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1

Characterization of carbon fibers: coefficient of thermal expansion and microstructure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The focus of the research is to develop a consistent and repeatable method to evaluate the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon fibers at high temperatures. Accurate measurement of the CTE of carbon fibers is essential to understand and develop optimal processing procedures as well as computational simulations to predict properties and allowables for fiber-reinforced composites. The mismatch between the coefficient of thermal expansion of the fiber and the matrix has a profound impact on the development of residual stresses and the subsequent damage initiation and progression, potentially diminishing the performance of composite structures. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is selected to perform the experimental work on account of the high resolution and the capability of evaluating both the longitudinal and transverse CTE. The orthotropy in the CTE is tested by rotating the fibers through 45° about their axis. The method is validated by testing standard tungsten filaments of known CTE. Additionally, the microstructure of the fibers is studied in a field emission scanning electron microscope as well as through selected area diffraction patterns in a TEM to observe presence of any potential orthotropy. The pitch based P55 fiber revealed a cylindrically orthotropic microstructure, but the PAN based IM7 and T1000 fibers did not reveal any orthotropy. Finite element models of hexagonally arranged IM7 fibers in a 977 epoxy matrix are developed using PATRAN and analyzed using the commercial FEA code ABAQUS 6.4. The fiber properties were considered temperature independent where as the matrix properties were varied linearly with temperature. The lamina properties evaluated from the finite element modeling are in agreement with the experimental results in literature within 10% in the temperature range of room temperature to the stress free temperature of the epoxy, however at cryogenic temperatures the difference is greater. The residual stresses developed during processing of the composite indicated a potential location for fiber matrix debonding to be in the matrix dominant regions.

Kulkarni, Raghav Shrikant

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Carbon Monoxide in type II supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Infrared spectra of two type II supernovae 6 months after explosion are presented. The spectra exhibit a strong similarity to the observations of SN 1987A and other type II SNe at comparable epochs. The continuum can be fitted with a cool black body and the hydrogen lines have emissivities that are approximately those of a Case B recombination spectrum. The data extend far enough into the thermal region to detect emission by the first overtone of carbon monoxide. The molecular emission is modeled and compared with that in the spectra of SN 1987A. It is found that the flux in the CO first overtone is comparable to that found in SN 1987A. We argue that Carbon Monoxide forms in the ejecta of all type II SNe during the first year after explosion.

J. Spyromilio; B. Leibundgut; R. Gilmozzi

2001-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

3

P-adic Elliptic Quadratic Forms, Parabolic-Type Pseudodifferential Equations With Variable Coefficients, and Markov Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we study the Cauchy problem for a new class of parabolic-type pseudodifferential equations with variable coefficients for which the fundamental solutions are transition density functions of Markov processes in the four dimensional vector space over the field of p-adic numbers.

O. F. Casas-Sánchez; W. A. Zúñiga-Galindo

2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with electrochemically deposited Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}  

SciTech Connect

An N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with bismuth telluride coating has been successfully synthesised through an electro-deposition technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined recycled carbon fibre sheet and bismuth telluride films are reported. Classification of the crystal structure, surface morphology and the elemental composition of the resulting deposits are methodically characterised by XRD, SEM and EDX. Cyclic voltammetry is also carried out in nitric acid solutions to investigate the right range of deposition potential. The synthesis N-type thermoelectric sheet has a highest attainable Seebeck coefficient of -54 {mu}V K{sup -1} and an electrical resistivity of 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Ohm-Sign m. The results show slight differences in morphologies and thermoelectric properties for the films deposited at varying deposition potential. The increase in thermoelectrical properties of the recycled carbon fibre is in line with the development of using coated recycled fibre for thermoelectrical applications. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of an N-type thermoelectric recycled carbon fibre sheet with Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} coatings. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-type thermoelectric sheet is synthesis through the electrodeposition of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} composition can be controlled by varying the deposition voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seebeck coefficient and electrical properties of the combined sheet were reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Material characterisations of the deposits are done using XRD, SEM and EDX.

Pang, E.J.X. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Pickering, S.J., E-mail: stephen.pickering@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Chan, A. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); Wong, K.H. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Lau, P.L. [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)] [Division of Materials, Mechanics and Structures, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003  

SciTech Connect

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

6

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003  

SciTech Connect

We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

ANALYTIC APPROXIMATION OF CARBON CONDENSATION ISSUES IN TYPE II SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

I present analytic approximations for some issues related to condensation of graphite, TiC, and silicon carbide in oxygen-rich cores of supernovae of Type II. Increased understanding, which mathematical analysis can support, renders researchers more receptive to condensation in O-rich supernova gases. Taking SN 1987A as typical, my first analysis shows why the abundance of CO molecules reaches an early maximum in which free carbon remains more abundant than CO. This analysis clarifies why O-rich gas cannot oxidize C if {sup 56}Co radioactivity is as strong as in SN 1987A. My next analysis shows that the CO abundance could be regarded as being in chemical equilibrium if the CO molecule is given an effective binding energy rather than its laboratory dissociation energy. The effective binding energy makes the thermal dissociation rate of CO equal to its radioactive dissociation rate. This preserves possible relevance for the concept of chemical equilibrium. My next analysis shows that the observed abundances of CO and SiO molecules in SN 1987A rule out frequent suggestions that equilibrium condensation of SUNOCONs has occurred following atomic mixing of the He-burning shell with more central zones in such a way as to reproduce roughly the observed spectrum of isotopes in SUNOCONs while preserving C/O > 1. He atoms admixed along with the excess carbon would destroy CO and SiO molecules, leaving their observed abundances unexplained. The final analysis argues that a chemical quasiequilibrium among grains (but not gas) may exist approximately during condensation, so that its computational use is partially justified as a guide to which mineral phases would be stable against reactions with gas. I illustrate this point with quasiequilibrium calculations by Ebel and Grossman that have shown that graphite is stable even when O/C >1 if prominent molecules are justifiably excluded from the calculation of chemical equilibrium.

Clayton, Donald D., E-mail: claydonald@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

P-Type Doping of Lithium Peroxide with Carbon Sheets  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of lithium peroxide (Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}) with carbon electrodes in Li-air batteries is studied with model systems of graphene-intercalated Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}, using density functional theory (DFT) methods. Although both the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} bulk and its stoichiometric surface structures (without single O atoms) are insulating, the incorporation of graphene sheets into the Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} introduces hole states in the oxygen orbitals due to the electron transfer from the anti-bonding O{sub 2} orbitals to the graphene sheets. This indicates that carbon sheets not only provide conducting channels by themselves, but they also open new channels in Li{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

Zhao, Y.; Ban, C.; Kang, J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Wei, S. H.; Dillon, A. C.

2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

9

Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Lee, Sam (Gardena, CA); Shepherd, Gary (Los Alamitos, CA); Pruett, Gary J. (Cypress, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Rock Physics-Based Carbonate Reservoir Pore Type Evaluation by Combining Geological, Petrophysical and Seismic Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pore type variations account for complex velocity-porosity relationship and intensive permeability heterogeneity and consequently low oil and gas recovery in carbonate reservoir. However, it is a challenge for geologist and geophysicist to quantitatively estimate the influences of pore type complexity on velocity variation at a given porosity and porosity-permeability relationship. A new rock physics-based integrated approach in this study was proposed to quantitatively characterize the diversity of pore types and its influences on wave propagation in carbonate reservoir. Based on above knowledge, permeability prediction accuracy from petrophysical data can be improved compared to conventional approach. Two carbonate reservoirs with different reservoir features, one is a shallow carbonate reservoir with average high porosity (>10%) and another one is a supper-deep carbonate reservoir with average low porosity (Permian basin, West Texas. Meanwhile, the complex paleokarst system is explained by using a carbonate platform hydrological model, similar to modern marine hydrological environments within carbonate islands. How to evaluate carbonate reservoir permeability heterogeneity from 3D seismic data has been a dream for reservoir geoscientists, which is a key factor to optimize reservoir development strategy and enhance reservoir recovery. A two-step seismic inversions approach by integrating angle-stack seismic data and rock physics model is proposed to characterize pore-types complexity and further to identify the relative high permeability gas-bearing zones in low porosity reservoir (< 5%) using ChangXing super-deep carbonate reservoir as an example. Compared to the conventional permeability calculation method by best-fit function between porosity and permeability, the results in this study demonstrate that gas zones and non-gas zones in low porosity reservoir can be differentiated by using above integrated permeability characterization method.

Dou, Qifeng

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Manufacturing sector carbon dioxide emissions in nine OECD countries 1973--87: A Divisia index decomposition to changes in fuel mix, emission coefficients, industry structure, energy intensities, and international structure  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper the reduction in energy-related manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions for nine OECD countries in the period 1973 to 1987 is analyzed. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from energy use data. The emphasis is on carbon dioxide intensities, defined as emissions divided by value added. The overall manufacturing carbon dioxide intensity for the nine OECD countries was reduced by 42% in the period 1973--1987. Five fuels are specified together with six subsectors of manufacturing. Carbon dioxide emissions are estimated from fossil fuel consumption, employing emissions coefficients for gas, oil and solids. In addition, electricity consumption is specified. For electricity use an emission coefficient index is calculated from the shares of fossil fuels, nuclear power and hydro power used to generate electricity, and the efficiency in electricity generation from these energy sources. A Divisia index approach is used to sort out the contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity from different components. The major finding is that the main contribution to reduced carbon dioxide intensity is from the general reduction in manufacturing energy intensity, most likely driven by economic growth and increased energy prices, giving incentives to invest in new technology and new industrial processes. There is also a significant contribution from reduced production in the most carbon dioxide intensive subsectors, and a contribution from higher efficiency in electricity generation together with a larger nuclear power share at the expense of oil. 19 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

Torvanger, A. (Senter for Anvendt Forskning, Oslo (Norway) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Influence of Rock Types on Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Carbonate Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although carbonates hold more than 60 percent of the world's oil reserves, they, nevertheless, exhibit much lower average recovery factor values than terrigenous sandstone reservoirs. Thus, utilization of advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques such as high pressure CO2 injection may normally be required to recover oil in place in carbonate reservoirs. This study addresses how different rock types can influence the seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in carbonates. This research utilizes an elastic parameter, defined in a rock physics model of poroelasticity and so-­called as the frame flexibility factor, to successfully quantify the carbonate pore types in core samples available from the Great Bahama Bank (GBB). This study shows that for carbonate samples of a given porosity the lower the frame flexibility factors the higher is the sonic wave velocity. Generally, samples with frame flexibility values of 4 are rocks with intercrystalline and microporosity. Hence, different carbonate pore geometries can be quantitatively predicted using the elastic parameters capable of characterizing the porous media with a representation of their internal structure on the basis of the flexibility of the frame and pore connectivity. In this research, different fluid substitution scenarios of liquid and gaseous CO2 saturations are demonstrated to characterize the variations in velocity for carbonate-specific pore types. The results suggest that the elastic response of CO2 flooded rocks is mostly governed by pore pressure conditions and carbonate rock types. Ultrasonic P-­wave velocities in the liquid-­phase CO2 flooded samples show a marked decrease in the order of 0.6 to 16 percent. On the contrary, samples flooded with gaseous-­phase CO2 constitute an increase in P-­wave velocities for moldic and intraframe porosities, while establishing a significant decrease for samples with intercrystalline and micro-­porosities. Such velocity variations are explained by the stronger effect of density versus compressibility, accounting for the profound effect of pore geometries on the acoustic properties in carbonates. The theoretical results from this research could be a useful guide for interpreting the response of time-­lapse seismic monitoring of carbonate formations following CO2 injection at depth. In particular, an effective rock-­physics model can aid in better discrimination of the profound effects of different pore geometries on seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in carbonates.

Mammadova, Elnara

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Might Carbon-Atmosphere White Dwarfs Harbour a New Type of Pulsating Star?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the light of the recent and unexpected discovery of a brand new type of white dwarfs, those with carbon-dominated atmospheres, we examine the asteroseismological potential of such stars. The motivation behind this is based on the observation that past models of carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs have partially ionized outer layers that bear strong resemblance with those responsible for mode excitation in models of pulsating DB (helium-atmosphere) and pulsating DA (hydrogen-atmosphere) white dwarfs. Our exciting main result is that, given the right location in parameter space, some carbon-atmosphere white dwarfs are predicted to show pulsational instability against gravity modes. We are eagerly waiting the results of observational searches for luminosity variations in these stars.

G. Fontaine; P. Brassard; P. Dufour

2008-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

14

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp[sup 3]-bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprises: (a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H[sub 2] reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and (b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm[sup 2] through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750 C to about 950 C to activate deposition of the film on said substrate. 11 figs.

Pitts, J.R.; Tracy, C.E.; King, D.E.; Stanley, J.T.

1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solar-induced chemical vapor deposition of diamond-type carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved chemical vapor deposition method for depositing transparent continuous coatings of sp.sup.3 -bonded diamond-type carbon films, comprising: a) providing a volatile hydrocarbon gas/H.sub.2 reactant mixture in a cold wall vacuum/chemical vapor deposition chamber containing a suitable substrate for said films, at pressure of about 1 to 50 Torr; and b) directing a concentrated solar flux of from about 40 to about 60 watts/cm.sup.2 through said reactant mixture to produce substrate temperatures of about 750.degree. C. to about 950.degree. C. to activate deposition of the film on said substrate.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Stanley, James T. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

17

HIGH-TEMPERATURE REACTIONS OF TYPE 304 STAINLESS STEEL IN LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF CARBON DIOXIDE AND CARBON MONOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Compatibility studies of type 304 stainless steel in helium containing low concentrations of CO and CO/sub 2/ were conducted. The oxidation rates were insensitive to impurity concentrations between 0.0006--0.3 vol% in the temperature range 400--1000 deg C when P/sub co2/P/sub co/ was less than 0.66. Ratios above this value resulted initially in a slow oxidation rate, but was followed by an accelerated attack. The incubation period for the break-away varied with the P/sub co2//P/sub co/ ratio and the pressure of the two gases. The oxidation reactions proceeded through a selective depletion of chromium from the alloy which increased the carbon solubility and depletion of nickel which led to the transformation of austenite to ferrite. Parabolic reaction rates were observed for the formation of the protective oxides. Arrhenius plots of rate constants versus 1/T indicated the presence of several oxides which was confirmed by other methods. Carburization or decarburization reactions occurred coincidentally with oxidation and depended upon temperature and (P/sub CO/)/sup 2/ /P/sub CO2/ and the P/sub co2//P /sub CO/. Neither was detected below 600 deg C. Between 600--900 deg C, only carburization occurred and appeared to be mainly dependent on the temperature. Above 900 deg C, both carburization and decarburization occurred depending upon the (P/sub co/)/sup 2//P/sub co2/ and the P/sub co2//P/sub co/. The interactions of the oxidizing and carburization reactions resulted in carbon maxima at a (P/sub co/)/sup 2//P/sub co2/ ratio of 0.227. The results indicate that it may be impractical or unnecessary to reduce impurity gases to levels which do not cause surface reactions. It is concluded that undesirable oxidation and carburization reactions can be eliminated by controlling the ratios of the impurity gases. (auth)

Inouye, H.

1962-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

18

A Novel Type of Carbon Coated Sulfur Nanoparticles for Li/S Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SEM image shows that the size of carbon coated sulfur nanoparticles is ... Performances of Nanoporous Carbon Anode for Super Lithium Ion Capacitor.

19

N-Type Thermoelectric Performance of Functionalized Carbon Nanotube-Filled Polymer Composites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon nanotubes were dispersed and functionalized with polyethylene imine (PEI) before incorporation in a polyvinyl acetate matrix. The resulting samples exhibit air-stable N-type characteristics with electrical conductivities as great as 1600 S/m and thermopowers as high as 100 microV/K. Thermopowers and electrical conductivities correlate, in a reversal of the trend found in typical materials. This phenomenon is believed to be due to the increase in the number of tubes that are evenly coated in a better dispersed sample. Increasing the amount of PEI relative to the other constituents positively affects thermopower but not conductivity. Air exposure reduces both thermopower and conductivity, but a stable value is reached within seven days following film fabrication. The atmospheric effects on the electrical conductivity prove to be reversible. Oxygen is believed to be the primary contributor to the decay.

Freeman, Dallas

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

SER Temperature Coefficient  

SciTech Connect

Experimentally determine the overall isothermal temperature coefficient of the SER up to the design operating temperatures.

Johnson, J.L.

1959-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Identification of pore type and origin in a Lower Cretaceous carbonate reservoir using NMR T2 relaxation times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining the distribution of porosity and permeability is one of the main challenges in carbonate petroleum reservoir characterization and requires a thorough understanding of pore type and origin, as well as their spatial distributions. Conventional studies of carbonate reservoirs require interpretation and analysis of cores to understand porosity. This study investigates the use of NMR logs in the determination of pore type and origin. This study is based on the analysis of both thin section petrographic and NMR data from a single well that cored the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) shelf carbonates belonging to the Shuaiba Formation of the Middle East. Photographs of thin sections were used to determine pore type and origin according to Ahr's genetic classification of carbonate porosity. Descriptive statistics and modeling were used to analyze the NMR T2relaxation time distributions. Descriptive statistical analyses included estimating arithmetic average, standard deviation, skewness, median, mode and 90th percentile. T2modeling was performed by fitting multiple log-normal distributions to the measured T2distribution. Data from thin section petrography and from NMR measurements were then compared using conditional probabilities. As expected, thin section analysis revealed the predominance of mud-supported fabrics and micropores between matrix grains Vugs and dissolved rudistid fragments account for most of the macro porosity. Descriptive statistics showed that the mode and th percentile of the T2distribution had the greatest power to discriminate pores by origin. The first principal component (PC1) of the mode-90th percentile system was then used to compute the probabilities of having each pore origin, knowing that PC1 belongs to a given interval. Results were good, with each origin being predictable within a certain range of PC1. Decomposition of the T2distributions was performed using up to 3 log-normal component distributions. Samples of different pore origin behaved distinctively. Depositional porosity showed no increase in fit quality with increasing number of distributions whereas facies selective and diagenetic porosity did, with diagenetic porosity showing the greatest increase.

Lodola, Domenico Domenico

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

2007-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

CARBON FLUX TO THE ATMOSPHERE FROM LAND-USE CHANGES: 1850 TO...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C: REGIONAL CARBON-CHANGE COEFFICIENTS The following listing provides the regional values and coefficients associated with oxidation and recovery of carbon in vegetation, soils,...

24

Structure and capillary properties of carbon materials. Influence of various types of treatment of charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Activated charcoal KM-2 with a large volume of micropores served as the object of investiations to find the adsorption properties and the porous structure of the activated charcoals. The sorption isotherms of benzene vapor were measured at 20 C. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the authors calculated the volumes of the principle types of pores, the surface ofthe mesopores, and the parameters of the microporous structure of the charcoals. Results show that decalcification results in an appreciable decrease in the ash content of the charcoal, and some increase in the total volume of the pores, mainly in the volume of the mesopores. The surface of the mesopores increases accordingly. The sorption isotherms of water vapor and benzene vapor on activated charcoal samples are compared.

Dribinskii, A.V.; Kukushina, I.A.; Shteinberg, G.V.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Symmetry energy coefficients for asymmetric nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symmetry energy coefficients of asymmetric nuclear matter are investigated as the inverse of nuclear matter polarizabilities with two different approaches. Firstly a general calculation shows they may depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry itself. The choice of particular prescriptions for the density fluctuations lead to certain isospin (n-p asymmetry) dependences of the polarizabilities. Secondly, with Skyrme type interactions, the static limit of the dynamical polarizability is investigated corresponding to the inverse symmetry energy coefficient which assumes different values at different asymmetries (and densities and temperatures). The symmetry energy coefficient (in the isovector channel) is found to increase as n-p asymmetries increase. The spin symmetry energy coefficient is also briefly investigated.

Fábio L. Braghin

2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

26

Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prices. In both specifications, statisti- cally significant coefficients are those on the project types of biomass

Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003 Title Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel...

28

Reducing carbon emissions? The relative effectiveness of different types of environmental tax: the case of New Zealand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concerns about the impact of human activities on the environment have encouraged policy makers in New Zealand, and other nations, to reassess the relative effectiveness and efficiency of environmental taxes. Countries' experience with environmental taxation ... Keywords: CGE model, Carbon tax, Greenhouse gas emissions, Q3 Non-renewable resources and conservation, Q4 Energy

Frank Scrimgeour; Les Oxley; Koli Fatai

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Some comments on `Equation for the second virial coefficient`  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The second viral coefficient calculated using the equation suggested in the paper of Kaplun A.B., Meshalkin A.B. Equation for the second virial coefficient published in High temperature high pressure, 1999, Volume 31, pages 253-258 is compared with experimental data for helium, hydrogen, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, methane, ethylene. It is shown the formula cannot describe the temperature dependence of the experimental data on the second virial coefficient for the all above substances within the experimental error over the investigated temperature interval. The latter is in controversy with the derivations of the paper mentioned above. It is also shown the formula cannot describe the recommended data for the second virial coefficient within their uncertainties for helium, hydrogen, neon, argon, krypton and methane.

Umirzakov, I H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Quantitative analysis of carbon fluxes for fat biosynthesis in wild-type and IRS-1 knockout brown adipocytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Excessive fat synthesis and the subsequent dysregulation of lipid metabolism constitute the major pathological factors of obesity and type 2 diabetes through triggering insulin resistance. Thus, controlling fat synthesis ...

Yoo, Hyun-Tae, 1973-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Conversion coefficients for superheavy elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we report on internal conversion coefficients for Z = 111 to Z = 126 superheavy elements obtained from relativistic Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations. The effect of the atomic vacancy created during the conversion process has been taken into account using the so called "Frozen Orbital" approximation. The selection of this atomic model is supported by our recent comparison of experimental and theoretical conversion coefficients across a wide range of nuclei. The atomic masses, valence shell electron configurations, and theoretical atomic binding energies required for the calculations were adopted from a critical evaluation of the published data. The new conversion coefficient data tables presented here cover all atomic shells, transition energies from 1 keV up to 6000 keV, and multipole orders of 1 to 5. A similar approach was used in our previous calculations [1] for Z = 5 - 110.

T. Kibédi; M. B. Trzhaskovskaya; M. Gupta; A. E. Stuchbery

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

32

ROLLING AND WELDING TYPE 430M TUBES TO STAINLESS STEEL OVERLAID CARBON STEEL TUBE-SHEETS. SM-1 (APPR-1) RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. Task No. X.  

SciTech Connect

In the fabrication of the steam generator on APPR-1A it was considered necessary to roll the Type 430M tubes into carbon steel tubesheets to ASTM Specification A350-Grade LF-1, modifled with 1.66% nickel; and weld the tube ends to the stainless steel overlay previously applied to the tubesheet. The rolled joint was a necessary precaution to prevent secondary water, that might contain chlorides, from contacting the stainless steel weld joining the tubes to the tubesheets. The welded joint provided the mechanical strength for attaching the tubes to the tubesheets. A laboratory program was conducted, therefore, to develop practicable procedures for welding the Type 430M tubes to the stainless steel overlay; as well as to assure that the tubes could satisfactorily be rolled to the tubesheets. Automatic and manual tungstenare welding procedures were developed that were capable of consistently providing an austenitic weld having a strength exceeding that of the heat affected zone or the unaffected tube itself. Type 430M tubes in the asreceived, and softened conditions were rolled into prototype test units under various conditions of rolling. It was concluded that the Type 450M tubes in the as-received condition could be satisfactorily rolled into the A360Grade LF-1 tubesheet and be tlght to a pressurized helium leak test. To translate the laboratory procedures into fabrication practice for the steam generator consisting of the same materials, detailed welding and rolling procedures were outlined and transmitted to the fabricator, as well as included in this report. (auth)

Bennett, R.W.; Meister, R.P.; Kerton, R.J.

1959-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

33

Transport Coefficients of Gluon Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients of gluon plasma are calculated for a SU(3) pure gauge model by lattice QCD simulations on $16^3 \\times 8$ and $24^3 \\times 8$ lattices. Simulations are carried out at a slightly above the deconfinement transition temperature $T_c$, where a new state of matter is currently being pursued in RHIC experiments. Our results show that the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy is less than one and the bulk viscosity is consistent with zero in the region, $1.4 \\leq T/T_c \\leq 1.8 $.

Atsushi Nakamura; Sunao Sakai

2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

Radon emanation coefficients for phosphogysum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industry which is stockpiled in large quantities world-wide. Phosphogypsum consists mainly of dihydrate gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) but also contains elevated concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and other inorganic species which originate from the processing of phosphate rock. {sup 222}Rn gas is the first decay product of {sup 226}Ra and has been identified as one of the major environmental concerns associated with phosphogypsum. This study was conducted to determine effects of particle size, weathering, and moisture content on the {sup 222}Rn emanation coefficient ({epsilon}) for phosphogypsums. Practical conclusions from this study are discussed, such as the effects of a repository of a phosphogypsum site on radon emanation. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Rutherford, P.M.; Dudas, M.J. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Arocena, J.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)]|[Univ. of Northern British Columbia (Canada)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Carbon Sequestration Risks and Risk Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Risks and Risk Management Title Carbon Sequestration Risks and Risk Management Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2008 Authors Price, Phillip N.,...

36

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government StateProvincial Govt Utility Program Information Kentucky Program Type...

37

Carbon abundances of early B-type stars in the solar vicinity. Non-LTE line-formation for C II/III/IV and self-consistent atmospheric parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Precise determinations of the chemical composition in early B-type stars consitute fundamental observational constraints on stellar and galactochemical evolution. Carbon is one of the most abundant metals in the Universe but analyses in early-type stars show inconclusive results, like large discrepancies between analyses of different lines in C II, a failure to establish the C II/III ionization balance and the derivation of systematically lower abundances than from other objects. We present a comprehensive and robust C II/III/IV model for non-LTE line-formation calculations based on carefully selected atomic data. The model is calibrated with high-S/N spectra of six apparently slow-rotating early B-type dwarfs and giants, which cover a wide parameter range and are randomly distributed in the solar neighbourhood. A self-consistent quantitative spectrum analysis is performed using an extensive iteration scheme to determine stellar atmospheric parameters and to select the appropriate atomic data used for the derivation of chemical abundances. We establish the carbon ionization balance for all sample stars based on a unique set of input atomic data, achieving consistency for all modelled lines. Highly accurate atmospheric parameters and a homogeneous carbon abundance with reduced systematic errors are derived. This results in a present-day stellar carbon abundance in the solar neighbourhood, which is in good agreement with recent determinations of the solar value and with the gas-phase abundance of the Orion H II region. The homogeneous present-day carbon abundance also conforms with predictions of chemical-evolution models for the Galaxy. The present approach allows us to constrain the effects of systematic errors on fundamental parameters and abundances. (abridged)

M. F. Nieva; N. Przybilla

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

38

Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer electrolytes Title Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer electrolytes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Liu, Gao, Craig L. Reeder, Xiaoguang Sun, and John B. Kerr Journal Solid State Ionics Volume 175 Pagination 781-783 Keywords comb branch polyethers, conductivity, lithium battery, polymer electrolytes, salt diffusion coefficient, trimethylene oxide Abstract This paper reports on a new comb branch polymer based on trimethylene oxide (TMO) side chains as a polymer electrolyte for potential application in lithium metal rechargeable batteries. The trimethylene oxide (TMO) units are attached to the side chains of a polyepoxide ether to maximize the segmental motion. Lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt was used to formulate the polymer electrolyte with the new TMO containing polymers. The new polymer electrolytes show improved salt diffusion coefficients (Ds) and conductivity at ambient and subambient temperature compare to the ethylene oxide (EO) counterpart, whereas performance at high temperature (85 °C) remains the same or is actually worse for salt diffusivity.

39

Formation of Carbon Dwarfs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

40

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST reserves the right to charge for these data in the ... ?/? and the mass energy-absorption coefficient ... The tables cover energies of the photon (x-ray ...

2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Improved estimation of exterior film coefficient  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exterior convective coefficients were overestimated in the standard treatment (ASHRAE, DOE2) The result was an overestimate of savings potential for more efficient windows...

42

Diffusion coefficient of trona in water  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the diffusion coefficient of trona in water. The diffusion coefficient of trona from saturated solution in water was measured to be 1.167 *10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2//s with a standard devition of 6.2% at 25/degree/C.30 10/sup 9/ refs.

Mehta, G.D.; Jain, S.C.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Wind-Stress Coefficients at Light Winds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increase of the wind-stress coefficient with wind velocity was found to start with winds as light as 3 m s?1, below which, following the formula for aerodynamically smooth flows, the wind-stress coefficient decreases as the wind velocity ...

Jin Wu

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPENDIX J Partition Coefficients For Uranium #12;Appendix J Partition Coefficients For Uranium J.1.0 Background The review of uranium Kd values obtained for a number of soils, crushed rock and their effects on uranium adsorption on soils are discussed below. The solution pH was also used as the basis

45

Justification for change in AXAIR dispersion coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AXAIR is the primary dose assessment code used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to predict doses following hypothetical releases of relatively short durations. The atmospheric dispersion coefficients currently used in AXAIR are analytical expressions developed to fit the curves in the Turner Workbook as referred to in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.145. This report explores the ramifications and benefits of changing the dispersion coefficients to a combination of Pasquill`s lateral dispersion coefficients and Briggs` vertical dispersion coefficients. The differences in the dispersion coefficients have a minor effect on the relative air concentrations for stability classes A--D, but a significant difference is seen for classes E, F, and G.

Simpkins, A.A.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Oscillation Criteria in First Order Neutral Delay Impulsive Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is dealing with the oscillatory properties of first order neutral delay impulsive differential equations and corresponding to them inequalities with constant coefficients. The established sufficient conditions ensure the oscillation of every solution of this type of equations.

Dimitrova, M. B.; Donev, V. I. [Dept. of Mathematics, Technical University of Sofia, branch Sliven, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)

2008-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

47

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Project Type Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more...

48

Carbonate fuel cell matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate fuel cell matrix is described comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles. 8 figs.

Farooque, M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

49

Carbonate fuel cell matrix  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbonate fuel cell matrix comprising support particles and crack attenuator particles which are made platelet in shape to increase the resistance of the matrix to through cracking. Also disclosed is a matrix having porous crack attenuator particles and a matrix whose crack attenuator particles have a thermal coefficient of expansion which is significantly different from that of the support particles, and a method of making platelet-shaped crack attenuator particles.

Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Determining Velocities and Mixing Coefficients from Tracers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effort to determine oceanic velocities from tracer distributions relies on a knowledge of the effects of mixing. However, the macroscopic diffusion coefficient, K, is generally not known and must be calculated along with the velocity. The ...

Jae Hak Lee; George Veronis

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Calculated Ångströim's Turbidity Coefficients for Fairbanks, Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ångströim's turbidity coefficient, ?, was determined from measurements of direct normal solar irradiance (broadband) at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude, 64.82). The frequency distribution and seasonal changes of derived values were similar to those ...

John D. Fox

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Great Plains ASPEN Model Development: binary interaction parameters and activity coefficient parameters. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The simulation of the various sections of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant involves modelling vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria that are highly nonideal. The Peng-Robinson equation of state, modified for water, was used in the simulation of most of the process sections. Interaction parameters established by regression of literature data, using ASPEN's DRS system, along with interaction parameter values found in the literature, became the database for the simulation. In two of the sections, the Oxygen Plant and the TEG drying of the product SNG, activity coefficient models were used because they gave a better prediction of the phase equilibrium. For the Rectisol unit, which removes hydrogen sulfide from the gas, parameters available from a DOE sponsored contract, Tristate, were used, after verification, for the ASPEN modified version of the RKS. The phases that were predicted using these parameters were checked against literature data and, in most cases, the liquid mole fractions of carbon dioxide predicted by the correlation were within 10% of those reported. A model that would predict phase equilibrium, based on the ionization of Lewis acids and bases and salts, would have been an ideal choice for simulation of the Stretford and Phosam flowsheets. However, only limited temperature dependent liquid activity coefficients data are available in the literature for the ionic species found in the Stretford and Phosam solutions, from which correlation parameters could be obtained by regression. Also, only the flash model can handle this type of calculation; therefore, it was used only to a limited extent in the simulation of the Stretford Unit Absorber. 118 references.

Stern, S.S.; Millman, M.C.; Kirman, J.J.; Nwogu, D.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Insitu expanding foam based carbon/epoxy sandwich jackets for column retrofit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RC Columns with Continuous Carbon Fiber Jackets, Journal ofC. Pantelides, J. Gergely, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymerand processing type (i.e. carbon fiber reinforced epoxy with

Danyeur, Alicia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated Carbon dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, although certain industrial processes (e.g., cement manufacture) also emit carbon dioxide. The estimates of energy-related carbon emissions require both data on the energy use and carbon emissions coefficients relating energy use to the amount of carbon emitted. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the main source of data on U.S. energy use. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 used annual data provided by energy suppliers. However, to obtain more detail on how different sectors use energy, the emissions estimates in Energy and GHG Analysis rely data from on surveys of energy users, such as manufacturing establishments and commercial buildings.

55

Extended Simulations of Graphene Growth with Updated Rate Coefficients  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New simulations of graphene growth in flame environments are presented. The simulations employ a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm coupled to molecular mechanics (MM) geometry optimization to track individual graphenic species as they evolve. Focus is given to incorporation of five-member rings and resulting curvature and edge defects. The model code has been re-written to be more computationally efficient enabling a larger set of simulations to be run, decreasing stochastic fluctuations in the averaged results. The model also includes updated rate coefficients for graphene edge reactions recently published in the literature. The new simulations are compared to results from the previous model as well as to hydrogen to carbon ratios recorded in experiment and calculated with alternate models.

Whitesides, R; You, X; Frenklach, M

2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

56

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush

Rollins, Andrew M.

57

Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon and Implications for the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon and Implications for the Rate Capability of Anodes Title Lithium Diffusion in Graphitic Carbon and Implications for the Rate Capability of Anodes Publication Type Journal...

58

Carbon fiber/vinylester composites in the marine environment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this research, the degradation of carbon fiber/vinylester composites in marine environments was experimentally investigated. Additionally, two types of carbon fiber surface treatments, namely Polyhedral… (more)

Vinci, Chris J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Black Carbon Emission from Barbeque Activities during College...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black Carbon Emission from Barbeque Activities during College Football Games Title Black Carbon Emission from Barbeque Activities during College Football Games Publication Type...

60

Optimal consumption and investment for markets with randoms coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider an optimal consumption - investment problem for financial markets of Black-Scholes's type with the random coefficients. The existence and uniqueness theorem for the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is shown. We construct an iterative sequence of functions converging to the solution of this equation. An optimal convergence rate for this sequence is found and sharp computable upper bounds for the approximation accuracy of the optimal consumption - investment strategies are obtained. It turns out that the optimal convergence rate in this case is super geometrical, i.e. is more rapid than any geometrical rate.

Belkacem, Berdjane

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Verifying the Dependence of Fractal Coefficients on Different Spatial Distributions  

SciTech Connect

A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law dependence on the size N(r) = C/r{sup D}propor tor{sup -D} where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A 'box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the 'capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term 'fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The spatial distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake spatial distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations strongly favour the first hypothesis.The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake spatial distribution, which are: - Simple way to quantify scale-invariant distributions of complex objects or phenomena by a small number of parameters. - It is becoming evident that the applicability of fractal distributions to geological problems could have a more fundamental basis. Chaotic behaviour could underlay the geotectonic processes and the applicable statistics could often be fractal.The application of fractal distribution analysis has, however, some specific aspects. It is usually difficult to present an adequate interpretation of the obtained values of fractal coefficients for earthquake epicenter or hypocenter distributions. That is why in this paper we aimed at other goals - to verify how a fractal coefficient depends on different spatial distributions. We simulated earthquake spatial data by generating randomly points first in a 3D space - cube, then in a parallelepiped, diminishing one of its sides. We then continued this procedure in 2D and 1D space. For each simulated data set we calculated the points' fractal coefficient (correlation fractal dimension of epicentres) and then checked for correlation between the coefficients values and the type of spatial distribution.In that way one can obtain a set of standard fractal coefficients' values for varying spatial distributions. These then can be used when real earthquake data is analyzed by comparing the real data coefficients values to the standard fractal coefficients. Such an approach can help in interpreting the fractal analysis results through different types of spatial distributions.

Gospodinov, Dragomir [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Geophysical Institute of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Akad. G. Bonchev Str., bl.3, Sofia (Bulgaria); Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander [Plovdiv University 'Paisii Hilendarski', 24, Tsar Asen Str., Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

62

Determination of Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient and Net  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, New York, New York 10027 Physical processes such as advection, dispersion, and air-water gas exchange of the gas tracer, u is the average cross-sectional current velocity, Kx is the longitudinal dispersion in the Hudson River. Similar to the difference in longitudinal dispersion coefficients, the difference in gas

Ho, David

63

Differential coefficients of orthogonal matrix polynomials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We find explicit formulas for raising and lowering first order differential operators for orthogonal matrix polynomials. We derive recurrence relations for the coefficients in the raising and lowering operators. Some examples are given. Keywords: Annihilation operators, Creation operators, Orthogonal matrix polynomials, primary 33E30, secondary 42C05

Antonio J. Duran; Mourad E. H. Ismail

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

CARBON TETRACHLORIDE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about carbon tetrachloride.

unknown authors

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Programmatic Points of Contact Carbon Storage Program Infrastructure Coordinator Carbon Storage...

66

Quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients in plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have observed changing Einstein coefficients of spontaneous emission as a function of electron density in CO/sub 2/ laser-produced plasmas. These measurements are based on the intensity branching ratio of CIV lines 5801 to 5812 A and 312.41 to 312.46 A which share a common upper level. Similar observations for CIII lines are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Chung, Y.; Lemaire, P.; Suckewer, S.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Transport coefficients of a massive pion gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review or main results concerning the transport coefficients of a light meson gas, in particular we focus on the case of a massive pion gas. Leading order results according to the chiral power-counting are presented for the DC electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, shear viscosity, and bulk viscosity. We also comment on the possible correlation between the bulk viscosity and the trace anomaly in QCD, as well as the relation between unitarity and a minimum of the quotient $\\eta/s$ near the phase transition.

D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

68

Transmission eigenvalues for operators with constant coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we study the interior transmission problem and transmission eigenvalues for multiplicative perturbations of linear partial differential operator of order $\\ge 2$ with constant real coefficients. Under suitable growth conditions on the symbol of the operator and the perturbation, we show the discreteness of the set of transmission eigenvalues and derive sufficient conditions on the existence of transmission eigenvalues. We apply these techniques to the case of the biharmonic operator and the Dirac system. In the hypoelliptic case we present a connection to scattering theory.

Michael Hitrik; Katsiaryna Krupchyk; Petri Ola; Lassi Päivärinta

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon  

SciTech Connect

Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low pressure cold wall reactor. The RSCs have non-Arrhenius temperature dependences and decreases with increasing flux at low (710/sup 0/) temperatures. A simple model involving dissociative adsorption of silane is consistent with these results. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

70

Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

Berryman, J G

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Website: www.adb.org/documents/studies/carbon-efficiency-prc/carbon-efficiency- Country: China UN Region: Eastern Asia Coordinates: 35.86166°, 104.195397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.86166,"lon":104.195397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

72

Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.

D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green--Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend on the energy density. We do not include hadron strings as degrees of freedom so as to maintain detailed balance. Hence we do not get the saturation of temperature but this leads to longer equilibration times.

Azwinndini Muronga

2003-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

74

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

75

Carbon Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

76

CarbonSolve | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarbonSolve CarbonSolve Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CarbonSolve Agency/Company /Organization: CarbonSolve Sector: Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.carbonsolve.com Web Application Link: www.carbonsolve.com Cost: Paid CarbonSolve Screenshot References: CarbonSolve[1] Logo: CarbonSolve The CarbonSolve platform is designed to address a broad spectrum of needs, and makes possible for organizations to transform their sustainability objectives - including carbon, water, waste, employee engagement, or supply chain related initiatives into measureable metrics and trackable processes. Overview The CarbonSolve platform is designed to address a broad spectrum of needs, and makes possible for organizations to transform their sustainability

77

Asymptotic normalization coefficients from ab initio calculations.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present calculations of asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) for one-nucleon removals from nuclear states of mass numbers 3 {le} A {le} 9. Our ANCs were computed from variational Monte Carlo solutions to the many-body Schroedinger equation with the combined Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon potentials. Instead of computing explicit overlap integrals, we applied a Green function method that is insensitive to the difficulties of constructing and Monte Carlo sampling the long-range tails of the variational wave functions. This method also allows computation of the ANC at the physical separation energy, even when it differs from the separation energy for the Hamiltonian. We compare our results, which for most nuclei are the first ab initio calculations of ANCs, with existing experimental and theoretical results and discuss further possible applications of the technique.

Nollett, K. M.; Wiringa, R. B. (Physics)

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

78

New crop coefficients developed for high-yield processing tomatoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

after planting Fig. 2. Daily crop coefficients with daysFor all years, seasonal crop ETc ranged from 20.8 to 29.64. Relationship between average crop coefficient and canopy

Hanson, Blaine R.; May, Donald M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A new numerical method for conversion of sonic second virial coefficients to density second virial coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new numerical method has been developed for calculation of density second virial coefficients, B(T), from sonic velocity measurements in gases at low pressures. Unlike existing methods, this procedure requires no model assumption as to the form of the temperature variation of B(T). Rather it gathers additional information by differencing the measured acoustic second virial coefficient in accordance with a new mathematical approximation. While two higher-ordered terms in the complete identity must be ignored to initiate the numerical calculations, the magnitude of these terms can later be estimated from the initial determination of B(T). By such an iterative procedure, the method can be made exact or, from a second viewpoint, the initial estimate allows calculation of the errors in the method itself. The new method is simple and easy to use as it employs only standard numerical techniques. It requires a digital computer program; although limited calculations can be made on a modern hand-held calculator. The objectives of this research are (1) to prove that our method is more accurate than existing methods for extracting second density virial coefficients from sonic velocity data, (2) to illustrate that the new numerical method is much simpler in convening sonic velocity data to second density virial coefficients and finally (3) to show that with the new method, no model assumptions for the temperature profile need to be made to get accurate results.

Mossaad, Ehab

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study of the Irradiation-Temperature Coefficient for Alanine Film and Pellet Dosimeters at Elevated Temperature. ...

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotubes. Sponsored by: TMS Electronic, Magnetic and Photonic Materials Division Date and Time: Sunday, February 13, 2005 ~ 8:30 am-5:00 pm

82

Carbon Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... The graphene film was spin-coated using carbon nanotubes to form the cathode of the field emission device. A phosphor coated graphene-PET ...

83

Forest Carbon Portal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forest Carbon Portal Forest Carbon Portal Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Forest Carbon Portal Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme, United States Agency for International Development, United Kingdom Department for International Development, Forest Trends Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.forestcarbonportal.com/ Forest Carbon Portal Screenshot References: FCP[1] "Ecosystem Marketplace's Forest Carbon Portal is a clearinghouse of information, feature stories, event listings, project details, 'how-to' guides, news, and market analysis on forest-based carbon sequestration projects. Deforestation and land-use change are responsible for 17% of the

84

Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Common Carbon Metric Common Carbon Metric Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Common Carbon Metric Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Environment Programme, World Resources Institute Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: GHG inventory, Implementation Resource Type: Guide/manual, Publications Website: www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/Common-Carbon-Metric-for_Pilot_Testing_220410.p Common Carbon Metric Screenshot References: Common Carbon Metrics [1] "This paper is offered by the United Nations Environment Programme's Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative (UNEP-SBCI), a partnership between the UN and public and private stakeholders in the building sector, promoting sustainable building practices globally. The purpose of this

85

NETL: Carbon Storage - Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSLF Carbon Storage Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum CSLF Logo The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) is a voluntary climate initiative of industrially developed and...

86

Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the reaction of room-temperature silane and disilane on a hot polycrystalline silicon surface using both a collision-free molecular beam and a very low pressure CVD cell. Reactive sticking coefficients were obtained from deposition rate data over a wide range of temperatures and silane (disilane) fluxes. The RSCs are substantially less than one, ranging from 6 x 10/sup -5/ to 4 x 10/sup -2/. For silane we observed curved Arrhenius plots with slopes decreasing from approx.60 kcal mol/sup -1/ at low temperatures to approx.2 kcal mol/sup -1/ at higher temperatures. The RSCs are independent of flux (pressure) at 1040/sup 0/C, but vary as flux to the approx.-1/2 power at 710/sup 0/C. A model comprised of a dissociative adsorption mechanism with competing associative desorption and reaction was found to give reasonable agreement. For disilane, we observed RSCs that were roughly ten times higher than those for silane. We also observed a curved Arrhenius plot and a flux dependence at 710/sup 0/C for disilane. 22 refs., 5 figs.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more common fluid for extracting volatile oil and fragrance compounds from various raw materials that are used in perfumery. Furthermore, its use as a heat transmission fluid is very attractive because of the greater uptake capability of heat from hot reservoir rock, compared with that of water. However, one concern was the reactivity of CO2 with clay and rock minerals in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. So if this reaction leads to the formation of water-soluble carbonates, such formation could be detrimental to the integrity of wellbore infrastructure.

88

Carbon Materials Breakout Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Breakout Group Process Materials Breakout Group Process * Day 2, Thursday - Review results of Day 1 and modify if needed - Identify critical R&D needs - Outline R&D plan with key milestones - Report results to plenary Carbon Materials Breakout Group * Key Results - Target: get the science right to engineer carbon materials for hydrogen storage * Integrate theory, experiment, engineering * Understand mechanisms, effects, and interactions ranging from physisorption to chemisorption - Theory * Provide "directional" guidance for experiments (and vice- versa) * Provide baseline theory to elucidate parameters affecting the number and type of binding sites and the heat of their interaction with H2 (∆H ) for a broad range of (highly) modified carbon materials

89

1. INTRODUCTION Global biomass and soil carbon estimate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. INTRODUCTION Global biomass and soil carbon estimate Sahoko Yui and Sonia Yeh Institute peatland carbon data. 2. FOREST BIOMASS CARBON Table 1: Reclassification of Land Cover Types IGBP RFS 2 is to create spatially explicit global database of biomass and soil carbon stock and the emission factors

California at Davis, University of

90

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Print E-mail U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program The U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program, in consultation with the Carbon Cycle...

91

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

92

NIST X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Version History  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... year, month day with database access date.) Hubbell, JH and Seltzer, SM (2004), Tables of X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients and Mass Energy- ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

93

Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Squeeze Casting of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The casting-die interfacial heat transfer coefficient(IHTC) in 5-step casting was .... from First-Principles: Solid-Solution Strengthening, Softening, and Cross-Slip.

94

Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient Distribution at Part ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of oil flow on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) distribution at the gear surface. ... Multiphase Flow in a Steelmaking Converter Using an Unconventional Lance.

95

Kinetic theory of the interdiffusion coefficient in dense plasmas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Naive applications of Spitzer's theory to very dense plasmas can lead to negative diffusion coefficients. The interdiffusion coefficients in Binary Ionic Mixtures (two species of point ions in a uniform neutralizing background) have been calculated recently using molecular dynamics techniques. These calculations can provide useful benchmarks for theoretical evaluations of the diffusion coefficient in dense plasma mixtures. This paper gives a brief description of a kinetic theoretic approximation to the diffusion coefficient which generalizes Spitzer to high density and is in excellent agreement with the computer simulations. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Boercker, D.B.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Derivation of the coefficient squared probability law in quantum mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If one assumes there is probability of perception in quantum mechanics, then unitarity dictates that it must have the coefficient squared form, in agreement with experiment.

Casey Blood

2013-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

97

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Carbon Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CARBON EMISSIONS CARBON EMISSIONS A part of the integrating module, the carbon emissions submodule (CEM) computes the carbon emissions due to the combustion of energy. The coefficients for carbon emissions are derived from Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996, published in October 1997. The calculations account for the fact that some fossil fuels are used for nonfuel purposes, such as feedstocks, and thus the carbon in the fuel is sequestered in the end product. CEM also allows for several carbon policy evaluation options to be imposed within NEMS. Although none of the policy options are assumed in the Annual Energy Outlook 1998, the options can be used in special analyses to simulate potential market-based approaches to meet national carbon emission

98

Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC Place Cornwall, Vermont Zip 57530 Sector Carbon Product Edgewood Carbon Holdings LLC is active worldwide in the evolving commercialization of carbon recovery. Coordinates 50.443321°, -4.93986° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.443321,"lon":-4.93986,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

99

Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Renaissance Carbon Investment Ltd. Place Shanghai, China Zip 200052 Sector Carbon Product Renaissance Carbon Investment (RCI) is the carbon investment and trading arm of Pivoton International. Coordinates 31.247709°, 121.472618° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":31.247709,"lon":121.472618,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

100

CarbonMicro | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarbonMicro CarbonMicro Jump to: navigation, search Name CarbonMicro Place Irvine, California Zip CA 92618 Sector Carbon Product Carbon Micro Battery Corporation has a unique technology of creating micro and nanoscale carbon structures. Coordinates 41.837752°, -79.268594° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.837752,"lon":-79.268594,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Low Carbon Fuel Low Carbon Fuel Standard to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuel Standard on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Low Carbon Fuel Standard Low Carbon Fuel Standard California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) Program requires a reduction in the carbon intensity of transportation

102

Low Carbon World | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon World Low Carbon World Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: LowCarbonWorld Agency/Company /Organization: LowCarbonEconomy Partner: United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Energy, Land Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset, Maps Website: www.lowcarboneconomy.com/Low_Carbon_World/Data/Home LowCarbonWorld Screenshot References: LowCarbonWorld[1] Background The idea behind this project was conceived at the 2008 United Nations Conference of Parties (COP14) event in Poznan (Poland). By listening to many speeches by energy ministers from numerous countries in the high level segment of the event, Toddington Harper Managing Director of The Low Carbon Economy Ltd (TLCE) became aware of the depth of valuable information being

103

Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Murphy, T.J.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Does the photon-diffusion coefficient depend on absorption?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and M. C. Edlund, The Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory (Van Nostrand, New York, 1952), Chaps. 5 and 14 diffusion coefficient gives better agreement with theory than the traditionally accepted photon diffusion diffusion theory by using the two different diffu- sion coefficients, we quantitatively demonstrate

Boas, David

105

Field Measurement Studies on Shunt Coefficient of Lightning Shield Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shunt coefficient of lightning shield line is an important parameter, which needs to be considered when we are designing or reforming the substation grounding network, however, it is difficult to be calculated. This paper is to introduce a method ... Keywords: Short circuit current, Lightning shield line, Shunt coefficient, Shunt impedance

Dechao Li; Jinglu Li; Yuhuan Zhang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Sandbag Carbon Offset Map | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Agency/Company /Organization: Sandbag Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass, Energy Efficiency, Forestry, Geothermal, Hydrogen, Industry, Solar, Wind Topics: Market analysis Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: sandbag.org.uk/carbondata/cers Sandbag Carbon Offset Map Screenshot References: Sandbag Carbon Offset Map[1] Thinking about climate change can be a depressing occupation. It's a massive issue and personal actions like switching off lights and unplugging televisions can feel like small contributions. Background "Thinking about climate change can be a depressing occupation. It's a

107

Predicting makeup torque of threaded tapered connections and evaluation of coefficients of friction  

SciTech Connect

This paper will show how it is possible to generate a general purpose formula to determine the amount of torque required to make up non-shouldering tapered threaded connections as are commonly used on tubing and casing connections. In addition, by manipulating this algorithm, values for the dynamic coefficient of friction of thread compounds may be derived. This algorithm allows any type of thread form to be analyzed and was verified through actual testing.

Hawke, M.C.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Energy-Related Carbon...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Energy Outlook 2009 Figure 80. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2006-2030 Figure 81. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 Figure...

109

Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China Title Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5243E Year of...

110

ORISE: Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose Coefficients for Intakes of Radionuclides via Contaminated Wounds Dose coefficients for 38 radionuclides based on NCRP Wound Model and ICRP biokinetic models This report is intended to assist health physics and medical staff in more rapidly assessing the potential dosimetric consequences of a contaminated wound. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Wound Model describing the retention of selected radionuclides at the site of a contaminated wound and their uptake into the transfer compartment has been combined with the International Commission on Radiological Protection element-specific systemic models for those radionuclides to derive dose coefficients for intakes via contaminated wounds. Examples are also provided on using the dose coefficients to generate derived reference

111

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and...

112

Carbon supercapacitors  

SciTech Connect

Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

Delnick, F.M.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Carbon particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000-Table 2. Carbon Emission  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Emission Factors Carbon Emission Factors (Kilograms-carbon per million Btu) Fuel Type Carbon Coefficient at Full Combustion Combustion Fraction Adjusted Emissions Factor Petroleum Motor Gasoline 19.33 0.990 19.14 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Used as Fuel 17.20 0.995 17.11 Used as Feedstock 16.87 0.200 3.37 Jet Fuel 19.33 0.990 19.14 Distillate Fuel 19.95 0.990 19.75 Residual Fuel 21.49 0.990 21.28 Asphalt and Road Oil 20.62 0.000 0.00 Lubricants 20.24 0.600 12.14 Petrochemical Feedstocks 19.37 0.200 3.87 Kerosene 19.72 0.990 19.52 Petroleum Coke 27.85 0.500 13.93 Petroleum Still Gas 17.51 0.995 17.42 Other Industrial 20.31 0.990 20.11 Coal Residential and Commercial 25.92 0.990 25.66 Metallurgical 25.55 0.990 25.29 Industrial Other 25.61 0.990 25.39 Electric Utility1 25.74 0.990 24.486 Natural Gas Used as Fuel

115

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Table 2. Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors (Kilograms-carbon equivalent per million Btu) Fuel Type Carbon Dioxide Coefficient at Full Combustion Combustion Fraction Adjusted Emissions Factor Petroleum Motor Gasoline 19.36 0.990 19.17 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Used as Fuel 17.18 0.995 17.09 Used as Feedstock 16.88 0.200 3.38 Jet Fuel 19.33 0.990 19.14 Distillate Fuel 19.95 0.990 19.75 Residual Fuel 21.49 0.990 21.28 Asphalt and Road Oil 20.62 0.000 0.00 Lubricants 20.24 0.600 12.14 Petrochemical Feedstocks 19.37 0.200 3.87 Kerosene 19.72 0.990 19.52 Petroleum Coke 27.85 0.500 13.93 Petroleum Still Gas 17.51 0.995 17.42 Other Industrial 20.31 0.990 20.11 Coal Residential and Commercial 26.00 0.990 25.74 Metallurgical 25.56 0.990 25.30 Industrial Other 25.63 0.990 25.38 Electric Utility1 25.76 0.990 25.50 Natural Gas

116

Carbon microtubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

Isotopic Distribution Coefficient of Tritiated Water Adsorbed on Faujasite-Type Zeolite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tritium, Safety, and Environment / Eighteenth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Part 1)

Yasunori Iwai; Toshihiko Yamanishi

118

Arreon Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Arreon Carbon Ltd Arreon Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Arreon Carbon Ltd Place Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip 100022 Sector Carbon Product Beijing-based firm that originates and purchases carbon credits in the Chinese market. Coordinates 39.90601°, 116.387909° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.90601,"lon":116.387909,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

119

CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: United States Forest Service Sector: Climate, Land Focus Area: Forestry Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options Topics: GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.fs.fed.us/ccrc/topics/urban-forests/ctcc/ Cost: Free Language: English References: CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator[1] Overview "The CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator is the only tool approved by the Climate Action Reserve's Urban Forest Project Protocol for quantifying carbon dioxide sequestration from GHG tree planting projects. The CTCC is programmed in an Excel spreadsheet and provides carbon-related information

120

Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960" Categories: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Skill Scores and Correlation Coefficients in Model Verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Attributes of the anomaly correlation coefficient, as a model verification measure, are investigated by exploiting a recently developed method of decomposing skill scores into other measures of performance. A mean square error skill score based ...

Allan H. Murphy; Edward S. Epstein

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Wind Stress Drag Coefficient over the Global Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interannual and climatological variations of wind stress drag coefficient (CD) are examined over the global ocean from 1998 to 2004. Here CD is calculated using high temporal resolution (3- and 6-hourly) surface atmospheric variables from two ...

A. Birol Kara; Alan J. Wallcraft; E. Joseph Metzger; Harley E. Hurlburt; Chris W. Fairall

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Stability-Dependent Exchange Coefficients for Air–Sea Fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces exchange coefficients for wind stress (CD), latent heat flux (CL), and sensible heat flux (CS) over the global ocean. They are obtained from the state-of-the-art Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) bulk ...

A. Birol Kara; Harley E. Hurlburt; Alan J. Wallcraft

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A simple estimator for the distribution of random coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a simple mixtures estimator for recovering the joint distribution of parameter heterogeneity in economic models, such as the random coefficients logit. The estimator is based on linear regression subject to ...

Ryan, Stephen

125

Asymptotic Properties of an Autocorrelation Coefficient for Coherent Doppler Sonar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new formula is derived for the asymptotic form of the magnitude of an autocorrelation coefficient for coherent Doppler sonar. The autocorrelation magnitude is shown to be a biased estimator in the limit of infinite ensemble length. Numerical ...

Jeremy Dillon; Len Zedel; Alex E. Hay

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Wind heat transfer coefficient in solar collectors in outdoor conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Knowledge of wind heat transfer coefficient, h{sub w}, is required for estimation of upward losses from the outer surface of flat plate solar collectors/solar cookers. In present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the wind induced convective heat transfer coefficient by employing unglazed test plate (of size about 0.9 m square) in outdoor conditions. Experiments, for measurement of h{sub w}, have been conducted on rooftop of a building in the Institute campus in summer season for 2 years. The estimated wind heat transfer coefficient has been correlated against wind speed by linear regression and power regression. Experimental values of wind heat transfer coefficient estimated in present work have been compared with studies of other researchers after normalizing for plate length. (author)

Kumar, Suresh; Mullick, S.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

127

On Lateral Dispersion Coefficients as Functions of Averaging Time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Plume dispersion coefficients are discussed in terms of single-particle and relative diffusion, and are investigated as functions of averaging time. To demonstrate the effects of averaging time on the relative importance of various dispersion ...

C. M. Sheih

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Wavelength Dependence of Aerosol Extinction Coefficient for Stratospheric Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple empirical formula for the wavelength dependence of the aerosol extinction coefficient is proposed. The relationship between the constants in the formula and the variable parameter in the aerosol size distribution is explicitly expressed. ...

Glenn K. Yue

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Generalized Levinson-Durbin sequences, binomial coefficients and autoregressive estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For a discrete time second-order stationary process, the Levinson-Durbin recursion is used to determine the coefficients of the best linear predictor of the observation at time k+1, given k previous observations, best in the sense of minimizing the mean ... Keywords: 05A10, 11B65, 62M10, Binomial coefficients, Generalized Levinson-Durbin sequence, Least squares estimator, Levinson-Durbin sequence, Partial correlations, Yule-Walker estimator

Paul Shaman

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

131

Black carbon snow albedo reduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Black carbon snow albedo reduction Black carbon snow albedo reduction Title Black carbon snow albedo reduction Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Hadley, Odelle L., and Thomas W. Kirchstetter Journal Nature Climate Change Volume 2 Pagination 437-440 Abstract Climate models indicate that the reduction of surface albedo caused by black-carbon contamination of snow contributes to global warming and near-worldwide melting of ice1, 2. In this study, we generated and characterized pure and black-carbon-laden snow in the laboratory and verified that black-carbon contamination appreciably reduces snow albedo at levels that have been found in natural settings1, 3, 4. Increasing the size of snow grains in our experiments decreased snow albedo and amplified the radiative perturbation of black carbon, which justifies the aging-related positive feedbacks that are included in climate models. Moreover, our data provide an extensive verification of the Snow, Ice and Aerosol Radiation model1, which will be included in the next assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change5.

132

Tertiary carbonate reservoirs in Indonesia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon production from Tertiary carbonate reservoirs accounted for ca. 10% of daily Indonesian production at the beginning of 1978. Environmentally, the reservoirs appear as parts of reef complexes and high-energy carbonate deposits within basinal areas situated mainly in the back arc of the archipelago. Good porosities of the reservoirs are represented by vugular/moldic and intergranular porosity types. The reservoirs are capable of producing prolific amounts of hydrocarbons: production tests in Salawati-Irian Jaya reaches maximum values of 32,000 bpd, and in Arun-North Sumatra tests recorded 200 MMCF gas/day. Significant hydrocarbon accumulations are related to good reservoir rocks in carbonates deposited as patch reefs, pinnacle reefs, and platform complexes. Exploration efforts expand continuously within carbonate formations which are extensive horizontally as well as vertically in the Tertiary stratigraphic column.

Nayoan, G.A.S.; Arpandi; Siregar, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Table 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 28, Ni, Nickel, 51, Sb, Antimony, 74, W, Tungsten. 6, C, Carbon, Graphite, 29, Cu, Copper, 52, Te, Tellurium, 75, Re, Rhenium. 7, N, Nitrogen, 30, Zn, ...

134

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

135

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

136

Carbon nanotube reinforced polyacrylonitrile and poly(etherketone) fibers .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The graphitic nature, continuous structure, and high mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) make them good candidate for reinforcing polymer fiber. The different types of… (more)

Jain, Rahul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,to provide cooling. Solar technologies: Photovoltaics provide renewable electricity. Solar thermal collectors type in each location. City-specific weather,energy costs,and electric grid carbon-intensity values

138

Carbon Diffusion Across Dissimilar Steel Welds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. However, this method could not be extended to the ferrite phase field. Experimental results from dissimilar metal joints heat treated in the ferrite phase field indicated that the dissolution and precipitation of carbides is instrumental in providing a... / -+ graphite Activation free energy Difference in carbon concentration across the interface Difference in alloy concentration across the interface Wagner interaction coefficient between element i and j Distance between {002} austenite planes Separation...

Race, Julia Margaret

1992-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

Low Carbon Economy Index 2010 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Economy Index 2010 Low Carbon Economy Index 2010 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Low Carbon Economy Index 2010 Agency/Company /Organization: PricewaterhouseCoopers Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Low emission development planning Resource Type: Publications Website: www.pwc.co.uk/ Low Carbon Economy Index 2010 Screenshot References: Low Carbon Economy Index 2010[1] "PwC re-examines the progress of the G20 economies against the Low Carbon Achievement and Low Carbon Challenge Index. This post- Copenhagen report provides an update on the progress over 2009." Low Carbon Economy Index 2010 References ↑ "Low Carbon Economy Index 2010" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Low_Carbon_Economy_Index_2010&oldid=3841

140

Nanostructuring of Microporous Carbons with Carbon Nanotubes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanostructuring of Microporous Carbons with Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture. Author(s), Stephen C. Hawkins,  ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Name Forest Carbon Partnership Facility Agency/Company /Organization World Bank Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Finance Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices, Training materials Website http://www.forestcarbonpartner Country Argentina, Bolivia, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of Congo, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Nicaragua, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of the Congo, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam

142

Carbon Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Corrosion rates of carbon steel at various locations...Vancouver Island, BC, Canada Rural marine 13 0.5 Detroit, MI Industrial 14.5 0.57 Fort Amidor Pier, CZ Marine 14.5 0.57 Morenci, MI Urban 19.5 0.77 Potter County, PA Rural 20 0.8 Waterbury, CT Industrial 22.8 0.89 State College, PA Rural 23 0.9 Montreal, QC, Canada Urban 23 0.9 Durham, NH Rural 28 1.1...

143

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of published data and implications for climate forcing Title Aerosol organic carbon to black carbon ratios: Analysis of...

144

Heart Rate Variability Analysis Using Threshold of Wavelet Package Coefficients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a new efficient feature extraction method based on the adaptive threshold of wavelet package coefficients is presented. This paper especially deals with the assessment of autonomic nervous system using the background variation of the signal Heart Rate Variability HRV extracted from the wavelet package coefficients. The application of a wavelet package transform allows us to obtain a time-frequency representation of the signal, which provides better insight in the frequency distribution of the signal with time. A 6 level decomposition of HRV was achieved with db4 as mother wavelet, and the above two bands LF and HF were combined in 12 specialized frequencies sub-bands obtained in wavelet package transform. Features extracted from these coefficients can efficiently represent the characteristics of the original signal. ANOVA statistical test is used for the evaluation of proposed algorithm.

Kheder, G; Massoued, M Ben; Samet, M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Transport coefficients for dense hard-disk systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the transport coefficients of a system of elastic hard disks, based on the use of Helfand-Einstein expressions is reported. The self-diffusion, the viscosity, and the heat conductivity are examined with averaging techniques especially appropriate for the use in event-driven molecular dynamics algorithms with periodic boundary conditions. The density and size dependence of the results is analyzed, and comparison with the predictions from Enskog's theory is carried out. In particular, the behavior of the transport coefficients in the vicinity of the fluid-solid transition is investigated and a striking power law divergence of the viscosity in this region is obtained, while all other examined transport coefficients show a drop in that density range.

Ramón García-Rojo; Stefan Luding; J. Javier Brey

2005-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

146

Anomaly induced transport coefficients, from weak to strong coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The existence of new transport phenomena associated to the presence of quantum anomalies has atracted very recently the attention of theorist. These transport coefficient have very interesting properties, for example, they do not renormalize. The most famous case of anomaly induced transport phenomena is the Chiral Magnetic Effect, in which an electric current is produced by a magnetic field if the system has a different number of right handed fermions respect the left handed one. In this thesis we have studied those transport coefficients from Kubo formulas at weak and strong coupling. To finish a fluid/gravity approach is used to compute all the second order anomalous coefficients in an anomalous conformal fluid.

Francisco Pena-Benitez

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF Be-LIKE Si  

SciTech Connect

Recombination of Be-like Si{sup 10+} over the 0-43 eV electron-ion energy range is measured at the CRYRING electron cooler. In addition to radiative and dielectronic recombination, the recombination spectrum also shows strong contributions from trielectronic recombination. Below 100 meV, several very strong resonances associated with a spin-flip of the excited electron dominate the spectrum and also dominate the recombination in the photoionized plasma. The resonant plasma rate coefficients corrected for the experimental field ionization are in good agreement with calculated results by Gu and with AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. All other calculations significantly underestimate the plasma rate coefficients at low temperatures.

Orban, I.; Boehm, S.; Schuch, R. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Loch, S. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Measurement and quantification of aggregate thermal coefficient of expansion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete affects thermal related distresses in pavements. Factors affecting expansion of concrete and aggregates along with existing models are reviewed. A test method to measure the coefficient of thermal expansion of aggregates is proposed. Existing methods used to analyze oxide contents are evaluated. A relation between the oxide content of various elements in aggregates and the CTE of aggregate is presented. Results obtained from the proposed method are presented. A model is also presented for the CTE of concrete based on aggregate properties.

Chande, Gautam U

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Forest Carbon Index | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forest Carbon Index Forest Carbon Index Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Forest Carbon Index Agency/Company /Organization: Resources for the Future Partner: United Nations Foundation Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Finance, GHG inventory, Market analysis Resource Type: Maps, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Website: www.forestcarbonindex.org/ Web Application Link: www.forestcarbonindex.org/maps.html Cost: Free References: Forest Carbon Index [1] The Forest Carbon Index (FCI) compiles and displays global data relating to biological, economic, governance, investment, and market readiness conditions for every forest and country in the world, revealing the best places and countries for forest carbon investments. Please use this site to

150

FE Carbon Capture and Storage News  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

carbon-capture-storage-news Office of Fossil Energy carbon-capture-storage-news Office of Fossil Energy Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585202-586-6503 en Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-invests-drive-down-costs-carbon-capture-support-reductions-greenhouse-gas carbon-capture-support-reductions-greenhouse-gas" class="title-link">Energy Department Invests to Drive Down Costs of Carbon Capture, Support Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Pollution

151

The Structure of Ions near Carbon Nanotubes: New Insights into Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Structure of Ions near Carbon Nanotubes: New Insights into The Structure of Ions near Carbon Nanotubes: New Insights into Carbon Surface Chemistry and Implications for Water Purification Carbon-based materials have long been used for a variety of water purification operations. Researchers have investigated carbon materials as adsorbents for decades, but only limited information on the precise details of aqueous ion interactions with carbon surfaces has been uncovered. It is empirically known that the affinity of activated carbon for various hydrated ions depends critically on how the material is processed. Processing influences the types of chemical groups and the structure of the carbon surface, which in turn influences the strength of interaction between hydrated ions and the carbon surface. It is also believed that many of the puzzling properties of impurity-free carbon, such as ferromagnetism, are governed by specific modifications of the carbon surface. However, very little is known about the local structure of the carbon surface that is responsible for its aqueous ion affinity.

152

Low Carbon Development: Planning & Modelling Course | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Development: Planning & Modelling Course Low Carbon Development: Planning & Modelling Course Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Development: Planning & Modelling Course Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Climate Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Economic Development, People and Policy Topics: Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis, Resource assessment Resource Type: Training materials, Workshop Website: einstitute.worldbank.org/ei/course/low-carbon-development Cost: Paid References: Low Carbon Development: Planning & Modelling[1] Program Overview This course has the following modules - (i) Introduction to Low Carbon Development Planning; (ii) Overview for Policymakers; (iii) Power; (iv) Household; (v) Transport - which introduce you to climate change

153

Carbon Capture Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Capture Corporation Carbon Capture Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Capture Corporation Address 7825 Fay Avenue Place La Jolla, California Zip 92037 Sector Carbon Product Developing ways to use algae to absorb CO2 emitted from gas- and coal-fired power plants Website http://www.carbcc.com/ Coordinates 32.845391°, -117.275033° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.845391,"lon":-117.275033,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

154

Carbon Solutions Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Group Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Solutions Group Place Chicago, Illinois Zip 60601 Sector Carbon Product Carbon Solutions Group collaborates with project developers to obtain environmental finance ,grants, feed-in ,tax-credits and subsidies.Carbon Solutions Group also procures energy generation technologies. Coordinates 41.88415°, -87.632409° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.88415,"lon":-87.632409,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

155

Award Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Awards Team (505) 667-7824 Email Types of Awards The Awards...

156

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

157

Photophysics of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

Samsonidze, Georgii G

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

159

Multivariate linear recursions with Markov-dependent coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study a linear recursion with random Markov-dependent coefficients. In a ''regular variation in, regular variation out'' setup we show that its stationary solution has a multivariate regularly varying distribution. This extends results previously ... Keywords: Heavy tails, Multivariate random recursions, Multivariate regular variation, Random vector equations, Stochastic difference equation, Tail asymptotic, primary, secondary

Diana Hay; Reza Rastegar; Alexander Roitershtein

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Electromagnetic fields and transport coefficients in a hot pion gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present recent results on finite temperature electromagnetic form factors and the electrical conductivity in a pion gas. The standard Chiral Perturbation Theory power counting needs to be modified for transport coefficients. We pay special attention to unitarity and to possible applications for dilepton and photon production.

A. Gomez Nicola; D. Fernandez-Fraile

2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Evaluation of diffusion coefficients from nonlinear impurity profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At high concentrations, impurity diffusion in semiconductors is governed by nonlinear diffusion processes. Using similarity analysis, a general expression for evaluation of the diffusion coefficient from experimental impurity profiles derived for the case of redistributive diffusion of implanted impurities. This expression corresponds to the Boltzmann-Matano analysis for the case of diffusion with constant surface concentration.

Anderson, D.; Jeppson, K.O.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Lower bounds on the bounded coefficient complexity of bilinear maps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We prove lower bounds of order n log n for both the problem of multiplying polynomials of degree n, and of dividing polynomials with remainder, in the model of bounded coefficient arithmetic circuits over the complex numbers. These ... Keywords: Algebraic complexity, bilinear circuits, lower bounds, singular values

Peter Bürgisser; Martin Lotz

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Young modulus dependence of nanoscopic friction coefficient in hard coatings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with miniature moving parts, such as micro- electromechanical systems and hard-disk drives.1,2 A betterYoung modulus dependence of nanoscopic friction coefficient in hard coatings Elisa Riedoa with varying hardness obtained by different growth temperatures. For the CrN films, we show that the changes

Brune, Harald

164

Evaluating transport coefficients in real time thermal field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients in a hadronic gas have been calculated earlier in the imaginary time formulation of thermal field theory. The steps involved are to relate the defining retarded correlation function to the corresponding time-ordered one and to evaluate the latter in the conventional perturbation expansion. Here we carry out both the steps in the real time formulation.

S. Mallik; Sourav Sarkar

2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

165

Variation of the Heat Transfer Coefficient with Environmental Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimentally determined coefficients of the sensible heat flux across the air-sea interface are shown to vary with both wind velocity and difference in temperatures between the sea surface and the 10-m elevation. A simple formula is proposed to ...

Jin Wu

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Finance, GHG inventory Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.wri.org/publication/carbon-value-analysis-tool Cost: Free Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) Screenshot References: CVAT[1] he Carbon Value Analysis Tool (CVAT) is a screening tool to help companies integrate the value of carbon dioxide emissions reductions into energy-related investment decisions. The tool has two main purposes: To test the sensitivity of a project's internal rate of return (IRR) to "carbon value" (the value of GHG emissions reductions). CVAT integrates this value into traditional financial analysis by ascribing a market price, either actual or projected, to carbon emissions reductions.

167

Tools for Forest Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tools for Forest Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting Tools for Forest Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Tools for Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting Agency/Company /Organization: United States Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Publications, Training materials, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application, Website Website: nrs.fs.fed.us/carbon/tools/ Cost: Free Tools for Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting Screenshot References: Carbon Tools[1] Logo: Tools for Carbon Inventory, Management, and Reporting "Accurate estimates of carbon in forests are crucial for forest carbon

168

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Low Carbon Fuels Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Low Carbon Fuels Standard Collaboration The New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services may engage in

169

Potential of Malaysian activated carbon in dual purpose adsorption system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The adsorption capability of some locally produced activated charcoal (coconut shell) samples with methanol were taken under laboratory conditions. An experimental test rig was set up; data obtained from the experiments were fitted to Dubinin-Radushkevitch ... Keywords: Malaysian activated carbon, adsorption properties, coefficient of performance (COP), dual purpose system

M. A. Alghoul; M. Y. Sulaiman; K. Sopian; M. Yahya; Azami Zaharim

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon ...  

This technology describes methods to fabricate supercapacitors using aligned carbon nanotubes that are decorated with metal oxide or nitride ...

172

DOE Carbon Sequestration Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Program Charles E. Schmidt Carbon Sequestration Product Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory David J. Beecy Director, Office of Environmental Systems...

173

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

174

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon

175

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.1 July.6 Monitoring 8 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 8 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code trademark 9 3. Carbon sequestration 10 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 10 3.2 Carbon baseline 10 3.3 Carbon leakage 11 3.4 Project

176

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Composite carbon foam electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

178

Carbon Markets: A Potential Source of Income for Farmers and Ranchers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural producers may be able to increase their earnings by selling carbon credits to large carbon emitters. This publication explains the origins of the carbon market, the types of projects agriculturists can undertake, and the steps and requirements for participating in the carbon credits marketplace. 9 pp., 2 tables, 2 figures

Ribera, Luis; Zenteno, Joaquin; McCarl, Bruce

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

179

Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect

This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A. [Nanomaterials Program, Advance Materials Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000, Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

2010-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

180

Melanin Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Melanin Types Melanin Types Name: Irfan Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What are different types of melanins? And what are the functions of these types? Replies: Hi Irfan! Melanin is a dark compound or better a photoprotective pigment. Its major role in the skin is to absorb the ultraviolet (UV) light that comes from the sun so the skin is not damaged. Sun exposure usually produces a tan at the skin that represents an increase of melanin pigment in the skin. Melanin is important also in other areas of the body, as the eye and the brain., but it is not completely understood what the melanin pigment does in these areas. Melanin forms a special cell called melanocyte. This cell is found in the skin, in the hair follicle, and in the iris and retina of the eye.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Type systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of type systems has emerged as one of the most active areas of research in programming languages, with applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compiler implementation, and security. This chapter discusses the ...

Benjamin C. Pierce

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Modelling interactions of carbon dioxide, forests, and climate  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric carbon dioxide is rising and forests and climate is changing! This combination of fact and premise may be evaluated at a range of temporal and spatial scales with the aid of computer simulators describing the interrelationships between forest vegetation, litter and soil characteristics, and appropriate meteorological variables. Some insights on the effects of climate on the transfers of carbon and the converse effect of carbon transfer on climate are discussed as a basis for assessing the significance of feedbacks between vegetation and climate under conditions of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Three main classes of forest models are reviewed. These are physiologically-based models, forest succession simulators based on the JABOWA model, and ecosystem-carbon budget models that use compartment transfer rates with empirically estimated coefficients. Some regression modeling approaches are also outlined. Energy budget models applied to forests and grasslands are also reviewed. This review presents examples of forest models; a comprehensive discussion of all available models is not undertaken.

Luxmoore, R.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Baldocchi, D.D. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

TEST METHOD FOR COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF CONCRETE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This method covers the determination of the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of concrete test specimens by determinations of length change due to temperature changes. Because the thermal coefficient of concrete varies with moisture condition, being a minimum when saturated or oven dry and a maximum at about 70 percent saturated, it is important to select the relevant moisture condition for the tests to be made. 2. Apparatus 2.1. The apparatus shall consist of: 2.1.1 Heating Bath- A water bath in which concrete specimens can be maintained at a temperature of 140 ± 2 F (60 ± 1.1 C) (Note 1) 2.1.2 Cooling Bath- A water bath in which

unknown authors

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

185

Mechanomutable Carbon Nanotube Arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Polymer Nanocomposites. Presentation Title, Mechanomutable Carbon ...

186

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

188

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Estimation of tracer diffusion coefficients of ions in aqueous solution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Equations are given for estimating tracer diffusion coefficients D/sub i//sup 0/ of ions at infinite dilution in terms of limiting ionic conductances ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/. Also given are generalized Nernst-Hartley equations for binary and multicomponent diffusion coefficients D/sup 0/ and D/sub ij//sup 0/, respectively, at infinite dilution. Data, estimates, and correlations for ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/ at 25/sup 0/C and other temperatures are discussed. Estimated values of ..lambda../sub i//sup 0/ are tabulated from 0-300/sup 0/C for ions of waste isolation interest and for ions of economic interest in geothermal brines. Estimates of their tracer diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution are tabulated. A rule of thumb, good to a factor of 2, is presented. Very limited data (available only at 25/sup 0/C) indicate that D/sub i//D/sub i//sup 0/ generally declines as the concentration of salt or supporting electrolyte increases. 6 figures, 2 tables.

Miller, D.G.

1982-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

190

Parameterization of the Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds during the ISDAC Field Campaign  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction coefficient, yet it is rarely measured directly, and therefore verification of parametrizations is difficult. The obvious solution is to be able to measure microphysical properties and extinction at the same time and for the same volume. This is best done by in situ sampling by instruments mounted on either balloon or aircraft. The latter is the usual route and the one employed here. Yet the problem of actually measuring extinction coefficient directly for arbitrarily complicated particles still remains unsolved.

Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

191

Parameterization of the Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds during the ISDAC Field Campaign  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction coefficient, yet it is rarely measured directly, and therefore verification of parametrizations is difficult. The obvious solution is to be able to measure microphysical properties and extinction at the same time and for the same volume. This is best done by in situ sampling by instruments mounted on either balloon or aircraft. The latter is the usual route and the one employed here. Yet the problem of actually measuring extinction coefficient directly for arbitrarily complicated particles still remains unsolved.

Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

192

ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

193

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

194

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

195

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

196

ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

NETL: Carbon Capture FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is CO2 captured? How is CO2 captured? Chilled Ammonia CO2 Capture Process Facility at American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Plant Chilled Ammonia CO2 Capture Process Facility at American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Plant Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture involves separating CO2 from other gases generated by industrial processes or burning fossil fuels. CO2 capture can remove as much as 95% of the CO2 from these processes. There are two major types of anthropogenic CO2 sources: mobile and stationary. Mobile sources include things like cars, trucks, trains, boats, and aircrafts that burn fossil fuels and generate CO2. Capturing CO2 from mobile sources is currently impractical. Stationary sources include power plants and industrial facilities that burn fossil fuels, as

199

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Carbon Sequestration: The fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a carbon sink through biological or physical processes. Carbon Sink: ...

200

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation Carbon Capture and Storage Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Relaated Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2007 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2004, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide were greater than OECD emissions for the first time. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 57 percent. Figure 77. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 2003-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center on 202-585-8800. Figure Data Figure 78. World energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is the most abundant anthropogenic (human-caused) greenhouse

202

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 7 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2005, non-OECD emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 7 percent. In 2030, carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 72 percent. Figure 75. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2005-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 76. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 77. Average Annual Growth in Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the OECD Economies, 2005-2030 (Percent per Year). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

203

Electron Microscopy of Carbon Nanotube Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron Microscopy of Carbon Nanotube Composites. Summary: Carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs ...

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Why Sequence Type I and II Methanotrophs?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Type I and II Methanotrophs? Type I and II Methanotrophs? Methanotrophic bacteria are absolutely vital for the global carbon cycle and to carbon sequestration, as they constitute the largest known biological methane sink. Methanotrophs are also central to the bioremediation and biofuel development goals of the DOE. To date, only two methanotrophic bacteria have undergone complete genome sequencing, and only one sequence is available to the public. Methanotrophs are distinguished from other microorganisms by their ability to utilize methane as a sole carbon and energy source, yet they are physiologically and phylogenetically diverse, affiliating with both Gammaproteobacteria (type I methanotrophs) and Alphaproteobacteria (type II methanotrophs). Methanotrophs are ubiquitous and play a major role in the

205

Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries: Public Finance Mechanisms to scale up private sector investment in climate solutions Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Environment Programme Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency Topics: Finance, Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: sefi.unep.org/fileadmin/media/sefi/docs/publications/PublicPrivateWeb. Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries: Public Finance Mechanisms to scale up private sector investment in climate solutions Screenshot References: Catalyzing Low Carbon Growth in Developing Countries[1]

206

Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska) Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska) Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Nebraska Program Type Climate Policies Provider Nebraska Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee Under this statute, the Director of Natural Resources will document and quantify carbon sequestration and greenhouse emissions reductions

207

Michael Heine, SGL Group - The Carbon Company, Carbon Fibers...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Fibers in Lightweight Systems for Wind Energy and Automotive Applications: Availability and Challenges for the Future Michael Heine, SGL Group - The Carbon Company, Carbon...

208

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Developmen...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction...

209

ELITE Cities: A low-carbon Eco-city Evaluation Tool for China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ELITE Cities: A low-carbon Eco-city Evaluation Tool for China Title ELITE Cities: A low-carbon Eco-city Evaluation Tool for China Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of...

210

Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal  

coal fired power plants; oil or gas fired power plants; cement production; bio-fuel combustion; Separation of carbon dioxide from other combustion ...

211

Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

212

Carbon Management and Carbon Dioxide Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Gas Stream Component Analysis Techniques and Strategies for Carbon Capture Systems from Oxy-Fuel Combustion (An Overview).

213

First Carbon Solutions | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Solutions Carbon Solutions Jump to: navigation, search Name First Carbon Solutions Place Bethesda, Maryland Product To be completed... Coordinates 40.020185°, -81.073819° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.020185,"lon":-81.073819,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

214

Sindicatum Carbon Capital SCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sindicatum Carbon Capital SCC Sindicatum Carbon Capital SCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Sindicatum Carbon Capital (SCC) Place London, United Kingdom Zip W1S 1HX Product SCC is a specialist end-to-end developer of climate change related projects, from conception to operation. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

215

Carbon Opportunity Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Opportunity Group Opportunity Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Opportunity Group Place Chicago, Illinois Zip 60606 Sector Carbon, Services Product Chicago-based firm that provides expertise in private equity investments, carbon asset development, financial risk management as well as advisory services. Coordinates 41.88415°, -87.632409° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.88415,"lon":-87.632409,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

216

Carbon Sequestration Initiative CSI | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sequestration Initiative CSI Sequestration Initiative CSI Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Sequestration Initiative (CSI) Place Cambridge, Massachusetts Zip MA 02139-4307 Sector Carbon Product Massachusetts based consortium which was formed in 2000 to investigate carbon capture and storage technologies. Coordinates 43.003745°, -89.017499° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.003745,"lon":-89.017499,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

217

Low Carbon Research Institute | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Research Institute Low Carbon Research Institute Name Low Carbon Research Institute Address King Edward VII Avenue CF10 3NB Place Cardiff, United Kingdom Phone number 029 20870003 Website http://www.lcri.org.uk/ Coordinates 51.4865872°, -3.1817252° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.4865872,"lon":-3.1817252,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

218

Reactive sticking coefficients for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon  

SciTech Connect

Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition-rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low-pressure cold-wall reactor. The RSCs have nonlinear Arrhenius temperature dependencies and decrease with increasing flux at low (710 /sup 0/C) temperatures. Several simple models are proposed to explain these observations. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition-rate measurements.

Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Metallic carbon materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

NETL: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RCSP Carbon Storage Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded cooperative agreements to seven Regional Carbon Sequestration...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

EIA - The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003-Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 2003 Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions The emissions policy submodule, part of the integrating module, estimates the energy–related emissions of carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon dioxide emissions are dependent on the fossil fuel consumed, the carbon content of the fuel, and the fraction of the fuel consumed in combustion. The product of the carbon dioxide coefficient and the combustion fraction yields a carbon dioxide emission factor. For fuel uses of fossil energy, the combustion fractions are assumed to be 0.99 for liquid fuels and 0.995 for gaseous fuels. The carbon dioxide potential of nonfuel uses of energy, such as asphalt and petrochemical feedstocks, is assumed to be sequestered in the product and not released to the atmosphere. The coefficients for carbon dioxide emissions are updated each year from the Energy Information Administration’s annual, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States.17

223

Determination of Friction Coefficient in Unconfined Compression of Brain Tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unconfined compression tests are more convenient to perform on cylindrical samples of brain tissue than tensile tests in order to estimate mechanical properties of the brain tissue because they allow for homogeneous deformations. The reliability of these tests depends significantly on the amount of friction generated at the specimen/platen interface. Thus, there is a crucial need to find an approximate value of the friction coefficient in order to predict a possible overestimation of stresses during unconfined compression tests. In this study, a combined experimental-computational approach was adopted to estimate the dynamic friction coefficient mu of porcine brain matter against metal platens in compressive tests. Cylindrical samples of porcine brain tissue were tested up to 30% strain at variable strain rates, both under bonded and lubricated conditions in the same controlled environment. It was established that mu was equal to 0.09 +/- 0.03, 0.18 +/- 0.04, 0.18 +/- 0.04 and 0.20 +/- 0.02 at strain rates of...

Rashid, Badar; Gilchrist, Michael; 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.05.001

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist.

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

227

NETL: Carbon Storage Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Carbon Storage Newsletter PDF-571KB has been posted. 08.27.2013 Publications August 2013 Carbon Storage Newsletter PDF-1.1MB has been posted. 08.15.2013 News Ancient...

228

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

229

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

230

Oxygen electrode in molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen reduction reaction on a gold electrode in lithium carbonate melt was investigated to determine the influence of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and temperature on electrode kinetics and oxygen solubility by using cyclic Voltammetry and impedance analysis techniques. During this quarter, the impedance data were analyzed by a Complex Nonlinear Least Square (CNLS) Parameter estimation program to determine the kinetic and the mass transfer related parameters such as charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance, solution resistance, and Warburg coefficient. The estimated parameters were used to obtain the C0{sub 2} reaction orders and apparent activation energies for the exchange current density and the mass transfer parameter (D{sub o}{sup {1/2}}C{sub o}*).

Dave, B.B.; Srinivasan, S.; White, R.E.; Appleby, A.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Carbon Footprint and Carbon Deficit Analysis of Iron and Steel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management. Presentation Title ... Study on Capture, Recovery and Utilization of Carbon Dioxide.

232

Carbon Fibers and Carbon Nanotubes - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010 ... Polymer Nanocomposites: Carbon Fibers and Carbon Nanotubes Sponsored by: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society Program ...

233

Carbon Dioxide Compression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. © C opyright 2009 Carbon Dioxide Compression DOE – EPRI – NIST ... Greenhouse gas sequestration Page 5. 5 © C opyright 2009 ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

234

Carbon Mitigation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... sustainable technologies such as CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS ... property diagnostic tools (under realistic conditions for carbon capture from ...

2012-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

235

Big Sky Carbon Atlas  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

(Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership, Big Sky [BSCSP; ,

236

Electrocatalysts on Carbon Nanoparticles  

Carbon nanostructures offer extremely high surface areas and so are attractive candidates to support dispersed catalysts. These nanostructures, ...

237

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

land-use changes. When biofuel production increases, land ison carbon releases. If biofuel production does not result in

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Type: Renewal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 INCITE Awards 1 INCITE Awards Type: Renewal Title: -Ab Initio Dynamical Simulations for the Prediction of Bulk Properties‖ Principal Investigator: Theresa Windus, Iowa State University Co-Investigators: Brett Bode, Iowa State University Graham Fletcher, Argonne National Laboratory Mark Gordon, Iowa State University Monica Lamm, Iowa State University Michael Schmidt, Iowa State University Scientific Discipline: Chemistry: Physical INCITE Allocation: 10,000,000 processor hours Site: Argonne National Laboratory Machine (Allocation): IBM Blue Gene/P (10,000,000 processor hours) Research Summary: This project uses high-quality electronic structure theory, statistical mechanical methods, and

239

Bacteria Types  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bacteria Types Bacteria Types Name: Evelyn Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What is the significance of S. marcescens,M.luteus, S.epidermidis, and E. Coli? Which of these are gram-positive and gram-negative, and where can these be found? Also, what problems can they cause? When we culture these bacteria, we used four methods: plates, broth, slants, and pour plates. The media was made of TSB, TSA, NAP, and NAD. What is significant about these culturing methods? Replies: I could give you the answer to that question but it is more informative, and fun, to find out yourself. Start with the NCBI library online (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and do a query with the species name, and 'virulence' if you want to know what they're doing to us. Have a look at the taxonomy devision to see how they are related. To find out if they're gram-pos or neg you should do a gram stain if you can. Otherwise you'll find that information in any bacteriology determination guide. Your question about the media is not specific enough so I can't answer it.

240

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion in PBX 9502  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

LA-14003 LA-14003 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Elusive Coefficients of Thermal Expansion in PBX 9502 Editing by Belinda K. Haag, IM-1 Illustrations by J. Phil Putnam, IM-1 Cover Photo: Stacked sheets of TATB exposed by fracture in a consolidated PBX 9502 component. Los Alamos National Laboratory, an affirmative action/ equal opportunity employer, is operated by the University of California for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the US Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36. This work was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the Regents of the University of California, the United States Government nor

242

DRIFT COEFFICIENTS OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using test-particle simulations, the off-diagonal elements of the diffusion tensor are evaluated numerically. The comparison of the so-obtained time-dependent drift coefficients with analytical approximations shows that, for weak turbulence strengths or for slab turbulence geometry, the weak scattering result provides an excellent agreement with the numerical results. For two- or three-dimensional turbulence geometry, however, neither the classical scattering result nor alternative analytical approaches provide an accurate description of the numerically obtained values. Furthermore, the influence is discussed of a non-constant energy range in the turbulence spectrum and of non-static turbulence, for which the time dependence is modeled using magnetohydrodynamic plasma waves.

Tautz, R. C. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Shalchi, A., E-mail: rct@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

243

Novel Features of the Transport Coefficients in Lifshitz Black Branes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the transport coefficients, including the conductivities and shear viscosity of the non-relativistic field theory dual to the Lifshitz black brane with multiple U(1) gauge fields by virtue of the gauge/gravity duality. Focusing on the case of double U(1) gauge fields, we systematically investigate the electric, thermal and thermoelectric conductivities for the dual non-relativistic field theory. In the large frequency regime, we find a nontrivial power law behavior in the electric AC conductivity when the dynamical critical exponent z>1 in (2+1)-dimensional field theory. The relations between this novel feature and the `symmetric hopping model' in condensed matter physics are discussed. In addition, we also show that the Kovtun-Starinets-Son bound for the shear viscosity to the entropy density is not violated by the additional U(1) gauge fields and dilaton in the Lifshitz black brane.

Jia-Rui Sun; Shang-Yu Wu; Hai-Qing Zhang

2013-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

244

Stability Parameters and Wind-Stress Coefficients under Various Atmospheric Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stability parameters and wind-stress coefficients under various atmospheric conditions are related to wind velocity and air-sea temperature difference. Readily applicable formulae, without iterative computations, of wind-stress coefficients under ...

Jin Wu

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Surface Wind over Tropical Oceans: Diagnosis of the Momentum Balance, and Modeling the Linear Friction Coefficient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous diagnostic studies of surface wind momentum balances over tropical oceans showed that, under a linear friction assumption, the meridional friction coefficient is two to three times larger than the zonal friction coefficient, and that ...

John C. H. Chiang; Stephen E. Zebiak

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Condensation Coefficient Measurement for Water in the UMR Cloud Simulation Chamber  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A systematic series of condensation coefficient measurements of water have been made using the University of Missouri—Rolla cooled-wall expansion chamber which simulates the thermodynamics of cloud. This coefficient is seen to decrease from a ...

D. E. Hagen; J. Schmitt; M. Trueblood; J. Carstens; D. R. White; D. J. Alofs

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Wind-Stress coefficients over Sea surface near Neutral Conditions—A Revisit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A scaling law of wind-stress coefficients is presented to illustrate explicitly that the coefficient increases with wind velocity and decreases with fetch; physical reasonings of both trends are discussed. Besides being shown previously to be ...

Jin Wu

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

The aerocapacitor: A carbon aerogel based supercapacitor  

SciTech Connect

During the 1980's, a wide variety of carbon foams, formed by the pyrolysis of polymeric foams, were developed at several Department of Energy Laboratories. These foams are known for their monolithic structure and the ability to tailor their critical parameters (e.g. porosity, density). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) exclusively developed a unique type of carbon foam, known as carbon aerogels. Carbon aerogels are a special class of open-cell foams with (1) homogeneous ultrafine particle and pore size, (2) very large useful surface area per unit volume, and (3) monolithic structure, that yields (4) excellent electrical conductivity due to the intimate connection of the particles. We have applied carbon aerogels to make an Aerocapacitor''; a high power- and energy-density electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) that uses carbon aerogels as electrodes. Carbon aerogel surface areas range from about 100 to 700 m[sup 2]/cc (as measured by BET analysis), with bulk densities of 0.05 to 1.0 g/cm[sup 3] and their morphology allows stored energy to be released rapidly, resulting in high power-densities.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

The aerocapacitor: A carbon aerogel based supercapacitor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 1980`s, a wide variety of carbon foams, formed by the pyrolysis of polymeric foams, were developed at several Department of Energy Laboratories. These foams are known for their monolithic structure and the ability to tailor their critical parameters (e.g. porosity, density). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) exclusively developed a unique type of carbon foam, known as carbon aerogels. Carbon aerogels are a special class of open-cell foams with (1) homogeneous ultrafine particle and pore size, (2) very large useful surface area per unit volume, and (3) monolithic structure, that yields (4) excellent electrical conductivity due to the intimate connection of the particles. We have applied carbon aerogels to make an ``Aerocapacitor``; a high power- and energy-density electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) that uses carbon aerogels as electrodes. Carbon aerogel surface areas range from about 100 to 700 m{sup 2}/cc (as measured by BET analysis), with bulk densities of 0.05 to 1.0 g/cm{sup 3} and their morphology allows stored energy to be released rapidly, resulting in high power-densities.

Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Facility Type!  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ITY: ITY: --&L~ ----------- srct-r~ -----------~------~------- if yee, date contacted ------------- cl Facility Type! i I 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis ] Production 1 Diepasal/Storage 'YPE OF CONTRACT .--------------- 1 Prime J Subcontract&- 1 Purchase Order rl i '1 ! Other information (i.e., ---------~---~--~-------- :ontrait/Pirchaee Order # , I C -qXlJ- --~-------~~-------~~~~~~ I I ~~~---~~~~~~~T~~~ FONTRACTING PERIODi IWNERSHIP: ,I 1 AECIMED AECMED GOVT GOUT &NTtiAC+OR GUN-I OWNED ----- LEEE!? M!s LE!Ps2 -LdJG?- ---L .ANDS ILJILDINGS X2UIPilENT IRE OR RAW HA-I-L :INAL PRODUCT IASTE Z. RESIDUE I I kility l pt I ,-- 7- ,+- &!d,, ' IN&"E~:EW AT SITE -' ---------------- , . Control 0 AEC/tlED managed operations

252

Adsorption near ambient temperatures of methane, carbon tetrafluoride, and sulfur hexafluoride on commercial activated carbons  

SciTech Connect

The adsorption isotherms for CH{sub 4}, CF{sub 4}, and SF{sub 6} are measured at three or four temperatures near ambient on three commercial activated carbons. The data are reduced using a virial-type equation of adsorption. Using this equation, isosteric heats of adsorption are calculated. It is shown that this fundamental thermodynamic quantity provides a basis for differentiating between the carbons` micropore structures.

Jagiello, J.; Bandosz, T.J.; Putyera, K.; Schwarz, J.A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Temperature and Frequency Dependent Conduction Mechanisms Within Bulk Carbon Nanotube Materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The resistance of three types of bulk carbon nanotube (CNT) materials (floating catalyst CNT yarn, forest grown CNT yarn, and super acid spun CNT fiber)… (more)

Bulmer, John Simmons

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

Das, Suman

255

On the spectra of carbon nano-structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An explicit derivation of dispersion relations and spectra for periodic Schr\\"{o}dinger operators on carbon nano-structures (including graphen and all types of single-wall nano-tubes) is provided.

Peter Kuchment; Olaf Post

2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

256

CarbonFree Technology | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarbonFree Technology CarbonFree Technology Jump to: navigation, search Logo: CarbonFree Technology Name CarbonFree Technology Address 22 St. Clair Ave. E., Suite 1103 Place Toronto, Ontario Zip M4T 2S3 Country Canada Sector Solar Product Solar power project developer Year founded 2006 Number of employees 6 Company Type For Profit Company Ownership Private Small Business Yes Technology Solar Photovoltaic Phone number 416-975-8800 Website http://www.carbonfreetechnolog Coordinates 43.688563896658°, -79.393026350881° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.688563896658,"lon":-79.393026350881,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

257

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

The authors' long term goal is to develop accurate prediction methods for describing the adsorption behavior of gas mixtures on solid adsorbents over complete ranges of temperature, pressure and adsorbent types. The major objectives of the project are to: (1) measure the adsorption behavior of pure CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrogen and their binary and ternary mixtures on several selected coals having different properties at temperatures and pressures applicable to the particular coal being studied, (2) generalize the adsorption results in terms of appropriate properties of the coals, to facilitate estimation of adsorption behavior for coals other than those studied experimentally, (3) delineate the sensitivity of the competitive adsorption of CO{sub 2}, methane and nitrogen to the specific characteristics of the coal on which they are adsorbed; establish the major differences (if any) in the nature of this competitive adsorption on different coals, and (4) test and/or develop theoretically-based mathematical models to represent accurately the adsorption behavior of mixtures of the type for which measurements are made. The specific accomplishments of this project during this reporting period are summarized below in three broad categories outlining experimentation, model development, and coal characterization. (1) Experimental Work: Our adsorption apparatus was reassembled, and all instruments were tested and calibrated. Having confirmed the viability of the experimental apparatus and procedures used, adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 2%. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on two other coals. (2) Model Development: The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, two-dimensional cubic equations of state, and the local density model. In general, all models performed well for Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). However, for pressures higher than 8.3 MPa (1200 psia), carbon dioxide produced multilayer adsorption behavior similar to Type IV adsorption. Our results to date indicate that the SLD model may be a suitable choice for modeling multilayer coalbed gas adsorption. However, model improvements are required to (a) account for coal heterogeneity and structure complexity, and (b) provide for more accurate density predictions. (3) Coal Characterization: We have identified several well-characterized coals for use in our adsorption studies. The criteria for coal selection has been guided by the need for coals that (a) span the spectrum of properties encountered in coalbed methane production (such as variation in rank), and (b) originate from coalbed methane recovery sites (e.g., San Juan Basin, Black Warrior Basin, etc.). At Pennsylvania State University, we have completed calibrating our instruments using a well-characterized activated carbon. In addition, we have conducted CO{sub 2} and methane uptakes on four samples, including (a) a widely used commercial activated carbon, BPL from Calgon Carbon Corp.; (b) an Illinois No.6 bituminous coal from the Argonne Premium Coal sample bank; (c) a Fruitland Intermediate coal sample; (d) a dry Fruitland sample. The results are as expected, except for a greater sensitivity to the outgassing temperature. ''Standard'' outgassing conditions (e.g., 383.2 K, overnight), which are often used, may not be appropriate for gas storage in coalbeds. Conditions that are more representative of in-situ coal (approximately 313.2 K) may be much more appropriate. In addition, our results highlight the importance of assessing the degree of approach to adsorption equilibrium.

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Carbon dioxide sensor  

SciTech Connect

The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Qualification Test on a Carbon Fiber Composite Core Conductor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon-fiber composite-core conductor is the most recently developed high-temperature low-sag (HTLS) advanced conductor. Consequently, the electric power industry has the least experience with this type of conductor. In past years, the "Advanced Conductor" project has been developing a testing protocol to qualify this type of conductor. The validity of the qualification test was confirmed by extensive testing of the protocol on various carbon-fiber composite-core conductors and at different test temp...

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

260

Number: 1894 Type: factoid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... type> Type: factoid Description: How high is the pitcher's mound? ... 2047 Type: factoid Description: How close is Mercury to ...

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Scaling of the normal coefficient of restitution for wet impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thorough understanding of the energy dissipation in the dynamics of wet granular matter is essential for a continuum description of natural phenomena such as debris flow, and the development of various industrial applications such as the granulation process. The coefficient of restitution (COR), defined as the ratio between the relative rebound and impact velocities of a binary impact, is frequently used to characterize the amount of energy dissipation associated. We measure the COR by tracing a freely falling sphere bouncing on a wet surface with the liquid film thickness monitored optically. For fixed ratio between the film thickness and the particle size, the dependence of the COR on the impact velocity and various properties of the liquid film can be characterized with the Stokes number, defined as the ratio between the inertia of the particle and the viscosity of the liquid. Moreover, the COR for infinitely large impact velocities derived from the scaling can be analyzed by a model considering the energy dissipation from the inertia of the liquid film.

Thomas Mueller; Frank Gollwitzer; Christof Kruelle; Ingo Rehberg; Kai Huang

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

262

Transport Coefficient of Gluon Plasma from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this report we present our calculation of the transport coefficient of gluon system on $24^3\\times 8$ lattice in the quench approximation. Simulations are carried out in the range, $1.4 \\le T/T_c \\le 24$. In the temperature region slightly above the transition, where the perturbative calculation is not applicable, the shear viscosity($\\eta$) is smaller than typical hadron masses. The bulk viscosity is consistent with zero within the range of error bars in $1.4 \\le T/T_c \\le 24$. We compare our results with the perturbative calculations in large $T/T_c$ region. It is found that the lattice and perturbative results are consistent with each other there. The ratio $\\eta/s$ is around $0.1-0.4$ in $T/T_c < 3$ region and satisfies the KSS bound\\cite{KSS}. In order to estimate the contribution from high frequency part of the spectral function, we study the effects of a term $\\rho^{high}$ proposed by Aarts and Resco\\cite{Aarts}. It is found that until the threshold mass becomes small, its effect is quite small, and that viscosity decreases as the threshold decreases. From these studies we think that although our result is obtained under an assumptions for the spectral function, it gives a reasonable estimation for $\\eta$($=\\pi d\\rho/d\\omega$ at $\\omega=0$), and qualitative results will not be changed when the accurate spectral function is obtained.

Sunao Sakai; Atsushi Nakamura

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

263

NETL: Carbon Storage - Geologic Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geologic Storage Geologic Storage Carbon Storage Geologic Storage Focus Area Geologiccarbon dioxide (CO2) storage involves the injection of supercritical CO2 into deep geologic formations (injection zones) overlain by competent sealing formations and geologic traps that will prevent the CO2 from escaping. Current research and field studies are focused on developing better understanding 11 major types of geologic storage reservoir classes, each having their own unique opportunities and challenges. Understanding these different storage classes provides insight into how the systems influence fluids flow within these systems today, and how CO2 in geologic storage would be anticipated to flow in the future. The different storage formation classes include: deltaic, coal/shale, fluvial, alluvial, strandplain, turbidite, eolian, lacustrine, clastic shelf, carbonate shallow shelf, and reef. Basaltic interflow zones are also being considered as potential reservoirs. These storage reservoirs contain fluids that may include natural gas, oil, or saline water; any of which may impact CO2 storage differently. The following summarizes the potential for storage and the challenges related to CO2 storage capability for fluids that may be present in more conventional clastic and carbonate reservoirs (saline water, and oil and gas), as well as unconventional reservoirs (unmineable coal seams, organic-rich shales, and basalts):

264

Mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with microdeletionsM, Huson S. Mosaic (segmental) neurofibromatosis type 1and type 2: no longer neurofibromatosis type 5. Am J Med

Liang, Christine; Schaffer, Julie V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

266

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

267

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

268

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

269

Mesoporous carbon materials  

SciTech Connect

The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

270

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

271

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Recanati, Catherine

272

Superlubricity and wearless sliding in diamondlike carbon films.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films have attracted great interest in recent years mainly because of their unusual optical, electrical, mechanical, and tribological properties. Such properties are currently being exploited for a wide range of engineering applications including magnetic hard disks, gears, sliding and roller bearings, scratch resistant glasses, biomedical implants, etc. Systematic studies on carbon-based materials in our laboratory have led to the development of a new class of amorphous DLC films that provide extremely low friction and wear coefficients of 0.001 to 0.005 and 10{sup -11} to 10{sup -10} mm{sup 3} /N.m, respectively, when tested in inert-gas or high-vacuum environments. These films were produced in highly hydrogenated gas discharge plasmas by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at room temperature. The carbon source gases used in the deposition of these films included methane, acetylene, and ethylene. Tribological studies in our laboratory have established a very close correlation between the composition of the plasmas and the friction and wear coefficients of the resultant DLC films. Specifically, the friction and wear coefficients of DLC films grown in plasmas with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios were much lower than films derived from source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. Fundamental tribological and surface analytical studies have led us to conclude that hydrogen (within the film, as well as on the sliding surfaces) is extremely important for the superlubricity and wearless sliding behavior of these films. Based on these studies, a mechanistic model is proposed to explain the superlow friction and wear properties of the new DLC films.

Erdemir, A.

2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

273

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D Overview R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Justin "Judd" R. Swift Asst. Secretary for International Affairs Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy 2 nd U.S/China CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology Symposium May 28-29, 2008 Hangzhou, China Office of Fossil Energy Technological Carbon Management Options Improve Efficiency Sequester Carbon ï‚· Renewables ï‚· Nuclear ï‚· Fuel Switching ï‚· Demand Side ï‚· Supply Side ï‚· Capture & Store ï‚· Enhance Natural Sinks Reduce Carbon Intensity All options needed to: ï‚· Affordably meet energy demand ï‚· Address environmental objectives Office of Fossil Energy DOE's Sequestration Program Structure Infrastructure Regional Carbon Sequestration

274

Activated carbon material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

Evans, A. Gary (North Augusta, SC)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cement Production Refineries Etc.... C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 Carbon Sequestration Program Goals * Deliver technologies & best practices that validate:...

276

Carbon Sequestration - Public Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public Meeting Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Public Meeting May 18, 2004 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Scott Klara Carbon Sequestration Technology Manager Carbon Sequestration Program Overview * What is Carbon Sequestration * The Fossil Energy Situation * Greenhouse Gas Implications * Pathways to Greenhouse Gas Stabilization * Sequestration Program Overview * Program Requirements & Structure * Regional Partnerships * FutureGen * Sources of Information What is Carbon Sequestration? Capture can occur: * at the point of emission * when absorbed from air Storage locations include: * underground reservoirs * dissolved in deep oceans * converted to solid materials * trees, grasses, soils, or algae Capture and storage of CO 2 and other Greenhouse Gases that

277

NETL: Carbon Storage - Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Infrastructure Carbon Storage Infrastructure The Infrastructure Element of DOE's Carbon Storage Program is focused on research and development (R&D) initiatives to advance geologic CO2 storage toward commercialization. DOE determined early in the program's development that addressing CO2 mitigation on a regional level is the most effective way to address differences in geology, climate, population density, infrastructure, and socioeconomic development. This element includes the following efforts designed to support the development of regional infrastructure for carbon capture and storage (CCS). Click on Image to Navigate Infrastructure Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) - This

278

Carbon Capture & Sequestration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Learn about the Energy Department's work to capture and transport CO2 into underground geologic formations, also known as carbon capture and sequestration.

279

Carbon Storage Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel power plants as viable, clean sources of electric power. The program is focused on developing technologies that can achieve 99 percent of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage...

280

Carbon Fiber Electronic Interconnects.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon fiber is an emerging material in electrical and electronics industry. It has been used as contact in many applications, such as switch, potentiometer, and… (more)

Deng, Yuliang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

282

Carbon Nanomaterials and Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 12, 2012 ... This presentation aims to capture those recent research efforts in synthesis and applications of carbon nanotubes in Li-ion battery, bioelectronic ...

283

NETL: Carbon Storage FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Does CCS really make a difference for the environment? Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several options, including the use of renewables, nuclear energy, alternative...

284

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

NETL: Carbon Storage - Reference Shelf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage Reference Shelf Below are links to Carbon Storage Program documents and reference materials. Each of the 10 categories has a variety of documents posted for easy access to current information - just click on the category link to view all related materials. RSS Icon Subscribe to the Carbon Storage RSS Feed. Carbon Storage Collage 2012 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas IV Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects Carbon Storage Technology Program Plan Carbon Storage Newsletter Archive Impact of the Marcellus Shale Gas Play on Current and Future CCS Activities Site Screening, Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geologic Formations Carbon Storage Systems and Well Management Activities Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations

286

Uncertainties in Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides. An Uncertainty Analysis for Risk Coefficients Reported in Federal Guidance Report No. 13  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (FGR 13) provides risk coefficients for estimation of the risk of cancer due to low-level exposure to each of more than 800 radionuclides. Uncertainties in risk coefficients were quantified in FGR 13 for 33 cases (exposure to each of 11 radionuclides by each of three exposure pathways) on the basis of sensitivity analyses in which various combinations of plausible biokinetic, dosimetric, and radiation risk models were used to generate alternative risk coefficients. The present report updates the uncertainty analysis in FGR 13 for the cases of inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides and expands the analysis to all radionuclides addressed in that report. The analysis indicates that most risk coefficients for inhalation or ingestion of radionuclides are determined within a factor of 5 or less by current information. That is, application of alternate plausible biokinetic and dosimetric models and radiation risk models (based on the linear, no-threshold hypothesis with an adjustment for the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor) is unlikely to change these coefficients by more than a factor of 5. In this analysis the assessed uncertainty in the radiation risk model was found to be the main determinant of the uncertainty category for most risk coefficients, but conclusions concerning the relative contributions of risk and dose models to the total uncertainty in a risk coefficient may depend strongly on the method of assessing uncertainties in the risk model.

Pawel, David [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Nelson, Christopher [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 Agency/Company /Organization: Forest Trends Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Market analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: moderncms.ecosystemmarketplace.com/repository/moderncms_documents/SFCM State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009 Screenshot References: State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2009[1] Overview "This report was created to increase transparency and answer fundamental questions about the supply of forestry-based carbon credits, such as transaction volumes, credit prices, hectares influenced and tenure rights. It outlines the aggregate numbers from our survey of 61 project developers1

288

Regional Workshop on Opportunities and Priorities for Low Carbon Green  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Regional Workshop on Opportunities and Priorities for Low Carbon Green Regional Workshop on Opportunities and Priorities for Low Carbon Green Growth in Asia Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Regional Workshop on Opportunities and Priorities for Low Carbon Green Growth in Asia Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Institute Topics: Policies/deployment programs, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Workshop, Training materials Website: www.adbi.org/cd-roms/2010/08/27/4054.low.carbon.green.growth.asia/ UN Region: Central Asia, Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia References: ADB Regional Workshop[1] Contents "Concepts of Low Carbon Green Growth: Challenges and Current Status in the Asia Pacific Region Inside the Low Carbon Green Growth: Innovations in Green Energy Supply Demand Side Energy Efficiency Solutions: A Low Hanging

289

UNDP-Low Carbon Portal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

UNDP-Low Carbon Portal UNDP-Low Carbon Portal Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP Low Carbon Portal Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme Sector: Energy, Land Topics: Low emission development planning Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices Website: europeandcis.undp.org/lowcarbon/?event=advancedSearch UNDP Low Carbon Portal Screenshot References: UNDP Low Carbon Portal[1] Logo: UNDP Low Carbon Portal Tool Overview "The primary purpose of this website is to disseminate knowledge and expertise in developing the capacity of national and sub-national governments to formulate, finance, and implement low-emission, climate-resilient development strategies (LECRDS). UNDP's technical and finance services strengthen the capacity of developing countries to

290

International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.iea.org/platform.asp International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform Screenshot References: International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform[1] Logo: International Low-Carbon Energy Technology Platform "The Technology Platform's central aim is to accelerate and scale-up action for the development and deployment of clean energy technologies. It will do this by creating a forum that:

291

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia Agency/Company /Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics GHG inventory Resource Type Publications Website http://www.lahmeyer.de/fileadm Country Russia Eastern Europe References Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia[1] References ↑ "Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_of_the_Electricity_Carbon_Emission_Factors_for_Russia&oldid=383164" Category: Programs What links here Related changes Special pages

292

Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap Agency/Company /Organization: World Watch Institute Sector: Energy Topics: Implementation, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications Website: www.worldwatch.org/node/7069#summary Cost: Free, Paid Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap Screenshot References: Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap[1] Logo: Low-Carbon Energy: A Roadmap Summary "Technologies available today, and those expected to become competitive over the next decade, will permit a rapid decarbonization of the global energy economy. New renewable energy technologies, combined with a broad suite of energy-efficiency advances, will allow global energy needs to be

293

Carbon, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon, Iowa: Energy Resources Carbon, Iowa: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.8964065°, -92.421852° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.8964065,"lon":-92.421852,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

294

Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and forest carbon modeling communities is necessary.

Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

Hull, Laurence Charles; Grossman, Christopher; Fjeld, R. A.; Coates, C.J.; Elzerman, A.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Estimating Uranium Partition Coefficients from Laboratory Adsorption Isotherms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimated 330 metric tons of uranium have been buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of uranium transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of uranium fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms have been measured in the laboratory and fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter was statistically identical for 14 sediment samples. The Freundlich Kf for seven samples, where material properties have been measured, is correlated to sediment surface area. Based on these empirical observations, a model has been derived for adsorption of uranium on INEEL sedimentary materials using surface complexation theory. The model was then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected at the SDA. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth.

Hull, L.C. (INEEL); Grossman, C.; Fjeld, R.A.; Coates, J.T.; Elzerman, A.W. (Clemson University)

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

DETERMINATION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION OF METALS AT T C  

SciTech Connect

A dial gage dilatometer was used to determine the thermal expansion of 18/8/l and 18/13/1 stainless steels and of cast uranium. The measurements were made under a vacuum of 2 x 10/sup -3/ mm Hg. Both types of steel showed linear expansion over the temperature range 20 to 900 deg C, the coefficients of expansion obtained being 1.88 plus or minus 0.03 x 10/sup -5/ and 1.87 plus or minus 0.03 x 10/sup -5 deg /C/sup -1/, respectively. Values of 1.64 to 1.70 plus or minus 0.05, 2.20 plus or minus 0.05. and 1.70 plus or minus 0.05 x 10/sup -5 deg /C/sup -1/ were obtained for the coefficients of expansion of cast uranium in the alpha , BETA , and gamma forms. The alpha BETA and BETA - - gamma transformations gave rise a changes in length of 0.7 and 0.4%. (auth) l6223 The conditions in a die during hot pressing are considered in delail and from this consideration the propenties of an ideal die material are specified. Possible die materials for hot pressing uranium are discussed and compared with this ideal specification. Experimental work on cemented carbides compatible with uranium is recommended. (auth) l6224 Stresses likely to arise in the fuel elements of the fast fission reactor due to its design and operation have been calculated using simple elastic theory. The effects of some of these stresses are briefly considered, and recommendations are made as to ways in which some of the more dangerous stresses may be eliminated or reduced. (auth) l6225 The principles of arc melting and casting are described and various types of furnace compared. On the basis of experiments with a small laboratory furnace a large ingot casting furnace has been designed. It has been shown that when using an argon atmosphere there are no fundamental difficulties to be overcome. With a non-consumable upper electrode it has not yet heen possible to maintain a stable arc below 0.2 mm pressure, and it is recommended that the ingot casting furnace should be operated in an argon atmosphere until this problem hss been solved. (auth)

Makin, S.M.; Hunter, P.

1953-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Lead carbonate scintillator materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Carbon Precursors ...  

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion ...  

Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; ... Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures United States Patent ...

302

Fiber Bridging Model for Reinforced-Carbon-Carbon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Professor K. K. Chawla Honorary Symposium on Fibers, Foams and ... fiber bridging and resistance-curve behavior in reinforced-carbon-carbon (

303

Stabilization and carbonization studies of polyacrylonitrile /carbon nanotube composite fibers .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon fibers contain more than 90 wt. % carbon. They have low density, high specific strength and modulus, and good temperature and chemical resistance. Therefore,… (more)

Liu, Yaodong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Novel method for carbon nanofilament growth on carbon fibers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Carbon nanofilaments were grown on the surface of microscale carbon-fibers at relatively low temperature using palladium as a catalyst to create multiscale fiber reinforcing structures… (more)

Garcia, Daniel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Synthesis of Carbon-Carbon Composite via Infiltration Process of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The carbon frame was first pyrolyzed from the wood template. The final composites were then obtained by infiltrating molten coal tar pitch into the carbon frame ...

306

Carbon-free generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon-free generation Carbon-free generation Carbon-free central generation of electricity, either through fossil fuel combustion with carbon dioxide capture and storage or development of renewable sources such as solar, wind, and/or nuclear power, is key to our future energy portfolio. Brookhaven also provides tools and techniques for studying geological carbon dioxide sequestration and analyzing safety issues for nuclear systems. Our nation faces grand challenges: finding alternative and cleaner energy sources and improving efficiency to meet our exponentially growing energy needs. Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory are poised to meet these challenges with basic and applied research programs aimed at advancing the effective use of renewable energy through improved conversion,

307

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

308

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that some extrasolar planets carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

309

carbon | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

carbon Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2002) Super contributor 9 January, 2014 - 13:12 Suburbs offset Low Carbon Footprint of major U.S. Cities carbon cities CO2...

310

Nonlinearity of Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coupled climate–carbon models have shown the potential for large feedbacks between climate change, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and global carbon sinks. Standard metrics of this feedback assume that the response of land and ocean carbon uptake ...

Kirsten Zickfeld; Michael Eby; H. Damon Matthews; Andreas Schmittner; Andrew J. Weaver

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT METHODS, DIFFICULTIES, AND RESULTS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT METHODS, DIFFICULTIES, AND RESULTS David L. King, Jay A. Kratochvil, and William E. Boyson Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 0 ABSTRACT The term "temperature coefficient" has been applied to several different photovoltaic performance parameters, including voltage, current, and power. The procedures for measuring the coefficient(s) for modules and arrays are not yet standardized, and systematic influences are common in the test methods used to measure them. There are also misconceptions regarding their application. Yet, temperature coefficients, however obtained, play an important role in PV system design and sizing, where often the worst case operating condition dictates the array

312

Transport coefficients of D1-D5-P system and the membrane paradigm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I discuss a correspondence between string theory and the black hole membrane paradigm in the context of the D1-D5-P system. By using the Kubo formula, I calculate transport coefficients of the effective string model induced by two kinds of minimal scalars. Then, I show that these transport coefficients exactly agree with the corresponding membrane transport coefficients of a five-dimensional near-extremal black hole with three charges.

Yuya Sasai

2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

313

Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides (EPA 1999). With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP s age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in the derived dose coefficients and in estimates of dose per unit exposure based on those coefficients.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Scofield, Patricia A [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Experimental study of rotordynamic coefficients of squeeze film dampers of an aircraft gas turbine engine.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The rotordynamic coefficients of squeeze film dampers of an aircraft gas turbine engine were investigated experimentally. Rotordynamic model(XLROTOR) for Gas Generator and Power Turbine were… (more)

Na, Uhn Joo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

WORKER INHALATION DOSE COEFFICIENTS FOR RADIONUCLIDES NOT PREVIOUSLY IDENTIFIED IN ICRP PUBLICATION 68  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While inhalation dose coefficients are provided for about 800 radionuclides in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 68, many radionuclides of practical dosimetric interest for facilities such as high-energy proton accelerators are not specifically addressed, nor are organ-specific dose coefficients tabulated. The ICRP Publication 68 methodology is used, along with updated radiological decay data and metabolic data, to identify committed equivalent dose coefficients [hT(50)] and committed effective dose coefficients [e(50)] for radionuclides produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Spallation Neutron Source.

McLaughlin, David A [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. X. ENTHALPY AND THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

09 THERMODYNAMICS OFELECI'ROLYTES. X'rights. r'-" e. ct THERMODYNAMICS OF ELECTROLYTES. X.Coefficient, Electrolyte, Thermodynamics v ~p , I J ! l

Silvester, Leonard F.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Polarization dependence of the absorption coefficient for an array of strained quantum wires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The polarization dependence of the absorption coefficient for compressively and tensilely strained quantum wires is investigated as a function of strain

Igor Vurgaftman; Jasprit Singh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmental

Susan M. Capalbo

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Annual Review Meeting Development Phase Field Tests Pittsburgh, PA October 5, 2010...

320

Nanostructured Carbide Derived Carbon (CDC)  

... can be grown at rates up to 100 micrometers per hour and is composed of graphite, diamond, amorphous carbon and carbon "nano-onions" ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Microfluidic Analysis for Carbon Management.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis focuses on applying microfluidic techniques to analyze two carbon management methods; underground carbon sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. The small scale nature of… (more)

Sell, Andrew

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

International Place London, United Kingdom Zip NW1 8LH Sector Carbon Product London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change....

323

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the process through which carbon is cycled through the air, ground, plants, animals, and fossil fuels. People and animals inhale oxygen from the air and exhale carbon dioxide...

324

Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

company funded by the UK government to help business and the public sector cut carbon emissions and capture the commercial potential of low carbon technologies....

325

Carbon Capture Research and Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

326

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pilots (Kentucky) Pilots (Kentucky) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 12, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Kentucky Name Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Industry Recruitment/Support Affected Technologies Coal with CCS Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Primary Website http://energy.ky.gov/carbon/Pages/default.aspx Summary Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth's utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), and the Department for Energy Development and Independence (DEDI),

327

Sandwich-type electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Garcia, Earl R. (Ingram, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Flat bundles, von Neumann algebras and $K$-theory with $\\R/\\Z$-coefficients.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let $M$ be a closed manifold and $\\alpha : \\pi_1(M)\\to U_n$ a representation. We give a purely $K$-theoretic description of the associated element $[\\alpha]$ in the $K$-theory of $M$ with $\\R/\\Z$-coefficients. To that end, it is convenient to describe the $\\R/\\Z$-$K$-theory as a relative $K$-theory with respect to the inclusion of $\\C$ in a finite von Neumann algebra $B$. We use the following fact: there is, associated with $\\alpha$, a finite von Neumann algebra $B$ together with a flat bundle $\\cE\\to M$ with fibers $B$, such that $E_\\a\\otimes \\cE$ is canonically isomorphic with $\\C^n\\otimes \\cE$, where $E_\\alpha$ denotes the flat bundle with fiber $\\C^n$ associated with $\\alpha$. We also discuss the spectral flow and rho type description of the pairing of the class $[\\alpha]$ with the $K$-homology class of an elliptic selfadjoint (pseudo)-differential operator $D$ of order 1.

Paolo Antonini (IMJ); Sara Azzali (IMJ); Georges Skandalis (IMJ)

329

Measurement of the solar heat gain coefficient and U value of windows with insect screens  

SciTech Connect

Energy ratings are currently being used in a number of countries to assist in the selection of windows and doors based on energy performance. Developed for simple comparison purposes, these rating numbers do not take into account window removable attachments such as insect screens that are, nevertheless, widely used. Research was carried out to assess the effect of insect screens on the heat gains and losses of windows. The work reported in this paper deals with the effect of one screen type on the performance of a base-case, double-glazed window. Using an indoor solar simulator facility, measurements of the window solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) and U value were made for different screen attachment configurations and climatic conditions. Results with the sample window tested indicate that insect screens placed on the outdoor side can reduce its SHGC by 46% with only a 7% reduction in its U value (0.19 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C), and that insect screens placed on the indoor side can reduce its SHGC by 15% while reducing its U value by 14% (0.38 W/m{sup 2}{center_dot}C).

Brunger, A.; Dubrous, F.M.; Harrison, S.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Type checking and normalisation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis is about Martin-Löf's intuitionistic theory of types (type theory). Type theory is at the same time a formal system for mathematical proof and… (more)

Chapman, James Maitland

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Hybrid type checking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Phase distinctions in type theory. Manuscript, 1988. [10]Typechecking dependent types and subtypes. In Lecture notesF. Pfenning. Intersection types and computational effects.

Flanagan, C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Type 2 segmental glomangiomas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

skin disorders: different types of severitiy reflectevidence for dichotomous types of severitiy. Arch Dermatol9. Happle R, König A. Type 2 segmental manifestation of

Hoekzema, Rick; Zonneveld, Ingrid M; Wal, Allard C van der

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National been identified by carbon fiber manufacturers as a market with substantial growth potential. When manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able

335

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

336

Baseline Carbon Storage, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baseline Carbon Storage, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Benjamin M. Sleeter Chapter 5 of Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes, carbon sequestration, and greenhouse-gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of the Western United States

Fleskes, Joe

337

Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by mineral carbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study investigates the technologies that have the potential to provide feasible reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) from a reference power plant. Particular focus has been given to mineral carbonation (at 1 bar) in which magnesium (Mg) and/or ... Keywords: carbon dioxide, emissions, mineral carbonation

C. J. Sturgeon; M. G. Rasul; Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Guyana's Low Carbon Development Strategy Agency/Company /Organization: Guyana Office of Climate Change Topics: Low emission development planning, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Country: Guyana South America Coordinates: 4.860416°, -58.93018° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":4.860416,"lon":-58.93018,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

339

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

340

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China Title Development of a Low-Carbon Indicator System for China Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Price, Lynn K., Nan Zhou, David Fridley, Stephanie Ohshita, Hongyou Lu, Nina Zheng, and Cecilia Fino-Chen Journal Habitat International Date Published 01/2012 Keywords china, china energy, china energy group, co2 emissions, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, energy consumption, indicator, low carbon, policy studies Abstract In 2009, China committed to reducing its carbon dioxide intensity (CO2/unit of gross domestic product, GDP) by 40 to 45 percent by 2020 from a 2005 baseline and in March 2011, China's 12th Five-Year Plan established a carbon intensity reduction goal of 17% between 2011 and 2015. The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of China then established a Low Carbon City policy and announced the selection of five provinces and eight cities to pilot the low carbon development work. How to determine if a city or province is "low carbon" has not been defined by the Chinese government.

342

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of graphitized carbon fibers. Carbon, 1976. 14 (2): p. 133-chemical vapor deposited carbon fiber. Carbon, 2001. 39 : p.G.G. , Lengths of Carbon Fibers Grown from Iron Catalyst

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

CYCLIC CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE STIMULATION ("Huff-and-Puff') (A well-stimulation method) Cyclic CO 2 stimulation is a single-well operation that is developing as a method of rapidly producing oil....

344

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Review Meeting October 12-14, 2005 Table of Contents Agenda PDF-1438KB Phase I Program Review Meeting Phase II Kick-Off Meeting Phase...

345

SRD 134 Carbon Dioxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. CARBON DIOXIDE. MW [1]. 44.010. NBP [1]. 194.75 K. TP [1]. 216.59 K. CO 2. Pc [1]. ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

346

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23,...

347

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

348

Carbon nanotube zoom lenses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that convergent or divergent zoom lenses with focal length variations up to approximately 100% can be implemented by growing arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on curved templates. Unique lenses, which can change their character from divergent ...

D. Dragoman; M. Dragoman

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Form of multicomponent Fickian diffusion coefficients matrix J. Wambui Mutoru, Abbas Firoozabadi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and natural processes. However, experimental determinations of multicomponent diffu- sion coefficients that composition variation in multicomponent mixtures may differ markedly from binary mixtures due to cross that in ideal gas mixtures, all molecular diffusion coefficients are non-negative. Standart et al. [10

Firoozabadi, Abbas

350

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation heat exchanger are found to result in large discrepancies with their own experimental data

Kandlikar, Satish

351

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Worksheet WS-3R Residential (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Worksheet WS-3R Residential (Page 1 of 2) Site Address: Enforcement Table for Fenestration Products (Table 116-B of the Standards), NFRC certified data, or Solar Heat Gain SHGCmin Total SHGC Note: Calculated Solar Heat Gain Coefficient values for Total SHGC may be used directly

352

ASHRAE Transactions 103(1) (1997). Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of Complex Fenestrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-39248 DA-359 ASHRAE Transactions 103(1) (1997). Solar Heat Gain Coefficient of Complex, the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Handbook lists a table characterizing a venetian blind with a single shading coefficient number (ASHRAE 1993) for 0º azimuth and 35º incident angle, (the latter corresponding

353

Determination of a time-dependent heat transfer coefficient from non-standard boundary measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the determination of the time-dependent heat transfer coefficient in one-dimensional transient heat conduction from a non-standard boundary measurement is investigated. For this inverse nonlinear ill-posed problem the uniqueness of the ... Keywords: Boundary element method, Heat conduction, Heat transfer coefficient, Inverse problem

T. T. M. Onyango; D. B. Ingham; D. Lesnic; M. Slodi?ka

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Writing with Complex Type  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

29] Middendorp, J. 2004. Dutch type. 010 Publishers. [30]A. Hyland. 1992. Twentieth-century type. Laurence King. [7]Robertson. 2005. From Movable Type to Moving Type-Evolution

Lewis, Jason; Nadeau, Bruno

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A matrix for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 .mu.m to 20 .mu.m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling.

Huang, Chao M. (Danbury, CT); Yuh, Chao-Yi (New Milford, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Electrolyte matrix for molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A matrix is described for a carbonate electrolyte including a support material and an additive constituent having a relatively low melting temperature and a relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion. The additive constituent is from 3 to 45 weight percent of the matrix and is formed from raw particles whose diameter is in a range of 0.1 {micro}m to 20 {micro}m and whose aspect ratio is in a range of 1 to 50. High energy intensive milling is used to mix the support material and additive constituent during matrix formation. Also disclosed is the use of a further additive constituent comprising an alkaline earth containing material. The further additive is mixed with the support material using high energy intensive milling. 5 figs.

Huang, C.M.; Yuh, C.Y.

1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

358

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership. This includes collaboration with the film and media arts departments at MSU, with outreach effort

Susan M. Capalbo

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

abstract data type  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Definition of abstract data type, possibly with links to more information and implementations. NIST. abstract data type. (definition). ...

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

360

Property:Incentive/PolicyType | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

PolicyType PolicyType Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Incentive/Policy Type Property Type String Description Policy Type for EZ Feed policy types. Used in place of putting it into Category Financial Incentive Programs or Rules Regulations Policies Incentive Programs Pages using the property "Incentive/PolicyType" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 4 401 Certification (Vermont) + Other Policy + A Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and Monitoring Equipment Operation (Connecticut) + Other Policy + Abatement of Air Pollution: Connecticut Primary and Secondary Standards (Connecticut) + Other Policy + Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) + Other Policy +

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Carbon Nanofibers for Intracellular Manipulation  

Carbon Nanofibers for Intracellular Manipulation Tim McKnight CM: Greg Flickinger. Presenter: John Morris

362

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry, baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FC

363

Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

Fan, Hongyou

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

364

Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays: Measurement methods, difficulties, and results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The term temperature coefficient has been applied to several different photovoltaic performance parameters, including voltage, current, and power. The procedures for measuring the coefficient(s) for modules and arrays are not yet standardized, and systematic influences are common in the test methods used to measure them. There are also misconceptions regarding their application. Yet, temperature coefficients, however obtained, play an important role in PV system design and sizing, where often the worst case operating condition dictates the array size. This paper describes effective methods for determining temperature coefficients for cells, modules, and arrays; identifies sources of systematic errors in measurements; gives typical measured values for modules; and provides guidance for their application in system engineering.

King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Steels Used in LWR Vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the impact that melt relocation and vessel failure have on subsequent progression and associated consequences of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) accident, it is important to accurately predict the heat-up and relocation of materials within the reactor vessel and heat transfer to and from the reactor vessel. Accurate predictions of such heat transfer phenomena require high temperature thermal properties. However, a review of vessel and structural steel material properties in severe accident analysis codes reveals that the required high temperature material properties are extrapolated with little, if any, data above 700ºC. To reduce uncertainties in predictions relying upon this extrapolated high temperature data, new thermal expansion data were obtained using pushrod dilatometry techniques for two metals used in LWR vessels: SA 533 Grade B, Class 1 (SA533B1) low alloy steel, which is used to fabricate most US LWR reactor vessels; and Type 304 Stainless Steel (SS304), which is used in LWR vessel piping, penetration tubes, and internal structures. This paper summarizes the new data and compares it to existing, lower temperature data in the literature.

Joshua E. Daw; Joy L. Rempe; Darrell L. Knudson; John C. Crepeau

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

Susan Capalbo

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Title Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6062E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Chelsea Preble, Odelle L. Hadley, and Ashok J. Gadgil Keywords aethalometer, Berkeley Darfur Stove, black carbon, carbon monoxide, climate change, DustTrak, global warming, improved cookstoves, indoor air quality, LBNL Stove Testing Facility, particulate matter, photoacoustic absorption spectrometer, pollutant emission factor, three-stone fire Abstract Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that

368

Toward Low Carbon and Climate Change Resilient Territories | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Toward Low Carbon and Climate Change Resilient Territories Toward Low Carbon and Climate Change Resilient Territories Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Toward Low Carbon and Climate Change Resilient Territories Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Environment Programme Topics: Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual, Training materials Website: www.undp.org/eu/documents/UNDP_low_carbon_regions_paper.pdf References: Toward Low Carbon and Climate Change Resilient Territories [1] Introduction "Climate change is today an undeniable reality, and the developing countries which have contributed the least to green house gas emissions will be the most vulnerable to its impacts. The 2007/2008 UNDP Human

369

Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities Agency/Company /Organization Overseas Development Institute Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Renewable Energy, Biomass, Forestry Topics Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.odi.org.uk/resource Country Uganda, India Eastern Africa, Southern Asia References Carbon Offsets for Forestry and Bioenergy: Researching Opportunities for Poor Rural Communities[1] Summary "This report presents findings from a research study in Uganda and India looking at the opportunities that carbon offset projects offer for poor

370

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

371

Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 - Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Carbon Dioxide Emissions Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections to 2030 Higher Energy Consumption Forecast Increases Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure 107. Carbn dioxide emissions by sector and fuel, 2004 and 2030 (million metric tons). Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. Figure data CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are proportional to fuel consumption. Among fossil fuel types, coal has the highest carbon content, natural gas the lowest, and petroleum in between. In the AEO2006 reference case, the shares of these fuels change slightly from 2004 to 2030, with more coal and less petroleum and natural gas. The combined share of carbon-neutral renewable and nuclear energy is stable from 2004 to 2030 at

372

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimated Annual Net Change in Soil Carbon per US County These data represent the estimated net change (Megagram per year) in soil carbon due to changes in the crop type and tillage intensity. Estimated accumulation of soil carbon under Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)lands is included in these estimates. Negative values represent a net flux from the atmosphere to the soil; positive values represent a net flux from the soil to the atmosphere. As such, soil carbon sequestration is represented here as a negative value. The method of analysis is based on empirical relationshipsbetween land management and soil carbon. The method for modeling land management and estimating soil carbonchange, used to generate these data, is described in the following publication:

373

Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon policies for China Title Quantifying the potential impact of energy efficiency and low carbon policies for China Publication Type Conference Proceedings Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6161E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Zhou, Nan, David Fridley, Michael A. McNeil, Nina Zheng Khanna, Wei Feng, and Jing Ke Conference Name the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy's 2013 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency Date Published 03/2013 Publisher the European Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy Conference Location Toulon, France Keywords appliance energy efficiency, Buildings Energy Efficiency, china, Clean Energy Policy, CO2 intensity, energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency, low carbon, Low Carbon Eco-City Development

374

China-Low Carbon Development Zones | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

China-Low Carbon Development Zones China-Low Carbon Development Zones Jump to: navigation, search Name China-Low Carbon Development Zones Agency/Company /Organization Third Generation Environmentalism (E3G) Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Finance, Low emission development planning, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices Website http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk Country China UN Region Eastern Asia References Low Carbon Development Zones in China[1] Overview "Building on the successful work of the Interdependencies on Energy and Climate Security for China and Europe project, this 18 month project with E3G, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) and the Chinese Energy Research Institute (ERI), will focus on four key areas - low carbon zones;

375

Carbon Nanotube Materials for Substrate Enhanced Control of Catalytic Activity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon SWNTs are attractive materials for supporting electrocatalysts. The properties of SWNTs are highly tunable and controlled by the nanotube's circumferential periodicity and their surface chemistry. These unique characteristics suggest that architectures constructed from these types of carbon support materials would exhibit interesting and useful properties. Here, we expect that the structure of the carbon nanotube support will play a major role in stabilizing metal electrocatalysts under extreme operating conditions and suppress both catalyst and support degradation. Furthermore, the chemical modification of the carbon nanotube surfaces can be expected to alter the interface between the catalyst and support, thus, enhancing the activity and utilization of the electrocatalysts. We plan to incorporate discrete reaction sites into the carbon nanotube lattice to create intimate electrical contacts with the catalyst particles to increase the metal catalyst activity and utilization. The work involves materials synthesis, design of electrode architectures on the nanoscale, control of the electronic, ionic, and mass fluxes, and use of advanced optical spectroscopy techniques.

Heben, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Lee, S.-H.; Kelley, R. D.; Kini, A. M.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by rhenium and manganese polypyridyl catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reduction of carbon dioxide. IR-SpectroelectrochemicalElectrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide mediated by Re(Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide Mediated by (

Smieja, Jonathan Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Significant opportunities exist for improving energy efficiency in U.S. manufacturing. A first step in realizing these opportunities is to identify how industry is using energy. Where does it come from? What form is it in? Where is it used? How much is lost? Answering these questions is the focus of this paper and the analysis described herein. Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, for the fifteen most energy intensive manufacturing sectors, and for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector. Analysts and decision-makers utilize the footprints to better understand the distribution of energy use in energy-intensive industries and the accompanying energy losses. The footprints provide a benchmark from which to calculate the benefits of improving energy efficiency and for prioritizing opportunity analysis. A breakdown of energy consumption by energy type and end use allows for comparison both within and across sectors.

Brueske, S.; Lorenz, T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Intan Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Intan Carbon Corporation Intan Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name Intan Carbon Corporation Place Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip 100031 Sector Efficiency Product Beijing-based company assisting Chinese corporations who want to develop and finance Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. In addition, the company promote high energy-efficiency technologies. Coordinates 39.90601°, 116.387909° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.90601,"lon":116.387909,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408) costs apply to those items that are consumed in production process and are roughly proportional to level in cash flow analysis and in the decision to use the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12

Boisvert, Jeff

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

· Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining the equipment for reclamation? Types of Costs #12;· Marginal Cost: ­ Change in total cost ­ Any production process involves fixed and variable costs. As production increases/expands, fixed costs are unchanged, so

Boisvert, Jeff

382

Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

Steiner, S A; Baumann, T F; Kong, J; Satcher, J H; Dresselhaus, M S

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Iron-Doped Carbon Aerogels: Novel Porous Substrates for Direct Growth of Carbon Nanotubes  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

We present the synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped carbon aerogels (CAs) and demonstrate the ability to grow carbon nanotubes directly on monoliths of these materials to afford novel carbon aerogel-carbon nanotube composites. Preparation of the Fe-doped CAs begins with the sol-gel polymerization of the potassium salt of 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid with formaldehyde, affording K{sup +}-doped gels that can then be converted to Fe{sup 2+}- or Fe{sup 3+}-doped gels through an ion exchange process, dried with supercritical CO{sub 2} and subsequently carbonized under an inert atmosphere. Analysis of the Fe-doped CAs by TEM, XRD and XPS revealed that the doped iron species are reduced during carbonization to form metallic iron and iron carbide nanoparticles. The sizes and chemical composition of the reduced Fe species were related to pyrolysis temperature as well as the type of iron salt used in the ion exchange process. Raman spectroscopy and XRD analysis further reveal that, despite the presence of the Fe species, the CA framework is not significantly graphitized during pyrolysis. The Fe-doped CAs were subsequently placed in a thermal CVD reactor and exposed to a mixture of CH{sub 4} (1000 sccm), H{sub 2} (500 sccm), and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (20 sccm) at temperatures ranging from 600 to 800 C for 10 minutes, resulting in direct growth of carbon nanotubes on the aerogel monoliths. Carbon nanotubes grown by this method appear to be multiwalled ({approx}25 nm in diameter and up to 4 mm long) and grow through a tip-growth mechanism that pushes catalytic iron particles out of the aerogel framework. The highest yield of CNTs were grown on Fe-doped CAs pyrolyzed at 800 C treated at CVD temperatures of 700 C.

Steiner, S. A.; Baumann, T. F.; Kong, J.; Satcher, J. H.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

384

Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

385

CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of the new materials, highly porous carbide-derived carbons (CDC), is the subject of an add-on to this grant awarded to myself and Taner Yildirim (NIST). Results from the add-on led eventually to a new 3-year award DE-FG02-08ER46522 “From Fundamental Understanding to Predicting New Nanomaterials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage”, $1000K, (05/31/2008 - 05/01/2011) with Taner Yildirim and myself as co-PI’s.

Fischer, John, E.

2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

386

BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

Susan M. Capalbo

2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Transport Models for Radioactive Carbon Dioxide at RWMC  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive carbon dioxide (formed by oxidation of carbon-14) is a highly mobile, radioactive contaminant released from solid wastes buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Radioactive CO2 is chemically active in the environment, volatile, water soluble, and subject to adsorption on solids. For this reason, its fate must be understood and controlled to meet radiological requirements (protection of the atmosphere, aquifer, vadose zones, plants and animals). In the present work, the migration of carbon-14 as dissolved bicarbonate was studied using miscible displacement experiments in water-saturated columns containing sediments from RWMC. Dissolved carbon-14 was retarded relative to the movement of water by a factor of about 3.6, which translates to a partition coefficient (Kd) of 0.8 ml/g. Two different adsorption sites were identified, with one site possibly having a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. A conservative tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride, was used to measure the tortuosity of sedimentary material for gaseous diffusion. The tortuosity of the RWMC sediment (Spreading Area B sediment) was determined to be 3.2, which is slightly greater than predicted by the commonly used Millington-Quirk equation. In terms of affecting the migration of carbon-14 to the aquifer, the relative importance of the parameters studied is: (1) natural moisture content of the sediments, (2) sediment tortuosity to gas-phase diffusion, and (3) adsorption onto solid phases.

Hull, Laurence Charles; Hohorst, Frederick August

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Low Carbon Society Scenarios Towards 2050 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Society Scenarios Towards 2050 Low Carbon Society Scenarios Towards 2050 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Society Scenarios Towards 2050 Agency/Company /Organization: National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, People and Policy, Solar Phase: Create a Vision, Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Topics: Adaptation, Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Resource Type: Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Publications, Training materials Website: 2050.nies.go.jp/report.html Cost: Free

389

Low Carbon Society Vision 2050: India | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Carbon Society Vision 2050: India Low Carbon Society Vision 2050: India Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Carbon Society Vision 2050: India Agency/Company /Organization: National Institute for Environmental Studies, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Kyoto University, Mizuho Information & Research Institute Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Offsets and Certificates, People and Policy, Solar Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Develop Goals Topics: Background analysis, Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Guide/manual, Lessons learned/best practices, Publications

390

Core Carbon Group AS CCG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Group AS CCG Carbon Group AS CCG Jump to: navigation, search Name Core Carbon Group AS (CCG) Place Copenhagen, Denmark Zip DK-1074 Sector Carbon Product The Core Carbon Group (formerly known as the Russian Carbon Fund) is a limited liability company incorporated in Denmark involving itself in Joint Implementation projects in Russia. Coordinates 55.67631°, 12.569355° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.67631,"lon":12.569355,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

391

NETL: Carbon Storage - Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BSCSP BSCSP Carbon Storage Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing BSCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is led by Montana State University-Bozeman and represents a coalition of more than 60 organizations including universities, national laboratories, private companies, state agencies, Native American tribes, and international collaborators. The partners are engaged in several aspects of BSCSP projects and contribute to the efforts to deploy carbon storage projects in the BSCSP region. The BSCSP region encompasses Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, South Dakota, and eastern Washington and Oregon. BSCSP Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region

392

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

393

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

394

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

395

Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

396

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

397

Extrasolar Carbon Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest that some extrasolar planets ? 60 M ? will form substantially from silicon carbide and other carbon compounds. Pulsar planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk’s C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptunemass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures. Subject headings: astrobiology — planets and satellites, individual (Mercury, Jupiter) — planetary systems: formation — pulsars, individual (PSR 1257+12)

Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

WESTCARB Carbon Atlas  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas (NATCARB). (Acknowledgement to the WESTCARB web site at http://www.westcarb.org/index.htm)

399

Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This effort is focused on the design of new nanostructured carbon-based materials that meet the DOE 2010 targets for on-board vehicle hydrogen storage. Carbon aerogels (CAs) are a unique class of porous materials that possess a number of desirable structural features for the storage of hydrogen, including high surface areas (over 3000 m{sup 2}/g), continuous and tunable porosities, and variable densities. In addition, the flexibility associated with CA synthesis allows for the incorporation of modifiers or catalysts into the carbon matrix in order to alter hydrogen sorption enthalpies in these materials. Since the properties of the doped CAs can be systematically modified (i.e. amount/type of dopant, surface area, porosity), novel materials can be fabricated that exhibit enhanced hydrogen storage properties. We are using this approach to design new H{sub 2} sorbent materials that can storage appreciable amounts of hydrogen at room temperature through a process known as hydrogen spillover. The spillover process involves the dissociative chemisorption of molecular hydrogen on a supported metal catalyst surface (e.g. platinum or nickel), followed by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen onto the surface of the support material. Due to the enhanced interaction between atomic hydrogen and the carbon support, hydrogen can be stored in the support material at more reasonable operating temperatures. While the spillover process has been shown to increase the reversible hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature in metal-loaded carbon nanostructures, a number of issues still exist with this approach, including slow kinetics of H{sub 2} uptake and capacities ({approx} 1.2 wt% on carbon) below the DOE targets. The ability to tailor different structural aspects of the spillover system (i.e. the size/shape of the catalyst particle, the catalyst-support interface and the support morphology) should provide valuable mechanistic information regarding the critical aspects of the spillover process (i.e. kinetics of hydrogen dissociation, diffusion and recombination) and allow for optimization of these materials to meet the DOE targets for hydrogen storage. In a parallel effort, we are also designing CA materials as nanoporous scaffolds for metal hydride systems. Recent work by others has demonstrated that nanostructured metal hydrides show enhanced kinetics for reversible hydrogen storage relative to the bulk materials. This effect is diminished, however, after several hydriding/dehydriding cycles, as the material structure coarsens. Incorporation of the metal hydride into a porous scaffolding material can potentially limit coarsening and, therefore, preserve the enhanced kinetics and improved cycling behavior of the nanostructured metal hydride. Success implementation of this approach, however, requires the design of nanoporous solids with large accessible pore volumes (> 4 cm{sup 3}/g) to minimize the gravimetric and volumetric capacity penalties associated with the use of the scaffold. In addition, these scaffold materials should be capable of managing thermal changes associated with the cycling of the incorporated metal hydride. CAs are promising candidates for the design of such porous scaffolds due to the large pore volumes and tunable porosity of aerogel framework. This research is a joint effort with HRL Laboratories, a member of the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. LLNL's efforts have focused on the design of new CA materials that can meet the scaffolding requirements, while metal hydride incorporation into the scaffold and evaluation of the kinetics and cycling performance of these composites is performed at HRL.

Baumann, T F; Worsley, M; Satcher, J H

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water and methanol in polymer electrolytes at elevated temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water in two polymer electrolytes was experimentally determined as a function of water activity and current density for temperatures up to 200 C. The results show that the electro-osmotic drag coefficient varies from 0.2 to 0.6 in Nafion{reg_sign}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} membrane electrolyte, but is essentially zero in phosphoric acid-doped PBI (polybenzimidazole) membrane electrolyte over the range of water activity considered. The near-zero electro-osmotic drag coefficient found in PBI indicates that this electrolyte should lessen the problems associated with water redistribution in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

Weng, D.; Wainright, J.S.; Landau, U.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasmas with the power-law kappa-distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transport coefficients in Lorentz plasma with the power-law kappa-distribution are studied by means of using the transport equation and the macroscopic laws of Lorentz plasma without magnetic field. Expressions of electric conductivity, thermoelectric coefficient and thermal conductivity for the power-law kappa-distribution are accurately derived. It is shown that these transport coefficients are modified significantly by the kappa-parameter, and in the limit of the parameter kappa to infinit they are reduced to the standard forms for a Maxwellian distribution.

Jiulin, Du

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Transport coefficients of strongly coupled gauge theories: insights from string theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transport properties of certain strongly coupled thermal gauge theories can be determined from their effective description in terms of gravity or superstring theory duals. Here we provide a short summary of the results for the shear and bulk viscosity, charge diffusion constant, and the speed of sound in supersymmetric strongly interacting plasmas. We also outline a general algorithm for computing transport coefficients in any gravity dual. The algorithm relates the transport coefficients to the coefficients in the quasinormal spectrum of five-dimensional black holes in asymptotically anti de Sitter space.

Andrei O. Starinets

2005-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

403

Electric coheating experiment to determine the heat-loss coefficient of a double-envelope house  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An electric coheating experiment was conducted on a double-envelope house in Arvada, Colorado, to determine the total heat loss coefficient (UA) of the double-shelled structure, as well as the heat loss coefficients of the inner and outer shells. Electric coheating is fairly well established as an experimental method for determining the total heat loss coefficient in conventional residential buildings. However, special problems are introduced with passive and double-envelope buildings. A new methodology was developed to meet these problems. That methodology and the results of the experimental investigation are presented and discussed.

Ortega, J. K.E.; Anderson, J. V.; Connolly, J. M.; Bingham, C. E.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Synthesis of superlow friction carbon films from highly hydrogenated methane plasmas.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, we investigated the friction and wear performance of diamondlike carbon films (DLC) derived from increasingly hydrogenated methane plasmas. The films were deposited on steel substrates by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at room temperature and the tribological tests were performed in dry nitrogen. Tests results revealed a close correlation between the hydrogen in source gas plasma and the friction and wear coefficients of the DLC films. Specifically, films grown in plasmas with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios had much lower friction coefficients and wear rates than did films derived from source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The lowest friction coefficient (0.003) was achieved with a film derived from 25% methane--75% hydrogen, while a coefficient of 0.015 was found for films derived from pure methane. Similar correlations were observed for wear rates. Films derived from hydrogen-rich plasmas had the least wear, while films derived from pure methane suffered the highest wear. We used a combination of surface analytical methods to characterize the structure and chemistry of the DLC films and worn surfaces.

Erdemir, A.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Nilufer, I. B.; Fenske, G. R.

2000-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

405

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

406

Type systems for dummies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We extend Pure Type Systems with a function turning each term M of type A into a dummy |M| of the same type (|.| is not an identity, in that M ? |M|). Intuitively, a dummy represents an unknown, canonical object of the given type: dummies are opaque ... Keywords: canonical element, proof irrelevance, pure type system

Andrea Asperti; Ferruccio Guidi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Central Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in Lincolnshire (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Central Networks Low Carbon Hub Optimizing renewable energy resources in Lincolnshire Country United Kingdom Headquarters Location Lincolnshire, United Kingdom Coordinates 53.21788°, -0.19997° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":53.21788,"lon":-0.19997,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

409

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal Lab Call Projects for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

410

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2009 Chapter 8 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In 2006, non-OECD energy-related emissions of carbon dioxide exceeded OECD emissions by 14 percent. In 2030, energy-related carbon dioxide emissions from the non-OECD countries are projected to exceed those from the OECD countries by 77 percent. Figure 80. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2006-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 81. World Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 82. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel in IEO2008 and IEO2009, 2006, 2015, and 2030 (billion metric tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

411

Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Carroll, G.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Success Stories: Carbon Explorer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon Imagine waking up each morning and discovering that twenty percent of all plants in your garden had disappeared over night. They had been eaten. Equally astonishing would be the discovery in the afternoon that new plants had taken their place. This is the norm of life in the ocean. Without the ability to accurately observe these daily changes in ocean life cycles, over vast spatial scales, we lack the ability to predict how the ocean will respond to rising CO2 levels, crippling our ability to develop accurate models of global warming or devise strategies to prevent it. The Carbon Explorer, conceived by Berkeley Lab's James K. Bishop in collaboration with Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) and WET labs, Inc. (Philomath, Oregon), bridges this

413

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

414

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage - Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Capture and Storage November 13-15, 2007 Austin, Texas C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves / Production Ratio 250+ Year Supply at Current Demand Levels ! 258 11.7 9.7 0 100 200 300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Anthracite & Bituminous Sub- Bituminous & Lignite Sources: BP Statistical Review, June 2004, - for coal reserves data - World Energy Council; EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004 - for oil and gas reserves data. C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 80 120 160 200 240 1970 1975 1980

415

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin - Phase III DE-FC26-05NT42588 Robert J. Finley and the MGSC Project Team Illinois State Geological Survey (University of Illinois) and Schlumberger Carbon Services U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23, 2012 * The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) via the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program (contract number DE-FC26-05NT42588) and by a cost share agreement with the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, Office of Coal Development through the Illinois Clean Coal

416

RMOTC - Testing - Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Management Carbon Management Ten Sleep Time Structure, 2nd Wall Creek Formation at RMOTC Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. RMOTC has the field setting, infrastructure, and expertise to play an important role in carbon management testing, demonstration, and research. The unique combination of a publicly-owned and DOE-operated oil field,

417

Carbon-particle generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, A.J.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

418

Carbon microstructures for electrochemical studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin layers of photoresist were spin coated onto silicon wafers, and then carbonized to form smooth carbon films by heating in nitrogen for 1 hour at temperatures between 600 to 1100 C. Well-defined carbon microstructures on Si wafers that are being considered for electrodes in a microbattery concept were obtained by additional processing steps involving patterning and lithography of the photoresist prior to carbonization. The status of the fabrication of carbon microelectrodes obtained by pyrolysis of photoresist, characterization of the carbons by surface-sensitive techniques and electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry of the I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox reaction is described.

Kostecki, Robert; Song, Xiang Yun; Kinoshita, Kim

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

419

Study of cesium volatility from sodium carbonate based melts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this study was to obtain thermodynamic data on cesium volatility from sodium carbonate-based molten salts for application to the Rockwell-ETEC molten salt oxidation process. At 1073 to 1373 K, volatility tests were conducted on a horizontal and a vertical transpiration apparatus using a carrier gas composed of CO{sub 2}(g) and H{sub 2}O(g) which was passed over or bubbled through a sodium carbonate bath containing cesium carbonate and various additives. The major vapor species was identified to be CsOH(g) except when greater than 3% chloride is present in the melt, then the major vapor species is CsCl(g). The decrease in volatility of cesium as a function of cesium concentration in Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3{minus}}Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixtures follows Raoult`s law very closely. Thus, this system exhibits close to ideal solution behavior. Addition of 22.5 wt % sodium sulfate decreases the cesium volatility by just under a factor of 2, and the addition of 10.0 wt % sodium chloride increases the cesium volatility about an order of magnitude. The addition of 2.0 wt % ash, molecular sieve, or silica show little or no effect. However, the data indicate that higher concentrations of ash will decrease the cesium volatility. For the addition of 22.5 wt % sodium sulfate the activity coefficient, {gamma}(Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}){sup {1/2}}, is calculated to be 0.720 {plus_minus} 0.068, and for the addition of 10.0 wt % sodium chloride, the activity coefficient, {gamma}(CsCl), is calculated to be 8.118 {plus_minus} 2.317. Assuming that Henry`s law applies, these activity coefficients are used to extrapolate the effect on cesium retention in the molten salt oxidizer of sulfate and chloride at lower cesium concentrations.

Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.; Adamson, M.G.; Fleming, D.L.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Carbon Capture and Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SECARB's SECARB's Mississippi SalineTest Site: A Field Project Update Robert C. Trautz (rtrautz@epri.com) Electric Power Research Institute Senior Project Manager DOE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Annual Review Meeting October 6-8, 2008 Pittsburgh, PA 2 1. Introduction 2. Well Drilling & Completion 3. Reservoir Characterization 4. CO 2 Injection Operations 5. Monitoring and Verification Outline 3 Key Organizations and Acknowledgments SOUTHERN STATES ENERGY BOARD Dr. Gerald (Jerry) R. Hill OTHER FIELD PROJECTS AND SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES * Advanced Resources * Alabama Geological Survey/ SCS * Gulf Coast Carbon Center (TXBEG) * EPRI * Virginia Tech University * Mississippi State University * Others Richard Esposito MISSISSIPPI POWER CO. Rick Berry Richard (Dick) Rhudy Robert (Rob) Trautz

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

Friedmann, S

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

422

NETL: 2010 - Carbon Sequestration Peer Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Peer Review Carbon Sequestration Peer Review During March 15 - 19, 2010, a total of 16 projects from NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program were peer reviewed....

423

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Equinox Carbon Equities, LLC Place Newport Beach, California Zip 92660 Sector Carbon Product Investment firm focused on...

425

GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

GS Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name GS Carbon Corporation Place New York, New York Zip 10119 Sector Carbon Product The company offsets emissions output with...

426

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

427

Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables theencapsulation in a carbon fiber coating [9]. This coatingembedded in an amorphous carbon fiber coating that is not

Chai, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Key resources related to carbon cycle and climate change research Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Illustration of the Global Carbon...

429

ARM - Measurement - Cloud type  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

type ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as...

430

Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

431

Preparation and Microstructure of Carbon/Carbon Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, C. Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials ... Carbon fiber felts were firstly densified by carbon using chemical vapor infiltration to ... Character Distribution on Oxidation Resistance of ZG30Cr20Ni10 Heat Resistant Steel.

432

A Decomposition of the Correlation Coefficient and its Use in Analyzing Forecasting Skill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimates of several components of forecasting skill can be obtained by combining a skill-score decomposition developed by Allan Murphy with techniques for decomposing correlation coefficients that have been employed in research on human ...

Thomas R. Stewart

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The Relationship between Flux Coefficient and Entrainment Ratio in Density Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore the theoretical and empirical relationship between the nonlocal quantities of the entrainment ratio E, the appropriately depth- and time-averaged flux coefficient ?, and the bulk Froude number Fro in density currents. The main ...

Mathew Wells; Claudia Cenedese; C. P. Caulfield

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Table 4. Coefficients of  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coefficients of Linear Equations for Natural Gas- and Coefficients of Linear Equations for Natural Gas- and Oil-Related Methane Emissions Emissions Sources Intercept Variable Name and Units Coefficient Variable Name and Units Coefficient Natural Gas -38.77 Time trend (calendar year) .02003 Dry gas production (thousand cubic feet .02186 Natural Gas Processing -0.9454 Natural gas liquids production (million barrels per day) .9350 Not applicable Natural Gas Transmission and Storage 2.503 Pipeline fuel use (thousand cubic feet) 1.249 Dry gas production (thousand cubic feet) -0.06614 Natural Gas Distribution -58.16 Time trend (calendar year) .0297 Natural gas consumption (quadrillion Btu) .0196 Oil production, Refining, and Transport 0.03190 Oil consumption (quadrillion Btu) .002764 Not applicable Source: Derived from data used in Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1999, DOE/EIA-0573(99), (Washington, DC, October 2000).

435

Hardy-Littlewood theorem for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Hardy-Littlewood theorem is established for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients. Inequalities of Hardy-Littlewood kind are proved. Examples of series demonstrating that the results obtained are sharp are constructed. Bibliography: 15 titles.

Dyachenko, Mikhail I [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nursultanov, Erlan D [Kazakhstan Branch of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Astana (Kazakhstan)

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Correlation Coefficients between Horizontally and Vertically Polarized Returns from Ground Clutter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characteristics of the magnitude and phase of correlation coefficients between horizontally and vertically polarized returns from ground clutter echoes are quantified by analyzing histograms obtained with an 11-cm wavelength weather surveillance ...

Dusan S. Zrni?; Valery M. Melnikov; Alexander V. Ryzhkov

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Case Study of Nearshore Drag Coefficient Behavior during Hurricane Ike (2008)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, numerous field campaigns and laboratory experiments have examined air–sea momentum exchange in the deep ocean. These studies have changed the understanding of drag coefficient behavior in hurricane force winds, with a general ...

Brian C. Zachry; John L. Schroeder; Andrew B. Kennedy; Joannes J. Westerink; Chris W. Letchford; Mark E. Hope

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The Effective Drag Coefficient for Evaluating Wind Stress over the Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computations of the surface wind stress and pseudostress over the global oceans have been made using surface winds from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts for 7 years. The drag coefficient is a function of wind speed and ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; William G. Large; Jerry G. Olson

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Impact of the Reduced Drag Coefficient on Ocean Wave Modeling under Hurricane Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of new drag coefficient (Cd) parameterizations on WAVEWATCH III (WW3) model surface wave simulations are investigated. The new parameterizations are based on a coupled wind–wave model (CWW) and a wave tank experiment, and yields reduced C...

Il-Ju Moon; Isaac Ginis; Tetsu Hara

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Trends in Daily Solar Radiation and Precipitation Coefficients of Variation since 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the possibility of changes in daily scale solar radiation and precipitation variability. Coefficients of variation (CVs) were computed for the daily downward surface solar radiation product from the International Satellite ...

David Medvigy; Claudie Beaulieu

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Relation between Cumulus Albedo and Extinction Coefficient and Its Application to Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytic model of three-dimensional radiative transfer is modified to include cloud-cloud interactions and finite surface albedo. The spectrally integrated output is used to derive extinction coefficients for cumulus clouds from aircraft ...

S. G. Bradley

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Green's matrices of second order elliptic systems with measurable coefficients in two dimensional domains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study Green's matrices for divergence form, second order strongly elliptic systems with bounded measurable coefficients in two dimensional domains. We establish existence, uniqueness, and pointwise estimates of the Green's matrices.

Dong, Hongjie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

An Estimation of the Bulk Transfer Coefficients for a Bare Soil Surface Using a Linear Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear heat budget model is developed to estimate the daytime means of the bulk transfer coefficients for heat and evaporation efficiency using the daily variation of observational data. The daily variation of shortwave radiation, ground-level ...

Dai Matsushima; Junsei Kondo

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Dimensionally Consistent Similarity Relation of Ocean Surface Friction Coefficient in Mixed Seas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying wavelength scaling, dimensionally consistent expressions of the ocean surface friction coefficient can be developed for both wind sea and mixed sea in the ocean. For a wind sea with a monopeak wave spectrum, the natural choice of the ...

Paul A. Hwang; Héctor García-Nava; Francisco J. Ocampo-Torres

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

DEGENERATE-PARABOLIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH UNBOUNDED COEFFICIENTS, MARTINGALE PROBLEMS, AND A  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DEGENERATE-PARABOLIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH UNBOUNDED COEFFICIENTS, MARTINGALE four intertwined problems, motivated by mathematical finance, concerning degenerate-parabolic partial differential operators and degenerate diffusion processes. First, we consider a parabolic partial differential

446

Quantifying the economic and commercial potential of a high strength, low thermal coefficient super-alloy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inspired by the importance of having a favourable sheathing material for superconducting wires, a high-strength, low thermal coefficient (CTE) super-alloy has been developed. Known as Incoloy 908, this super-alloy's material ...

Liew, Heng Lee Henry

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Trends in Attenuation Coefficients in Athens, Greece, from 1954 to 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unsworth and Monteith's attenuation coefficient TUM was calculated from midday cloudless sky data in Athens, Greece, for the period 1954 to 1991. An interdependence between TUM and the Linke factor TL was found and is expressed as a mathematical ...

C. P. Jacovides; N. A. Kaltsounides; G. P. Giannourakos; G. B. Kallos

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Inference of the Aerosol Ångström Coefficient from SAGE Short-Wavelength Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SAGE four-channel transmission profiles are inverted to retrieve the extinction profiles from which the aerosol Ångström coefficient ? is obtained. The procedure allows one to check the influence of the NO2 absorption profile, which is small ...

J. Lenoble; P. Pruvost

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Temperature Dependence of Evaporation Coefficient for Water Measured in Droplets in Nitrogen under Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaporation and the thermal accommodation coefficients for water in nitrogen were investigated by means of the analysis of evaporation of pure water droplet as a function of temperature. The droplet was levitated in an electrodynamic trap ...

D. Jakubczyk; M. Zientara; K. Kolwas; M. Kolwas

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Power series with restricted coefficients and a root on a ... - CECM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with restricted coefficients by finding the smallest root of such a power series .... h ?(mod 2?) can be taken as the argument of the dividing line in ? heorem 1.3;.

451

SEQUESTERING CARBON DIOXIDE IN COALBEDS  

SciTech Connect

During the present reporting period, six complementary tasks involving experimentation, model development, and coal characterization were undertaken to meet our project objectives: (1) A second adsorption apparatus, utilizing equipment donated by BP Amoco, was assembled. Having confirmed the reliability of this additional experimental apparatus and procedures, adsorption isotherms for CO{sub 2}, methane, ethane, and nitrogen on wet Fruitland coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia). These measurements showed good agreement with our previous data and yielded an expected uncertainty of about 3%. The addition of this new facility has allowed us to essentially double our rate of data production. (2) Adsorption isotherms for pure CO{sub 2}, methane, and nitrogen on wet Illinois-6 coal and on activated carbon were measured at 319.3 K (115 F) and pressures to 12.4 MPa (1800 psia) on our first apparatus. The activated carbon measurements showed good agreement with literature data and with measurements obtained on our second apparatus. The expected uncertainty of the data is about 3%. The Illinois-6 adsorption measurements are a new addition to the existing database. Preparations are underway to measure adsorption isotherms for pure methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen on DESC-8 coal. (3) Adsorption from binary mixtures of methane, nitrogen and CO{sub 2} at a series of compositions was also measured on the wet Fruitland coal at 319.3 K (115 F), using our first apparatus. The nominal compositions of these mixtures are 20%/80%, 40%/60%, 60%/40%, and 80%/20%. The experiments were conducted at pressures from 100 psia to 1800 psia. The expected uncertainty for these binary mixture data varies from 2 to 9%. (4) A study was completed to address the previously-reported rise in the CO{sub 2} absolute adsorption on wet Fruitland coal at 115 F and pressures exceeding 1200 psia. Our additional adsorption measurements on Fruitland coal and on activated carbon show that: (a) the Gibbs adsorption isotherm for CO{sub 2} under study exhibits typical adsorption behavior for supercritical gas adsorption, and (b) a slight variation from Type I absolute adsorption may be observed for CO{sub 2}, but the variation is sensitive to the estimates used for adsorbed phase density. (5) The experimental data were used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of various adsorption models, including the Langmuir/loading ratio correlation, a two-dimensional cubic equation of state (EOS), a new two-dimensional (2-D) segment-segment interactions equation of state, and the simplified local density model (SLD). Our model development efforts have focused on developing the 2-D analog to the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) EOS and an improved form of the SLD model. The new PGR EOS offers two advantages: (a) it has a more accurate repulsive term, which is important for reliable adsorption predictions, and (b) it is a segment-segment interactions model, which should more closely describe the gas-coal interactions during the adsorption process. In addition, a slit form of the SLD model was refined to account more precisely for heterogeneity of the coal surface and matrix swelling. In general, all models performed well for the Type I adsorption exhibited by methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide up to 8.3 MPa (average deviations within 2%). In comparison, the SLD model represented the adsorption behavior of all fluids considered within 5% average deviations, including the near-critical behavior of carbon dioxide beyond 8.3 MPa (1200 psia). Work is in progress to (a) derive and implement the biporous form of the SLD model, which would expand the number of structural geometries used to represent the heterogeneity of coal surface; and (b) extend the SLD model to mixture predictions. (6) Proper reduction of our adsorption data requires accurate gas-phase compressibility (Z) factors for methane, ethane, nitrogen and carbon dioxide and their mixtures to properly analyze our experimental adsorption data. A careful evaluation of t

K.A.M. Gasem; R.L. Robinson, Jr.; L.R. Radovic

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

453

Hydrogen in Type Ic Supernovae?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By definition, a Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) does not have conspicuous lines of hydrogen or helium in its optical spectrum. SNe Ic usually are modelled in terms of the gravitational collapse of bare carbon-oxygen cores. We consider the possibility that the spectra of ordinary (SN 1994I-like) SNe Ic have been misinterpreted, and that SNe Ic eject hydrogen. An absorption feature usually attributed to a blend of Si II 6355 and C II 6580 may be produced by H-alpha. If SN 1994I-like SNe Ic eject hydrogen, the possibility that hypernova (SN 1998bw-like) SNe Ic, some of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, also eject hydrogen should be considered. The implications of hydrogen for SN Ic progenitors and explosion models are briefly discussed.

David Branch; David J. Jeffery; Timothy R. Young; E. Baron

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

454

An estimate of heavy quark momentum diffusion coefficient in gluon plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the momentum diffusion coefficient for heavy quarks in SU(3) gluon plasma at temperatures 1-2 times the deconfinement temperature. The momentum diffusion coefficient is extracted from a Monte Carlo calculation of the correlation function of color electric fields, in the leading order of expansion in heavy quark mass. Systematics of the calculation are examined, and compared with perturbtion theory and other estimates.

Debasish Banerjee; Saumen Datta; Rajiv V. Gavai; Pushan Majumdar

2012-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

455

Coefficients and terms of the liquid drop model and mass formula  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The coefficients of different combinations of terms of the liquid drop model have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to the experimental atomic masses. The nuclear masses can also be reproduced using a Coulomb radius taking into account the increase of the ratio $R\\_0/A^{1/3}$ with increasing mass, the fitted surface energy coefficient remaining around 18 MeV.

G. Royer; C. Gautier

2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

456

The Diffusion Coefficient For Piecewise Expanding Maps Of The Interval With Metastable States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consider a piecewise smooth expanding map of the interval possessing several invariant subintervals and the same number of ergodic absolutely continuous invariant probability measures (ACIMs). After this system is perturbed to make the subintervals lose their invariance in such a way that there is a unique ACIM, we show how to approximate the diffusion coefficient for an observable of bounded variation by the diffusion coefficient of a related continuous time Markov chain.

Dmitry Dolgopyat; Paul Wright

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

457

Transparent Conductive Coating Based on Carbon Nanotubes Using Electric Field Deposition Method  

SciTech Connect

The transparent conductive coating based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) had been fabricated using the electric field deposition method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show a quite uniform CNTs on Corning glass substrates. Moreover the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results shows the peak at around 25 deg. which proves the existence of CNT materials. The CNT thin films obtained with different deposition times have different transmittance coefficients at wavelength of 550 nm. I-V measurement results shows higher sheet resistance value which relates with bigger transmittance coefficients and vice versa.

Latununuwe, Altje [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia); Department of Physics Education, Pattimura University, Jl. Ir.M.Putuhena Poka Ambon (Indonesia); Hattu, Nikmans [Chemistry Deparment, Pattimura University, Jl. Ir.M.Putuhena Poka Ambon (Indonesia); Setiawan, Andhy [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Department, Indonesia University of Education (UPI) Jl.Dr.Setiabudi No. 229, Bandung (Indonesia); Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Darma, Yudi [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

458

Observations and assessment of forest carbon recovery following disturbance in North America  

SciTech Connect

Disturbance processes of various types substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially. The recovery of forests from disturbance typically results in carbon sequestration, but the point at which ecosystems move from being net sources to sinks of carbon is quite variable depending on a number of factors. Here we review some of the essential measurements needed to track the dynamics of carbon associated with forest disturbance, the longer-term recovery of carbon pools following disturbance, and consider the measurements used to document recovery, as well as how they vary with the type of disturbance. First we provide a brief overview of the relevance of disturbance to carbon dynamics. Specifically, we address 3 topics: (1) the different measurements needed to characterize recovery from different types of disturbance (e.g. fire, insects, harvest); (2) the essential measurements required to quantify the dynamics of carbon components associated with forest recovery; (3) the utility of multiple types of observations (lines of evidence) in documenting recovery from disturbance. Related to these topics we then explore a series of specific types of disturbance (fire, insects, harvest), and the relative importance of various factors (and associated measurements) that influence carbon pools and fluxes in different systems (boreal and temperate). These topics and associated research questions are focused on North America, but aspects are undoubtedly relevant to other forested ecosystems.

Goetz, Scott J.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Law, Beverly E.; Hicke, J.; Huang, C.; Houghton, R. A.; McNulty, Steve; O'Halloran, Tom; Harmon, Mark; Meddens, Arjan; Pfeifer, Eric; Mildrexler, David; Kasischke, Eric

2012-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

The carbon dioxide dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The effect of burning fossil fuels on the global climate is discussed. It may be that as we produce carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels, we create a greenhouse effect which causes temperatures on earth to rise. Implications of changes in global temperatures are discussed.

Edelson, E.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Carbon Jungle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jungle Jungle Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Jungle Place El Segundo, California Zip 90246 Sector Carbon Product Carbon Jungle's mission is to decrease CO2 in the atmosphere by planting and managing tree plantations, increasing awareness of the facts behind increased CO2 in the atmosphere, and giving companies a means to participate in carbon credit trading. References Carbon Jungle[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon Jungle is a company located in El Segundo, California . References ↑ "Carbon Jungle" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Carbon_Jungle&oldid=343237" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Asset Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Asset Carbon Place United Kingdom Product UK-based startup looking to invest in CDMJI projects. References Asset Carbon1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase...

462

Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

Rushfeldt, Scott I

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Carbon Sequestration Monitoring Activities  

SciTech Connect

In its 'Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan 2007' the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) identified as a major objective extended field tests to fully characterize potential carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage sites and to demonstrate the long-term storage of sequestered carbon (p. 5). Among the challenges in this area are 'improved understanding of CO{sub 2} flow and trapping within the reservoir and the development and deployment of technologies such as simulation models and monitoring systems' (p. 20). The University of Wyoming (UW), following consultations with the NETL, the Wyoming State Geological Survey, and the Governor's office, identified potential for geologic sequestration of impure carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep reservoirs of the Moxa Arch. The Moxa Arch is a 120-mile long north-south trending anticline plunging beneath the Wyoming Thrust Belt on the north and bounded on the south by the Uinta Mountains. Several oil and gas fields along the Moxa Arch contain accumulations of natural CO{sub 2}. The largest of these is the La Barge Platform, which encompasses approximately 800 square miles. Several formations may be suitable for storage of impure CO{sub 2} gas, foremost among them the Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Nugget Sandstone. This project responded to the challenges described above by preparing a geological site characterization study on the Moxa Arch. The project included four priority research areas: (A) geological characterization of geologic structure of the Arch, the fault, and fracture patterns of the target formations and caprocks, (B) experimental characterization of carbon dioxide-brine-rock reactions that may occur, (C) optimization of geophysical and numerical models necessary for measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV), and (D) a preliminary performance assessment. Research work to accomplish these goals was coordinated by one administrative task under the direction of Dr. Carol Frost, Professor of Geology and Geophysics (Task 1.0), and one task devoted to designing and creating an interdisciplinary, project-specific carbon cyberinfrastructure to support collaborative carbon dioxide sequestration research among University of Wyoming scientists and their collaborators, performed by Jeff Hammerlinck, Director of the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center at the University of Wyoming (Task 1.5). The results of these tasks are presented in the Introduction and in Chapter 1, respectively.

Carol Frost

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

464

Type-checking injective pure type systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injective pure type systems form a large class of pure type systems for which one can compute by purely syntactic means two sorts elmt(?∣M) and sort(?∣M), where ? is a pseudo-context and M is a pseudo-term, ...

Gilles Barthe

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

Muradov, Nazim (Melbourne, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

466

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

467

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: I: Petroleum Coke  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CARBON TECHNOLOGY: Session I: Petroleum Coke. Sponsored by: LMD Aluminum Committee Program Organizer: Jean-Claude Thomas , Aluminium ...

468

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Partnerships Carbon Fiber Consortium Manufacturing Industrial Partnerships Staff Partnerships Home | Connect with ORNL | For Industry | Partnerships | Industrial...

469

Carbon Nanotubes Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... John Bonevich. Laser Applications Heat Up for Carbon Nanotubes. Longer is Better for Nanotube Optical Properties. Modeling ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

470

4th Carbon Nanotube Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... measurments, and disseinate this summary to the nanotube community. ... RM) for length separated single-wall carbon nanotubes in aqueous ...

2013-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

Carbon Dioxide Utilization Archived Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Utility Mercury Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation Western Kentucky University 9292003 Enhanced Practical Photosynthesis Carbon Sequestration ORNL...

472

NETL: Gasifipedia - Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration, also termed carbon storage, is the permanent storage of CO2, usually in deep geologic formations. Industrially-generated CO2 -- resulting from fossil fuel combustion, gasification, and other industrial processes -- is injected as a supercritical fluid into geologic reservoirs, where it is held in place by natural traps and seals. Carbon storage is one approach to minimizing atmospheric emissions of man-made CO2. As discussed above, the main purpose of CO2 EOR such as the Weyburn Project is tertiary recovery of crude oil, but in effect substantial CO2 remains sequestered/stored as a result. Current Status of CO2 Storage CO2 storage is currently underway in the United States and around the world. Large, commercial-scale projects, like the Sleipner CO2 Storage Site in Norway and the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project in Canada, have been injecting CO2 into geologic storage formations more than a decade. Each of these projects stores more than 1 million tons of CO2 per year. Large-scale efforts are currently underway in Africa, China, Australia, and Europe, as well. These commercial-scale projects are demonstrating that large volumes of CO2 can be safely and permanently stored. In addition, a number of smaller pilot projects are underway in different parts of the world to determine suitable locations and technologies for future long-term CO2 storage. To date, more than 200 small-scale CO2 storage projects have been carried out worldwide. A demonstration project that captures CO2 from a pulverized coal power plant and pipes it to a geologic formation for storage recently came online in Alabama.

473

Determination of the Heat-Transport Coefficient in Energy-Balance Climate Models by Extremization of Entropy Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entropy production has been calculated as a function of the coefficient of meridional heat transfer for two seasonal energy-balance climate models. Both models display extrema in entropy production at values of the coefficient appropriate to the ...

P. H. Wyant; A. Mongroo; S. Hameed

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

5, 40834113, 2005 Black Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area J. C and Physics Discussions Measurements of Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area License. 4083 #12;ACPD 5, 4083­4113, 2005 Black Carbon Specific Absorption in the Mexico City Metropolitan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

475

Carbon Accounting in Forest Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Carbon Pools: Above ground biomass Belowground BiomassBelowground Biomass Soil Organic Carbon Dead: · Aboveground biomassAboveground biomass · Belowground biomass · Soil Organic Carbon · Litter · Dead Wood· Dead Wood · (Wood Products) T�V S�D Industrie Service GmbH #12;Principles · Biomass is usually measured

Pettenella, Davide

476

Research Report Forests and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Research Report Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management #12;#12;Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management Gregory Valatin Forestry Commission: Edinburgh-0-85538-815-7 Valatin, G. (2010). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management. Forestry Commission

477

NETL: Carbon Storage - Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing SECARB efforts can be found on their website. The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), managed by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), represents a 13-State region, including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, and portions of Kentucky and West Virginia. SECARB is comprised of over 100 participants representing Federal and State governments, industry, academia, and non-profit organizations. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region The primary goal of SECARB is to develop the necessary framework and

478

Typing constraint logic programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a prescriptive type system with parametric polymorphism and subtyping for constraint logic programs. The aim of this type system is to detect programming errors statically. It introduces a type discipline for constraint logic programs and ... Keywords: Constraint logic programming, Metaprogramming, Prolog, subtyping, type systems

François Fages; Emmanuel Coquery

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Thermal Green's functions of the energy-momentum tensor and transport coefficients of the SU(3) Yang-Mills gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal Green's functions of the energy-momentum tensor and transport coefficients of the SU(3) Yang-Mills gas

Karsch, Frithjof

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Effect of milk composition upon the partition coefficients of diacetyl, acetaldehyde, and ethanol in acidified milk products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Acidified milk samples were prepared with fat concentrations from 0 to 20% and solids-not-fat concentrations from 6 to 12%. The partition coefficients of acetaldehyde, ethanol, and diacetyl were determined in acidified samples at pH 4.4 and 4.6, and at 30 and 500C using gas chromatographic headspace analysis (IGCHS). Concentration, SNF x concentration and the SNF x fat x concentration interaction affected the partition coefficients of acetaldehyde at both 30 and 50'C. At 50'C, the milk fat x concentration interaction significantly affected the partition coefficient. The partition coefficient of acetaldehyde increased with increasing concentrations of milk fat. Partition coefficients decreased as concentration of acetaldehyde increased. The partition coefficients for ethanol at 300C were affected only by concentration of ethanol. At 500C, concentration of ethanol, pH, milk fat, milk fat x concentration interaction, and SNF x milk fat x pH interaction affected the partition coefficients of ethanol. The partition coefficients for ethanol increased with increasing concentration of ethanol at both temperatures. At 500C, partition coefficients increased as concentration of milk fat increased at 12 % SNF and pH did not have an effect on partition coefficients. Concentration of diacetyl, pH, and milk fat x concentration interaction affected the partition coefficients of diacetyl at both temperatures. At 300C, milk fat affected the partition coefficients of diacetyl and at 500C, pH x concentration of diacetyl interaction affected the partition coefficients of diacetyl. Partition coefficients increased with increasing concentration of diacetyl at both temperatures. At 300C, as concentration of milk fat increased so did the partition coefficients. The highest partition coefficients were observed for acetaldehyde compared to diacetyl and ethanol at both temperatures and at the lowest concentration.

Wilke, Anthony Gerald

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "type carbon coefficient" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Carbon Cycle Engineering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cycle Engineering Cycle Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Cycle Engineering Address 13725 Dutch Creek Road Place Athens, Ohio Zip 45701 Sector Biofuels, Biomass, Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Agriculture; Consulting; Engineering/architectural/design Phone number 740-541-1685 Website http://www.Carboncycleengineer Coordinates 39.376838°, -82.029904° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.376838,"lon":-82.029904,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

482

Carbon War Room | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

War Room War Room Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon War Room Place Washington, DC Number of employees 1-10 Website http://www.carbonwarroom.com/ Coordinates 38.8951118°, -77.0363658° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.8951118,"lon":-77.0363658,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

483

Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Agency/Company /Organization: Resources for the Future Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-01-19.pdf Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Screenshot References: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses[1] Abstract "This study develops cumulative carbon "supply curves" for global forests utilizing an dynamic timber supply model for sequestration of forest carbon. Because the period of concern is the next century, and

484

Spectroelectrochemical study of the role played by carbon functionality in fuel cell electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to identify specific types of nitrogen and sulfur-based carbon functionality present in the carbon black supports of fuel cell anodes and cathodes. The effects of these functional groups on the electrocatalytic performance of small platinum particles, dispersed on the carbon, during methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were assessed. Electrodes functionalized with nitrogen had enhanced catalytic activities toward oxygen reduction and methanol oxidation relative to untreated electrodes. Although electrodes with sulfur functionality had higher oxygen reduction activities than untreated carbons, the activity of these electrodes toward methanol oxidation was found to be lower than electrodes manufactured from untreated carbon. It was found that carbon supports functionalized with both nitrogen and sulfur initiated the formation of Pt particles smaller in size than those observed on untreated carbon supports.