characterizations are also described by elemental analysis, IR and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectionintegral spectrum (UV-Vis DRIS). - Graphical abstract: Two novel 3-D extended porous coordination polymers have been synthesized by hydrothermal method. Both compounds are 3-D open-framework structures with a 6{sup 6} uniform net, which consist of honeycomb-like layers connected to each other by oxalate units. While different guest molecules fill in their cavities of honeycomb-like layers. Study of ultrasonic treatment on 2 indicates the replacement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by K{sup +} on potassium ion exchange.

  18. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, M. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.

    2015-07-15

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni{sub 59}Zr{sub 20}Ti{sub 16}Si{sub 2}Sn{sub 3} metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO{sub 3}, ZrTiO{sub 4} and ZrSnO{sub 4} ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  19. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  20. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  1. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  2. Microstructure and magnetic properties of MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn) ferrite nanocrystals prepared using colloid mill and hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei Ding, Zui; Zhao, Xiruo; Wu, Sizhu; Li, Feng; Yue, Ming; Liu, J. Ping

    2015-05-07

    Three kinds of spinel ferrite nanocrystals, MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M = Co, Ni, and Mn), are synthesized using colloid mill and hydrothermal method. During the synthesis process, a rapid mixing and reduction of cations with sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) take place in a colloid mill then through a hydrothermal reaction, a slow oxidation and structural transformation of the spinel ferrite nanocrystals occur. The phase purity and crystal lattice parameters are estimated by X-ray diffraction studies. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the morphology and particle size of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals. Raman spectrum reveals active phonon modes at room temperature, and a shifting of the modes implies cation redistribution in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Magnetic measurements show that all the obtained samples exhibit higher saturation magnetization (M{sub s}). Meanwhile, experiments demonstrate that the hydrothermal reaction time has significant effects on microstructure, morphologies, and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized ferrite nanocrystals.

  3. Facile fabrication of rutile monolayer films consisting of well crystalline nanorods by following an IL-assisted hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng Peng; Liu Xiaodi; Sun, Chuansheng; Ma Jianmin; Zheng Wenjun

    2009-05-15

    In this study, rutile films consisting of rectangular nanorods were facilely deposited on glass substrates from strongly acid solution of TiCl{sub 4}. The highly ordered array of nanorods was realized in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br by following a hydrothermal process. In this process, Degussa P25 nanoparticles served as seeds that were pre-deposited on the substrates to facilitate the array of rutile nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman spectrum were used to characterize the obtained nanorod films. The measurements showed that the nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, and grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate. The presence of IL was found vital for the formation of rutile nanorods, and the suitable molar ratio of [Bmim]Br to TiCl{sub 4} ranged from 500:1 to 1500:1. The excessive [Bmim]Br may hinder the precipitation of rutile particles. - Graphical abstract: The rutile film consisting of rectangular nanorods is successfully deposited on glass substrate in presence of ionic liquid (IL) of [Bmim]Br. The nanorods were rectangular with width of 100-200 nm and length of more than 1 {mu}m, which grew up typically along c-axis to form the arrays against the substrate.

  4. Partitioning and Leaching Behavior of Actinides and Rare Earth Elements in a Zirconolite- Bearing Hydrothermal Vein System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Hart, Kaye P.; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; McGlinn, Peter J.; Giere, Reto

    2007-07-01

    Chemical extraction techniques and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the distribution and behavior of actinides and rare earth elements (REE) in hydrothermal veins at Adamello (Italy). The six samples discussed in this paper were from the phlogopite zone, which is one of the major vein zones. The samples were similar in their bulk chemical composition, mineralogy, and leaching behavior of major elements (determined by extraction with 9 M HCl). However, there were major differences in the extractability of REE and actinides. The most significant influence on the leaching characteristics appears to be the amounts of U, Th and REE incorporated in resistant host phases (zirconolite and titanite) rather than readily leached phases (such as apatite). Uranium and Th are very highly enriched in zirconolite grains. Actinides were more readily leached from samples with a higher content of U and Th, relative to the amount of zirconium. The results show that REE and actinides present in chemically resistant host minerals can be retained under aggressive leaching conditions. (authors)

  5. Laser hydrothermal reductive ablation of titanium monoxide: Hydrated TiO particles with modified Ti/O surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Jandova, Vera; Kupcik, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdenek; Subrt, Jan; Bezdicka, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-15

    IR laser- and UV laser-induced ablation of titanium monoxide (TM) in hydrogen (50 Torr) is compared to the same process induced in vacuum and shown to result in deposition of hydrated surface modified nanostructured titanium suboxide films. Complementary analyses of the films deposited in vacuum and in hydrogen by Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed to determine different features of both films and propose a mechanism of surface modification of ejected particles, which involves hydrothermal reduction of TM and subsequent reactions of evolved water. The films exert good adhesion to metal and quartz surfaces and are hydrophobic in spite of having their surface coated with adsorbed water. - Graphical abstract: Laser ablation of titanium monoxide (TiO) in hydrogen involves a sequence of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O eliminations and additions and yields hydrated amorphous nanostructured titanium suboxide which is richer in oxygen than TiO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR and UV laser ablated particles of titanium monoxide (TiO) undergo amorphization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in vacuum have TiO stoichiometry and are oxidized in atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in hydrogen are hydrated and have more O in topmost layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films modification in hydrogen is explained by reactions in hydrogen plasma.

  6. Agreement Type Union

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Type Union Local #/Name Number of Employees Project Labor Agreement International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers 135 2 International Brothehood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmith Forgers and Helpers 92 0 International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen 13 0 Regional Council of Carpenters 1780 & 1977 13 Operative Plasterers and Cement Mason International Association Operative Plasterers and Cement Mason International Association 1

  7. TYPE OF OPERATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ----------------- 0 Research & Development .a Production scale testing 0 Pilat Scale 0 Bench Scale Process 0 Thearetical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis 0 Production *i DiaposalKitorage Cl Facility Tybe q Government Sponsored Facility Other R.L- 6:e 14 1 1 ---------- --------- I I I TYPE OF CONTRACT ~-__-----------_ fl Prime *I 0 Subcantractbr Other infuriation (i.e., L.t + fixed fee, kit price, 0 Purchase Order time k mat*iik, gtc) /I -~---------'-t-----------~- ----------II----------------

  8. Energy.gov Page Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the standard page types available in the Energy.gov Drupal content management system. For information about other available page types, or to request a new kind of page type, contact...

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of coral-like Au/ZnO catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.K.; Lee, G.J.; Davies, S.H.; Masten, S.J.; Amutha, R.; Wu, J.J.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Coral-like Au/ZnO was successfully prepared using green synthetic method. ? Gold nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO structure using NaBH{sub 4} and ?-D-glucose. ? Coral-like Au/ZnO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to degrade Orange II. - Abstract: A porous coral-like zinc oxide (c-ZnO) photocatalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coral-like structure was obtained by precipitating Zn{sub 4}(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 6}H{sub 2}O (ZnCH), which forms nanosheets that aggregate together to form microspheres with the coral-like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that after heating at 550 C the ZnCH microspheres can be converted to ZnO microspheres with a morphology similar to that of ZnCH microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows this conversion takes place at approximately 260 C. A simple electrostatic self-assembly method has been employed to uniformly disperse Au nanoparticles (1 wt.%) on the ZnO surface. In this procedure ?-D-glucose was used to stabilize the Au nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the diameter of coral-like ZnO microspheres (c-ZnO) is about 8 ?m. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO is highly crystalline with a wurtzite structure and the Au metallic particles have an average size of about 13 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies have confirmed the presence of ZnO and also showed that the Au is present in the metallic state. The photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye, with either ultraviolet or visible light, is faster on Au/c-ZnO than on c-ZnO.

  10. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  11. Techno-Economic Analysis of Liquid Fuel Production from Woody Biomass via Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2014-09-15

    A series of experimental work was conducted to convert woody biomass to gasoline and diesel range products via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and catalytic hydroprocessing. Based on the best available test data, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was developed for a large scale woody biomass based HTL and upgrading system to evaluate the feasibility of this technology. In this system, 2000 dry metric ton per day woody biomass was assumed to be converted to bio-oil in hot compressed water and the bio-oil was hydrotreated and/or hydrocracked to produce gasoline and diesel range liquid fuel. Two cases were evaluated: a stage-of-technology (SOT) case based on the tests results, and a goal case considering potential improvements based on the SOT case. Process simulation models were developed and cost analysis was implemented based on the performance results. The major performance results included final products and co-products yields, raw materials consumption, carbon efficiency, and energy efficiency. The overall efficiency (higher heating value basis) was 52% for the SOT case and 66% for the goal case. The production cost, with a 10% internal rate of return and 2007 constant dollars, was estimated to be $1.29 /L for the SOT case and $0.74 /L for the goal case. The cost impacts of major improvements for moving from the SOT to the goal case were evaluated and the assumption of reducing the organics loss to the water phase lead to the biggest reduction in the production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the final products yields had the largest impact on the production cost compared to other parameters. Plant size analysis demonstrated that the process was economically attractive if the woody biomass feed rate was over 1,500 dry tonne/day, the production cost was competitive with the then current petroleum-based gasoline price.

  12. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  13. Structural and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-03-15

    TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO{sub 2}. The obtained ZnO, TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO{sub 2} and ZnO phases in TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO{sub 2}/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E{sub a} = 101 meV.

  14. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO{sub 2} synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Garca, Hugo A.; Romero-Ibarra, Issis C.; Pfeiffer, Heriberto

    2014-10-15

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO{sub 2} powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO{sub 2} phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H{sub 2}O) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO{sub 2} samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%. - Graphical abstract: Hierarchical growth of cubic Na-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized by hydrothermal processes in the presence of surfactants and sodium. Sodium addition stabilized the cubic phase by a Na-doping process, while the microstructural characteristics varied with surfactants. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction. - Highlights: Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process. ZrO{sub 2} structure and microstructures changed as a function of the surfactant. Cubic-ZrO{sub 2} phase was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction.

  15. In situ synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on metallic titanium foil through gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Na; Wang, Guancong; Liu, Hong; Ohachi, Tadashi

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: The reaction mechanism for in situ synthesizing TiH{sub 2} layer on titanium foil by a gaseous hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal methodology. - Highlights: • A dense TiH{sub 2} layer is synthesized by a hydrogen free acid-hydrothermal method. • Hydrogen in a TiH{sub 2} layer synthesized can release at low temperature. • During the dehydrogenation process, there is no any intermediate phase forming. • We report a method of low-cost, low-risk and convenience toward productive TiH{sub 2}. - Abstract: A novel strategy for synthesis of TiH{sub 2} layer on surface of metallic titanium by using an acid-hydrothermal method was proposed. During the synthesis process, no any elemental hydrogen was involved. X-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy results confirmed that a TiH{sub 2} layer of 20 μm thickness on a Ti foil surface can be formed in situ by an interface reaction of metallic titanium with sulfuric acid solution, hydrochloric acid, or phosphoric acid, which is a hydrogen self-storage process. By tuning reaction parameters, for example, concentration of acid, composition and morphology of TiH{sub 2}-Ti hybrid materials can be adjusted. The TiH{sub 2} layer on a metallic titanium surface can be decompounded completely heated below 400 °C. This convenient, safe and low-cost method is a promising gaseous hydrogen free approach for the synthesis of hydride-based hydrogen storage materials.

  16. Selective hydrothermal synthesis of BiOBr microflowers and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao Peipei; Zhu Lingling; Zhu Yongchun; Qian Yitai

    2011-06-15

    Through controlling the amount of NaOH added, BiOBr and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} with different shapes were hydrothermally synthesized in the reaction system of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaOH. As 8 mmol of NaOH was added, BiOBr microflowers constructed of nanoflakes were synthesized. The thickness of these single-crystal nanoflakes was about 20 nm. In the similar condition, when the amount of NaOH added was 28 mmol, Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were obtained. The length of these shuttles was 100 {mu}m and the diameter at the middle of these shuttles was 50 {mu}m. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared BiOBr microflowers was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible-light irradiation ({lambda}>420 nm), which was up to 96% within 90 min. - Graphical abstract: Through controlling the amount of NaOH added, BiOBr microflowers and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were hydrothermally synthesized in the reaction system of Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)-NaOH. Highlights: > BiOBr microflowers constructed of nanoflakes were synthesized hydrothermally. > Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} shuttles with concave surfaces were also synthesized. > Their formation mechanisms were studied based on the experimental results. > The photocatalytic activity of BiOBr microflowers was evaluated under visible-light irradiation.

  17. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ∼ 0.60)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miclau, M.; Bokinala, K.; Miclau, N.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. • The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. • The yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 °C. • We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. • The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for Na–Co–H{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of Co–H{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 °C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298–873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase α-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  18. Characterization, properties and catalytic application of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jinyuan; Wang, Huijuan; Wei, Xiuzhen; Zhu, Liping

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, BrunauerEmmettTeller method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSCTG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the catalyst revealed an excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B could be up to 96%. Display Omitted Highlights: ? TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were prepared by ultrasonic-assisted sol-hydrothermal method. ? TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and BET were used to study morphology and crystalline structure. ? FTIR, DSC-TG was used to investigate pyrolytic process and phase structure. ? UVvis absorption spectra were used to evaluate the photocatalysis of catalysts. ? Dye degradation result showed that the catalyst had excellent photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: A novel class of titania nanotubes (TNTs) have been prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method using tetrabutyl titanate and ethanol as the precursors. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) method, Differential Scanning Calorimeters-Thermogravimetric Analysis (DSC-TG) and UVvis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic activity of the products was evaluated in terms of reactive brilliant red X-3B in an aqueous solution under UV irradiation for 1 h. The results showed that the anatase nanotubes prepared by ultrasonic assisted sol-hydrothermal method exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of reactive brilliant X-3B

  19. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by one step template-free hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Keqing; Liu, Jiajia; Wen, Panyue; Hu, Yuan Gui, Zhou

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystals had been synthesized by one step template-free hydrothermal method. • The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plays a crucial role in morphological control of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. • The morphology has significant effect on the optical property of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Abstract: We had developed a facile synthetic route of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} crystals with different morphologies via one step template-free hydrothermal method. The phase and composition of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectrum. The morphology and structure of the synthesized samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The H{sub 2}O{sub 2} played a crucial role in morphological control of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures. It only obtained Co-based precursor in the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. On the contrary, the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with different morphologies including nanoparticles, nano-discs and well-defined octahedral nanostructures were synthesized in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. In addition, the optical property of the obtained Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples was investigated by UV–vis spectra.

  20. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  1. Effects of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Cocations on the Activity and Hydrothermal Stability of Cu/SSZ-13 NH3-SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Wang, Yilin; Washton, Nancy M.; Kollar, Marton; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-10-13

    Using a three-step aqueous solution ion-exchange method, cocation modified Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts were synthesized. These catalysts, in both fresh and hydrothermally aged forms, were characterized with several methods including temperature-programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), and 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and diffuse reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopies. Their catalytic performance was probed using steady-state standard NH3-SCR. Characterization results indicate that cocations weaken interactions between Cu-ions and the CHA framework making them more readily reducible. By removing a portion of Brønsted acid sites, cocations also help to mitigate hydrolysis of the zeolite catalysts during hydrothermal aging as evidenced from 27Al NMR. Reaction tests show that certain cocations, especially Li+ and Na+, promote low-temperature SCR rates while others show much less pronounced effects. In terms of applications, our results indicate that introducing cocations can be a viable strategy to improve both low- and high-temperature performance of Cu/SSZ-13 SCR catalysts.

  2. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  3. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Window Types Window Types A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto Windows come in a number of different frame and glazing types. By combining an energy-efficient frame choice with a glazing type tailored to your climate and application, you can customize each of your home's windows. Types of Window Frames Improving the thermal resistance

  4. Hydrothermal chemistry of Th(IV) with aromatic dicarboxylates: New framework compounds and in situ ligand syntheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegelgruber, Kate L.; Knope, Karah E.; Frisch, Mark; Cahill, Christopher L.

    2008-02-15

    A novel thorium (IV) coordination polymer, Th(C{sub 5}H{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), has been prepared under the hydrothermal reaction of thorium nitrate tetrahydrate and 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid (H{sub 3}pdc). Compound 1 (orthorhombic, P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, a=6.9362(5) A, b=10.7806(8) A, c=17.9915(14) A, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0210, wR{sub 2}=0.0470) consists of thorium metal centers connected via H{sub 3}pdc linkages to form an overall three-dimensional structure containing {pi}-{pi} interactions between the pyrazole rings. 2,3-Pyrazinedicarboxylic acid (H{sub 2}pzdc) was explored as well to (1) study the effect of the location of the carboxylic groups around the aromatic ring and (2) produce heterometallic compounds. Thorium (IV) and copper (II) were combined with H{sub 2}pzdc, resulting in an interesting decomposition reaction characterized though the isolation of Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2) (monoclinic, C2/c, a=13.8507(12) A, b=7.8719(7) A, c=10.7961(16) A, {beta}=118.0310(10){sup o}, Z=2, R{sub 1}=0.0160, wR{sub 2}=0.0349), Cu(C{sub 6}H{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) (3) (monoclinic, C2/c, a=11.499(3) A, b=7.502(2) A, c=7.402(2) A, {beta}=93.892(5){sup o}, Z=4, R{sub 1}=0.0472, wR{sub 2}=0.0745) and Cu(C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 2}O{sub 2})(NO{sub 3})(H{sub 2}O) (4). The capture of these species provides mechanistic evidence for the formation of the oxalate anions observed in 2 via the decarboxylation of H{sub 2}pzdc to yield the linker in 4: 2-pyrazinecarboxylate anions. - Graphical abstract: 3,5-Pyrazoledicarboxylic and 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid were utilized in synthesizing two novel thorium (IV) coordination polymers. Attempts to synthesize a Th-Cu bimetallic compound with 2,3-pyridinedicarboxylic acid resulted in a triphasic mixture (2, 3 and 4, respectively). The oxalate anion observed in Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (2) is theorized to result from decarboxylation of 2

  5. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    is termed fluorescence). A ballast is required to regulate and control the current and voltage. Two types of ballasts are used, magnetic and electronic. Electronic ballasts have...

  6. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  7. DIORAMA Location Type User's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry, James Russell

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this report is to present the current design and implementation of the DIORAMA location type object (LocationType) and to provide examples and use cases. The LocationType object is included in the diorama-app package in the diorama::types namespace. Abstractly, the object is intended to capture the full time history of the location of an object or reference point. For example, a location may be speci ed as a near-Earth orbit in terms of a two-line element set, in which case the location type is capable of propagating the orbit both forward and backward in time to provide a location for any given time. Alternatively, the location may be speci ed as a xed set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude), in which case the geodetic location of the object is expected to remain constant for all time. From an implementation perspective, the location type is de ned as a union of multiple independent objects defi ned in the DIORAMA tle library. Types presently included in the union are listed and described in subsections below, and all conversions or transformation between these location types are handled by utilities provided by the tle library with the exception of the \\special-values" location type.

  8. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    its U-factor. There are advantages and disadvantages to all types of frame materials, but vinyl, wood, fiberglass, and some composite frame materials provide greater...

  9. A National-Scale Comparison of Resource and Nutrient Demands for Algae-Based Biofuel Production by Lipid Extraction and Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-01

    Algae’s high productivity provides potential resource advantages over other fuel crops. However, demand for land, water, and nutrients must be minimized to avoid impacts on food production. We apply our national-scale, open-pond, growth and resource models to assess several biomass to fuel technological pathways based on Chlorella. We compare resource demands between hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and lipid extraction (LE) to meet 1.89E+10 and 7.95E+10 L yr-1 biofuel targets. We estimate nutrient demands where post-fuel biomass is consumed as co-products and recycling by anaerobic digestion (AD) or catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG). Sites are selected through prioritization based on fuel value relative to a set of site-specific resource costs. The highest priority sites are located along the Gulf of Mexico coast, but potential sites exist nationwide. We find that HTL reduces land and freshwater consumption by up to 46% and saline groundwater by around 70%. Without recycling, nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) demand is reduced 33%, but is large relative to current U.S. agricultural consumption. The most nutrient-efficient pathways are LE+CHG for N and HTL+CHG for P (by 42%). Resource gains for HTL+CHG are offset by a 344% increase in N consumption relative to LE+CHG (with potential for further recycling). Nutrient recycling is essential to effective use of alternative nutrient sources. Modeling of utilization availability and costs remains, but we find that for HTL+CHG at the 7.95E+10 L yr-1 production target, municipal sources can offset 17% of N and 40% of P demand and animal manures can generally meet demands.

  10. Flower-like nanostructure MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) with high surface area: Hydrothermal synthesis and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xue; Jing, Yan; Yang, Jia; Ju, Jing; Cong, Rihong; Gao, Wenliang; Yang, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} was prepared by a mild two-step hydrothermal method. • Their flower-like nanostructure morphology was studied by SEM and TEM. • High BET surface areas for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (∼50 m{sup 2}/g) and ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (∼100 m{sup 2}/g). • Band gap energies were estimated by UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. • Photocatalytic activities were evaluated under UV-light irradiation. - Abstract: Nano-scaled MNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (M = Mn, Zn) was successfully synthesized via a two-step hydrothermal method. It is important to control the exact pH of the reaction solution in order to obtain pure products. The as-prepared samples both crystallize in the columbite structure. Interestingly, the products possess a flower-like morphology in a pseudo-six-fold symmetry, which is in fact arrayed by two-dimensional nanosheets. Their surface areas (51 m{sup 2}/g for MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} and 103 m{sup 2}/g for ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) are about 25–50 times of those prepared by solid state reaction. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra show the nano-scaled sample has a stronger absorption and a narrower band gap than its bulk form. The estimated band gap energies are 2.70 eV (MnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}) and 3.77 eV (ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}), respectively. The nano-scaled ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} exhibits a double enhancement of photocatalytic activity in the decolorization of methylene blue than bulk ZnNb{sub 2}O{sub 6}.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid nanostructures produced in the presence of the titanium dioxide and bioactive organic substances by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zima, Tatyana; Baklanova, Natalya; Bataev, Ivan

    2013-02-15

    Hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence of bioactive organic substances such as chitosan, aminoterephthalic acid and their mixture have been investigated. Sodium polytitanates as one-dimensional elongated structures with lengths of several hundred of nanometers were obtained in the presence of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid. With chitosan the elongated nanostructures are formed by successive superposition of structural fragments-nanostrips with well-ordered multilayered morphology and increased distance between successive layers to 1.2 nm. Quite different amorphous products as agglomerates with roundest and rhomboid morphology are formed when the mixture of chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid is added to the reaction system. One can propose that main reason of such behavior is a low rate of diffusion of dissolved Ti(IV) ions in the high viscous mixed chitosan-aminoterephthalic system. An effect of organic substances on the formation, morphology and transformation of various titanates is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The typical images of hybrid nanostructures produced by hydrothermal treatment of TiO{sub 2} in the presence chitosan and mixed chitosan with aminoterephthalic acid. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various shapes of TiO{sub 2} based structures can be produced in the presence of organic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An addition of chitosan results in the formation of the elongated nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These structures have multilayered morphology and increased distance between layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different agglomerates are formed when chitosan and aminoterephthalic acid are mixed.

  12. Preparation of magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-functionalized graphene sheets via a facile hydrothermal method and their adsorption properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Nianwu; Zheng Mingbo; Chang Xiaofeng; Ji Guangbin; Lu Hongling; Xue Luping; Pan Lijia; Cao Jieming

    2011-04-15

    Magnetic CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-functionalized graphene sheets (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS) nanocomposites have been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of inorganic salts and thermal exfoliated graphene sheets. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations show that cobalt ferrite nanoparticles with sizes of 10-40 nm are well dispersed on graphene sheets. OH{sup -} was recognized as a tie to integrate the inorganic salts with the graphene sheets, which made reaction started and developed on the surface of graphene sheets and formed cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The adsorption kinetics investigation revealed that the adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solution over the as-prepared CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS nanocomposites followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption capacity was examined as high as 71.54 mg g{sup -1}. The combination of the superior adsorption of FGS and the magnetic properties of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles can be used as a powerful separation tool to deal with water pollution. -- Graphical abstract: OH{sup -} was recognized as a tie to integrate the inorganic salts with the graphene sheets, which made reaction started and developed on the surface of graphene sheets and formed cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on graphene sheets. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with sizes of 10-40 nm are well dispersed on graphene sheets. {yields} CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-FGS with superior adsorption can be used for water treatment.

  13. Archived Reference Building Type: Hospital

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  14. Archived Reference Building Type: Hospital

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Archived Reference Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  16. Archived Reference Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  17. Archived Reference Building Type: Supermarket

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  18. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  19. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  20. Property:Water Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Water Type Property Type String Pages using the property "Water Type" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 1...

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A.; Espina, Aránzazu; Amghouz, Zakariae; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A.; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of urchin-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures and their electrochemical sensing performance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkaoui, Sami; Haddaoui, Marwa; Dhaouadi, Hassouna; Raouafi, Noureddine; Touati, Fathi

    2015-08-15

    Nanostructured tricobalt tetraoxide, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, was hydrothermally synthesized starting from cobalt dichloride hexahydrate (CoCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O) and urea (H{sub 2}NCONH{sub 2}) as precursor and polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400) as a structure-directing agent. Uniform urchin-like nanostructures were hydrothermally obtained at 150 °C for 16 h, and the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} morphology did not collapse after a subsequent calcination at 300 °C for 2 h. XRD measurements indicated that the average sizes of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles prior and after heating at 300 °C are 64 and 44 nm, respectively. This material has been successfully used for the nanostructuration of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) which were used for the sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The sensor is endowed with a large dynamic range (0.1 to 50 µM) and a limit of detection of 0.145 µM. The as obtained results show that the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanomaterial could be a candidate to be used as sensors for the detection of analytes. - Graphical abstract: The nanowires appear to have a common center and grow to the outside along the radial direction. - Highlights: • Nanostructured was hydrothermally prepared using PEG-400. • Uniform urchin-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures were hydrothermally obtained. • X-ray diffraction showed a cubic structure after calcinations process. • Nanostructured Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was used for the sensitive electrochemical detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2.} • The sensor is endowed with a large dynamic range 0.1 to 50 µM.

  3. Effect of calcination temperature on structural and photocatalyst properties of nanofibers prepared from low-cost natural ilmenite mineral by simple hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpraditpan, Athapon; Wirunmongkol, Thanakorn; Pavasupree, Sorapong; Pecharapa, Wisanu

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Nanofibers were prepared from low-cost ilmenite mineral via simple hydrothermal. High photocatalyst nanofibers were prepared via post heat treatment method. The nanofibers calcined at 100700 C for 2 h maintained nanofiber structure. The calcined nanofibers at 400 C showed the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Titanate nanofibers were synthesized via the hydrothermal method (120 C for 72 h) using natural ilmenite mineral (FeTiO{sub 3}) as the starting material. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) for specific surface area. The nanofibers were 2090 nm in diameter and 27 ?m in length. The as-synthesized nanofibers calcined at 300400 C showed TiO{sub 2} (B) whereas the nanofibers calcined at 500 C revealed a mixture of two phases of TiO{sub 2} (B) and anatase. The nanofibers calcined at high temperature of 6001000 C showed a mixture of tri-crystalline of anatase, rutile, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The rutile phase increased with increasing calcination temperature. The nanofibers calcined at 300700 C maintained their structure while the morphology of the nanofibers calcined at 8001000 C transformed into submicron rod-like structure. This increase of calcination temperature led to the phase transformation from thermodynamically metastable anatase to the most stable form of rutile phase. The crystallite size of prepared samples increased with increasing calcination temperature. Interestingly, with increasing calcination temperature, the absorption edge of the prepared samples shows an obvious shift to visible light region due to the change of crystallite phase and increased crystallite size. Therefore, the band gap energy of the prepared samples became narrower with increasing calcination temperature. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity of the

  4. The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's GEA Honors Awardees The Geothermal Technologies Office Congratulates this Year's GEA Honors Awardees December 11, 2013...

  5. Geothermal Energy Association Recognizes the National Geothermal Data System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) announced today the winners of their 2014 GEA Honors, which recognizes companies, projects, and individuals who have demonstrated outstanding achievement in...

  6. Microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Gyawali, Gobinda; Sekino, Tohru; Wohn Lee, Soo

    2013-01-15

    Simulated solar light responsive Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} composite photocatalyst was synthesized by microwave assisted hydrothermal process. The synthesized powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), and BET surface area analyzer to investigate the crystal structure, morphology, chemical composition, optical properties and surface area of the composite photocatalyst. This photocatalyst exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under simulated solar light irradiation. Dye degradation efficiency of composite photocatalyst was found to be increased significantly as compared to that of the commercial WO{sub 3} nanopowder. Increase in photocatalytic activity of the photocatalyst was explained on the basis of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect caused by the silver nanoparticles present in the composite photocatalyst. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Successful synthesis of Ag/AgCl/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic experiment was performed under simulated solar light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite photocatalyst was very active as compared to WO{sub 3} commercial powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SPR effect due to Ag nanoparticles enhanced the photocatalytic activity.

  7. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis and photocatalytic activity of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} for the degradation of dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Wenjuan; Li Danzhen; Sun Meng; Shao Yu; Chen Zhixin; Xiao Guangcan; Fu Xianzhi

    2010-10-15

    AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} powders were successfully synthesized by a microwave hydrothermal method for the first time. This method is a mild and highly efficient route involves no templates, catalysts, or surfactants. Therefore, it is very promising for the low-cost and large-scale industrial production. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} nanoparticles was investigated through the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} has exhibited a superior activity under the same condition. A liquid chromatogram-mass spectrometer was used to separate and identify the dye and degradation products generated during the reaction. According to the experiment results, a possible mechanism for the degradation of organic pollutant over AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} was proposed. - Graphical abstract: Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} has exhibited a superior activity under the same condition.

  8. IMPROVED TYPE OF FUEL ELEMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monson, H.O.

    1961-01-24

    A radiator-type fuel block assembly is described. It has a hexagonal body of neutron fissionable material having a plurality of longitudinal equal- spaced coolant channels therein aligned in rows parallel to each face of the hexagonal body. Each of these coolant channels is hexagonally shaped with the corners rounded and enlarged and the assembly has a maximum temperature isothermal line around each channel which is approximately straight and equidistant between adjacent channels.

  9. Property:DeviceType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DeviceType Property Type String Description Used for MHK ISDB Allows Values Instrument;Sensor Pages using the property "DeviceType" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous...

  10. Lighting Control Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Control Types Lighting Control Types Characteristics of the most common lighting controls for offices and other public buildings are outlined below. Also provided is a ...

  11. Principal Types of Volcanoes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Types of Volcanoes Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Principal Types of Volcanoes Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author John Watson...

  12. Type C: Caldera Resource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C: Caldera Resource Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Type C: Caldera Resource Dictionary.png Type C: Caldera Resource: No definition has been...

  13. DDR-type zeolite membrane synthesis, modification and gas permeation studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Shaowei; Cao, Zishu; Arvanitis, Antonios; Sun, Xinhui; Xu, Zhi; Dong, Junhang

    2016-01-22

    DDR-type zeolite membrane was synthesized on porous α-alumina substrate by hydrothermal treatment of a ball-milled Sigmal-1 crystal seed layer in an aluminum-free precursor solution containing 1-Adamantylamine as the structure directing agent (SDA). The as-synthesized DDR zeolite membranes were defect-free but the supported zeolite layers were susceptible to crack development during the subsequent high-temperature SDA removal process. The cracks were effectively eliminated by the liquid phase chemical deposition method using tetramethoxysilane as the precursor for silica deposits. The modified membrane was extensively studied for H2, He, O2, N2, CO2, CH4, and i-C4H10 pure gas permeation and CO2/CH4 mixture separation. At 297more » K and 2-bar feed gas pressure, the membrane achieved a CO2/CH4 separation factor of ~92 for a feed containing 90% CO2, which decreased to 62 for a feed containing 10% CO2 with the CO2 permeance virtually unchanged at ~1.8×10–7 mol/m• sup>2 s • Pa regardless of the feed composition. It also exhibited an O2/N2 permselectivity of 1.8 at 297 K. Furthermore, the gas permeation behaviors of the current aluminum-containing DDR type zeolite membrane are generally in good agreement with the findings in both experimental and theoretical studies on the pure-silica DDR membranes in recent literature.« less

  14. The structure and stability of aqueous rare-earth elements in hydrothermal fluids: New results on neodymium(III) aqua and chloroaqua complexes in aqueous solutions to 500 °C and 520 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayanovic, R.A.; Anderson, A.J.; Bassett, W.A.; Chou, I.-M.

    2009-02-04

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were made at the Nd L{sub 3}-edge on neodymium(III) aqua and chloroaqua complexes in low pH aqueous solutions from 25 to 500 C and up to 520 MPa. Analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure of the XAS spectra measured from a 0.07 m Nd/0.16 m HNO{sub 3} aqueous solution reveals a contraction of the Nd-O distance of the Nd{sup 3+} aqua ion at a uniform rate of {approx} 0.013 {angstrom}/100 C and a uniform reduction of the number of coordinated H{sub 2}O molecules from 10.0 {+-} 0.9 to 7.4 {+-} 0.9 over the range from 25 to 500 C and up to 370 MPa. The rate of reduction of the first-shell water molecules with temperature for Nd{sup 3+} (26%) is intermediate between the rate for the Gd{sup 3+} aqua ion (22% from 25 to 500 C) and the rates for the Eu{sup 3+} (29% from 25 to 400 C) and the Yb{sup 3+} aqua ions (42% from 25 to 500 C) indicating an intermediate stability of the Nd{sup 3+} aqua ion consistent with the tetrad effect. Nd L{sub 3}-edge XAS measurements of 0.05 m NdCl{sub 3} aqueous solution at 25 to 500 C and up to 520 MPa show that stepwise inner-sphere complexes most likely of the type Nd(H{sub 2}O){sub {delta}-n}Cl{sub n}{sup +3-n} occur in the solution at elevated temperatures, where {delta} {approx} 9 at 150 C decreasing to {approx} 6 at 500 C and the number of chloride ions (n) of the chloroaqua complexes increases uniformly with temperature from 1.2 {+-} 0.2 to 2.0 {+-} 0.2 in the solution upon increase of temperature from 150 to 500 C. Conversely, the number of H{sub 2}O ligands of Nd(H{sub 2}O){sub {delta}-n}Cl{sub n}{sup +3-n} complexes is uniformly reduced with temperature from 7.5 {+-} 0.8 to 3.7 {+-} 0.3 in the aqueous solution, in the same temperature range. These data show greater stability of neodymium(III) than gadolinium(III) and ytterbium(III) chloride complexes in low pH aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures. Our data suggest a greater stability of aqueous light REE than

  15. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  16. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  17. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  18. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Qingyun Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: • Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. • NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. • Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflakes with thicknesses of ∼25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50–500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}, and 523 mAh g{sup −1} at 1.5 A g{sup −1} after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g{sup −1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup −1} and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport.

  19. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng; Li Danzhen; Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi

    2012-06-15

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  20. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    across a range of temperatures (25-200 °C) that represent hydrothermal conditions representative of the underground nuclear test cavities (when groundwater has re-saturated the nuclear melt glass and glass dissolution occurs). Colloid loads and Pu concentrations were monitored along with the mineralogy of both the colloids and the secondary mineral phases. The intent was to establish an upper limit for Pu concentrations at the NNSS, provide context regarding the Pu concentrations observed at the NNSS to date and the Pu concentrations that may be observed in the future. The results provide a conceptual model for the risks posed by Pu migration at the NNSS.

  1. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydroconversion - Wastewater Cleanup by Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Hart, Todd R.

    2015-06-19

    DOE-EE Bioenergy Technologies Office has set forth several goals to increase the use of bioenergy and bioproducts derived from renewable resources. One of these goals is to facilitate the implementation of the biorefinery. The biorefinery will include the production of liquid fuels, power and, in some cases, products. The integrated biorefinery should stand-alone from an economic perspective with fuels and power driving the economy of scale while the economics/profitability of the facility will be dependent on existing market conditions. UOP LLC proposed to demonstrate a fast pyrolysis based integrated biorefinery. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has expertise in an important technology area of interest to UOP for use in their pyrolysis-based biorefinery. This CRADA project provides the supporting technology development and demonstration to allow incorporation of this technology into the biorefinery. PNNL developed catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) for use with aqueous streams within the pyrolysis biorefinery. These aqueous streams included the aqueous phase separated from the fast pyrolysis bio-oil and the aqueous byproduct streams formed in the hydroprocessing of the bio-oil to finished products. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a technically and economically viable technology for converting renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels. To demonstrate the technology, UOP constructed and operated a pilot-scale biorefinery that processed one dry ton per day of biomass using fast pyrolysis. Specific objectives of the project were to: The anticipated outcomes of the project were a validated process technology, a range of validated feedstocks, product property and Life Cycle data, and technical and operating data upon which to base the design of a full-scale biorefinery. The anticipated long-term outcomes from successful commercialization of the technology were: (1) the replacement of a significant

  2. Type:Epoch | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type:Epoch Jump to: navigation, search An Epoch is a measurement for a given length of time. The use of type pages has been deprecated. Please set properties to Quantity and use...

  3. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  4. Property:Geothermal/Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "GeothermalType" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 4 UR Guest...

  5. Crystal of GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swairjo, Manal A.; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie

    2012-12-11

    This invention relates to a novel, bacterial GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB enzyme, and the crystal structure thereof.

  6. Types of Homes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Homes Types of Homes Manufactured homes are one type of home that may require special considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. | Photo courtesy of Florida Solar Energy Center. Manufactured homes are one type of home that may require special considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. | Photo courtesy of Florida Solar Energy Center. Some types of homes may require different considerations when it comes to energy efficiency. You may be

  7. Type B Accident Investigation, Subcontractor Employee Personal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Investigation, Subcontractor Employee Personal Protective Equipment Ignition Incident on ... Type B Accident Investigation, Subcontractor Employee Personal Protective Equipment ...

  8. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  9. Production of coreshell type conducting FTO/TiO{sub 2} photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icli, Kerem Cagatay; Yavuz, Halil Ibrahim; Ozenbas, Macit

    2014-02-15

    Coreshell type photoanode composed of electrically conducting fluorine doped tin dioxide (FTO) matrix and TiO{sub 2} shell layer was prepared and applied in dye sensitized solar cells. Effects of fluorine doping on tin dioxide based cells and precursor material on shell layer were investigated. Fluorine doped tin dioxide nanoparticles were synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and resistivity value down to 17 ? cm was achieved. Cells constructed from FTO nanoparticles show enhanced performance compared to intrinsic SnO{sub 2}. Deposition of thin blocking TiO{sub 2} layers was conducted using ammonium hexafluorotitanate and titanium tetrachloride aqueous solutions for different dipping durations which yielded significant deviations in the layer morphology and affected cell parameters. Best results were obtained with titanium tetrachloride treated cells giving 11.51 mA/cm{sup 2} photocurrent density and they were comparable with that of pure TiO{sub 2} based cells prepared under identical conditions. - Graphical abstract: Core shell type FTO matrix was formed as TiO{sub 2} is the shell material to create a blocking layer between FTO core and the electrolyte for suppressed recombination and efficiency enhancement. Display Omitted - Highlights: Coreshell type photoanode using conducting FTO matrix and TiO{sub 2} shell was prepared. FTO nanoparticles having resistivity value down to 17 ? cm was achieved. Best cell parameters were obtained with TiCl{sub 4} treated cells. FTO nanoparticle based cells show enhanced performance compared to intrinsic SnO{sub 2}. Photocurrent in TiCl{sub 4} treated cells is found as comparable to pure TiO{sub 2} cell.

  10. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the underlying resource.1 Occurrence Models "To search efficiently for blind geothermal systems, general geographic regions must first be identified based upon...

  11. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  12. Hydrothermal System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    those promising locations to focus exploration efforts and investment. In so doing, such models can increase the expected success rate of exploratory drilling, reduce risk, and...

  13. Hydrothermal Reservoirs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km below the Earth's surface where there is heat, water and a permeable material (permeability in rock formations results from fractures, joints, pores, etc.). Often,...

  14. Hydrothermal Processing of Wet Wastes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of Wet Wastes James Oyler July 2014 Slide 1 Slide 2 Q: What is possible with Waste-to-Energy (WTE)? A: Up to 25% of US Liquid Fuel Supply. 25% Sounds High-Is That Possible? * Available technology and wet wastes can start toward this goal now * 285,000 barrels of oil per day by 2025 - 3.3 million bbl/d by 2045 (17% of US demand); also produces more than 6 million MCF/d of methane - Continue growing to 25% of US demand by adding more feedstocks (chart shown later) * Using wastes solves

  15. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), H?{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (?0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  16. A highly coercive carbon nanotube coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Huiqun; Zhu Meifang Li Yaogang; Liu Jianhong; Ni Zhuo; Qin Zongyi

    2007-11-15

    Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffractometer (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), etc. A temperature of about 200 deg. C was identified to be an appropriate hydrothermal condition to obtain Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs, being lower than the synthesis temperature of a single-phase Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. The sizes of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the composites were smaller than those of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in single phase. The composites exhibited more superparamagnetic than Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals in their relaxation behaviors. The magnetic properties measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe at room temperature, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals. - Graphical abstract: Novel magnetic composites (Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MWCNTs) of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical precipitation-hydrothermal process. The composites had a high coercive field of 386.0 Oe, higher than those of MWCNT and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystals.

  17. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass: Types/Characteristics |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biomass: Types/Characteristics BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass: Types/Characteristics BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biomass: Types/Characteristics This infographic was created by students from Albany Academies and Academy of the Holy Names in Albany, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge encourages young people to improve their foundational understanding of bioenergy,

  18. Role of amyloids in type II diabetes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    July » Role of amyloids in type II diabetes Role of amyloids in type II diabetes A collaboration between Los Alamos, Yale University, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute published research that sheds light on pathological properties of amyloids identified in type II diabetes. July 6, 2016 Schematic of human amyloid (blue) partially removing a lipid bilayer (model membrane) on a solid support. Schematic of human amyloid (blue) partially removing a lipid bilayer (model membrane) on a solid

  19. Types of Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells » Types of Fuel Cells Types of Fuel Cells Fuel cells are classified primarily by the kind of electrolyte they employ. This classification determines the kind of electro-chemical reactions that take place in the cell, the kind of catalysts required, the temperature range in which the cell operates, the fuel required, and other factors. These characteristics, in turn, affect the applications for which these cells are most suitable. There are several types of fuel cells currently under

  20. Types of Hydropower Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants Types of Hydropower Plants There are three types of hydropower facilities: impoundment, diversion, and pumped storage. Some hydropower plants use dams and some do not. The images below show both types of hydropower plants. Many dams were built for other purposes and hydropower was added later. In the United States, there are about 80,000 dams of which only 2,400 produce power. The other dams are for recreation, stock/farm ponds, flood control, water supply, and irrigation. Hydropower

  1. Types of Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    selection. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Incandescent Outdoor solar Light-emitting diode (LED) Also learn how energy-efficient lightbulbs compare to traditional...

  2. Geology, hydrothermal petrology, stable isotope geochemistry, and fluid inclusion geothermometry of LASL geothermal test well C/T-1 (Mesa 31-1), East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, K.R.; Elders, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    Borehole Mesa 31-1 (LASL C/T-1) is an 1899-m (6231-ft) deep well located in the northwestern part of the East Mesa Geothermal Field. Mesa 31-1 is the first Calibration/Test Well (C/T-1) in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. The purpose of this study is to provide a compilation of drillhole data, drill cuttings, well lithology, and formation petrology that will serve to support the use of well LASL C/T-1 as a calibration/test well for geothermal logging. In addition, reviews of fluid chemistry, stable isotope studies, isotopic and fluid inclusion geothermometry, and the temperature log data are presented. This study provides the basic data on the geology and hydrothermal alteration of the rocks in LASL C/T-1 as background for the interpretation of wireline logs.

  3. Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates with transition metal as a central atom: Crystal structure and magnetic study with 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Feng [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen, YiPing, E-mail: ypchen007@sina.com [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); You, ZhuChai; Xia, ZeMin; Ge, SuZhi; Sun, YanQiong; Huang, BiHua [Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates, [Co(phen)?]?[CoW??O??]9H?O 1 (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and [Fe(phen)?]?[FeW??O??]H?OH?O 2, have been synthesized via the hydrothermal technique and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, IR, XPS, TG analysis, UVDRS, XRD, thermal-dependent and magnetic-dependent 2D-COS IR (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Crystal structure analysis reveals that the polyanions in compound 1 are linked into 3D supramolecule through hydrogen bonding interactions between lattice water molecules and terminal oxygen atoms of polyanion units, and [Co(phen)?]? cations distributed in the polyanion framework with many hydrogen bonding interactions. The XPS spectra indicate that all the Co atoms in 1 are +2 oxidation state, the Fe atoms in 2 existing with +2 and +3 mixed oxidation states. - Graphical abstract: The magnetic-dependent synchronous 2D correlation IR spectra of 1 (a), 2 (b) over 050 mT in the range of 6001000 cm?, the obvious response indicate two Keggin polyanions skeleton susceptible to applied magnetic field. Highlights: Two Keggin-type heteropolytungstates with transition metal as a central atom has been obtained. Compound 1 forms into 3D supramolecular architecture through hydrogen bonding between water molecules and polyanions. Magnetic-dependent 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was introduced to discuss the magnetism of polyoxometalate.

  4. Geology and recognition criteria for veinlike uranium deposits of the lower to middle Proterozoic unconformity and strata-related types. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlkamp, F.J.; Adams, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of the Rabbit Lake deposit, Saskatchewan, in 1968 and the East Alligator Rivers district, Northern Territory, Australia, in 1970 established the Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike-type deposits as one of the major types of uranium deposits. The term veinlike is used in order to distinguish it from the classical magmatic-hydrothermal vein or veintype deposits. The veinlike deposits account for between a quarter and a third of the Western World's proven uranium reserves. Lower-Middle Proterozoic veinlike deposits, as discussed in this report include several subtypes of deposits, which have some significantly different geologic characteristics. These various subtypes appear to have formed from various combinations of geologic processes ranging from synsedimentary uranium precipitation through some combination of diagenesis, metamorphism, metasomatism, weathering, and deep burial diagenesis. Some of the deposit subtypes are based on only one or two incompletely described examples; hence, even the classification presented in this report may be expected to change. Geologic characteristics of the deposits differ significantly between most districts and in some cases even between deposits within districts. Emphasis in this report is placed on deposit descriptions and the interpretations of the observers.

  5. Investigation of the hydrothermal crystallisation of the perovskite solid solution NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} and its defect chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Woodward, David I.; Peel, Martin D.; Ashbrook, Sharon E.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-15

    Perovskites of nominal composition NaCe{sub 1?x}La{sub x}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 6} (0?x?1) crystallise directly under hydrothermal conditions at 240 C. Raman spectroscopy shows distortion from the ideal cubic structure and Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray and neutron diffraction reveals that the materials represent a continuous series in rhombohedral space group R3-bar c. Ce L{sub III}-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy shows that while the majority of cerium is present as Ce{sup 3+} there is evidence for Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetic Ce{sup 3+} affects the chemical shift and line width of {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectra, which also show with no evidence for A-site ordering. {sup 2}H MAS NMR of samples prepared in D{sub 2}O shows the inclusion of deuterium, which IR spectroscopy shows is most likely to be as D{sub 2}O. The deuterium content is highest for the cerium-rich materials, consistent with oxidation of some cerium to Ce{sup 4+} to provide charge balance of A-site water. - Graphical abstract: A multi-element A-site perovskite crystallises directly from aqueous, basic solutions at 240 C; while the paramagnetic effect of Ce{sup 3+} on the {sup 23}Na NMR shows a homogeneous solid-solution, the incorporation of A-site water is also found from {sup 2}H NMR and IR, with oxidation of some cerium to charge balance proved by XANES spectroscopy. Display Omitted - Highlights: Direct hydrothermal synthesis allows crystallisation of a perovskite solid-solution. XANES spectroscopy shows some oxidation of Ce{sup 3+} to Ce{sup 4+}. The paramagnetism of Ce{sup 3+} shifts and broadens the {sup 23}Na solid-state NMR. The perovskite materials incorporate water as an A-site defect.

  6. Novel Y doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst: Hydrothermal fabrication, characterization and enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B degradation and photocurrent generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Ranran; Huang, Hongwei; Tian, Na; Zhang, Yihe; Guo, Yuxi; Zhang, Tierui

    2015-03-15

    Visible-light-driven (VLD) Yttrium (Y) ion doped Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route. Incorporation of Y{sup 3} {sup +} into Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} lattice was successfully confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ICP analysis. The microstructure and optical property of the as-prepared samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS). The photocatalytic experiments indicated that the Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} showed a much higher photocatalytic activity than the pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and photocurrent (PC) generation. This enhancement should be ascribed to the slightly increased band gap and the generated defects by Y{sup 3} {sup +} doping, thus resulting in a much lower recombination rate of the photoinduced electrons and holes. Such a process was verified by the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. In addition, the active species trapping experiments indicated that holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) play important roles in the photocatalytic reaction. - Highlights: • Novel Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} photocatalyst has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal route. • Y-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} exhibits a much higher photocatalytic activity than pristine Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. • Holes (h{sup +}) and superoxide radicals (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) are the two main active species. • Y{sup 3} {sup +} ion can result in a low recombination of photogenerated electron and hole.

  7. Archived Reference Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  9. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  10. Archived Reference Building Type: Small Hotel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  11. Archived Reference Building Type: Large Hotel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Building Type: Small Hotel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  13. Archived Reference Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  14. Archived Reference Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  15. Archived Reference Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  16. Archived Reference Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  17. Archived Reference Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesis available for reference.Current versionsare also available.

  18. Archived Reference Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  19. Archived Reference Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  20. Archived Reference Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  1. Archived Reference Building Type: Large Hotel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Archived Reference Building Type: Quick service restaurant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  3. Archived Reference Building Type: Quick service restaurant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  4. Archived Reference Building Type: Full service restaurant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  5. Archived Reference Building Type: Full service restaurant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Archived Reference Building Type: Midrise Apartment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zonesis available for reference.Current versionsare also available.

  7. Archived Reference Building Type: Midrise Apartment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Three new extended Preyssler-type polyoxometalates modified by transition metal-2,2 Prime -biimidazole complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chun-Yue [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Zhang, Lan-Cui, E-mail: zhanglancui@lnnu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Wang, Zan-Jiao; Wang, Lin; Li, Xiao-Hui [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Zhu, Zai-Ming, E-mail: chemzhu@sina.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)] [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Three extended Preyssler-type ({l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace}) polyoxometalates modified by transition metal (TM)-2,2 Prime -biimidazole (abbreviated as H{sub 2}biim) complexes, namely [Mn(H{sub 2}biim){sub 3}]{sub 5}H{sub 2}[{l_brace}Mn(H{sub 2}biim){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){r_brace} (NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110})]{center_dot}39H{sub 2}O (1), [{l_brace}(H{sub 2}biim){sub 2}Zn({mu}-OH)Zn(H{sub 2}biim)({mu}-H{sub 2}biim)Zn(H{sub 2}biim)(H{sub 2}O){r_brace}{sub 2}H{sub 4}(NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110})]{center_dot}22 H{sub 2}O (2), and {l_brace}(H{sub 4}biim){sub 18}NaH{sub 5}[({mu}-Fe(H{sub 3}biim)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3})({mu}-Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 4})(NaP{sub 5}W{sub 30}O{sub 110}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}78H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (3) have been hydrothermally synthesized, and characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. Their catalytic activities have been investigated. 1 contains mono-supporting {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} anions. In compound 2, a {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} anion is bi-supported by two symmetrical chains constructed by trinuclear zinc complexes. Compound 3 is composed of infinite 1-D zigzag chains built up of {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} polyoxoanions linked via [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{sup 3+} and [Fe(H{sub 3}biim)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sup 4+} fragments. H{sub 2}biim ligands adopt three coordination modes in the structure. All these compounds have 3-D supramolecular frameworks via extensive hydrogen-bonding interactions. - Graphical abstract: Three new extended Preyssler-type polyoxometalates modified by TM-2,2 Prime -biimidazole complexes are obtained, they display high thermal stabilities. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three new extended Preyssler-type polyoxometalates were hydrothermally synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An interesting trinuclear zinc-2,2 Prime -biimidazole-polyanion complex was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The huge {l_brace}P{sub 5}W{sub 30}{r_brace} clusters were

  9. Membrane-Associated Methane Monooygenase from Type X and Type I Methanotrophs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antholine, William E.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2009-11-30

    Membrane-Associated Methane Monooxygenases from Type X and Type I Methanotrophs A.A. DiSirito and W.E. Antholine Project Number: DE-FG02-00ER15446 Final project report.

  10. Types of Hydropower Turbines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbines Types of Hydropower Turbines There are two main types of hydro turbines: impulse and reaction. The type of hydropower turbine selected for a project is based on the height of standing water-referred to as "head"-and the flow, or volume of water, at the site. Other deciding factors include how deep the turbine must be set, efficiency, and cost. Terms used on this page are defined in the glossary. Impulse Turbine The impulse turbine generally uses the velocity of the water to

  11. Property:CompanyType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    profit Pages using the property "CompanyType" Showing 4 pages using this property. E Eco Wave Power Ltd. + For Profit + N Nvision.Energy + For Profit + R Rentechno + For Profit...

  12. Renewable Energy Opportunities by Renovation Type

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renewable energy opportunities should be considered and identified in the earliest stages of Federal project planning and the team should assess the renewable energy options based on the type of...

  13. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O.

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  14. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Anderson, J. P.

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  15. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Insulation » Types of Insulation Types of Insulation In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other loose-fill materials can be installed in building cavities through holes drilled (usually) on the exterior of the house. After the installation, the holes are plugged and finish materials replaced. | Photo courtesy of Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association. In existing homes, cellulose (here) or other loose-fill materials can be installed in building cavities through holes

  16. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanotubes for enhanced photoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Linhui; Wang, Guangfa; Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Weijie; Ou, Guofu

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanotubes. • Hydrothermal synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanostructures assissted with a further heat treatment. • Tunable coating ratios of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphor. • Enhanced photoluminescence intensity of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} more than 60% by Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface coating. - Abstract: Novel Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanotubes with different coating ratios were synthesized successfully by a facile two-step process, including hydrothermal synthesis of Y(OH){sub 3} coated Y(OH){sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} as precursors and then calcination of them at 1000 °C for 2 h. X-ray diffraction patterns and field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated these Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors possess tubular nanostructures. The photoluminescence properties of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} were systematically investigated by photoluminescence spectra, and photoluminescence enhancement was observed after proper coating. In other words, the coating ratio played a crucial role in photoluminescence efficiency. When it was 1/9, the photoluminescence intensity of {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} emission (about 613 nm) was 60% higher than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu{sup 3+} phosphors under 255 nm excitation. Therefore, surface coating may be an alternative route for enhanced photoluminescence properties of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} red-emitting phosphor.

  18. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1985-12-23

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  19. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  20. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Midrise Apartment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  1. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  2. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Hospital

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  3. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large Hotel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  4. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small Hotel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  5. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  6. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  7. Ideal bandpasses for type Ia supernova cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Tamara M.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2005-10-24

    To use type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmologywe need accurate broadband magnitudes. In practice the observed magnitudemay differ from the ideal magnitude-redshift relationship either throughintrinsic inhomogeneities in the type Ia supernova population or throughobservational error. Here we investigate how we can choose filterbandpasses to reduce the error caused by both these effects. We find thatbandpasses with large integral fluxes and sloping wings are best able tominimise several sources of observational error, and are also leastsensitive to intrinsic differences in type Ia supernovae. The mostimportant feature of a complete filter set for type Ia supernovacosmology is that each bandpass be a redshifted copy of the first. Wedesign practical sets of redshifted bandpasses that are matched totypical high resistivity CCD and HgCdTe infra-red detector sensitivities.These are designed to minimise systematic error in well observedsupernovae, final designs for specific missions should also considersignal-to-noise requirements and observing strategy. In addition wecalculate how accurately filters need to be calibrated in order toachieve the required photometric accuracy of future supernova cosmologyexperiments such as the SuperNova-Acceleration-Probe (SNAP), which is onepossible realisation of the Joint Dark-Energy mission (JDEM). We considerthe effect of possible periodic miscalibrations that may arise from theconstruction of an interference filter.

  8. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  9. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  10. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  11. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structure of a new inorganic/organic hybrid of scandium sulfate: (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu Jianjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: j.lu@anl.gov; Schlueter, John A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geiser, Urs [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The first organically templated layered structure of scandium sulfate, (H{sub 2}en)Sc{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}.(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.72}, (en=ethylenediamine) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the title compound, scandium ions are bridged by sulfate groups with a ratio of 1:2 into a 4{sub 3}{sup 6} layer structure. These layers are parallel packed and separated from each other by ethylenediammonium dications and water molecules. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c, with cell parameters a=8.5966(13)A, b=5.1068(8)A, c=18.847(3)A, {beta}=91.210(3){sup o}, V=827.2(2)A{sup 3} and Z=2. Refinement gave R{sub 1}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0354 and wR{sub 2}[I>2{sigma}(I)]=0.0878. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that this material is thermally stable to above 400 deg. C.

  13. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  14. Acquisition Description/ Category Solicitation Method Contract Type

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7/5/2016 Acquisition Description/ Category Solicitation Method Contract Type Period of Performance Contract Value All EM Sites DOE-Wide commercial low-level waste treatment Energy Solutions, Inc. Perma-Fix Environmental Services, Inc. Philo-Technics, Ltd. Studsvik, Inc. Full and Open Competition Firm Fixed Price IDIQ 6/30/08-6/29/13 $450M Multiple award indefinite delivery/indefinite quality (IDIQ) Set-aside contracts for nationwide environmental services/ environmental cleanup Clauss

  15. Filter:Incentives By Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    By Type Jump to: navigation, search This filter covers the property IncentiveType. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFilter:IncentivesByType&oldid258666...

  16. Property:NEPA Application Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Jump to: navigation, search Property Name NEPA Application Type Property Type String Allows Values NOI;GPD;POO;POU;POD;ROW;Sundry Notice Pages using the property "NEPA...

  17. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 8,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Type B Accident Investigation on the February 17, 2004, Personal Injury Accident, Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven ...

  18. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Subcontractor Radioactive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Upon arrival, an incoming radiological survey was performed. PDF icon Type B Accident ... Preliminary Notice of Violation, Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC - EA-2005-04 Type B Accident ...

  19. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Savannah River...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Facility on October 6, 2009 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the ... This report documents the results of the Type B Accident Investigation Board (Board) ...

  20. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15, 2001, Grout Injection ... Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15, 2001, Grout Injection ...

  1. Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type cytochromes on aerobic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type cytochromes on aerobic and anaerobic respiration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impacts of Shewanella oneidensis c-type ...

  2. ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Oklahoma Univ. of Oklahoma 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative transfer, Dark Energy, Type Ia supernovae, radiative transfer, The...

  3. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae We present the first large-scale...

  4. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors ...

  5. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Type, PAD District, and Selected States 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  6. Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Type, PAD District, and Selected States 224 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 39. No. 2 Distillate a Prices by Sales Type, PAD District, and...

  7. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Access the recording and download ...

  8. CV-1: Magmatic Geothermal Play Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CV-1: Magmatic Geothermal Play Type (Redirected from Magmatic Geothermal Play Type) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF CV-1: Magmatic Geothermal...

  9. Thermal Analysis of Ball Type Fuel Element for PBR. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Thermal Analysis of Ball Type Fuel Element for PBR. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Analysis of Ball Type Fuel Element for PBR. Authors: ...

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade M mosaic gag polypeptides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade M mosaic gag polypeptides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade M mosaic gag ...

  11. 15.07.10 RH P-type Transparent - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Efficient and Stable Solar Water Oxidation Chen, L. et al. p -Type Transparent Conducting Oxide n-Type Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Efficient and Stable ...

  12. A novel second-order non-linear optical coordination polymer with three-fold interpenetrated CdSO{sub 4}-type network constructed by carboxylate–sulfonate ligands and strontium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, Lei; Wang, Ying

    2015-10-15

    A novel strontium carboxylate–sulfonate coordination polymer, [Sr(HSIP)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n·}nH{sub 2}O (1) (NaH{sub 2}SIP=5-sulfoisophthalic monosodium salt) has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. It was characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. Each strontium atom is eight-coordinate with a distorted bicapped trigonal prismatic arrangement. The whole HSIP{sup 2−} ligand acts as a η{sup 5}μ{sup 4} bridge to generate three-fold interpenetrated CdSO{sub 4}-type network structure, which is constructed from the left- and right-handed helixes paralleled to each other bridged by the HSIP{sup 2−} ligands. The luminescence spectrum indicates an emission maximum at 459 nm. Compound 1 shows a second harmonic generation (SHG) response that is 4 times that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. - Graphical abstract: The whole HSIP{sup 2−} ligands act as η{sup 5}μ{sup 4} bridges with strontium ions, and the strontium ion is eight-coordinated, showing a distorted bicapped trigonal prism geometry. - Highlights: • A novel coordination polymer with a CdSO{sub 4}-type network structure was synthesized. • It shows a second harmonic generation response that is 4 times that of KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. • It is constructed from the helixes paralleled to each other.

  13. Simultaneous acquisition of differing image types

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros G

    2012-10-09

    A system in one embodiment includes an image forming device for forming an image from an area of interest containing different image components; an illumination device for illuminating the area of interest with light containing multiple components; at least one light source coupled to the illumination device, the at least one light source providing light to the illumination device containing different components, each component having distinct spectral characteristics and relative intensity; an image analyzer coupled to the image forming device, the image analyzer decomposing the image formed by the image forming device into multiple component parts based on type of imaging; and multiple image capture devices, each image capture device receiving one of the component parts of the image. A method in one embodiment includes receiving an image from an image forming device; decomposing the image formed by the image forming device into multiple component parts based on type of imaging; receiving the component parts of the image; and outputting image information based on the component parts of the image. Additional systems and methods are presented.

  14. Eolian reservoir characteristics predicted from dune type

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocurek, G.; Nielson, J.

    1985-02-01

    The nature of eolian-dune reservoirs is strongly influenced by stratification types (in decreasing order of quality: grain-flow, grain-fall, wind-ripple deposits) and their packaging by internal bounding surfaces. These are, in turn, a function of dune surface processes and migration behavior, allowing for predictive models of reservoir behavior. Migrating, simple crescentic dunes produce tabular bodies consisting mainly of grain-flow cross-strata, and form the best, most predictable reservoirs. Reservoir character improves as both original dune height and preserved set thickness increase, because fewer grain-fall deposits and a lower percentage of dune-apron deposits occur in the cross-strata, respectively. It is probable that many linear and star dunes migrate laterally, leaving a blanket of packages of wind ripple laminae reflecting deposition of broad, shifting aprons. This is distinct from models generated by freezing large portions of these dunes in place. Trailing margins of linear and star dunes are prone to reworking by sand-sheet processes that decrease potential reservoir quality. The occurrence of parabolic dunes isolated on vegetated sand sheets results in a core of grain-flow and grain-fall deposits surrounded by less permeable and porous deposits. Compound crescentic dunes, perhaps the most preservable dune type, may yield laterally (1) single sets of cross-strate, (2) compound sets derived from superimposed simple dunes, or (3) a complex of diverse sets derived from superimposed transverse and linear elements.

  15. DOE/RL-2013-53

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    As Available 90 Sr Liver 1 BE (2014) As Available GEA, Pu, ICP-MS, Hg-CVAA Cottontail Rabbits 300 Area (d) Muscle 3 BE (2015) Jan. - Dec. GEA Bone 3 BE (2015) Jan. - Dec. 90 Sr...

  16. Geothermal Energy Association Honors NREL's Dr. Bharathan for Work in Condenser Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) recently announced the finalists for the GEA Honors, which recognizes companies and individuals that have made significant contributions during the past year to advancing technology, spurring economic development or protecting the environment.

  17. Gunun-Salak Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Java, Indonesia Exploration Region: Sunda Volcanic Arc GEA Development Phase:...

  18. GENERAL ASSIGNMENT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders GEA Honors Geothermal Leaders December 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. (December 9, 2013) The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) has announced the winners for the GEA Honors, which recognize companies and individuals that have made significant contributions during the past year to advancing technology, spurring economic development and protecting the environment. The winners were selected in categories including Technological Advancement, Economic

  19. Los Humeros Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (0) 10 References Area Overview Geothermal Area Profile Location: Chignautla, Puebla, Mexico Exploration Region: Transmexican Volcanic Belt GEA Development Phase:...

  20. Ligand-controlled assembly of Cd(II) coordination polymers based on mixed ligands of naphthalene-dicarboxylate and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline: From 0D+1D cocrystal, 2D rectangular network (4,4), to 3D PtS-type architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Guocheng; Chen Yongqiang; Wang Xiuli Chen Baokuan; Lin Hongyan

    2009-03-15

    Three novel Cd(II) coordination polymers, namely, [Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Cd(Dpq)(1,8-NDC)].2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(Dpq)(1,4-NDC)(H{sub 2}O)] (2), and [Cd(Dpq)(2,6-NDC)] (3) have been obtained from hydrothermal reactions of cadmium(II) nitrate with the mixed ligands dipyrido [3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq) and three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands [1,8-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,8-H{sub 2}NDC), 1,4-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (1,4-H{sub 2}NDC), and 2,6-naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H{sub 2}NDC)]. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the three polymers exhibit novel structures due to different naphthalene-dicarboxylic acid. Compound 1 is a novel cocrystal of left- and right-handed helical chains and binuclear complexes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 2 shows a 2D rectangular network (4,4) bridged by 1,4-NDC with two kinds of coordination modes and ultimately packed into a 3D supramolecular structure through inter-layer {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions. Compound 3 is a new 3D coordination polymer with distorted PtS-type network. In addition, the title compounds exhibit blue/green emission in solid state at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three novel Cd(II) compounds have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions exhibiting a systematic variation of architecture by the employment of three structurally related naphthalene-dicarboxylate ligands.

  1. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  2. Property:Buildings/PublicationType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Pages using the property "BuildingsPublicationType" Showing 2 pages using this property. G General Merchandise 50%...

  3. Chapter 16 - Types of Contracts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 - Types of Contracts Chapter 16 - Types of Contracts PDF icon 16.1GeneralGuidetoContractTypesforRequirementsOfficials0.pdf PDF icon DOE Acq Guide Chapter 16- 2 Rewrite...

  4. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  5. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  6. Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    or Demand-Type Water Heaters Tankless or Demand-Type Water Heaters Diagram of a tankless water heater. Diagram of a tankless water heater. Tankless water heaters, also known as ...

  7. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  8. STEM Volunteer Training: Types of Volunteering and Where to Find...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Types of Volunteering and Where to Find Opportunities STEM Volunteer Training: Types of Volunteering and Where to Find Opportunities April 14, 2016 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT

  9. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  10. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  11. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.

    2008-02-13

    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  12. 6620T2 PPE-Type, Desc,&Use;

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    620 Appendix T2 Types, Description, and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 1.0 Purpose Making the proper decision when identifying the need for and selecting the appropriate type of personal protective equipment (PPE) minimizes the risk of exposure to a hazard issue(s). Each type has characteristics that provide specific protection. This appendix describes the most common basic, non-specialized PPE used at Jefferson Lab. 2.0 Scope This appendix describes types of basic, non-specialized

  13. Types of Nuclear Industry Jobs Commercial and Government Sectors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Homes Types of Homes Manufactured homes are one type of home that may require special considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. | Photo courtesy of Florida Solar Energy Center. Manufactured homes are one type of home that may require special considerations for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. | Photo courtesy of Florida Solar Energy Center. Some types of homes may require different considerations when it comes to energy efficiency. You may be

  14. Contract Types Used For Federal Utility Energy Service Contracts |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Project Financing » Utility Energy Service Contracts » Contract Types Used For Federal Utility Energy Service Contracts Contract Types Used For Federal Utility Energy Service Contracts Contract Types Used For Federal Utility Energy Service Contracts Several types of contracts are used for federal utility energy service contracts (UESCs). Many agency sites procure electricity services under a contract with the local utility, and most of these contracts have provisions

  15. 15.07.10 RH P-type Transparent - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p -Type Transparent Conducting Oxide/n-Type Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Efficient and Stable Solar Water Oxidation Chen, L. et al. p -Type Transparent Conducting Oxide / n-Type Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Efficient and Stable Solar Water Oxidation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015, DOI: 10.1021/ jacs . 5b03536 (2015). Scientific Achievement Efficient charge conduction from the light absorber to the water oxidation catalyst was realized with a transparent,

  16. Energy.gov Content Management System Page Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) websites, learn about the standard page types available in the Energy.gov Drupal content management system (CMS). For information about other available page types, or to request a new kind of page type, contact the Site Coordinators.

  17. Hydrothermal alteration mineral mapping using hyperspectral imagery...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    abundanthigh temperature alteration. Structural analysis of the alteredregion using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) suggests that thisoutcrop is bounded on all sides by a set of...

  18. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway Biddy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAL-DERIVED BIOFUEL; HYDROCARBON FUEL; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy MICROALGAE;...

  19. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. ... to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, ... Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries. Final ...

  20. Hydrothermal alkali metal catalyst recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakman, James M.; Clavenna, LeRoy R.

    1979-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles primarily in the form of water soluble alkali metal formates by treating the particles with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of added carbon monoxide. During the treating process the water insoluble alkali metal compounds comprising the insoluble alkali metal residues are converted into water soluble alkali metal formates. The resultant aqueous solution containing water soluble alkali metal formates is then separated from the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment process, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal formates serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. This process permits increased recovery of alkali metal constituents, thereby decreasing the overall cost of the gasification process by reducing the amount of makeup alkali metal compounds necessary.

  1. Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification of Wet Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-04-01

    Industries and municipalities generate substantial amounts of biomass as high-moisture waste streams, such as animal manure, food processing sludge, stillage from ethanol production, and municipal wastewater sludge.

  2. Hydrothermal Convection Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems with Reservoir Temperatures greater than or equal to 90 degrees C Authors Brook, Mariner, Mabey, Swanson, Guffanti and Muffler Published Journal Assessment of...

  3. Fractional Multistage Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Biomass and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Optimize byproduct streams for use as chemicalpetrochemical to increase co-product value. Financing Financing will be determined by projected cost of production, profitability, ...

  4. Hydrothermal Photo Library | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To extend the available heat extraction per well, the Office partnered with FORO Energy to design a high-power laser system with the potential to decrease hard-rock drilling costs. ...

  5. Hydrothermal Exploration Best Practices and Geothermal Knowledge...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (weather, vegetation patterns, groundwater flow), and other relevant factors. Literature searches were conducted in each of these 21 regions for the application of field...

  6. Comparison Of Hydrothermal Alteration Of Carboniferous Carbonate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could invade carbonate rocks which were otherwise essentially impermeable. Alteration intensity (and correspondingly inferred paleopermeability) is only slightly higher in...

  7. Production of Advanced Biofuels via Liquefaction - Hydrothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  8. Hydrothermal Success Stories | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean-Energy Reserves New geothermal data could open up clean energy reserves nationwide. Scientific American reported that the National Geothermal Data System is helping to...

  9. Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Biomass Program Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC ...

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bulletin; Journal Volume: 46; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: ... Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ANISOTROPY; ...

  11. Adventive Hydrothermal Circulation On Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on May 2008 a multidisciplinary study involving Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Self-Potential (SP), CO2 soil diffuse degassing and soil...

  12. Stratigraphy, Structure, Hydrothermal Alteration and Ore Mineralizatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Scientific Drilling Program) Corehole VC-2A, Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera, New Mexico- a Detailed Overview. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah University Research Institution....

  13. Mapping Hydrothermal Upwelling and Outflow Zones: Preliminary...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature anomaly has been mapped. A group of subtle temperature anomalies along Simpson Pass, south of the current production area, are interpreted as an upwelling zone with...

  14. Calibrated Hydrothermal Parameters, Barrow, Alaska, 2013 (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to generate three 1D models of characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present active thaw layer (ALT) from current climate conditions. ...

  15. TYPE OF OPERATION R Research & Development T& Facility Type

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    --____ R Research & Development T& Facility Type 0 Production scale testing a Pilat scale Y-. Bench Scale Process i Theoretical Studies Sample & Analysis 0 Productian 0 Disposal/Storage a Research Organization a Government 0 Other Sponsored i F[fa' tty ------__------__ I Prime 5 Subcontractor 0 Purchase Order a Other information (i.e., cost + fixed fee, unit p CgNTRACTING PERIOD: L.&G , PX& & cx LFkoL ~~~~~~~~~----------_ __ _______ OWNERSH; P: AEC/MED AEC/MED GOVT GOVT

  16. Osteogensis imperfecta type I is commonly due to a COLIAI null allel of type I collagen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willing, M.C.; Pruchno, C.J. ); Atkinson, M.; Byers, P.H. )

    1992-09-01

    Dermal fibroblasts from most individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I produce about half the normal amount of type I procollagen, as a result of decreased synthesis of one of its constituent chains, pro[alpha](I). To test the hypothesis that decreased synthesis of pro[alpha](I) chains results from mutations in the COL1A1 gene, the authors used primer extension with nucleotide-specific chain termination to measure the contribution of individual COL1A1 alleles to the mRNA pool in fibroblasts from affected individuals. A polymorphic Mn/I restriction endonuclease site in the 3'-untranslated region of COL1A1 was used to distinguish the transcripts of the two alleles in heterozygous individuals. Twenty-three individuals from 21 unrelated families were studied. In each case there was marked diminution in steady-state mRNA levels from one COL1A2 allele. Loss of an allele through deletion or rearrangement was not the cause of the diminished COL1A1 mRNA levels. Primer extension with nucleotide-specific chain termination allows identification of the mutant COL1A1 allele in cell strains that are heterozygous for an expressed polymorphism. It is applicable to sporadic cases, to small families, and to large families in whom key individuals are uninformative at the polymorphic sites used in linkage analysis, making it a useful adjunct to the biochemical screening of collagenous proteins for OI. 40 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Types of contracts and agreements guide. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this volume is to be helpful in providing a comprehensive introduction to a wide variety of contract types and agreements, including a consideration of small purchase procedures and multiyear procurement. In both format and content, it is designed to help those persons who influence the determination of the types of contracts and agreements to be employed in acquiring goods and services for the Department of Energy. Information is presented on selecting and negotiating types of contract compensation arrangements; fixed-price type contract compensation arrangements, including small purchases and multiyear procurement; cost-reimbursement type contract compensation arrangements; other types of contract compensation agreements; and basic agreements and basic ordering agreements. (LCL)

  18. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  19. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Update to the 700 bar Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Projection" held on February 25, 2016. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar Slides (2.59 MB) More Documents &

  20. Technical Publications by Type and Energy System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technical Publications by Type and Energy System Technical Publications by Type and Energy System Find sourcebooks, tip sheets, technical fact sheets, market assessments, case studies, and topical presentations to help your plant improve energy efficiency. Technical publications are available for the energy systems listed on the right. The publication types are described below. Also review our databases. Technical Publications Technical Publications include Sourcebooks, Handbooks, Market

  1. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office February 25, 2016 Presenter: Brian James - Strategic Analysis, Inc. DOE Host: Grace Ordaz- Technology Manager, Hydrogen Storage Program 2 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Question and Answer * Please type your questions into the question box 2 Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell

  2. Accident Investigation Reports - Type B | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board appointed by John Kennedy, Acting Manager, Chicago Operations Office, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). October...

  3. Regulation Identifier Number Title/Subject/Purpose Rule Type

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Regulation Identifier Number TitleSubjectPurpose Rule Type Status 1990-AA40 ... Amend DOE's statutory prescribed regulation, which set forth the procedural rules ...

  4. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and ... as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a ...

  5. Type B Accident Investigation of the January 10, 2006, Flash...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Independent Oversight Follow-up Review, Savannah River National Laboratory - January 2012 Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April ...

  6. Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 14, 2006 Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 14, 2006 February 10, 2006 An ...

  7. Energy.gov Content Management System Block Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) websites, learn about the variety of block types available in the Energy.gov Drupal content management system (CMS).

  8. Type A Investigation - Subcontractor Fatality at the Savannah...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fatality at the Savannah River Site Pond B Dam Upgrade Project, July 26, 2004 Type A Investigation - Subcontractor Fatality at the Savannah River Site Pond B Dam Upgrade ...

  9. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Full Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of their floorspace lit by HID lamps. Public assembly buildings, which include sports arenas and theaters, have 14 percent of their floorspace illuminated by HID lamps. Types of...

  10. Type B Accident Investigation of the July 14, 2005, Americium...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    14, 2005, Americium Contamination Accident at the Sigma Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of the July 14, 2005, Americium Contamination ...

  11. Type B Accident Investigation on the February 17, 2004, Personal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the February 17, 2004, Personal Injury Accident, Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation on the February 17, 2004, Personal Injury Accident, Bettis Atomic ...

  12. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Table L3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Any Lighting Lighted Area Only Area Lit by Each Type of Light Incan- descent Standard Fluor-escent Compact Fluor- escent High Intensity Discharge Halogen All...

  13. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Table L1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Any Lighting Lighted Area Only Area Lit by Each Type of Light Incan- descent Standard Fluor-escent Compact Fluor- escent High Intensity Discharge Halogen All...

  14. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Table L2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Any Lighting Lighted Area Only Area Lit by Each Type of Light Incan- descent Standard Fluor-escent Compact Fluor- escent High Intensity Discharge Halogen All Buildings*...

  15. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  16. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae (Conference) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclearexplosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across greatstances and has led to the discovery that the ...

  17. Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA Type B Accident Investigation Report ...

  18. CEPHEID CALIBRATIONS OF MODERN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: IMPLICATIONS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CEPHEID CALIBRATIONS OF MODERN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE HUBBLE CONSTANT ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 79 ASTROPHYSICS, ...

  19. Property:CBECSBuildingTypeName | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type String. The allowed values for this property are: Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care (Inpatient) Health Care (Outpatient) Lodging Mercantile...

  20. Property:Buildings/ModelBuildingType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Religious Worship Service Warehouse and Storage Other Vacant Pages using the property "BuildingsModelBuildingType" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise...

  1. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Full Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the...

  2. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  3. On Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Skutterudites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews recent experimental effort on modifying the valance band of p-type skutterudites and highlighting the relationship between measured TE properties and the band structures

  4. Phase diagram of the isovalent phosphorous-substituted 122-type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials ... Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email ...

  5. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report for the January 11...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    barrier analysis, change analysis, and event and causal factor analysis. PDF icon Type B Accident Investigation Board Report for the January 11, 2006, Personal Injury During ...

  6. Accident Investigation Reports - Type B | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    September 1, 2010 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Employee Puncture Wound at ... investigation of the June 14, 2010, employee puncture wound at the Department of ...

  7. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report BNFL, Inc. Employee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Employee Foot Injury on December 17, 2003, at the East Tennessee Technology Park Building K-31 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report BNFL, Inc. Employee Foot Injury on ...

  8. Type B Accident Investigation At Washington Closure Hanford,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LLC, Employee Fall Injury on July 1, 2009, At The 336 Building, Hanford Site, Washington Type B Accident Investigation At Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Employee Fall Injury ...

  9. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Employee Puncture...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    investigation of the June 14, 2010, employee puncture wound at the Department of ... TYPE B ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION BOARD REPORT EMPLOYEE PUNCTURE WOUND AT THE F-TRU WASTE ...

  10. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Brookhaven...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Employee Injury at Building 1005H on October 9, 2009 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Employee Injury at Building ...

  11. Property:EnvironmentalAnalysisType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NEPA requirements (eg Categorical Exclusion, Environmental Assessment) Allows Values CU;DNA;CX;EA;EIS This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property...

  12. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report, May 8, 2004, Exothermic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report, May 8, 2004, Exothermic Metal Reactor Event During Sodium Transfer Activities, ... Type B Accident Investigation Board Report, May 8, 2004, Exothermic Metal Reactor Event ...

  13. Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Onboard Type IV Compressed Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office February 25, 2016 Presenter: Brian James - Strategic ...

  14. Type B Accident Investigation of the August 22, 2000, Injury...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Chemical Reaction at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, X-701B Site Type B Accident Investigation of the August 22, 2000, Injury Resulting From Violent Exothermic Chemical ...

  15. DOE specification: Flooded-type lead-acid storage batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    This document contains a ``fill-in-the-blanks`` guide specification for procurement of flooded-type lead-acid storage batteries, for uninterruptible power supply applications.

  16. Type A Accident Investigation of the March 16, 2000, Plutonium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Mexico Type A Accident Investigation of the March 16, 2000, Plutonium-238 Multiple Intake Event at the Plutonium Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico July ...

  17. Type B Accident Investigation Report on the Exertional Heat Illnesses...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Mexico, July 13, 2006 Type B Accident Investigation Report on the Exertional Heat Illnesses during SPOTC 2006 at the National Training Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, July ...

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  2. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. Type A Accident Investigation of the June 21, 2001, Drilling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    June 21, 2001, Drilling Rig Operator Injury at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, August 2001 Type A Accident Investigation of the June 21, 2001, Drilling Rig Operator ...

  7. Property:EnergyServicesType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    String Description Type of energy services provided. Allows Values Lighting;Cooking and water heating;Space heating;Cooling;Information and communications;Earning a living Pages...

  8. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2014-06-10

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  9. Archived Reference Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  10. Archived Reference Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  11. Transfer-type products accompanying cold fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-12-15

    Production of nuclei heavier than the target is treated for projectile-target combinations used in cold fusion reactions leading to superheavy nuclei. These products are related to transfer-type or to asymmetry-exit-channel quasifission reactions. The production of isotopes in the transfer-type reactions emitting of {alpha} particles with large energies is discussed.

  12. Photoluminescence study of p-type vs. n-type Ag-doped ZnO films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, M. A.; Jian, J.; Khranovskyy, V.; Lee, J. H.; Wang, Han; Wang, Haiyan E-mail: hwang00@tamu.edu

    2015-08-14

    Silver doped ZnO films have been grown on sapphire (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Hall measurements indicate that p-type conductivity is realized for the films deposited at 500 °C and 750 °C. Transmission electron microscopy images show more obvious and higher density of stacking faults (SFs) present in the p-type ZnO films as compared to the n-type films. Top view and cross sectional photoluminescence of the n- and p-type samples revealed free excitonic emission from both films. A peak at 3.314 eV, attributed to SF emission, has been observed only for the n-type sample, while a weak neutral acceptor peak observed at 3.359 eV in the p-type film. The SF emission in the n-type sample suggests localization of acceptor impurities nearby the SFs, while lack of SF emission for the p-type sample indicates the activation of the Ag acceptors in ZnO.

  13. Bucket-type steam traps removed in $82K retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplett, J.

    1985-08-19

    A retrofit of 481 mostly failed steam traps at Martin Marietta's Aerospace Division should reduce steam costs by $70,000 and require little or no maintenance. Payback should occur within 14 months. The new traps include orifice, bellow-type thermostatic, and float-type traps that have few or no moving parts. Lack of maintenance was responsible for the poor performance of the bucket traps that were replaced, although manufacturers of the bucket traps disagree that replacement of certain parts is necessary every six months. The author describes the design and operation of each type of trap.

  14. Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on September 23, 2009, in the D Area Powerhouse Type B Accident Investigation of the Savannah River Site Arc Flash Burn Injury on ...

  15. Argonne researchers make new study of special type of chemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    make new study of special type of chemical bond By Jared Sagoff * September 29, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Covalent bonds, one of the most common classes of chemical interactions, occur...

  16. Fuel assembly transfer basket for pool type nuclear reactor vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fanning, Alan W.; Ramsour, Nicholas L.

    1991-01-01

    A fuel assembly transfer basket for a pool type, liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a side access loading and unloading port for receiving and relinquishing fuel assemblies during transfer.

  17. New N-Type Polymers for Organic Photovoltaics: Cooperative Research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This CRADA will develop improved thin film organic solar cells using a new n-type ... developing new materials and polymers to improve the performance of organic solar cells. ...

  18. Plant Functional Types and Earth System Models (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Annals of Botany; Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 1 Research Org: Oak Ridge National...

  19. Property:Buildings/ModelType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minimum Cost Max Tech PV Takeoff Cost Neutral 30% Energy Savings 50% Energy Savings 70% Energy Savings Other Pages using the property "BuildingsModelType" Showing 12 pages using...

  20. Property:Buildings/ModelTargetType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    are: ASHRAE 90.1 2007 ASHRAE 90.1 2004 ASHRAE 189.1 LEED Pages using the property "BuildingsModelTargetType" Showing 12 pages using this property. G General Merchandise...