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1

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

2

nitrogen oxides | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

20 20 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142279720 Varnish cache server nitrogen oxides Dataset Summary Description Emissions from energy use in buildings are usually estimated on an annual basis using annual average multipliers. Using annual numbers provides a reasonable estimation of emissions, but it provides no indication of the temporal nature of the emissions. Therefore, there is no way of understanding the impact on emissions from load shifting and peak shaving technologies such as thermal energy storage, on-site renewable energy, and demand control. Source NREL Date Released April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated April 11th, 2011 (3 years ago)

3

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

METHOD OF FIXING NITROGEN FOR PRODUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for fixing nitrogen from air by compressing the air, irradiating the compressed air in a nuclear reactor, cooling to remove NO/ sub 2/, compressing the cooled gas, further cooling to remove N/sub 2/O and recirculating the cooled compressed air to the reactor.

Harteck, P.; Dondes, S.

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evolution of Nitrogen Oxide Chemistry in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nocturnal cycle of nitrogen oxides in the atmospheric boundary layer is studied by means of a one-dimensional model. The model solves the conservation equations of momentum, entropy, total water content, and of five chemical species. The ...

S. Galmarini; P. G. Duynkerke; J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management These regulations apply to stationary sources with the potential to emit 50 tons of nitrogen oxides (NOx) per year from all pollutant-emitting equipment or activities. The regulations describe possibilities for exemptions (i.e., for sources which have the potential to emit 50 tons but do not actually reach that level) and Reasonably Available Control

7

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more of VOC during the calendar year and is located in a county designated as nonattainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone submit emission statements. Any facility that is located in a county described above is exempt from these requirements. If NOx

10

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the processes that influence the destruction of NO in the fuel rich stage of the reburning process. The objective is to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the fate of coal nitrogen in the fuel rich zone of a combustion process. Time resolved profiles of temperature, major (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), nitrogenous (NO, HCN and NH{sub 3}) and hydrocarbon (CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) species were obtained for various reburning tests. A slow continuous source of HCN was observed in the reburn zone for most tests. HCN formation from NO + CH{sub i} reactions would partially explain this trend. It has been proposed in the past that these reactions would be fast (less than 0.1s) and the produced HCN would be short lived. However, evidence was provided in this study indicating that NO + CH{sub i} reactions might contribute to HCN formation at longer residence times in the reburn zone. Reactions of molecular nitrogen with hydrocarbon radicals were determined to be a significant source of HCN formation, especially as NO levels decreased in the reburn zone. The results of several tests would justify the exclusion of continued coal devolatilization in the reburn zone as a major source of HCN.

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1989-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

11

Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

Clay, David T. (Longview, WA); Lynn, Scott (Walnut Creek, CA)

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

12

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research reported here is concerned with the application of secondary fuel addition, otherwise known as reburning, as a means of NO{sub x} destruction downstream of the primary flame zone in boilers. This paper consists of two parts: First, results from a statistically correct design of parametric experiments on a laboratory coal combustor are presented. These allow the effects of the most important variables to be isolated and identified. Second, mechanisms governing the inter-conversion and destruction of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburning zone of a laboratory coal combustor were explored, using fundamental kinetic arguments. The objective here was to extract models, which can be used to estimate reburning effectiveness in other, more practical combustion configurations. Emphasis is on the use of natural gas as the reburning fuel for a pulverized coal primary flame. Then, reburning mechanisms occur in two regimes; one in which fast reactions between NO and hydrocarbons are usually limited by mixing; the other in which reactions have slowed and in which known gas phase chemistry controls. For the latter regime, a simplified model based on detailed gas phase chemical kinetic mechanisms and known rate coefficients was able to predict temporal profiles of NO, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Reactions with hydrocarbons played important roles in both regimes and the Fenimore N{sub 2} fixation reactions limited reburning effectiveness at low primary NO values.

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1990-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

13

Two-phase flow studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two-phase flow program is directed at understanding the hydrodynamics of two-phase flows. The two-phase flow regime is characterized by a series of flow patterns that are designated as bubble, slug, churn, and annular flow. Churn flow has received very little scientific attention. This lack of attention cannot be justified because calculations predict that the churn flow pattern will exist over a substantial portion of the two-phase flow zone in producing geothermal wells. The University of Houston is experimentally investigating the dynamics of churn flow and is measuring the holdup over the full range of flow space for which churn flow exists. These experiments are being conducted in an air/water vertical two-phase flow loop. Brown University has constructed and is operating a unique two-phase flow research facility specifically designed to address flow problems of relevance to the geothermal industry. An important feature of the facility is that it is dedicated to two-phase flow of a single substance (including evaporation and condensation) as opposed to the case of a two-component two-phase flow. This facility can be operated with horizontal or vertical test sections of constant diameter or with step changes in diameter to simulate a geothermal well profile.

Hanold, R.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

Apel, W.A.

1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

Reynolds, J.G.

1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

19

Improved Prediction of Nitrogen Oxides Using GRNN with K-Means Clustering and EDA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current study presented a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) based approach to predict nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from coal-fired boiler. A novel 'multiple' smoothing parameters, which is different from the standard algorithm in which ... Keywords: GRNN, EDA, K-means Clustering, Nitrogen Oxides, Power plants

Ligang Zheng; Shuijun Yu; Wei Wang; Minggao Yu

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They are Controlled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Air Quality EPA 456/F-99-006R Environmental Protection Planning and Standards November 1999 Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Air EPA-456/F-99-006R November 1999 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Why and How They Are Controlled Prepared by Clean Air Technology Center (MD-12) Information Transfer and Program Integration Division Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711 ii DISCLAIMER This report has been reviewed by the Information Transfer and Program Integration Division of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents of this report reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

Chapman, J.N. [ed.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

TCE degradation by methane-oxidizing cultures grown with various nitrogen sources  

SciTech Connect

Methane-oxidizing microorganisms exhibit great potential for vadose zone bioremediation. This paper reports the effects of supplying nitrogen as nitrate, ammonia, and molecular nitrogen on the growth, trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation capacity, and energy storage capacity of a mixed methane-oxidizing culture. Cells inoculated from a nitrate-supplied methane-oxidizing culture grew fastest while fixing atmospheric nitrogen when oxygen partial pressures were kept less than 8%. Cell growth and methane oxidation were more rapid for ammonia-supplied cells than for nitrate-supplied or nitrogen-fixing cells. However, nitrogen-fixing cells were capable of oxidizing TCE as efficiently as nitrate or ammonia-supplied cells, and they exhibited the highest TCE transformation capacity of all three cultures both with and without formate as an exogenous reducing energy source. The TCE product toxicity was not as pronounced for the nitrogen fixing cells as for the nitrate- or ammonia-supplied cells after exposure to high (20 mg/L) or low (2 mg/L) TCE concentrations. Energy storage in the form of poly-{beta}- hydroxybutyrate was 20% to 30% higher for nitrogen-fixing cells; increased energy storage may be responsible for the higher transformation capacity of nitrogen-fixing cells when no external reducing energy was available. 35 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Chu, K.H.; Alvarez-Cohen, L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The influence of Fe catalysts on the release of nitrogen oxides during the gasification of nitrogen doped carbon-13 material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

855 The influence of Fe catalysts on the release of nitrogen oxides during the gasification. (Received 12 June 19%; accepted in revised form 4 April 1997) Key Words - A. Char, B. gasification, the rapid devol- atilisation of the coal is accompanied by the ignition/gasification of the volatiles

Thomas, Mark

25

Passive measurement of nitrogen oxides to assess traffic-related...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

393-403 Date Published 012004 Keywords Freeways, nitrogen dioxide, Passive sampler, schools Abstract The East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study is examining associations...

26

Removal of nitrogen oxides from a gas stream by using monatomic nitrogen induced by a pulsed arc  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effectiveness of N atoms, nitrogen, induced by a pulsed electric arc, in reducing nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) was studied. Goal is reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from automobile emissions by this alternative technique, which can be cost-effective and has the potential to reduce NO{sub x} in exhaust containing up to 10% oxygen. Initial tests with 100, 500, and 1,000 ppM NO in pure nitrogen have shown that a greater than 50% reduction of NO/NO{sub x} is readily achievable. At an NO concentration of 100 ppM, a greater than 90% NO/NO{sub x} reduction was recorded. Different flow rates of the monatomic nitrogen and the gas stream were tested. The flow rate of the monatomic nitrogen did not have a significant effect on the reduction efficiency, unlike the flow rate of the gas stream. The cross-sectional flow area of the gas stream was varied in order to assess whether the proximity of the gas stream to the arc would affect NO/NO{sub x} reduction. Results of the tests revealed that the smallest cross-sectional area had the best reduction, but also the highest chance of contacting the arc. The composition of the gas stream was also varied to elucidate the effects of N0{sub 2} and 0{sub 2} on the NO/NO{sub x} reduction efficiency. When N0{sub 2} and 0{sub 2} are present in the gas stream, both gases lower the reduction efficiency significantly by creating more NO or N0{sub 2}. Experiments are continuing to improve the reduction efficiency. The electrical power, a function of pulse frequency, voltage, and current, was treated as a key parameter in the investigation. The power consumption of the high-voltage purser apparatus for a 100-kW engine was estimated to be 3 kW.

Ng, H.K.; Novick, V.J.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Pierucci, K.A. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Geise, M.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Theory and tests of two-phase turbines  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase turbines open the possibility of new types of power cycles operating with extremely wet mixtures of steam and water, organic fluids, or immiscible liquids and gases. Possible applications are geothermal power, waste-heat recovery, refrigerant expansion, solar conversion, transportation turbine engines, and engine bottoming cycles. A theoretical model for two-phase impulse turbines was developed. Apparatus was constructed for testing one- and two-stage turbines (using speed decrease from stage to stage). Turbines were tested with water-and-nitrogen mixtures and Refrigerant 22. Nozzle efficiencies were 0.78 (measured) and 0.72 (theoretical) for water-and-nitrogen mixtures at a water/nitrogen mixture ratio of 68, by mass; and 0.89 (measured) and 0.84 (theoretical) for Refrigerant 22 expanding from 0.02 quality to 0.28 quality. Blade efficiencies (shaft power before windage and bearing loss divided by nozzle jet power) were 0.63 (measured) and 0.71 (theoretical) for water-and-nitrogen mixtures and 0.62 (measured) and 0.63 (theoretical) for Refrigerant 22 with a single-stage turbine, and 0.70 (measured) and 0.85 (theoretical) for water-and-nitrogen mixtures with a two-stage turbine.

Elliot, D.G.

1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The comparative studies of electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs) were investigated. Various NCPs in HfLaON gate dielectrics were adjusted ... Keywords: Charge trapping, Current-conduction, High-k dielectric, Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), Nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs)

Chin-Lung Cheng; Jeng-Haur Horng; Hung-Yang Tsai

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

On the Ratio of Sulfur Dioxide to Nitrogen Oxides as an Indicator of Air Pollution Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ratio of sulfur dioxide to nitrogen oxides (RSN = SO2/NOx) is one indicator of air pollution sources. The role of this ratio in source attribution is illustrated here for the Ashdod area, located in the southern coastal plain of Israel. The ...

Ronit Nirel; Uri Dayan

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Nitrogen oxide -- Sensors and systems for engine management  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this Cooperative Research and Development (CRADA) effort is to further develop sensors and sensor systems in order to meet current and anticipated air emissions requirements due to the operation of Defense Program facilities and the emission standards imposed on new vehicles operating in this country. Specific objectives of this work are to be able to measure and control on-line and in real-time, emissions, engine operation, air-to-fuel intake ratios, and throttle/accelerator positions in future models of consumer automobiles. Sensor and application specific integrated circuit developments within Lockheed Martin Energy Systems are applicable to the monitoring and engine controls needed by General Motors. In the case of emissions sensors, base technology in thick/thin film sensors and optical systems will be further developed to address the combination of high temperature and accumulated deposits expected in the exhaust stream. Other technologies will also be explored to measure fuel-to-air ratios and technologies such as fiber optic and acoustic wave devices that are applicable to the combustion sensing on an individual base. Two non-contact rotary position sensors have been developed for use in control-by-wire throttle control applications. The two CRADA developed sensors consist of a non-contact, differential capacitance position transducer and a custom complementary metal oxide semiconductor (C-MOS) application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) suitable for use in both passenger and engine compartments.

Hiller, J.M.; Bryan, W.L. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, C.E. [General Motors, Inc., Flint, MI (United States). A.C. Rochester Div.

1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first discovered 25 years ago and the current record holders for highest Tc. However, three groups of researchers who performed measurements on the same cuprate material recently joined forces to prove that this view is inaccurate. Their work showed that another phase transition actually exists at a higher temperature in the cuprate phase diagram, below which electrons, instead of pairing up, organize themselves in a drastically different way.

32

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first discovered 25 years ago and the current record holders for highest Tc. However, three groups of researchers who performed measurements on the same cuprate material recently joined forces to prove that this view is inaccurate. Their work showed that another phase transition actually exists at a higher temperature in the cuprate phase diagram, below which electrons, instead of pairing up, organize themselves in a drastically different way.

33

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first discovered 25 years ago and the current record holders for highest Tc. However, three groups of researchers who performed measurements on the same cuprate material recently joined forces to prove that this view is inaccurate. Their work showed that another phase transition actually exists at a higher temperature in the cuprate phase diagram, below which electrons, instead of pairing up, organize themselves in a drastically different way.

34

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor Print Superconductivity-conceptually remarkable and practically revolutionary-is a quantum phenomenon in which bound electron pairs flow through a material in perfect synchrony, without friction. Conventional superconducting materials reach this state via a single thermal phase transition at a critical temperature (Tc). It was generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first discovered 25 years ago and the current record holders for highest Tc. However, three groups of researchers who performed measurements on the same cuprate material recently joined forces to prove that this view is inaccurate. Their work showed that another phase transition actually exists at a higher temperature in the cuprate phase diagram, below which electrons, instead of pairing up, organize themselves in a drastically different way.

35

Apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

Sheppard, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tong, Long S. (Gaithersburg, MD)

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Two-phase jet loads. [PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase jets are currently being studied to improve engineering models for the prediction of loads on pipes and structures during LOCAs. Multi-dimensional computer codes such as BEACON/MOD2, CSQ, and TRAC-P1A are being employed to predict flow characteristics and flow-structure loading. Our ultimate goal is to develop a new approximate engineering model which is superior to the F.J. Moody design model. Computer results are compared with data obtained from foreign sources, and a technique for using the TRAC-P1A vessel component as a containment model is presented. In general, good agreement with the data is obtained for saturated stagnation conditions; however, difficulties are encountered for subcooled stagnation conditions, possibly due to nucleation delay and non-equilibrium effects.

Tomasko, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Continuum modeling of two-phase flows  

SciTech Connect

Continuum modeling of two-phase flows can essentially be achieved in two ways. The first approach, the so-called continuum theory of mixtures, ignores the details of the flow occurring on the microscopic level, while the second one is the result of some averaging procedure. Although they both lead, as expected, to the same set of basic equations, they differ strongly in their spirit when closure equations have to be found. In the present report, we have attempted to give a brief critical review of both approaches, to compare them and to discuss some of the major difficulties which arise. It is shown that the application of the continuum theory of mixtures is, in most cases, questionable and that the only appropriate way of finding closure equations, besides correlating experimental results, consists in a useful investigation of the microscopic flow pattern associated with an adequate averaging technique.

Bataille, J.; Kestin, J.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Application of CHMMs to two-phase flow pattern identification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the application of continuous hidden Markov models (CHMMs) in identifying two-phase flow patterns is investigated. Air-water two-phase flows were realized in a transparent vertical tube with a 2m length and a 19mm inside diameter. Local ... Keywords: Feature extraction, Hidden Markov model, Optical probe, Pattern recognition, Two-phase flow

Ali Mahvash; Annie Ross

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR AND OTHER APPLICATIONS Prepared For REPORT (FAR) TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR AND OTHER APPLICATIONS EISG://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Two-Phase Flow Turbine For Cogeneration, Geothermal, Solar And Other Applications EISG

42

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The temperature programmed desorption studies a strong interaction between manganese and cerium. Presence of manganese not only enhanced the reduction rate of NO by methane, but also significantly improved the N{sub 2} selectivity. To increase the activity of the Mn-promoted catalyst, the manganese content of the catalyst need to be optimized and different methods of catalyst preparation and different reactor types need to be investigated to lower the transport limitations in the reactor.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Autoignition in turbulent two-phase flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the following section. 1.2 Diesel engine combustion Compression-ignition (CI) engines are the most fuel-efficient engines ever devel- oped for transportation purposes [28]. This is due to their higher compression ratio and absence of throttling losses... within the bulk gas, leading to air entrainment. As the cold liquid jet is heated by mixing with the hot oxidizer, a thin sheet of air / fuel vapor mixture is formed around the jet’s periphery. Further entrainment of hot air is responsible for start- ing...

Borghesi, Giulio

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

44

Parameters affecting nitrogen oxides in a Coal-Fired Flow Facility system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The unusually high temperature in the primary combustor of the Coal-Fired Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation system causes much higher nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) to be produced than in a conventional coal fired generation system. In order to lower the NO{sub x} concentration to an acceptable level, it is important to know how parameters of the MM power generation system affect the NO{sub x} concentration. This thesis investigates those effects in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at the University of Tennessee Space Institute under the contract of US Department Of Energy (DOE). With thermodynamic and kinetic computer codes, the theoretical studies were carried out on the parameters of the CFFF system. The results gathered from the computer codes were analyzed and compared with the experimental data collected during the LMF5J test. The thermodynamic and kinetic codes together modeled the NO.{sub x} behavior with reasonable accuracy while some inconsistencies happened at the secondary combustor inlet.

Lu, Xiaoliang

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Integrated assessment of the spatial variability of ozone impacts from emissions of nitrogen oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the ozone (O{sub 3}) damages caused by nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in different locations around the Atlanta metropolitan area during a summer month. Ozone impacts are calculated using a new integrated assessment model that links pollution emissions to their chemical transformation, transport, population exposures, and effects on human health. It was found that increased NOx emissions in rural areas around Atlanta increase human exposure to ambient O{sub 3} twice as much as suburban emissions. However, increased NOx emissions in central city Atlanta actually reduce O{sub 3} exposures. For downtown emissions, the reduction in human exposures to O{sub 3} from titration by NO in the central city outweighs the effects from increased downwind O{sub 3}. The results indicate that the marginal damage from NOx emissions varies greatly across a metropolitan area. The results raise concerns if cap and trade regulations cause emissions to migrate toward higher marginal damage locations. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Daniel Q. Tong; Nicholas Z. Muller; Denise L. Mauzerall; Robert O. Mendelsohn [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States). Science, Technology and Environmental Policy Program, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conference Proceedings: Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal production by Tracer dilution techniques edit Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions...

47

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Two-phase flow in geothermal...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Sponsored by OSTI -- Two-phase flow in geothermal energy sources. Annual report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1976 Geothermal Technologies...

48

Environmental considerations of selected energy-conserving manufacturing process options. Volume XVII. Nitrogen oxides summary report. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Arthur D. Little, Inc. undertook a study of the 'Environmental Consideration of Selected Energy-Conserving Manufacturing Process Options.' Some 80 industrial process options were examined in 13 industrial sectors. Results were published in 15 volumes, including a summary, industry prioritization report, and 13 industry oriented reports. The present report summarizes the information regarding nitrogen oxide pollutants in the 13 industry reports. Topics considered include the following: Processes and potential nitrogen oxide emissions--(Bases of calculations, NOx control methods, petroleum refining industry, cement industry, olefins industry, alumina and aluminum industry, glass industry, copper industry, fertilizer industry, ammonia, iron and steel, phosphorus/phosphoric acid, textile industry, pulp and paper industry, and chlor-alkali industry).

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

Martin, Katherine C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions Reductions on Ozone Air Quality over the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone is produced by chemical interactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. At high concentrations, ground-level ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health and to the environment. ...

Edith Gégo; P. Steven Porter; Alice Gilliland; S. Trivikrama Rao

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in soils cropped to corn with varying N fertilization. Can.as affected by tillage, corn-soybean-alfalfa rotations, andsoil nitrogen mineralization for corn production in eastern

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Two-phase flow characteristics in multiple orifice valves  

SciTech Connect

This work presents an experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow through multiple orifice valve (MOV), including frictional pressure drop and void fraction. Experiments were carried out using an MOV with three different sets of discs with throat thickness-diameter ratios (s/d) of 1.41, 1.66 and 2.21. Tests were run with air and water flow rates ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 m{sup 3}/h, respectively. The two-phase flow patterns established for the experiment were bubbly and slug. Two-phase frictional multipliers, frictional pressure drop and void fraction were analyzed. The determined two-phase multipliers were compared against existing correlations for gas-liquid flows. None of the correlations tested proved capable of predicting the experimental results. The large discrepancy between predicted and measured values points at the role played by valve throat geometry and thickness-diameter ratio in the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow through MOVs. A modification to the constants in the two-phase multiplier equation used for pipe flow fitted the experimental data. A comparison between computed frictional pressure drop, calculated with the modified two-phase multiplier equation and measured pressure drop yielded better agreement, with less than 20% error. (author)

Alimonti, Claudio [Sapienza University of Rome, Department ICMA, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma (Italy); Falcone, Gioia; Bello, Oladele [The Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3116 TAMU, Richardson Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Design of a microbreather for two-phase microchannel devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiphase flows in microchannels are encountered in a variety of microfluidic applications. Two-phase microchannel heat sinks leverage the latent heat of vaporization to offer an efficient method of dissipating large heat ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains a minimum of 92 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxides of nitrogen from coal-fired power stations are considered to be major pollutants, and there is increasing concern for regulating air quality and offsetting the emissions generated from the use of energy. Reburning is an in-furnace, combustion control technology for NOx reduction. Another environmental issue that needs to be addressed is the rapidly growing feedlot industry in the United States. The production of biomass from one or more animal species is in excess of what can safely be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered. It is expected to utilize biomass as a low-cost, substitute fuel and an agent to control emission. The successful development of this technology will create environment-friendly, low cost fuel source for the power industry, provide means for an alternate method of disposal of biomass, and generate a possible revenue source for feedlot operators. In the present study, the effect of coal, cattle manure or feedlot biomass, and blends of biomass with coal on the ability to reduce NOx were investigated in the Texas A&M University 29.31 kW (100,000 Btu/h) reburning facility. The facility used a mixture of propane and ammonia to generate the 600 ppm NOx in the primary zone. The reburn fuel was injected using air. The stoichiometry tested were 1.00 to 1.20 in the reburn zone. Two types of injectors, circular jet and fan spray injectors, which produce different types of mixing within the reburn zone, were studied to find their effect on NOx emissions reduction. The flat spray injector performed better in all cases. With the injection of biomass as reburn fuel with circular jet injector the maximum NOx reduction was 29.9 % and with flat spray injector was 62.2 %. The mixing time was estimated in model set up as 936 and 407 ms. The maximum NOx reduction observed with coal was 14.4 % and with biomass it was 62.2 % and the reduction with blends lay between that of coal and biomass.

Arumugam, Senthilvasan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Role of char during reburning of nitrogen oxides. First quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Customarily, coal and lignite have not been considered viable reburning fuels for a number of reasons. NO reduction through homogeneous gas phase mechanisms is generally believed more important than the heterogeneous NO reduction on char; and coal devolatilization in the fuel rich environment generates only about 50% of the volatile hydrocarbon radicals than gaseous hydrocarbons under the same fuel-to-oxidant stoichiometry. In addition, the fuel nitrogen could result in additional nitrogen oxide emissions in the burnout stage. What has not been anticipated is the highly active nature of lignite char surface. First, it has been demonstrated in the literature that lignite char can be gasified by nitrogen oxide; second, the minerals in lignite char can catalyze the CO + NO and gasification reaction; and third, lignite char has a highly porous structure which is desirable for gas/solid reactions. The unique NO activity on char surface is expected to benefit the utilities which are involved in coal combustion and have to meet the stringent Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This program is aimed at a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved in the reburning with chars. Char gasification rates will be measured with and without the presence of CO. Further, the rate of the char catalyzed CO + NO reaction will also be measured. Experiments have been conducted with a flow reactor which simulates the reburning stage. One bituminous coal and two lignites, one from North Dakota and the other from Mississippi, are used in these tasks. A unique component of this program is the use of the fractal concept in the estimations of these gas/solid reaction rates. The proposed program is designed to investigate the relative importance of these two reactions (char gasification and ash catalyzed CO + NO reactions) under reburning conditions.

Chen, Wei-Yin

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Two-phase flow modeling with discrete particles  

SciTech Connect

The design of efficient heat exchangers in which the working fluid changes phase requires accurate modeling of two-phase fluid flow. The local Navier-Stokes equations form the basic continuum equations for this flow situation. However, the local instantaneous model using these equations is intractable for afl but the simplest problems. AH the practical models for two-phase flow analysis are based on equations that have been averaged over control volumes. These models average out the detailed description within the control volumes and rely on flow regime maps to determine the distribution of the two phases within a control volume. Flow regime maps depend on steady state models and probably are not correct for dynamic models. Numerical simulations of the averaged two-phase flow models are usually performed using a two-fluid Eulerian description for the two phases. Eulerian descriptions have the advantage of having simple boundary conditions, but the disadvantage of introducing numerical diffusion, i.e., sharp interfaces are not maintained as the flow develops, but are diffused. Lagrangian descriptions have the advantage of being able to track sharp interfaces without diffusion, but they have the disadvantage of requiring more complicated boundary conditions. This paper describes a numerical scheme and attendant computer program, DISCON2, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between the intractable local instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. This new model uses a combination of an Eulerian and a Lagrangian representation of the two phases. The dispersed particles (bubbles or drops) are modeled individually using a large representative number of particles, each with their own Lagrangian description. The continuous phases (liquid or gas) use an Eulerian description.

Mortensen, G.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Trapp, J.A. (Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (United States) EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

62

Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Transient well testing in two-phase geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of well test analysis techniques in two-phase geothermal reservoirs has been conducted using a three-dimensional, two-phase, wellbore and reservoir simulation model. Well tests from Cerro Prieto and the Hawaiian Geothermal project have been history matched. Using these well tests as a base, the influence of reservoir permeability, porosity, thickness, and heat capacity, along with flow rate and fracturing were studied. Single and two-phase transient well test equations were used to analyze these tests with poor results due to rapidly changing fluid properties and inability to calculate the flowing steam saturation in the reservoir. The injection of cold water into the reservoir does give good data from which formation properties can be calculated.

Aydelotte, S.R.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Tests of a two-stage, axial-flow, two-phase turbine  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase-flow turbine with two stages of axial-flow impulse rotors was tested with three different working-fluid mixtures at a shaft power of 30 kW. The turbine efficiency was 0.55 with nitrogen-and-water of 0.02 quality and 94 m/s velocity, 0.57 with Refrigerant 22 of 0.27 quality and 123 m/s velocity, and 0.30 with steam-and-water of 0.27 quality and 457 m/s velocity. The efficiencies with nitrogen-and-water and Refrigerant 22 were 86% of theoretical. At that fraction of theoretical, the efficiencies of optimized two-phase turbines would be in the low 60% range with organic working fluids and in the mid 50% range with steam-and-water. The recommended turbine design is a two-stage axial-flow impulse turbine followed by a rotary separator for discharge of separate liquid and gas streams and recovery of liquid pressure.

Elliott, D.G.

1982-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and system for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous The government of the United States of America has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC21-88MC 23174 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Cohen, Mitchell R. (Troy, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

68

Numerical studies of gravity effects in two-phase reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerical studies are performed to investigate the effects of localized feed zones on the pressure transients in two-phase reservoirs. It is shown that gravity effects can significantly affect the pressure transients, because of the large difference in the density of liquid water and vapor. Pressure transients for shallow and deep feed zones and the resulting fluid flow patterns are discussed.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Cox, B.L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Enthalpy transients in fractured two-phase geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerical modeling techniques are used to study the changes in flowing enthalpy of fluids produced from a well completed in a fractured two-phase geothermal reservoir. Complex interactions between different fracture and porous matrix parameters control the enthalpy transients. The results show that the flowing enthalpy is most sensitive to the characteristics of the relative permeability curves, the magnitude of the matrix permeability and the effective fracture porosity. Other parameters such as the thermal conductivity and fracture spacing also significantly affect the flowing enthalpy. In spite of the complex phenomena associated with enthalpy transients in fractured two-phase systems, it is possible to infer useful information about the producing geothermal reservoirs from field data. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Gaulke, S.W.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

How NGPL validates its two-phase flow program  

SciTech Connect

Natural Gas Pipeline Company (NGPL) has completed a series of studies where liquid flow in gas pipelines is simulated in a two-phase flow program. This analysis determines the relationship between the amount of liquids in a natural gas pipe line and the Weymouth efficiency of the pipe line. To assure valid conclusions, the analysis was broken down into two parts, first, the two-phase flow program was tested against actual data collected by the American Gas Association. Second, curves were developed to show the change in efficiency compared to changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio. It is concluded that where liquids are present in natural gas pipe lines, there will be a decrease in efficiency. NGPL's program eliminates the underdesigning and overdesigning that results when using a 90% Weymouth efficiency, provided that accurate estimates of liquid-togas ratio are available when pipe lines are designed.

Ludwig, M.S.; Remington, W.M.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Physics of two-phase flow: choked flow  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is shown that the basic equations governing the flow of a two-phase fluid, i.e., liquid and vapor, are natural extensions of those equations that describe single-phase flow. The exact form of the equations depends on the particular assumptions used to characterize the two-phase flow, i.e., the equations depend on the model chosen. In general the mathematical model is selected so as to retain as much of the physics of the phenomena as possible while at the same time permitting solutions to be obtained without undue complexity. The following quantities were computed for saturated water substance over the temperature range 100 to 250/sup 0/C and for saturated Refrigerant -114 over the range -20 to +70/sup 0/C: choking velocity, critical or choking flow density, and saturation properties. Tables of the results are given along with graphs of selected functions.

Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.; Delor, M.; Dickinson, D.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Design considerations for a two-phase turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A two-phase turbine, using a low-quality steam-water mixture as a working fluid, was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory. Two-phase fluids are found naturally in most geothermal fields throughout the world and can also be used in the conversion of waste heat from industrial sources. The thermodynamic and fluid-dynamic properties of such fluid mixtures are reviewed, with specific reference to the selection and design of an appropriate expander. Various types of practically realizable expanders are considered, and the choice of a single-stage, axial-flow, impulse turbine is explained. Also the basic design parameters, including sizing and blade and nozzle geometry, are described.

Comfort, W.J. III; Beadle, C.W.

1978-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow. [PWR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for monitoring two-phase flow is provided that is particularly related to the monitoring of transient two-phase (liquid-vapor) flow rates such as may occur during a pressurized water reactor core blow-down. The present invention essentially comprises the use of flanged wire screens or similar devices, such as perforated plates, to produce certain desirable effects in the flow regime for monitoring purposes. One desirable effect is a measurable and reproducible pressure drop across the screen. The pressure drop can be characterized for various known flow rates and then used to monitor nonhomogeneous flow regimes. Another useful effect of the use of screens or plates in nonhomogeneous flow is that such apparatus tends to create a uniformly dispersed flow regime in the immediate downstream vicinity. This is a desirable effect because it usually increases the accuracy of flow rate measurements determined by conventional methods.

Sheppard, J.D.; Tong, L.S.

1975-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

75

Two-phase computer codes for zero-gravity applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the problems existing in the development of computer codes which can analyze the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase fluids especially in low gravity nuclear reactors. The important phenomenon affecting fluid flow and heat transfer in reduced gravity is discussed. The applicability of using existing computer codes for space applications is assessed. Recommendations regarding the use of existing earth based fluid flow and heat transfer correlations are made and deficiencies in these correlations are identified.

Krotiuk, W.J.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Two-Phase Pressure Drop Technology for Design and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book is the second in the "Technology for Design and Analysis" series. The first book, "Void Fraction Technology for Design and Analysis," focused on void fraction in steady-state and dynamic two-phase systems. Each book in the series provides engineering fundamentals and a perspective of the importance of the subject in industrial processes, and presents an overview of the measurement technology. This work also moves the technology forward by constructing improved models for steady-state and dynami...

1999-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

77

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Rhode Island) Eligibility Commercial...

78

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

79

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

SciTech Connect

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Transient analysis of a two-phase hydrogen heat switch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A transient, thermal analysis of a two-phase hydrogen heat switch is presented. The heat switch has application to a zero-g, no-moving-part magnetic refrigerator that operates between 7 K and 25 K and provides a one-way thermal path for heat rejection from the refrigerator to the 20 K heat sink. Incorporation of the heat switch is dependent on operating frequency. However, the thermal diode operating characteristic and the high axial thermal conductivity of the heat switch provide advantages over other methods. 3 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Prenger, C.; Stewart, W.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the submarine debris speed can be faster than the tsunami speed. This information can be useful for early warning strategies in the coastal regions. These findings substantially increase our understanding of complex multi-phase systems and multi-physics and flows, and allows for the proper modeling of landslide and debris induced tsunami, the dynamics of turbidity currents and sediment transport, and the associated applications to hazard mitigation, geomorphology and sedimentology.

Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

83

Method and system for the removal of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur from combustion processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for removing oxide contaminants from combustion gas, and employing a solid electrolyte reactor, includes: (a) flowing the combustion gas into a zone containing a solid electrolyte and applying a voltage and at elevated temperature to thereby separate oxygen via the solid electrolyte, (b) removing oxygen from that zone in a first stream and removing hot effluent gas from that zone in a second stream, the effluent gas containing contaminant, (c) and pre-heating the combustion gas flowing to that zone by passing it in heat exchange relation with the hot effluent gas.

Walsh, John V. (Glendora, CA)

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-34 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to gain importance. These processes comprise combustion or gasification stages at elevated pressure in gasification processes 4.13.1 Formation of nitrogen species during gasification In gasification, a solid.3..0.4). One of the challenges met at developing the (pressurized) gasification technique called the IGCC

Laughlin, Robert B.

85

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. As the laughing gas in a burner #12;Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-40 flame enters hot zones, or "combustion" in a fuel cell (+Chapter 2). Combustion of the gas in a gas turbine or engine may result, flame length and where hot/cold spots are), 3) inlet pressure/ temperature, 4) spark or fuel injection

Zevenhoven, Ron

86

Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.

Mortensen, G.A. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Trapp, J.A. [Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (United States)]|[Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.

Mortensen, G.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Trapp, J.A. (Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (United States) Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Emerging Two-Phase Cooling Technologies for Power Electronic Inverters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to meet the Department of Energy's (DOE's) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FVCT) goals for volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost, the cooling of the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical. Currently the power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) are primarily cooled by water-ethylene glycol (WEG) mixture. The cooling fluid operates as a single-phase coolant as the liquid phase of the WEG does not change to its vapor phase during the cooling process. In these single-phase systems, two cooling loops of WEG produce a low temperature (around 70 C) cooling loop for the power electronics and motor/generator, and higher temperature loop (around 105 C) for the internal combustion engine. There is another coolant option currently available in automobiles. It is possible to use the transmission oil as a coolant. The oil temperature exists at approximately 85 C which can be utilized to cool the power electronic and electrical devices. Because heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference between the device's hot surface and the coolant, a device that can tolerate higher temperatures enables the device to be smaller while dissipating the same amount of heat. Presently, new silicon carbide (SiC) devices and high temperature direct current (dc)-link capacitors, such as Teflon capacitors, are available but at significantly higher costs. Higher junction temperature (175 C) silicon (Si) dies are gradually emerging in the market, which will eventually help to lower hardware costs for cooling. The development of high-temperature devices is not the only way to reduce device size. Two-phase cooling that utilizes the vaporization of the liquid to dissipate heat is expected to be a very effective cooling method. Among two-phase cooling methods, different technologies such as spray, jet impingement, pool boiling and submersion, etc. are being developed. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leading the research on a novel floating refrigerant loop that cools high-power electronic devices and the motor/generator with very low cooling energy. The loop can be operated independently or attached to the air conditioning system of the vehicle to share the condenser and other mutually needed components. The ability to achieve low cooling energy in the floating loop is attributable to the liquid refrigerant operating at its hot saturated temperature (around 50 C+). In an air conditioning system, the liquid refrigerant is sub-cooled for producing cool air to the passenger compartment. The ORNL floating loop avoids the sub-cooling of the liquid refrigerant and saves significant cooling energy. It can raise the coefficient of performance (COP) more than 10 fold from that of the existing air-conditioning system, where the COP is the ratio of the cooled power and the input power for dissipating the cooled power. In order to thoroughly investigate emerging two-phase cooling technologies, ORNL subcontracted three university/companies to look into three leading two-phase cooling technologies. ORNL's assessments on these technologies are summarized in Section I. Detailed descriptions of the reports by the three university/companies (subcontractors) are in Section II.

Hsu, J.S.

2005-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

89

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Proto col for US Midwest Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Status: Published Citation: Millar, N; Robertson, GP; Grace, PR; Gehl, RJ; and Hoben, JP. 2010. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for US Midwest Agriculture. In Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change,Volume 15, Number 2, 2010, pp. 185-204. Link to Journal Publication: See Journal of Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change.

2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

90

Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Redu ction Protocol for U.S. Midwest Agriculture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Status: Published Citation: Millar, N; Robertson, GP; Grace, PR; Gehl, RJ; and Hoben; JP. 2010. Nitrogen Fertilizer Management for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Mitigation in Intensive Corn (Maize) Production: An Emissions Reduction Protocol for U.S. Midwest Agriculture. In Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Volume 15, Number 2, 2010, pp. 185-204. A peer-reviewed journal article that identifies, describes and analyzes socio-economic factors that may encourage or inhibit farmers from participat...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

91

Degassing and two-phase flow pilot hole test report  

SciTech Connect

A pilot hole test was conducted to support the design of the Degassing of Groundwater and Two-Phase Flow experiments planned for the Hard Rock Laboratory, Aespoe, Sweden. The test consisted of a sequence of constant pressure borehole inflow tests (CPTs) and pressure recovery tests (PRTs) in borehole KA2512A. The test sequence was designed to detect degassing effects from the change in transmissivity, or hydraulic conductivity, and storativity when the borehole pressure is lowered below the groundwater bubble pressure. The entire 37.3m of the borehole section was tested without packers. Flow response to pressure changes in CPTs occurred rapidly. Flowrates fluctuated before attaining a steady trend, probably due to effective stress changes when borehole pressure was reduced for the first time. These factors decreased the sensitivity of type-curve fits to values of specific storage. The relationship between borehole pressure and steady-state flowrates was linear over borehole pressures of 1500 kPa (abs) down to 120 kPa (abs) during testing in December 1994, indicating that processes that may change hydraulic conductivity at low borehole pressures, such as degassing, calcite precipitation or turbulence, did not occur to a measurable degree. Test results during January and February of 1995 suggest that degassing may have occurred. The hydraulic conductivity measured at a borehole pressure equal to 120 kPa (abs) was 20% lower than the hydraulic conductivity measured at a borehole pressure of 1500 kPa (abs); the latter value was 10% lower than the hydraulic conductivity measured in December, 1994. The volumetric gas content measured during this time was 1% v/v. Pressures in monitoring well KA2511A responded to the testing in KA2512A. Step-changes in flowrates coincided with blasting at 3300-3400 m tunnel length. The magnitude of these changes was greater at the lower borehole pressures. Step increases in pressures in KA2511A also coincided with the blasts.

Geller, J.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jarsjoe, J. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Water Resource Engineering

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Engineering Technical Training Module (ETTM) - Two-Phase Phenomenon 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Engineering Technical Training Module (ETTM) – Two-Phase Phenomenon, Version 1.0 is a computer-based training module that allows users to access training when desired and review it at their own pace.This module provides an overview of two-phase flow and two-phase heat transfer, and their applications in nuclear power plant operation.  Fundamental two-phase concepts, including flow patterns, void fraction, and boiling and condensation are described.  Additionally, ...

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

94

Anti-diffusion method for interface steepening in two-phase incompressible flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a method for obtaining sharp interfaces in two-phase incompressible flows by an anti-diffusion correction, that is applicable in a straight-forward fashion for the improvement of two-phase flow solution schemes typically employed ... Keywords: Anti-diffusion, Interface steepening, Two-phase flow, Unstructured meshes, Volume-of-fluid

K. K. So; X. Y. Hu; N. A. Adams

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

THE NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROVERSY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 ) by far ultraviolet solar radiation (hv) 02 + hv (A solar radiation above the atmosphere.by Chapman concerning solar radiation above the atmosphere

Johnston, Harold S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Abatement of Air Pollution: The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) Ozone Season Trading Program (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations may apply to fossil-fuel fired emission units, and describe nitrogen emission allocations that owners of such units must meet. The regulations also contain provisions for...

97

Effect of fresh green waste and green waste compost on mineral nitrogen, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from a Vertisol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incorporation of organic waste amendments to a horticultural soil, prior to expected risk periods, could immobilise mineral N, ultimately reducing nitrogen (N) losses as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and leaching. Two organic waste amendments were selected, a fresh green waste (FGW) and green waste compost (GWC) as they had suitable biochemical attributes to initiate N immobilisation into the microbial biomass and organic N forms. These characteristics include a high C:N ratio (FGW 44:1, GWC 35:1), low total N (14%). Both products were applied at 3 t C/ha to a high N (plus N fertiliser) or low N (no fertiliser addition) Vertisol soil in PVC columns. Cumulative N{sub 2}O production over the 28 day incubation from the control soil was 1.5 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2}, and 11 mg/N{sub 2}O/m{sup 2} from the control + N. The N{sub 2}O emission decreased with GWC addition (P < 0.05) for the high N soil, reducing cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions by 38% by the conclusion of the incubation. Analysis of mineral N concentrations at 7, 14 and 28 days identified that both FGW and GWC induced microbial immobilisation of N in the first 7 days of incubation regardless of whether the soil environment was initially high or low in N; with the FGW immobilising up to 30% of available N. It is likely that the reduced mineral N due to N immobilisation led to a reduced substrate for N{sub 2}O production during the first week of the trial, when soil N{sub 2}O emissions peaked. An additional finding was that FGW + N did not decrease cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions compared to the control + N, potentially due to the fact that it stimulated microbial respiration resulting in anaerobic micro sites in the soil and ultimately N{sub 2}O production via denitrification. Therefore, both materials could be used as post harvest amendments in horticulture to minimise N loss through nitrate-N leaching in the risk periods between crop rotations. The mature GWC has potential to reduce N{sub 2}O, an important greenhouse gas.

Vaughan, Sarah M., E-mail: s.vaughan@uq.edu.au [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Dalal, Ram C. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Department of Environment and Resource Management, 80 Meiers Rd., Indooroopilly, QLD 4068 (Australia); Harper, Stephen M. [Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Warrego Highway, Gatton, QLD 4343 (Australia); Menzies, Neal W. [School of Land, Crop and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Zinc Thiolate Reactivity toward Nitrogen Oxides: Insights into the Interaction of Zn[superscript 2+] with S-Nitrosothiols and Implications for Nitric Oxide Synthase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zinc thiolate complexes containing N[subscript 2]S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of ...

Kozhukh, Julia

99

Flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in a horizontal circular micro-channel  

SciTech Connect

Adiabatic two-phase air-water flow characteristics, including the two-phase flow pattern as well as the void fraction and two-phase frictional pressure drop, in a circular micro-channel are experimentally studied. A fused silica channel, 320 mm long, with an inside diameter of 0.53 mm is used as the test section. The test runs are done at superficial velocity of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-16 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow pattern map is developed from the observed flow patterns i.e. slug flow, throat-annular flow, churn flow and annular-rivulet flow. The flow pattern map is compared with those of other researchers obtained from different working fluids. The present single-phase experiments also show that there are no significant differences in the data from the use of air or nitrogen gas, and water or de-ionized water. The void fraction data obtained by image analysis tends to correspond with the homogeneous flow model. The two-phase pressure drops are also used to calculate the frictional multiplier. The multiplier data show a dependence on flow pattern as well as mass flux. A new correlation of two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical application. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Laboratory (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

100

Nitrogen spark denoxer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hot Deformation Behavior of an Fe-Al Steel in the Two Phase Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Secondly, hot-rolling of the two-phase mixture leads to recrystallization nucleation ... of a Stainless Steel as Bipolar Electrode Plate Material for PEM Fuel Cells.

102

USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE COSO EGS PROJECT Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: USE...

103

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 9, August 1, 1989--October 31, 1989  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to investigate the processes that influence the destruction of NO in the fuel rich stage of the reburning process. The objective is to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that control the fate of coal nitrogen in the fuel rich zone of a combustion process. Time resolved profiles of temperature, major (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}), nitrogenous (NO, HCN and NH{sub 3}) and hydrocarbon (CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}) species were obtained for various reburning tests. A slow continuous source of HCN was observed in the reburn zone for most tests. HCN formation from NO + CH{sub i} reactions would partially explain this trend. It has been proposed in the past that these reactions would be fast (less than 0.1s) and the produced HCN would be short lived. However, evidence was provided in this study indicating that NO + CH{sub i} reactions might contribute to HCN formation at longer residence times in the reburn zone. Reactions of molecular nitrogen with hydrocarbon radicals were determined to be a significant source of HCN formation, especially as NO levels decreased in the reburn zone. The results of several tests would justify the exclusion of continued coal devolatilization in the reburn zone as a major source of HCN.

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1989-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

104

An efficient multigrid-FEM method for the simulation of solid-liquid two phase flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient multigrid-FEM method for the detailed simulation of solid-liquid two phase flows with large number of moving particles is presented. An explicit fictitious boundary method based on a FEM background grid which covers the whole computational ... Keywords: 65K99, 65M55, 65N55, Fictitious boundary method, Multigrid FEM, Solid-liquid two phase

Decheng Wan; Stefan Turek

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Lattice BBGKY scheme for two-phase flows: one-dimensional case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase fluids is presented. We begin with the two-body BBGKY equation, and perform a coordinate transformation to split it into a Boltzmann equation for the one-body distribution, coupled to a kinetic equation for ... Keywords: BBGKY, Lennard-Jones potential, lattice Boltzmann method, two-phase flow

Aiguo Xu; Sauro Succi; Bruce M. Boghosian

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations M dimensional two-phase (liquid and gas) flows. The main goal is to improve the mod- eling of kinetic imbalance between the phases. We present a method that solves the mix- ture (liquid-gas) mass and enthalpy equations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

107

Implicitly balanced solution of the two-phase flow equations coupled to nonlinear heat conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the solution of the two-phase flow equations coupled to nonlinear heat conduction using the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method which employs a physics-based preconditioner. Computer simulations will demonstrate that the implicitly ... Keywords: implicit, nonlinear, preconditioning, two-phase flow

V. A. Mousseau

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A NONLINEAR TWO-PHASE STEFAN PROBLEM WITH MELTING POINT GRADIENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A NONLINEAR TWO-PHASE STEFAN PROBLEM WITH MELTING POINT GRADIENT: A CONSTRUCTIVE APPROACH D. D. Ang-dimensional two-phase Stefan problem, modeling a layer of solid material floating on liquid. The model includes of a cake of ice floating in water after the surface of the ice has received a fresh snowfall

Keinert, Fritz

109

A heuristic method to minimise the chattering problem in dynamic mathematical two-phase flow models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces the chattering problem in dynamic mathematical two-phase flow models. The real system object of study is also introduced, the DISS test facility, a parabolic-trough solar power plant using as heat transfer fluid the steam-water ... Keywords: Chattering, Heuristic methods, Modelling and simulation, Parabolic-trough solar power plant, Two-phase flow, Zeno phenomenon

J. Bonilla; L. J. Yebra; S. Dormido

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A new approach to sub-grid surface tension for LES of two-phase flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In two-phase flow, the presence of inter-phasal surface - the interface - causes additional terms to appear in LES formulation. Those terms were ignored in contemporary works, for the lack of model and because the authors expected them to be of negligible ... Keywords: CLSVOF, Large Eddy Simulation, Surface tension, Two-phase flow

W. Aniszewski; A. Bogus?Awski; M. Marek; A. Tyliszczak

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

A Darcy law for the drift velocity in a two-phase flow model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work deals with the design and numerical approximation of an Eulerian mixture model for the simulation of two-phase dispersed flows. In contrast to the more classical two-fluid or Drift-flux models, the influence of the velocity disequilibrium is ... Keywords: Bubbly flows, Chapman-Enskog expansion, Darcy law, Drift-flux, Riemann solver, Two-phase flows

H. Guillard; F. Duval

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Evaluation of numerical strategies for large eddy simulation of particulate two-phase recirculating flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Predicting particle dispersion in recirculating two-phase flows is a key issue for reacting flows and a potential application of large eddy simulation (LES) methods. In this study, Euler/Euler and Euler/Lagrange LES approaches are compared in the bluff ... Keywords: Euler/Euler, Euler/Lagrange, LES, Particles, Two-phase recirculating flows

E. Riber; V. Moureau; M. García; T. Poinsot; O. Simonin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Evaluations of emitter clogging in drip irrigation by two-phase flow simulations and laboratory experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emitter clogging will affect greatly the irrigation efficiency and the running cost of a drip irrigation system. If there is an effective method to predict the emitter clogging, the lost will be reduced to a minimum. A solid-liquid two-phase turbulent ... Keywords: Clogging, Computational fluid dynamics, Drip emitters, Drip irrigation, Two-phase flow

Wei Qingsong; Lu Gang; Liu Jie; Shi Yusheng; Dong Wenchu; Huang Shuhuai

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

On-demand generation of aqueous two-phase microdroplets with reversible phase transitions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous two-phase systems contained entirely within microdroplets enable a bottom-up approach to mimicking the dynamic microcompartmentation of biomaterial that naturally occurs within the cytoplasm of cells. Here, we demonstrate the on-demand generation of femtolitre aqueous two-phase droplets within a microfluidic oil channel. Gated pressure pulses were used to generate individual, stationary two-phase microdroplets with a well-defined time zero for carrying out controlled and sequential phase transformations over time. Reversible phase transitions between single-phase, two-phase, and core-shell microgel states were obtained via evaporation-induced dehydration and on-demand water rehydration. In contrast to other microfluidic aqueous two-phase droplets, which require continuous flows and high-frequency droplet formation, our system enables the controlled isolation and reversible transformation of a single microdroplet and is expected to be useful for future studies in dynamic microcompartmentation and affinity partitioning.

Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Structure, optical, and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by sputtering at room temperature and annealed in air or nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been grown onto soda-lime glass substrates by sputtering at room temperature with various oxygen to argon partial pressure ratios. After deposition, the samples have been annealed at temperatures ranging from 100 to 500 degree sign C in nitrogen or in air. The structure, optical, and electrical characteristics of the ITO coatings have been analyzed as a function of the deposition and the annealing parameters by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and Hall effect measurements. It has been found that the as-grown amorphous layers crystallize in the cubic structure by heating above 200 degree sign C. Simultaneously, the visible optical transmittance increases and the electrical resistance decreases, in proportions that depend mainly on the sputtering conditions. The lowest resistivity values have been obtained by annealing at 400 degree sign C in nitrogen, where the highest carrier concentrations are achieved, related to oxygen vacancy creation. Some relationships between the analyzed properties have been established, showing the dependence of the cubic lattice distortion and the infrared optical characteristics on the carrier concentration.

Guillen, C.; Herrero, J. [Departamento de Energia, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 The Advanced Tangentially Fired Combustion Techniques for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NO ) Emissions From Coal-Fired Boilers X Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment March 2000 U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880, 3610 Collins Ferry Road Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 and P.O. Box 10940, 626 Cochrans Mill Road Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

117

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

118

Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Four regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by defining three threshold current densities and a maximum current density. They correspond to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface, extension of the gas-liquid two-phase zone to the cathode/channel interface, saturated moist air exiting the gas channel, and complete consumption of oxygen by the electrochemical reaction. When the cell operates above the first threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multi-component mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A/cm{sup 2}.

WANG,Z.H.; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

119

Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A tracer test was conducted at the Coso geothermal field in order to characterize the flow patterns of fluid injected into well 68-20RD. A conservative liquid phase tracer, 2-naphthalene sulfonate, and a two-phase tracer, ethanol, were injected into well 68-20RD. Surrounding production wells were sampled over the subsequent 125 days and analyzed for the two tracers. The liquid-phase tracer showed negligible returns, whereas the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF BOILING HEAT TRANSFER AND TWO-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect

Significantly improved theories of two-phase heat transfer and prediction of departure from nucleate boiling have recently been developed which for the first time are not based on empirical relationships. These theories should be critically analyzed in relation to naval reactor work and tested with all existing data from both classified and unclassified sources. Conflicting analyses of two-phase fluid fiow regimes confuse this area, and essentially no data or theories are avsilable for twophase fiow with superimposed boiling. Theories and understanding of two-phase flow with boiling should be developed, starting from proven theories without boiling, and tested against all existing data or new data as necessary. A substantial start hss been made in analysis of the case of upward annular two-phase flow in vertical channels, based upon modern knowledge of boundary layer and vapor condensation principles. (auth)

Grohse, E.W.; Mueller, G.O.; Findlay, J.A.

1958-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

122

Two-phase pressure drop in vertical crossflow across a horizontal tube bundle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental investigation has been made to evaluate the friction, acceleration, and hydrostatic pressure drops in two-phase vertical crossflow across a horizontal tube bundle through the measurement of the void fraction and determination of the two-phase friction multiplier. The void fractions were found to increase with increasing mass velocity for a fixed quality level. The two-phase friction multiplier increased with increasing mass velocity for a fixed value of the Martinelli parameter in both slug and spray flow and decreased with increasing mass velocity in bubbly flows. The void fraction and two-phase friction multiplier data were correlated and used to predict with very good results the total pressure drop occurring in simulated diabatic flow tests and in actual diabatic tests using R-113.

Schrage, D.S.; Hsu, J.T.; Jensen, M.K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Lattice Boltzmann Models (LBM) for Two-phase Thermo-hydro-dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lattice Boltzmann Models (LBM) for Two-phase Thermo-hydro-dynamics Speaker(s): Prashant Jain Date: October 15, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is...

124

A two-phase spherical electric machine for generating rotating uniform magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the design and construction of a novel two-phase spherical electric machine that generates rotating uniform magnetic fields, known as a fluxball machine. Alternative methods for producing uniform ...

Lawler, Clinton T. (Clinton Thomas)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

126

Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant.

Steven Enedy

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

127

PC-based fluid and heat transfer analyzer for two-phase flow in pipes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Modeling the simultaneous flow of gas and liquid or two-phase gas-liquid flow in pipes is a key aspect in petroleum production. These models can enhance… (more)

Afonja, Gbolahan.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

New chemistry with gold-nitrogen complexes: synthesis and characterization of tetra-, tri-, and dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complexes. Oxidative-addition to the dinuclear gold(I) amidinate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen ligands have been little studied with gold(I) and almost no chemistry has been described using anionic bridging nitrogen ligands. This dissertation concerns the impact of the bridging ligands amidinate, ArNHC(H)NAr, on the chemistry of gold(I) and, in particular, the effect of substituents on the molecular arrangement. The electronic vs. steric effect of the substituents on the molecular arrangement of gold(I) amidinates complexes is studied in detail. Tetra-, tri-, and dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complexes are synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of the amidinate complexes are described. Catalytic studies suggest that gold amidinates and related gold nitrogen complexes are the best catalyst precursors for CO oxidation on TiO2 surface reported to date (87% conversion). The dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complex with a Auâ ¦Au distance of 2.711(3) Ã is rare. To our knowledge, there is only one other example of a symmetrical dinuclear gold(I) nitrogen complex. Oxidative-addition reactions to the dinuclear gold(I) complex, [Au2(2,6-Me2-form)2] are studied in detail and result in the formation of gold(II) complexes. The gold(II) amidinate complexes are the first formed with nitrogen ligands. The complexes are stable at room temperature. Mixed ligand tetranuclear gold(I) clusters and tetranuclear mixed Au-Ag metal clusters of pyrazolate and amidinate ligands are synthesized and characterized using Xray diffraction.

Abdou, Hanan Elsayed

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

133

Vibration of a tube bundle in two-phase Freon cross-flow  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase cross-flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The U-bend region of nuclear steam generators is a prime example. Testing in two-phase flow simulated by air-water provides useful results inexpensively. However, two-phase flow parameters, in particular surface tension and density ratio, are considerably different in air-water than in steam-water. A reasonable compromise is testing in liquid-vapor Freon, which is much closer to steam-water while much simpler experimentally. This paper presents the first results of a series of tests on the vibration behavior of tube bundles subjected to two-phase Freon cross-flow. A rotated triangular tube bundle of tube-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 was tested over a broad range of void fractions and mass fluxes. Fluidelastic instability, random turbulence excitation, and damping were investigated. Well-defined fluidelastic instabilities were observed in continuous two-phase flow regimes. However, intermittent two-phase flow regimes had a dramatic effect on fluidelastic instability. Generally, random turbulence excitation forces are much lower in Freon than in air-water. Damping is very dependent on void fraction, as expected.

Pettigrew, M.J.; Taylor, C.E. [AECL Research, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.; Jong, J.H.; Currie, I.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 12, May 1, 1990--July 31, 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research reported here is concerned with the application of secondary fuel addition, otherwise known as reburning, as a means of NO{sub x} destruction downstream of the primary flame zone in boilers. This paper consists of two parts: First, results from a statistically correct design of parametric experiments on a laboratory coal combustor are presented. These allow the effects of the most important variables to be isolated and identified. Second, mechanisms governing the inter-conversion and destruction of nitrogenous species in the fuel rich reburning zone of a laboratory coal combustor were explored, using fundamental kinetic arguments. The objective here was to extract models, which can be used to estimate reburning effectiveness in other, more practical combustion configurations. Emphasis is on the use of natural gas as the reburning fuel for a pulverized coal primary flame. Then, reburning mechanisms occur in two regimes; one in which fast reactions between NO and hydrocarbons are usually limited by mixing; the other in which reactions have slowed and in which known gas phase chemistry controls. For the latter regime, a simplified model based on detailed gas phase chemical kinetic mechanisms and known rate coefficients was able to predict temporal profiles of NO, NH{sub 3} and HCN. Reactions with hydrocarbons played important roles in both regimes and the Fenimore N{sub 2} fixation reactions limited reburning effectiveness at low primary NO values.

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1990-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

136

DYNAMIC MODELING STRATEGY FOR FLOW REGIME TRANSITION IN GAS-LIQUID TWO-PHASE FLOWS  

SciTech Connect

In modeling gas-liquid two-phase flows, the concept of flow regime has been used to characterize the global interfacial structure of the flows. Nearly all constitutive relations that provide closures to the interfacial transfers in two-phase flow models, such as the two-fluid model, are often flow regime dependent. Currently, the determination of the flow regimes is primarily based on flow regime maps or transition criteria, which are developed for steady-state, fully-developed flows and widely applied in nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes, such as RELAP5. As two-phase flows are observed to be dynamic in nature (fully-developed two-phase flows generally do not exist in real applications), it is of importance to model the flow regime transition dynamically for more accurate predictions of two-phase flows. The present work aims to develop a dynamic modeling strategy for determining flow regimes in gas-liquid two-phase flows through the introduction of interfacial area transport equations (IATEs) within the framework of a two-fluid model. The IATE is a transport equation that models the interfacial area concentration by considering the creation and destruction of the interfacial area, such as the fluid particle (bubble or liquid droplet) disintegration, boiling and evaporation; and fluid particle coalescence and condensation, respectively. For the flow regimes beyond bubbly flows, a two-group IATE has been proposed, in which bubbles are divided into two groups based on their size and shape (which are correlated), namely small bubbles and large bubbles. A preliminary approach to dynamically identifying the flow regimes is provided, in which discriminators are based on the predicted information, such as the void fraction and interfacial area concentration of small bubble and large bubble groups. This method is expected to be applied to computer codes to improve their predictive capabilities of gas-liquid two-phase flows, in particular for the applications in which flow regime transition occurs.

X. Wang; X. Sun; H. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Design and evaluation of a two-phase turbine for low quality steam--water mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new two-phase turbine was designed and built for testing in the laboratory, using a low quality steam-water mixture as a working fluid. The measured performance compares well with performance predictions of a numerical model of the expander. Details of the selection of the type of expander are given. The design of an experimental expander for use in a clean two-phase flow laboratory experiment and the development of a numerical model for performance analysis and extrapolations are described. Experiments including static cascade performance with two-phase fluid, disk friction and windage measurements, and two-phase performance measurements of the experimental expander are reported. Comparisons of the numerical model and experimental results, and the prediction of the performance of an advanced design, indicating how performance improvements can be achieved, are also included. An engine efficiency of 23 percent for a single-nozzle test was measured. Full admission performance, based upon the numerical model and achievable nozzle thrust coefficients indicate that an engine efficiency of between 38 and 48 percent can be realized with present technology. If maximum liquid removal loss is assumed, this performance range is predicted to be 38 to 41 percent. Droplet size reduction and the development and implementation of enhanced two-phase flow analysis techniques should make it possible to achieve the research goal of 70 percent engine efficiency.

Comfort, W.J. III

1977-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE COSO EGS PROJECT Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: USE OF NATURALLY-OCCURRING TRACERS TO MONITOR TWO-PHASE CONDITIONS IN THE COSO EGS PROJECT Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A dramatic decrease in the ratio of chloride to boron was observed in the liquid discharge of a well proposed for EGS development in the Coso geothermal field. The decrease appears to be related to the transformation of some feed zones in the well from liquid-dominated to vapor-dominated. High concentrations of boron are transported to the wellbore in the steam, where it fractionates to the liquid phase flowing in from liquid-dominated feed zones. The high-boron steam is created when the

139

Two-Phase Westward Encroachment of Basin and Range Extension into the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Two-Phase Westward Encroachment of Basin and Range Extension into the Two-Phase Westward Encroachment of Basin and Range Extension into the Northern Sierra Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Two-Phase Westward Encroachment of Basin and Range Extension into the Northern Sierra Nevada Abstract [1] Structural, geophysical, and thermochronological data from the transition zone between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range province at latitude ∼39°N suggest ∼100 km westward encroachment of Basin and Range extensional deformation since the middle Miocene. Extension, accommodated primarily by east dipping normal faults that bound west tilted, range-forming fault blocks, varies in magnitude from <2% in the interior of the Sierra Nevada crustal block to >150% in the Wassuk and

140

Device for measuring the fluid density of a two-phase mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for measuring the fluid density of a two-phase mixture flowing through a tubular member. A rotor assembly is rotatively supported within the tubular member so that it can also move axially within the tubular member. The rotor assembly is balanced against a pair of springs which exert an axial force in the opposite direction upon the rotor assembly. As a two-phase mixture flows through the tubular member it contacts the rotor assembly causing it to rotate about its axis. The rotor assembly is forced against and partially compresses the springs. Means are provided to measure the rotational speed of the rotor assembly and the linear displacement of the rotor assembly. From these measurements the fluid density of the two-phase mixture is calculated.

Cole, Jack H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Two-phase pressure drop across a hydrofoil-based micro pin device using R-123  

SciTech Connect

The two-phase pressure drop in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink has been investigated using R-123 as the working fluid. Two-phase frictional multipliers have been obtained over mass fluxes from 976 to 2349 kg/m{sup 2} s and liquid and gas superficial velocities from 0.38 to 1.89 m/s and from 0.19 to 24 m/s, respectively. It has been found that the two-phase frictional multiplier is strongly dependent on flow pattern. The theoretical prediction using Martinelli parameter based on the laminar fluid and laminar gas flow represented the experimental data fairly well for the spray-annular flow. For the bubbly and wavy-intermittent flow, however, large deviations from the experimental data were recorded. The Martinelli parameter was successfully used to determine the flow patterns, which were bubbly, wavy-intermittent, and spray-annular flow in the current study. (author)

Kosar, Ali [Mechatronics Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Evaluation of a slotted orifice plate flow meter using horizontal two phase flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past several years, the slotted orifice plate has been evaluated for its performance as a single phase flow meter using air and as a two-phase flow meter using water and air. These previous studies have both shown superior performance to that of the standard orifice plate flow meter. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the slotted orifice plate two-phase flow meter with water and steam as the working fluids and compare this data with previous data taken from other test facilities to further develop the calibration of this new two-phase flow meter. Tests for repeatability will be shown for beta ratios of 0.430, 0.467, and 0.500. Reproducibility will also be evaluated between a water and steam facility and three water and air facilities. This includes comparing data obtained using a set of brass slotted orifice plates and a set of stainless steel slotted orifice plates. The brass plates were tested in one water and air facility in a previous study and the stainless steel plates were tested using two phase data from air and water and also from steam and water. Differential pressure effects using water and steam as a mixture will be considered since there is a change in fluid quality as the fluid drops in pressure across an orifice plate. Reproducibility from six different data sets found using different facilities, different slotted orifice plates, and different working fluids were shown to converge to the same relationship. This relationship contained non-dimensional variables which included the calibration coefficient (KY= flow coefficient (K) multiplied by the expansion factor (Y)), the Euler number, and the beta ratio. These results were analyzed to develop a calibration for the slotted orifice plate two-phase flow meter which can ultimately be used to determine the flow rate of a two-phase mixture.

Flores, Anita Elena

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Session 1: Geothermal Pumping Systems and Two-Phase Flow Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvements in electric submersible pumping systems have resulted in a demonstrated downhole running life of one year for low horsepower units operating in 180 C brine. The implementation of a prototype pressurized lubrication system to prevent brine intrusion and loss of lubricating oil from the motor and protector sections has been successfully tested. Second generation pressurized lubrication systems have been designed and fabricated and will be utilized in downhole production pumping tests during FY84. Pumping system lifetime is currently limited by available power cable designs that are degraded by high-temperature brine. A prototype metal-sheathed power cable has been designed and fabricated and is currently undergoing destructive and nondestructive laboratory testing. This cable design has the potential for eliminating brine intrusion into the power delivery system through the use of a hermatically sealed cable from the surface to the downhole motor. The two-phase flow program is directed at understanding the hydrodynamics of two-phase flows. The two-phase flow regime is characterized by a series of flow patterns that are designated as bubble, slug, churn, and annular flow. Churn flow has received very little scientific attention. This lack of attention cannot be justified because calculations predict that the churn flow pattern will exist over a substantial portion of the two-phase flow zone in producing geothermal wells. The University of Houston is experimentally investigating the dynamics of churn flow and is measuring the holdup over the full range of flow space for which churn flow exists. These experiments are being conducted in an air/water vertical two-phase flow loop. Brown University has constructed and is operating a unique two-phase flow research facility specifically designed to address flow problems of relevance to the geothermal industry. An important feature of the facility is that it is dedicated to two-phase flow of a single substance (including evaporation and condensation) as opposed to the case of a two-component two-phase flow. This facility can be operated with horizontal or vertical test sections of constant diameter or with step changes in diameter to simulate a geothermal well profile.

Hanold, R.J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Biogas generation by two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The organic fraction of municipal solid waste can be a significant energy source for renewable energy generation. The total production of municipal solid waste in Turkey was 25?×?106 tones per year. Anaerobic digestion (AD) process may be a solution to the problems of energy demand and waste management since it provides biomethanation along with waste stabilization. AD can be operated in single or two phase configurations. Two-phase processes have some advantages over one phase systems in terms of selection of microorganisms

Eylem Dogan; Göksel N. Demirer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Void fraction prediction in two-phase flow across a tube bundle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrodynamics of two-phase flow has been investigated extensively for in-tube flows and for parallel flows in tube bundles. Very limited work has been performed, however, on vertical two-phase flows across tube bundles, which occur frequently on the shell side of heat exchangers such as kettle reboilers used in the process and other industries. In recent years, a few articles have been published on the measurement and prediction of void fraction in adiabatic, vertical air-water flow across horizontal rod bundles.

Dowlati, R.; Kawaji, M.; Chisholm, D.; Chan, A.M.C. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A4 (CA))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows.  

SciTech Connect

Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows was studied experimentally and theoretically with an emphasis on establishing the film boiling heat transfer closure law, which is useful in the analysis of nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Systematic experimentation of film boiling on spheres in single-phase water flows was carried out to investigate the effects of liquid subcooling (from 0 to 40 C), liquid velocity (from 0 to 2 m/s), sphere superheat (from 200 to 900 C), sphere diameter (from 6 to 19 mm), and sphere material (stainless steel and brass) on film boiling heat transfer. Based on the experimental data a general film boiling heat transfer correlation is developed. Utilizing a two-phase laminar boundary-layer model for the unseparated front film region and a turbulent eddy model for the separated rear region, a theoretical model was developed to predict the film boiling heat transfer in all single-phase regimes. The film boiling from a sphere in two-phase flows was investigated both in upward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.2 to 0.65, water velocity from 0.6 to 3.2 m/s, and steam velocity from 3.0 to 9.0 m/s) and in downward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.7 to 0.95, water velocity from 1.9 to 6.5 m/s, and steam velocity from 1.1 to 9.0 m/s). The saturated single-phase heat transfer correlation was found to be applicable to the two-phase film boiling data by making use of the actual water velocity (water phase velocity), and an adjustment factor of (1 - {alpha}){sup 1/4} (with a being the void fraction) for downward flow case only. Slight adjustments of the Reynolds number exponents in the correlation provided an even better interpretation of the two-phase data. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to address the influences of multi-sphere structure on the film boiling heat transfer in single- and two-phase flows.

Liu, C.; Theofanous, T. G.

2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

147

Generalized Forchheimer Equation for Two-Phase Flow Based on Hybrid Mixture Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we derive a Forchheimer-type equation for two-phase flow through an isotropic porous medium using hybrid mixture theory. Hybrid mixture theory consists of classical mixture theory applied to a multiphase system with volume averaged equations. ...

Lynn S Bennethum; Tizian Giorgi

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

TWO-PHASE FLOW IN GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SOURCES Annual Report Laurence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TWO-PHASE FLOW IN GEOTHERMAL ENERGY SOURCES Annual Report Laurence W. Ross Denver Research I n s t i t u t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Denver Denver, Colorado 80210 June 1 , 1975 -...

149

Two-phase fluid density measurement with a two-beam radiation densitometer  

SciTech Connect

A densitometer consisting of two beams of radiation passing through a pipe is very useful for measuring the average density and the density distribution of inhomogeneous two-phase fluids in the pipe. The general technique is illustrated by an example. (auth)

Lassahn, G.D.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Capillary Dynamics of Elastic?Wave?Enhanced Two?Phase Flow in Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elastic waves may enhance two?phase flow in porous media. We investigate the role and dynamics of capillary forces during the enhancement process. We present a theory that allows us to estimate the response of trapped nonwetting phase blobs to variable frequency excitation. According to this theory capillary trapped oil blobs may exhibit resonance

Markus Hilpert; Chunyan Guo; Joseph Katz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Vibration effects of two-phase cross flow on heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Excessive flow-induced vibration in tube bundles causes costly tube failures by fatigue or fretting wear. This is a common condition in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers, such as condensers and reboilers. However, designers can't plan for phenomena that they don't understand. To avoid cross-flow vibration damage, the designer must determine flow-behavior effects on tube bundles under these conditions. And this is very true when discussing two-phase cross-flow vibration. Two-phase cross-flow vibration does cause tube/tube bundle failure. Early research used single-phase flow models, which failed to accurately predict vibration behavior in a two-phase system. Consequently, single-phase models and assumptions don't apply to two-phase systems and don't accurately describe vibration-behavior for exchanger tubes. Improved heat exchanger design requires more emphasis and development on cross-flow vibration parameters. The paper describes tube vibrations; flow conditions; void-fraction effects; vortex-induced vibration; fluid excitation forces; and tube response.

Lian, H.Y.; Kawaji, M. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Chan, A.M.C. (Ontario Hydro Research Div., Toronto (Canada))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Numerical and computational efficiency of solvers for two-phase problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider two-phase flow problems, modelled by the Cahn-Hilliard equation. In this work, the nonlinear fourth-order equation is decomposed into a system of two coupled second-order equations for the concentration and the chemical potential. We analyse ... Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, Inexact Newton method, Parallel tests, Preconditioning, Quasi-Newton method

O. Axelsson; P. Boyanova; M. Kronbichler; M. Neytcheva; X. Wu

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The queue protocol: a deadlock-free, homogeneous, non-two-phase locking protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The M-pitfall protocol (MPP) is the most general homogeneous non-two-phase locking protocol which supports shared and exclusive locks. It has two major disadvantages: it is not deadlock-free and it has the paradoxical property that concurrency is often ...

Udo Kelter

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Dynamic van der Waals Theory of Two-Phase Fluids in Heat Flow Akira Onuki  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic van der Waals Theory of Two-Phase Fluids in Heat Flow Akira Onuki Department of Physics as a functional of the order parameter and the energy density. Let us consider one-component fluids, where-component fluids the effect is drastically altered due to latent heat generation or absorption at the interface [12

155

Two-phase electrohydrodynamic simulations using a volume-of-fluid approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical methodology to simulate two-phase electrohydrodynamic flows under the volume-of-fluid paradigm is proposed. The electric force in such systems acts only at the interface and is zero elsewhere in the two fluids. Continuum surface force representations ... Keywords: Continuum method, Electrohydrodynamics, Surface force, Volume-of-fluid

G. Tomar; D. Gerlach; G. Biswas; N. Alleborn; A. Sharma; F. Durst; S. W. J. Welch; A. Delgado

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The Measurement, interpretation and use of unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a two-phase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe by means of an impulse technique using a turning tee and beam. Different electrical filters have ...

Yih, Tien Sieh

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Drift-flux analysis of two-phase flow in microgravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As NASA programs such as the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle, the Space Nuclear Power Initiative, and other future spacecraft become more demanding, two-phase (gas-liquid) systems for advanced life support and thermal management are highly advantageous over single-phase systems. Two-phase fluid loops provide significant thermal transport advantages over their single-phase counterparts and are able to carry more energy per unit mass than single-phase systems. They are also able to transport more energy per unit pumping power than single-phase systems. These two advantages alone offer great reductions in both mass and volume, which are two primary design parameters for space-based systems. Unfortunately, the ability to predict two-phase phenomena such as flow regime transitions and void fraction at microgravity conditions is greatly limited and its development is still in its infancy. A Texas A&M University two-phase flow loop was tested aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft to collect two-phase microgravity data for dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12). A wide variety of flow rates were tested and many different flow regimes were observed. Data produced by the two-phase microgravity experiment were analyzed in accordance with the drift-flux model to calculate the distribution parameter, C?, and the drift-velocity, V[gj], of the two-phase mixture. The C?and V[gj] found for each flow regime were compared with other microgravity and a one-g upflow data. The C? for the slug flow regime was greater than that of the transition and annular flow regimes respectively for the microgravity data and correlated well with other R-12 microgravity data for the slug flow regime. The V[gj] for slug flow was found to be negative, which was unexpected, but the drift velocities for the transition and annular flow regimes provided expected results. The V[gj] for the annular flow regime in microgravity was less than that of the one-g upflow system due to the lower superficial velocities required in microgravity. Similarly, the C? for the R-12 microgravity data was higher than for a one-g upflow system due to its lower void fraction. A common C? and V[gj] can be used to predict void fraction for the transition and annular flow regimes for R-12 for the same pipe diameter and operating conditions.

Braisted, Jonathan David

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

159

A Dynamic Two-Phase Flow Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamic two phase flow model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is presented. The two dimensional along-the-channel model includes the two phase flow of water (gaseous and liquid) in the porous diffusion layers and in the catalyst layers, as well as the transport of the species in the gas phase. Moreover, proton and water transport in the membrane and the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathodic catalyst layer is accounted for. The discretisation of the resulting flow equations is done by a mixed finite element approach. Based on this the transport equations for the species in each phase are discretised by a finite volume scheme. The coupled mixed finite element/finite volume approach gives the spatially resolved water and gas saturation and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations for the electrons and protons are solved by using Galerkin finite element schemes.

Karsten Kühn; K. Kühn; Mario Ohlberger; Jürgen O. Schumacher; C. Ziegler; R. Klöfkorn; Karsten Kühn Ab; Mario Ohlberger Cd; Jürgen O. Schumacher A; Christoph Ziegler; Robert Klöfkorn C

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Calculation of two-phase dispersed droplet-in-vapor flows including normal shock waves  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for calculating quasi-one-dimensional, steady-state, two-phase dispersed droplet-in-vapor flow has been developed. The technique is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic single component flow in which normal shock waves may occur, and is the basis for a two-dimensional model. The flow is assumed to be inviscid except for droplet drag. Temperature and pressure equilibrium between phases is assumed, although this is not a requirement of the technique. Example calculations of flow in one-dimensional nozzles with and without normal shocks are given and compared with experimentally measured pressure profiles for both low quality and high quality two-phase steam/water flow.

Comfort, W.J.; Alger, T.W.; Giedt, W.H.; Crowe, C.T.

1976-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Generalized Forchheimer Equation for Two-Phase Flow Based on Hybrid Mixture Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we derive a Forchheimer-type equation for two-phase flow through an isotropic porous medium using hybrid mixture theory. Hybrid mixture theory consists of classical mixture theory applied to a multiphase system with volume averaged equations. It applies to media in which the characteristic length of each phase is "small" relative to the extent of the mixture. The derivation of a Forchheimer equation for single phase flow has been obtained elsewhere. These results are extended to include multiphase swelling materials which have non-negligible interfacial thermodynamic properties. Key words. Porous media, swelling porous media, high velocity flow, non-Darcy flow, two-phase flow, multi-phase flow, mixture theory, Forchheimer equation. 1 Introduction Darcy-type equations are used to describe the flow of a single-phase fluid through porous media in a number of situations. The classical Darcy equation, first derived experimentally in 1856, states that the flux is pro...

Lynn Schreyer Bennethum; Tizian Giorgi

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varying optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

Sreepada, S.R.; Rippel, R.R.

1990-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

163

Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow  

SciTech Connect

The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.

Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D.; Beus, S.G.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal production by Tracer dilution techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for the measurement of steam mass flowrate, water mass flowrate and total enthalpy of two-phase fluids produced from geothermal wells. The method involves precisely metered injection of liquid and vapor phase tracers into the two-phase production pipeline and concurrent sampling of each phase downstream of the injection point. Subsequent chemical analysis of the steam and water samples for tracer content enables the calculation of mass flowrate for each phase given the known mass injection rates of tracer. This technique has now been used extensively at the Coso geothermal project, owned and operated by California Energy Company. Initial validation of the method was performed at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal project on wells producing to individual production separators equipped with orificeplate flowmeters for each phase.

Hirtz, Paul; Lovekin, Jim; Copp, John; Buck, Cliff; Adams, Mike

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

165

Cavitation and two-phase flow characteristics of SRPR (Savannah River Plant Reactor) pump. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The possible head degradation of the SRPR pumps may be attributable to two independent phenomena, one due to the inception of cavitation and the other due to the two-phase flow phenomena. The head degradation due to the appearance of cavitation on the pump blade is hardly likely in the conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) since the coolant circulating line is highly pressurized so that the cavitation is difficult to occur even at LOCA (loss of coolant accident) conditions. On the other hand, the suction pressure of SRPR pump is order-of-magnitude smaller than that of PWR so that the cavitation phenomena, may prevail, should LOCA occur, depending on the extent of LOCA condition. In this study, therefore, both cavitation phenomena and two-phase flow phenomena were investigated for the SRPR pump by using various analytical tools and the numerical results are presented herein.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Two-phase flow in geothermal systems: Final report, July 15, 1986-April 30, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The object was to establish a full experimental correlation between flashing flows of water-steam in actual geothermal wells and flashing flows of refrigerant-114 (R-114) in the Brown University/DOE Two-Phase Flow Facility. Our experiments show that the similarity theory developed in our laboratory during previous phases of this research project can be used to predict accurately the pressure gradient in the two-phase region of a flowing geothermal well using laboratory measurements on R-114. This holds even when the actual geothermal well contains significant amounts of noncondensable gases. In this case, however, corrections must be introduced to account for the partial pressure of the gases.

Maeder, P.F.; Kestin, J.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Investigation of Flow-Accelerated Corrosion Under Two-Phase Flow Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbon steel (CS) components in steam systems frequently suffer from flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC). Although the mechanism of FAC in fossil plants has been largely understood for almost 40 years, it remains one of the major safety issues for plant management and personnel. FAC occurs across the feedwater system from the condensate pump to the economizer inlet, with the heater drains systems being particularly susceptible. It is equally dangerous in both the single- and two-phase flow regions. ...

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

168

Moving Character Observation of Bubble Rising in Vertical Gas?Liquid Two?Phase Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of bubble motion in water is a basic subject in gas?liquid two?phase flow research. A suit of visualized experimental device was designed and set up. Bubble rising in stagnant liquid in a vertical translucent rectangular tank was studied using the high?speed video system combined with digital image process methods. Several bubble parameters were calculated base on the processed images. Bubble track

H. Y. Wang; F. Dong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Conceptual plan: Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to address concerns regarding two-phase flow properties and to provide WIPP-specific, geologically consistent experimental data to develop more appropriate correlations for Salado rock to replace those currently used in Performance Assessment models. Researchers in Sandia`s Fluid Flow and Transport Department originally identified and emphasized the need for laboratory measurements of Salado threshold pressure and relative permeability. The program expanded to include the measurement of capillary pressure, rock compressibility, porosity, and intrinsic permeability and the assessment of core damage. Sensitivity analyses identified the anhydrite interbed layers as the most likely path for the dissipation of waste-generated gas from waste-storage rooms because of their relatively high permeability. Due to this the program will initially focus on the anhydrite interbed material. The program may expand to include similar rock and flow measurements on other WIPP materials including impure halite, pure halite, and backfill and seal materials. This conceptual plan presents the scope, objectives, and historical documentation of the development of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Program through January 1993. Potential laboratory techniques for assessing core damage and measuring porosity, rock compressibility, capillary and threshold pressure, permeability as a function of stress, and relative permeability are discussed. Details of actual test designs, test procedures, and data analysis are not included in this report, but will be included in the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program Test Plan pending the results of experimental and other scoping activities in FY93.

Howarth, S.M.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Two-phase flow in geothermal energy sources. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A geothermal well consisting of single and two-phase flow sections was modeled in order to explore the variables important to the process. For this purpose a computer program was developed in a versatile form in order to be able to incorporate a variety of two phase flow void fraction and friction correlations. A parametric study indicated that the most significant variables controlling the production rate are: hydrostatic pressure drop or void fraction in the two-phase mixture; and, heat transfer from the wellbore to the surrounding earth. Downhole instrumentation was developed and applied in two flowing wells to provide experimental data for the computer program. The wells (East Mesa 8-1, and a private well) behaved differently. Well 8-1 did not flash and numerous shakedown problems in the probe were encountered. The private well did flash and the instrumentation detected the onset of flashing. A Users Manual was developed and presented in a workshop held in conjunction with the Geothermal Resources Council.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Two-phase gas-liquid flow characteristics inside a plate heat exchanger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, the air-water two-phase flow characteristics including flow pattern and pressure drop inside a plate heat exchanger are experimentally investigated. A plate heat exchanger with single pass under the condition of counter flow is operated for the experiment. Three stainless steel commercial plates with a corrugated sinusoidal shape of unsymmetrical chevron angles of 55 and 10 are utilized for the pressure drop measurement. A transparent plate having the same configuration as the stainless steel plates is cast and used as a cover plate in order to observe the flow pattern inside the plate heat exchanger. The air-water mixture flow which is used as a cold stream is tested in vertical downward and upward flow. The results from the present experiment show that the annular-liquid bridge flow pattern appeared in both upward and downward flows. However, the bubbly flow pattern and the slug flow pattern are only found in upward flow and downward flow, respectively. The variation of the water and air velocity has a significant effect on the two-phase pressure drop. Based on the present data, a two-phase multiplier correlation is proposed for practical application. (author)

Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Novel Hyperbolization Procedure for The Two-Phase Six-Equation Flow Model  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a novel approach for the hyperbolization of the well-known two-phase six equation flow model. The six-equation model has been frequently used in many two-phase flow applications such as bubbly fluid flows in nuclear reactors. One major drawback of this model is that it can be arbitrarily non-hyperbolic resulting in difficulties such as numerical instability issues. Non-hyperbolic behavior can be associated with complex eigenvalues that correspond to characteristic matrix of the system. Complex eigenvalues are often due to certain flow parameter choices such as the definition of inter-facial pressure terms. In our method, we prevent the characteristic matrix receiving complex eigenvalues by fine tuning the inter-facial pressure terms with an iterative procedure. In this way, the characteristic matrix possesses all real eigenvalues meaning that the characteristic wave speeds are all real therefore the overall two-phase flowmodel becomes hyperbolic. The main advantage of this is that one can apply less diffusive highly accurate high resolution numerical schemes that often rely on explicit calculations of real eigenvalues. We note that existing non-hyperbolic models are discretized mainly based on low order highly dissipative numerical techniques in order to avoid stability issues.

Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert Nourgaliev; Nam Dinh

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

OpenEI - nitrogen oxides  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

http:en.openei.orgdatasetstaxonomyterm4610 en Hourly Energy Emission Factors for Electricity Generation in the United States http:en.openei.orgdatasetsnode488...

174

Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the numerical model. These parameters include production/destruction of interfacial area as a function of saturation and capillary pressure. Our preliminary results for primary drainage in porous media show that the specific interfacial area increased linearly with increasing gas saturation until breakthrough of the displacing gas into the exit manifold occurred.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Nox control for high nitric oxide concentration flows through combustion-driven reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for removing nitrogen oxides from concentrated waste gas streams, in which nitrogen oxides are ignited with a carbonaceous material in the presence of substoichiometric quantities of a primary oxidant, such as air. Additionally, reductants may be ignited along with the nitrogen oxides, carbonaceous material and primary oxidant to achieve greater reduction of nitrogen oxides. A scrubber and regeneration system may also be included to generate a concentrated stream of nitrogen oxides from flue gases for reduction using this method.

Yeh, James T. (Bethel Park, PA); Ekmann, James M. (Bethel Park, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Drummond, Charles J. (Churchill, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Pressure Profiles in Two-Phase Geothermal Wells: Comparison of Field Data and Model Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Increased confidence in the predictive power of two-phase correlations is a vital part of wellbore deliverability and deposition studies for geothermal wells. Previously, the Orkiszewski (1967) set of correlations has been recommended by many investigators to analyze geothermal wellbore performance. In this study, we use measured flowing pressure profile data from ten geothermal wells around the world, covering a wide range of flowrate, fluid enthalpy, wellhead pressure and well depth. We compare measured and calculated pressure profiles using the Orkiszewski (1967) correlations.

Ambastha, A.K.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

178

Perspectives to measure neutrino-nuclear neutral current coherent scattering with two-phase emission detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose to detect and to study neutrino neutral current coherent scattering off atomic nuclei with a two-phase emission detector using liquid xenon as a working medium. Expected signals and backgrounds are calculated for two possible experimental sites: Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant in the Russian Federation and Spallation Neutron Source at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA. Both sites have advantages as well as limitations. However the experiment looks feasible at either location. Preliminary design of the detector and supporting R&D program are discussed.

RED Collaboration; D. Yu. Akimov; I. S. Alexandrov; V. I. Aleshin; V. A. Belov; A. I. Bolozdynya; A. A. Burenkov; A. S. Chepurnov; M. V. Danilov; A. V. Derbin; V. V. Dmitrenko; A. G. Dolgolenko; D. A. Egorov; Yu. V. Efremenko; A. V. Etenko; M. B. Gromov; M. A. Gulin; S. V. Ivakhin; V. A. Kantserov; V. A. Kaplin; A. K. Karelin; A. V. Khromov; M. A. Kirsanov; S. G. Klimanov; A. S. Kobyakin; A. M. Konovalov; A. G. Kovalenko; V. I. Kopeikin; T. D. Krakhmalova; A. V. Kuchenkov; A. V. Kumpan; E. A. Litvinovich; G. A Lukyanchenko; I. N. Machulin; V. P. Martemyanov; N. N. Nurakhov; D. G. Rudik; I. S. Saldikov; M. D. Skorokhatov; V. V. Sosnovtsev; V. N. Stekhanov; M. N. Strikhanov; S. V. Sukhotin; V. G. Tarasenkov; G. V. Tikhomirov; O. Ya. Zeldovich

2012-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

Well-bore effects in the analysis of two-phase geothermal well tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method of designing and analyzing pressure transient well tests of two-phase (steam-water) reservoirs is given. Wellbore storage is taken into account and the duration of it is estimated. It is shown that the wellbore flow can completely dominate the downhole pressure signal such that large changes in the downhole pressure that might be expected because of changes in kinematic mobility are not seen. Changes in the flowing enthalpy from the reservoir can interact with the wellbore flow so that a temporary plateau in the downhole transient curve is measured. Application of graphical and non-graphical methods to determine reservoir parameters from drawdown tests is demonstrated.

Miller, C.W.; Benson, S.; O'Sullivan, M.J.; Pruess, K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Efficient Numerical Methods for an Anisotropic, Nonisothermal, Two-Phase Transport Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We carry out model and numerical studies for a three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, two-phase steady state transport model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in this paper. Besides fully addressing the conservation equations of mass, ... Keywords: Anisotropy, Combined finite element-upwind finite volume, Kirchhoff transformation, Newton's linearization, Nonisothermality, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), Two-phase transport

Pengtao Sun

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

182

Two-phase flow in geothermal energy sources. Annual report, June 1, 1975--May 31, 1976  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to create a Design Manual for the design of geothermal production wells that operate in the two-phase flow regime. The team of the Denver Research Institute (contractor) and subcontractors Coury and Associates and the University of Houston are cooperating to achieve this purpose. The role of the Denver Research Institute has included overall administration of the contract, acquisition and handling of two-phase flow data, contacts with other organizations, and development of a probe to measure pressure and temperature in geothermal wells with a precision not previously available, and in real time. For performing the functions involved in placing the measuring probe in a well, the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver has agreed to employ the measuring probe in some of their geothermal test series. The necessity to develop this measuring probe has delayed other portions of the program, but the probe is now almost ready for use, and a calibrating system has been constructed for the probe.

Ross, L.W.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Physical properties and battery performance of novel two-phase ion-conducting gels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixtures containing liquid electrolyte and {alpha},{omega}-alkane diacrylates were produced. Upon polymerization two-phase gels consisting of polymer-rich and polymer-poor phases were obtained. The structure and the properties of the gels were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance, complex impedance spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Conductivity data of various mixtures before and after polymerization were fitted to a master curve using a modified free-volume theory. Low interaction between the polymer and the lithium ions in these gels ensures that the transport number for lithium is independent of the polymer concentration in various systems. Lithium metal batteries were constructed in which the two-phase gels performed a dual function as an ion conductor as well as a separator. The gel morphology was found to be very important in determining the performance of such batteries. By optimizing the morphology of the gels, internal short-circuiting could be prevented, and lithium metal cycling efficiencies in excess of 95% could be obtained.

Hikmet, R.A.M.; Peeters, M.P.J.; Lub, J.; Nijssen, W. [Philips Research, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

SHAFT78: a two-phase multidimensional computer program for geothermal reservoir simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The computer program SHAFT78 was developed to compute two-phase flow phenomena in geothermal reservoirs. The program solves transient initial-value problems with prescribed boundary-conditions in up to three space dimensions. The solution method is an explicit-implicit IFD approach which does not distinguish between 1, 2, or 3-D coordinate systems and allows a flexible choice of the shape of the discrete grid elements. The mass-and-energy equations are formulated in conservative form. The stability and convergence of the algorithm is controlled by an automatic choice of time steps - partially controlled by the user. Although the program has been developed for use in simulating production and injection in geothermal reservoirs, there are other two-phase problems for which it is either immediately applicable, or for which it can be modified to be applicable. All fluid parameters, such as viscosity, heat capacity, heat conductivity, etc., can be specified as functions of temperature and pressure, and all parameters can vary with position. The program can handle up to seven different anisotropic rocks, with all rock parameters assumed to be independent of position, temperature, and pressure. (MHR)

Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Zerzan, J.M.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Demonstration of a rotary separator for two-phase brine and steam flows. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of a two-phase rotary separator for geothermal energy conversion was demonstrated. Laboratory tests were conducted with clean water and steam at Biphase Energy Systems, Inc., Santa Monica, California. Field tests were conducted at the Union Oil Co., Tow No. 1 wellsite near Brawley, California. The system tested consisted of the major components of a total flow rotary separator/turbine conversion system. A nozzle converted the brine wellhead enthalpy to two-phase flow kinetic by impinging the nozzle flow tangentially on the inside of the separator. The flow was therefore subjected to the high centrifugal force field in the separator. This caused the liquid phase to collect as a film on the separator drum with very little energy loss. The steam was allowed to flow radially inward to the central steam discharge. Potable water was obtained by condensing the steam exhaust. The brine collection system converted the liquid film kinetic energy to static pressure head. The system was operated for 116 hours in a high salinity environment (115,000 ppM TDS). The system operated properly with no adverse effects from solids precipitation or scale buildup. The rotary separator produced separate flows of pure liquid and steam of greater than 99.5% quality.

Cerini, D.J.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Numerical simulation of sloshing in LNG tanks with a compressible two-phase model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The study of liquid dynamics in LNG tanks is getting more and more important with the actual trend of LNG tankers sailing with partially filled tanks. The effect of sloshing liquid in the tanks on pressure levels at the tank walls and on the overall ship motion indicates the relevance of an accurate simulation of the fluid behaviour. This paper presents the simulation of sloshing LNG by a compressible two-phase model and the validation of the numerical model on model-scale sloshing experiments. The details of the numerical model, an improved Volume Of Fluid (iVOF) method, are presented in the paper. The program has been developed initially to study the sloshing of liquid fuel in spacecraft. The micro-gravity environment requires a very accurate and robust description of the free surface. Later, the numerical model has been used for calculations for different offshore applications, including green water loading. The model has been extended to take two-phase flow effects into account. These effects are particularly important for sloshing in tanks. The complex mixture of the liquid and gas phase around

Rik Wemmenhove; Arthur E. P. Veldman; Tim Bunnik

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Enhancement of two-phase flow images obtained using dynamic neutron radiography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Though both film and video radiographic image techniques are available in neutron radiography, radiographic video cameras are commonly used to capture the dynamic flow patterns in a rapid sequence of images. These images may be useful to verify two-phase flow models in small diameter flow channels. An initial series of real-time neutron radiography experiments were performed at the Texas A&M University System, Texas Engineering Experiment Station, Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) to evaluate the effectiveness of various image enhancement algorithms and procedures, beneficial for visualization of two-phase water and air flow regimes through small diameter metal flow channels. After evaluating these initial images, research was conducted to improve the images coming from the camera and to evaluate the particular forms of enhancement. Contrast enhancement and smoothing filters were applied to improve the ability to visualize the flow regimes. Tracking algorithms were applied to gather flow information in the form of vector flow plots. Finally, Monte Carlo analysis was performed to test the possibility of gathering three dimensional data from two dimensional images.

Johns, Russell Craig

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Atmospheric Nitrogen Fixation by Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production Of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) by lightning flashes has been computed from a model of gaseous molecular reactions occurring as heated lightning-channel air cools by mixing with surrounding ambient air. The effect of ozone (O3) on ...

R. D. Hill; R. G. Rinker; H. Dale Wilson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Scaling of Steady-State Effective Permeability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A recent experiment has considered the effective permeability of two-phase flow of air and a water-glycerol solution under steady-state conditions in a two-dimensional model porous medium, and found a power law dependence with respect to capillary number. Running simulations on a two-dimensional network model a similar power law is found, for high viscosity contrast as in the experiment and also for viscosity matched fluids. Two states are found, one with stagnant clusters and one without. For the stagnant cluster state, a power law exponent 0.50 is found for viscosity matched fluids and 0.54 for large viscosity contrast. When there are no stagnant clusters the exponent depends on saturation and varies within the range of 0.67 - 0.80.

Morten Grøva

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

190

History-independence of steady-state in simultaneous two-phase flow through porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From the measurements of global pressure evolution, histogram of saturation and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

Erpelding, Marion; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Two-phase flow in regionally saturated fractured rock near excavations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrologic characterization for potential nuclear waste repositories relies upon data obtained from testing in excavations. The Simulated Drift Experiment in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, a fractured granitic formation below the water table, investigated excavation effects on hydrologic response. Measured water inflow to the drift at atmospheric pressure was nine times less than the value predicted from the inflow to boreholes with pressure held at 2.7 bars. This flow reduction may be due to dissolved gas that comes out of solution at pressures below 2.7 bars, creating a two-phase regime. To investigate this possibility, theoretical studies of flow through fractures when the water is super-saturated with respect to dissolved gas are carried out, using a simple analytical solution followed by a numerical model which relaxes some of the simplifying assumptions. Laboratory experiments that simulate degassing in transparent fracture replicas are conducted to test the assumptions used in the theoretical studies.

Geller, J.T.; Doughty, C.; Long, J.C.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Two-phase flow characteristics across sudden contraction in small rectangular channels  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the two-phase flow pattern change and pressure drop at the sudden contraction from small rectangular channels (3 x 9 mm and 3 x 6 mm) into a 3 mm diameter tube. A unique deflection of contraction pressure drop vs. vapor quality is observed at a very low quality regime with an unusual ''liquid like vena contracta''. The measured pressure drops are compared with existing correlations/models, but none of them can accurately predict the available database. By proposing a correction factor accounting for the influence of surface tension (Bond number and contraction ratio) to the original homogeneous model, considerable improvement of the predictive ability of homogeneous model is arrived. The mean deviation of this correlation is 26.18% applicable to the present data (80 points) and available literatures (357 points). (author)

Chen, Ing Youn; Chu, Mon-Chern [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 640 (China); Liaw, Jane-Sunn; Wang, Chi-Chuan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310 (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Two-phase flow structure in dual discharges - Stereo PIV measurements  

SciTech Connect

The discharge of two-phase flow from a stratified region through single or multiple branches is an important process in many industrial applications including the pumping of fluid from storage tanks, shell-and-tube heat exchangers, and the fluid flow through header to the cooling channels, feeder's tube, of nuclear reactors during loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA). Knowledge of the flow phenomena involved along with the quality and mass flow rate of the discharging stream(s) is necessary to adequately predict the different phenomena associated with the process. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (SPIV) was used to provide detailed measurements of the flow patterns involving distributions of mean velocity, vorticity field, and flow structure. The experimental investigation was carried out to simulate two-phase discharge from a stratified region through branches located on a quarter-circular wall configuration exposed to a stratified gas-liquid environment. The quarter-circular test section is in close dimensional resemblance with that of a CANDU header-feeder system, with branches mounted at orientation angles of zero, 45 and 90 degrees from the horizontal. The experimental data for the phase development (mean velocity, flow structure, etc.) was collected during dual discharge through the horizontal branch and the 45 or 90 branch from an air-water stratified region over two selected Froude numbers in the horizontal branch while maintaining the Froude number in the other branch constant. These measurements were used to describe the effect of outlet flow conditions on phase redistribution in headers and understand the entrainment phenomena. (author)

Saleh, W.; Bowden, R.C.; Hassan, I.G.; Kadem, L. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University Montreal, QC (Canada)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The effect of virtual mass on the characteristics and the numerical stability in two-phase flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is known that the typical six equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow possesses complex characteristics, exhibits unbounded instabilities in the short-wavelength limit and constitutes an ill-posed initial value ...

No, H. C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Phase-space representation of digital holographic and light field imaging with application to two-phase flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, two computational imaging techniques used for underwater research, in particular, two-phase flows measurements, are presented. The techniques under study, digital holographic imaging and light field imaging, ...

Tian, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

198

Two-Phase Flow Within Porous Media Analogies: Application Towards CO2 Sequestration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCO2S) involves the capture of large quantities of CO2 from point-source emitters and pumping this greenhouse gas to subsurface reservoirs (USDOE, 2006). The mechanisms of two-phase fluid displacement in GCO2S, where a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid in a heterogeneous porous domain is similar to enhanced oil recovery activities. Direct observation of gas-liquid interface movement in geologic reservoirs is difficult due to location and opacity. Over the past decades, complex, interconnected pore-throat models have been developed and used to study multiphase flow interactions in porous media, both experimentally (Buckley, 1994) and numerically (Blunt, 2001). This work expands upon previous experimental research with the use of a new type of heterogeneous flowcell, created with stereolithography (SL). Numerical solutions using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) model with the same flowcell geometry, are shown to be in good agreement with the drainage experiments, where the defending fluid wets the surface. This computational model is then used to model imbibition, the case of the invading fluid preferentially wetting the surface. Low capillary flows and imbibition conditions are shown to increase the storage volume of the invading fluid in the porous medium.

Crandall, D.M. Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY); Ahmadi, G. (Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY); Smith, D.H.

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

199

Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system  

SciTech Connect

A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

De Gioannis, G. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy); Diaz, L.F. [CalRecovery, Inc., 2454 Stanwell Drive, Concord, California 94520 (United States); Muntoni, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)], E-mail: amuntoni@unica.it; Pisanu, A. [DIGITA, Department of Geoengineering and Environmental Technologies, University of Cagliari, Piazza D'Armi 09123 Cagliari (Italy)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

A THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE TRANSIENT OPERATION AND STABILITY OF TWO-PHASE NATURAL CIRCULATION LOOPS  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical models of the time-dependent behavior of two-phase natural- circulation loops were used to predict the operation and to explain the unusual instability sometimes observed. The initial results obtained for a loop similar to the Univ. of Minnesota loop were used to formulate a more complex and accurate model, and the predicted transient behavior was in close agreement with the experimental results from the Minnesota loop. For a 300psia, high-pressure loop, unstable oscillatory behavior was predicted under certain conditions and stable behavior under others. Closed unstable regions rather than limits were predicted, and the specifications of stability in terms of a single parameter were found to be impossible. The great difference in oscillatory frequencies observed at low and high pressures was found to be due largely to the system geometry. The criterion for the absence of oscillations was found to be similar to one of the criteria for stability of chemical reaction systems. (D.L.C.)

Garlid, K.; Amundson, N.R.; Isbin, H.S.

1961-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Two-phase flow behavior inside a header connected to multiple parallel channels  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this work is to examine the flow distribution of two-phase mixture to parallel channels and to investigate the flow behavior at header-channel junctions simulating the corresponding parts of compact heat exchangers. The cross-section of the header and the channels were fixed to 14 mm x 14 mm and 12 mm x 1.6 mm, respectively. The mass flux and the mass quality ranges were 70-165 kg/m{sup 2} s and 0.3-0.7, respectively. Air and water were used as the test fluids. The flow distribution at the fore part of the header (region A) is affected only by the upstream flow configuration and the rate of liquid flow separation decreased a flowing downwards. On the other hand, in the rear part, the downstream effect predominates over the upstream effect due to strong flow recirculation near the end plate. In this part, the liquid separation increased (region B) and then decreased (region C) as the mixture proceeds downwards. The validity of the existing models for branching flows at parallel T-junction was tested, and turned out to be appropriate for region A. However, the models were not applicable to the rear part due to a strong flow recirculation. Moreover, the effect of the membranes in channels was investigated, but that was minor. (author)

Lee, Jun Kyoung [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend  

SciTech Connect

Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E. [School of Aeronautical Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

203

Single- and two-phase flow in microfluidic porous media analogs based on Voronoi tessellation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to create a microfluidic model of complex porous media for studying single and multiphase flows. Most experimental porous media models consist of periodic geometries that lend themselves to comparison with well-developed theoretical predictions. However, most real porous media such as geological formations and biological tissues contain a degree of randomness and complexity that is not adequately represented in periodic geometries. To design an experimental tool to study these complex geometries, we created microfluidic models of random homogeneous and heterogeneous networks based on Voronoi tessellations. These networks consisted of approximately 600 grains separated by a highly connected network of channels with an overall porosity of 0.11 0.20. We found that introducing heterogeneities in the form of large cavities within the network changed the permeability in a way that cannot be predicted by the classical porosity-permeability relationship known as the Kozeny equation. The values of permeability found in experiments were in excellent agreement with those calculated from three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulations. In two-phase flow experiments of oil displacement with water we found that the surface energy of channel walls determined the pattern of water invasion, while the network topology determined the residual oil saturation. These results suggest that complex network topologies lead to fluid flow behavior that is difficult to predict based solely on porosity. The microfluidic models developed in this study using a novel geometry generation algorithm based on Voronoi tessellation are a new experimental tool for studying fluid and solute transport problems within complex porous media.

Wu, Mengjie [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Xiao, Feng [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Johnson-Paben, Rebecca [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Yin, Xiaolong [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Neeves, Keith B [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

FORCE2: A state-of-the-art two-phase code for hydrodynamic calculations  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computer code for two-phase flow named FORCE2 has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox (B & W) in close collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). FORCE2 is capable of both transient as well as steady-state simulations. This Cartesian coordinates computer program is a finite control volume, industrial grade and quality embodiment of the pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 code and contains features such as three-dimensional blockages, volume and surface porosities to account for various obstructions in the flow field, and distributed resistance modeling to account for pressure drops caused by baffles, distributor plates and large tube banks. Recently computed results demonstrated the significance of and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion. This paper describes the process whereby ANL`s pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 models and numerics were implemented into FORCE2. A description of the quality control to assess the accuracy of the new code and the validation using some of the measured data from Illinois Institute of Technology (UT) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) are given. It is envisioned that one day, FORCE2 with additional modules such as radiation heat transfer, combustion kinetics and multi-solids together with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burge, S.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

FORCE2: A state-of-the-art two-phase code for hydrodynamic calculations  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computer code for two-phase flow named FORCE2 has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox (B W) in close collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). FORCE2 is capable of both transient as well as steady-state simulations. This Cartesian coordinates computer program is a finite control volume, industrial grade and quality embodiment of the pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 code and contains features such as three-dimensional blockages, volume and surface porosities to account for various obstructions in the flow field, and distributed resistance modeling to account for pressure drops caused by baffles, distributor plates and large tube banks. Recently computed results demonstrated the significance of and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion. This paper describes the process whereby ANL's pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 models and numerics were implemented into FORCE2. A description of the quality control to assess the accuracy of the new code and the validation using some of the measured data from Illinois Institute of Technology (UT) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) are given. It is envisioned that one day, FORCE2 with additional modules such as radiation heat transfer, combustion kinetics and multi-solids together with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Burge, S.W. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Experimental two-phase liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic generator program. Annual report, October 1976--September 1977  

SciTech Connect

Testing of the second diverging-channel generator with the revised ambient-temperature NaK-N/sub 2/ facility has been completed. The primary goal of the revised facility, demonstrating reduced slip ratio (ratio of gas velocity to liquid velocity) with higher liquid velocity (flow rate), was accomplished. The reduction in slip ratio was dramatically demonstrated by a series of consecutive runs with varying flow rate (from 6 kg/s to 12 kg/s for the liquid). Substantial increases in generator efficiency were obtained with higher liquid flow rates. Experiments to demonstrate that good liquid-to-gas heat transfer exists in the generator were successfully completed. Good heat transfer is essential because it is the almost-constant-temperature expansion of the gas (vapor) in the generator that yields the higher system efficiencies for liquid-metal MHD power cycles. The feasibility of generating relatively-stable bubbles, hence, a foam, in liquid metals has been demonstrated. Photographic documentation of these phenomena, both motion and still pictures, was made. Surface tension measurements and foaming experiments have shown that viscosity is also a factor in promoting bubble formation and persistence. Wetting and contact angle measurements have been made for stainless steel and carbon steel immersed in eutectic NaK. An analytical study of the liquid shunt (wall) layer sizes and losses has shown that these losses are not expected to be significant for large generators; less than 1.0 percent decrease in efficiency is anticipated. A two-phase pressure-gradient correlation developed for MHD flows has been shown to agree to within 20 percent with the generator data.

Petrick, M.; Fabris, G.; Pierson, E.S.; Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Applicability of the Hero turbine for energy conversion from low-quality, two-phase, inlet fluids  

SciTech Connect

The Hero turbine is frequently said to be paricularly suited for two-phase geothermal-energy conversion. Its functional simplicity makes it an obvious candidate for use of a very low-quality steam-water mixture as a working fluid. The performance characteristics for the single-phase expander derived are extended to address two options for handling the two-phase mixture in the Hero turbine. The Hero turbine is found to be best suited to fluids that are single-phase at the entrance to the turbine and to expansions that involve low enthalpy change. The turbine appears well suited to saturated liquid expansion in which the fluid becomes two-phase after entering the turbine.

Comfort, W.J. III

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available This data set, prepared by Elizabeth Holland and colleagues, contains data for wet and dry nitrogen-species deposition for the United States and...

209

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

210

Experimental two-phase liquid--metal magnetohydrodynamic generator program. Annual report, August 1975--September 1976  

SciTech Connect

The revised ambient-temperature NaK-nitrogen facility is described. The maximum liquid flow rate and generator inlet pressure are 10.9 kg/s 200 gpm) and 1.48 MP/sub a/ absolute (200 psig), respectively, compared with the previous values of 6 kg/s (110 gpm) and 0.72 MPa absolute (90 psig). Satisfactory loop operation has been obtained, and new experiments with the second diverging-channel generator were completed. The principal experimental results were a higher power density for the same generator operating conditions, and an apparent tendency for the efficiency to improve more with increasing quality at higher velocities than lower velocities. An evaluation of an annular generator geometry is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of the geometry are described, the equations developed, and solutions obtained for three cases--constant velocity and no armature reactions, laminar flow with no armature reaction, and armature reaction with constant velocity. Numerical examples show that: (1) the attainable terminal voltages appear to be very low, (2) flow reversal and large viscous loss occur at or below the desired power densities, and (3) armature reaction effects are important and compensation techniques appear impractical. Thus, this annular geometry does not appear attractive for either generator or pump operation. The initial steps in the program to produce and evaluate liquid-metal foams are described. The future directions of the expermental generator program, including foams, are discussed.

Petrick, M.; Fabris, G.; Pierson, E.S.; Carl, D.A.; Fischer, A.K.; Johnson, C.E.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Fuzzy inference systems for efficient non-invasive on-line two-phase flow regime identification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The identification of two-phase flow regimes that occur in heated pipes is of paramount importance for monitoring nuclear installations such as boiling water reactors. A Sugeno-type fuzzy inference system is put forward for non-invasive, on-line flow ...

Tatiana Tambouratzis; Imre Pázsit

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Description of the three-dimensional two-phase simulator shaft78 for use in geothermal reservoir studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The algorithm of SHAFT78 is based on mass and energy-balance equations for two-phase flow in a porous medium. The basic differential equations are converted into integrated finite-difference form. This allows regular and irregular reservoir shapes to be handled with the same ease. The equations are solved semi-implicitly for discrete time steps. The present version of SHAFT78 treats the coupling between mass and energy flow in a noniterative way. Special provisions are made to compute phase transitions with high accuracy. The program was verified by computing a number of sample problems that previously had been investigated by other authors. Model studies reveal that two-phase geothermal reservoirs are capable of a great variety of pressure responses upon production. It is shown that the standard technique of estimating reserves by extrapolating a plot of p/Z vs cumulative production is not applicable to two-phase geothermal reservoirs. A bulk model (lumped parameters) was developed for a two-phase reservoir that admits an analytical solution for pressure decline upon production. From this it is concluded that in many cases pressure will be a linear function of cumulative production, with the slope allowing an estimate of total reservoir volume. Reserve assessment requires knowledge of average porosity and vapor saturation, which cannot be obtained from pressure decline curves.

Pruess, K.; Zerzan, J.M.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

NEW EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND ANALYSIS FOR TWO-PHASE FLOW-INDUCED VIBRATION OF TUBE BUNDLES: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the void fraction increases through the tube array due to the pressure drop through the bundle. At high.4.2. Fully flexible array 64 4. Results: Air-water two-phase flow 73 4.1. Void fraction measurement 74 4) visual observations and (b) strain gauge signal 71 4.1: Comparison of measured void fraction

Dhir, Vijay

214

Modelling two-phase flow in porous media at the pore scale using the volume-of-fluid method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a stable numerical scheme for modelling multiphase flow in porous media, where the characteristic size of the flow domain is of the order of microns to millimetres. The numerical method is developed for efficient modelling of multiphase flow ... Keywords: Pore-scale modelling, Porous media, Two-phase flow, Volume of fluid

Ali Q. Raeini; Martin J. Blunt; Branko Bijeljic

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Final report for the ASC gas-powder two-phase flow modeling project AD2006-09.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents activities performed in FY2006 under the ''Gas-Powder Two-Phase Flow Modeling Project'', ASC project AD2006-09. Sandia has a need to understand phenomena related to the transport of powders in systems. This report documents a modeling strategy inspired by powder transport experiments conducted at Sandia in 2002. A baseline gas-powder two-phase flow model, developed under a companion PEM project and implemented into the Sierra code FUEGO, is presented and discussed here. This report also documents a number of computational tests that were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the new model. Although considerable progress was made in implementing the complex two-phase flow model, this project has identified two important areas that need further attention. These include the need to compute robust compressible flow solutions for Mach numbers exceeding 0.35 and the need to improve conservation of mass for the powder phase. Recommendations for future work in the area of gas-powder two-phase flow are provided.

Evans, Gregory Herbert; Winters, William S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Advanced Conceptual Models for Unsaturated and Two-Phase Flow in Fractured Rock  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was initiated in FY03. As of December 2003, we have accomplished the following: (1) We conducted a more detailed evaluation of the preliminary experiments used to develop our investigative approach. In those experiments, water was invaded at a variety of flow rates into an air-filled, two dimensional analog fracture network. Results demonstrated the critical control that fracture intersections place on two-phase flow in fracture networks. At low flows, capillary and gravitational forces combined to create a narrow pulsing flow structure that spanned the system vertically. At higher flows, viscous forces acted to remove the pulsation; however, the flow structure remained narrow. The intersections acted to impose a narrow ''slender ladder'' structure on the flowing phase that did not expand with depth, but instead remained focused. A manuscript documenting this effort has been published in Water Resources Research [Glass et al., 2003a]. (2) We initiated a collaborative relationship with a research group at Seoul National University. This group, which is led by Dr. Kang-Kun Lee is also using a combined experimental numerical approach to consider DNAPL migration in fracture networks. They are particularly interested in the influence of ambient groundwater flows, making their work complementary to ours. The first fruit of that collaboration is an article demonstrating that modification of an Invasion Percolation algorithm to include gravity and the first-order effects of viscous forces shows good agreement with physical experiments in a simplistic fracture network. Results were published in Geophysical Research Letters [Ji et al., 2003a]. (3) We carried out an extensive review of models for fracture networks. These include models developed from observations of networks on outcrops at several scales and stochastic models that are prevalent in the literature from the 1980s to very recent developments. The results of this review were included as par t of a review paper co-authored by Rajaram, which was submitted to Reviews in Geophysics [Molz et al., in press]. (4) We prepared a manuscript based on previous work that will be used to support the development of our new conceptual model(s) for transport in fractured rock. Eight experiments were conducted to evaluate the repeatability of flow under nearly identical conditions and to characterize general patterns in flow behavior. Collected data revealed that flow generally converged to a single fracture in the bottom row of blocks. Periods of pathway switching were observed to be more common than periods with steady, constant flow pathways. We noted the importance of fracture intersections for integrating uniform flow and discharging a ''fluid cascade'', where water advances rapidly to the next capillary barrier creating a stop and start advance of water through the network. The results of this simple experiment suggest that the interaction of multiple fracture intersections in a network creates flow behavior not generally recognized in popular conceptual and numerical models. A manuscript documenting this effort has been accepted for publication in Vadose Zone Journal [Wood et al., 2003]. (5) Slender transport pathways have been found in laboratory and field experiments within unsaturated fractured rock. We considered the simulation of such structures with a Modified form of Invasion Percolation (MIP). Results show that slender pathways form in fracture networks for a wide range of expected conditions, can be maintained when subsequent matrix imbibition is imposed, and may arise even in the context of primarily matrix flow due to the action of fractures as barriers to inter-matrix block transport. A manuscript documenting this effort has been submitted to Geophysical Research Letters [Glass et al., 2003b].

Rajaram, Harihar

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Definition of a facility for experimental studies of two-phase flows and heat transfer in porous materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A facility-development effort is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in order to create an experimental capability for the study of two-phase, steam/water flows through a variety of porous media. The facility definition phase of this project is described. Equations are derived for the steady, adiabatic, macroscopically-linear two-phase flow of a single-component fluid through a porous medium, including energy transfer both by convection and conduction. These equations are then solved to give relative permeabilities for the steam and water phases as functions of known and/or measurable quantities. A viable experimental approach was thereby formulated, leading to the definition of facility components and instrumentation requirements, including the application of gamma-beam densitometry for the measurement of liquid-saturation distributions in porous media. Finally, a state-of-the-art computer code was utilized to numerically simulate the proposed experiments, providing an estimate of the facility operating envelope.

Reda, D.C.; Eaton, R.R.

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

Design study of a two-phase turbine bottoming cycle. Final report. [Therminol 66 heated in diesel exhaust  

SciTech Connect

The use of a biphase turbine system to recover waste heat from diesel engines was examined and found to have many favorable attributes. Among these were low rpm, high torque, low heat exchanger cost, and simplicity. Several candidate working fluid combinations were tested at temperatures of interest. The contact heat exchanger concept was substantiated by large scale experiment. The program includes subscale tests of key hardware components of a biphase turbine bottoming system. These are the two-phase nozzle, two-phase turbine, and direct contact heat exchanger. A comprehensive cost analysis was completed. A three-year program leading to a full-size system field demonstration has been planned. Progress in the first year of this program and the effort started on the second year program are reported.

Studhalter, W R

1979-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Design and Development of a Test Facility to Study Two-Phase Steam/Water Flow in Porous Media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concept of relative permeability is the key concept in extending Darcy's law for single phase flow through porous media to the two-phase flow regime. Relative permeability functions are needed for simulation studies of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. These are poorly known inspite of considerable theoretical and experimental investigations during the last decade. Since no conclusive results exist, many investigators use ad hoc parametrization, or adopt results obtined from flow of oil and gas (Corey, 1954). It has been shown by Reda and Eaton (1980) that this can lead to serious deficiencies. Sensitivity of the relative permeability curves for prediction of mass flow rate and flowing enthalpy into geothermal wells has been studied by many investigators (e.g. Eaton and Reda (1980), Bodvarsson et al (1980), Sun and Ershagi (1979) etc.). It can be concluded from these studies that the beehavior of a two-phase steam/water reservoir depends greatly on the relative permeability curves used. Hence, there exists a need for obtaining reliable relative permeability functions.

Verma, Ashok K.; Pruess, Karsten; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Pitch-to-diameter effect on two-phase flow across an in-line tube bundle  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on void fraction and friction pressure drop measurements that were made for an adiabatic, vertical two-phase flow of air-water across two horizontal, in-line, 5 {times} 20 rod bundles, one with a pitch-to-diameter ratio, P/D, of 1.3, the other 1.75. For both bundles the average void fraction showed a strong mass velocity effect and values were significantly less than those predicted by a homogeneous flow model. All void fraction data were found to be well correlated, with no P/D effect, using the dimensionless gas velocity, j*{sub g}. The two-phase friction multiplier data exhibited a strong effect of P/D and mass velocity, however, the data for both bundles could be well correlated with the Martinelli parameter for G {gt} 200 kg/m{sup 2}s. The correlations developed for void fraction and two-phase friction multiplier were successfully tested in predicting the total pressure drop in boiling freon experiments.

Dowlati, R.; Kawaji, M. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A4 (CA)); Chan, M.M.C. (Ontario Hydro Research Div., Ontario Hydro Toronto, Ontario (CA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Pore-Scale Modeling of Two-Phase Transport in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells - Progress and Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent years have witnessed an explosion of research and development efforts in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), perceived as the next generation clean energy source for automotive, portable and stationary applications. Despite significant progress, a pivotal performance/durability limitation in PEFCs centers on two-phase transport and mass transport loss originating from suboptimal liquid water transport and flooding phenomena. Liquid water blocks the porous pathways in the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and the catalyst layer (CL), thus hindering oxygen transport from the flow field to the electrochemically actives sites in the catalyst layer. Different approaches have been examined to model the underlying transport mechanisms in the PEFC with different levels of complexities. Due to the macroscopic nature, these two-phase models fail to resolve the underlying structural influence on the transport and performance. Mesoscopic modeling at the pore-scale offers great promise in elucidating the underlying structure-transport-performance interlinks in the PEFC porous components. In this article, a systematic review of the recent progress and prospects of pore-scale modeling in the context of two-phase transport in the PEFC is presented. Specifically, the efficacy of lattice Boltzmann (LB), pore morphology (PM) and pore network (PN) models coupled with realistic delineation of microstructures in fostering enhanced insight into the underlying liquid water transport in the PEFC GDL and CL is highlighted.

Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Characteristics and stability analyses of transient one-dimensional two- phase flow equations and their finite difference approximations  

SciTech Connect

Equation systems describing one-dimensional, transient, two-phase flow with separate continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each phase are classified by use of the method of characteristics. Little attempt is made to justify the physics of these equations. Many of the equation systems possess complex-valued characteristics and hence, according to well-known mathematical theorems, are not well-posed as initial-value problems (IVPs). Real-valued characteristics are necessary but not sufficient to insure well-posedness. In the absence of lower order source or sink terms (potential type flows), which can affect the well-posedness of IVPs, the complex characteristics associated with these two-phase flow equations imply unbounded exponential growth for disturbances of all wavelengths. Analytical and numerical examples show that the ill-posedness of IVPs for the two-phase flow partial differential equations which possess complex characteristics produce unstable numerical schemes. These unstable numerical schemes can produce apparently stable and even accurate results if the growth rate resulting from the complex characteristics remains small throughout the time span of the numerical experiment or if sufficient numerical damping is present for the increment size used. Other examples show that clearly nonphysical numerical instabilities resulting from the complex characteristics can be produced. These latter types of numerical instabilities are shown to be removed by the addition of physically motivated differential terms which eliminate the complex characteristics. (auth)

Lyczkowski, R.W.; Gidaspow, D.; Solbrig, C.W.; Hughes, E.D.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Pressure drop of two-phase plug flow in round mini-channels: Influence of surface wettability  

SciTech Connect

In the present experimental study, the pressure drop of two-phase plug flows in round mini-channels was investigated for three different tube materials, i.e., glass, polyurethane and Teflon, respectively, with their inner diameters ranging from 1.62 to 2.16 mm. Air and water were used as the test fluids. In the wet-plug flow regime (wet wall condition at the gas portions), the pressure drop was reasonably predicted by the homogeneous flow model or by the correlations of Mishima and Hibiki [K. Mishima, T. Hibiki, Some characteristics of air-water two-phase flow in small diameter vertical tubes, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 22 (1996) 703-712] and Chisholm [D. Chisholm, A theoretical basis for the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation for two-phase flow, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 10 (1967) 1767-1778]. On the other hand, in the dry-plug flow regime (dry wall condition at the gas portions), the role of the moving contact lines turned out to be significant. To take into account the effect of the moving contact lines, a modified Lockhart-Martinelli type correlation was proposed, which fitted the measured pressure-drop data within the mean deviation of 6%. (author)

Lee, Chi Young; Lee, Sang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Science Town, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

224

Heat transfer and fluid dynamics of air-water two-phase flow in micro-channels  

SciTech Connect

Heat transfer, pressure drop, and void fraction were simultaneously measured for upward heated air-water non-boiling two-phase flow in 0.51 mm ID tube to investigate thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of two-phase flow in micro-channels. At low liquid superficial velocity j{sub l} frictional pressure drop agreed with Mishima-Hibiki's correlation, whereas agreed with Chisholm-Laird's correlation at relatively high j{sub l}. Void fraction was lower than the homogeneous model and conventional empirical correlations. To interpret the decrease of void fraction with decrease of tube diameter, a relation among the void fraction, pressure gradient and tube diameter was derived. Heat transfer coefficient fairly agreed with the data for 1.03 and 2.01 mm ID tubes when j{sub l} was relatively high. But it became lower than that for larger diameter tubes when j{sub l} was low. Analogy between heat transfer and frictional pressure drop was proved to hold roughly for the two-phase flow in micro-channel. But satisfactory relation was not obtained under the condition of low liquid superficial velocity. (author)

Kaji, Masuo; Sawai, Toru; Kagi, Yosuke [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Biology-Oriented Science and Technology, Kinki University, 930 Nishi-mitani, Kinokawa, Wakayama 649-6493 (Japan); Ueda, Tadanobu [Toyota Central R and D Laboratory, Incorporated, 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly. Final CRADA Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A direct numerical simulation capability for two-phase flows with heat transfer in complex geometries can considerably reduce the hardware development cycle, facilitate the optimization and reduce the costs of testing of various industrial facilities, such as nuclear power plants, steam generators, steam condensers, liquid cooling systems, heat exchangers, distillers, and boilers. Specifically, the phenomena occurring in a two-phase coolant flow in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) fuel assembly include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for this purpose of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Advanced CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes provide a potential for detailed 3D simulations of coolant flow inside a fuel assembly, including flow around a spacer element using more fundamental physical models of flow regimes and phase interactions than sub-channel codes. Such models can extend the code applicability to a wider range of situations, which is highly important for increasing the efficiency and to prevent accidents.

Tentner, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

226

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

227

Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is directed toward understanding how the availability of nitrogen affects the accumulation of chloroplast pigments and proteins functioning in energy transduction and carbon metabolism. Molecular analyses performed with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown in a continuous culture system such that ammonium concentration is maintained at a low steady-state concentration so as to limit cell division. As compared to chloroplasts from cells of non-limiting nitrogen provisions, chloroplasts of N-limited cells are profoundly chlorophyll-deficient but still assimilate carbon for deposition of as starch and as storage lipids. Chlorophyll deficiency arises by limiting accumulation of appropriate nuclear-encoded mRNAs of and by depressed rates of translation of chloroplast mRNAs for apoproteins of reaction centers. Chloroplast translational effects can be partially ascribed to diminished rates of chlorophyll biosynthesis in N-limited cells, but pigment levels are not determinants for expression of the nuclear light-harvesting protein genes. Consequently, other signals that are responsive to nitrogen availability mediate transcriptional or post-transcriptional processes for accumulation of the mRNAs for LHC apoproteins and other mRNAs whose abundance is dependent upon high nitrogen levels. Conversely, limited nitrogen availability promotes accumulation of other proteins involved in carbon metabolism and oxidative electron transport in chloroplasts. Hence, thylakoids of N-limited cells exhibit enhanced chlororespiratory activities wherein oxygen serves as the electron acceptor in a pathway that involves plastoquinone and other electron carrier proteins that remain to be thoroughly characterized. Ongoing and future studies are also outlined.

Schmidt, G.W.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Comparison of iso-octane burning rates between single-phase and two-phase combustion for small droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase combustion is a widespread mechanism of energy conversion that is of practical importance in gas turbines, diesel and spark ignition engines, furnaces, and hazardous environments. However, the exploration of important parameters in combustion systems of practical application is difficult, due to the multiplicity of dependent variables. In the present work, combustion rates of well-defined droplet suspensions of iso-octane have been measured using techniques employed for gaseous combustion. This required a full characterization of the aerosols produced in the combustion apparatus, which determined that the maximum droplet size produced was around 30 {mu}m. Comparisons of two-phase with single-phase laminar mixtures suggest that there were negligible differences in the burning velocity of an aerosol and a gaseous mixture at the same overall equivalence ratio and similar conditions for iso-octane. At high stretch rates, flames remained smooth and droplet enhancement was negligible. However, at lower rates of stretch, both gaseous and aerosol flames became unstable and cellular, and this cellularity, in some cases, increased the burning rate. The values of Markstein length measured for aerosol flames had trends similar to those for gaseous-phase mixtures (Markstein length decreased with equivalence ratio), but were lower than in gaseous combustion. The values of Markstein length in aerosol flames also decreased with liquid equivalence ratio and/or Sauter mean diameter. All this indicates a higher tendency to instabilities in aerosol flames compared to gaseous combustion. A qualitative explanation for the lower values of Markstein length in aerosol combustion is given. It is suggested in the present work that aerosol flames became unstable, and hence had faster burning rates, under conditions that would not result in unstable gaseous flames. Comparisons, qualitative and in terms of dimensionless groups, of two-phase with single-phase turbulent combustion also suggest no enhancement. (author)

Lawes, M.; Lee, Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Marquez, N. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo 4011 Apto. 526 (Venezuela)

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CClF/sub 2/-CClF/sub 2/ known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Results indicate that for the range of Reynolds and Froude numbers considered, the liquid film is likely to be turbulent rather than laminar. The study also shows that two-dimensional effects are important, and the flow is never fully developed either in the film or the core. In addition, the new approach for the turbulent film is capable of predicting a local net flow rate that may be upward, downward, stationary, or stalled. An actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114. Results indicate that the theory can be used to predict the pressure gradient in the two-phase region based on laboratory measurements.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

Alain Bourgeat; Mladen Jurak; Farid Smaï

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

231

Well-posedness for a multi-dimensional viscous gas-liquid two-phase flow model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cauchy problem of a multi-dimensional ($d\\geqslant 2$) compressible viscous gas-liquid two-phase flow model is concerned in this paper. We investigate the global existence and uniqueness of the strong solution for the initial data close to an equilibrium and the local in time existence and uniqueness of the solution with general initial data in the framework of Besov spaces. In both cases, the possible vacuum state is included in the equilibrium state for the gas component at spatial far field. A continuation criterion is also obtained for the local solution.

Hao, Chengchun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

233

Market Potential for Nitrogen Fertilizers Derived from the Electric Power Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technology evaluation report describes the potential market for fertilizer materials derived from utility by-products from developing ammonia-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to control sulfur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

234

Original article: Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in deformable porous media: Application to carbon dioxide storage in the subsurface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, conceptual modeling as well as numerical simulation of two-phase flow in deep, deformable geological formations induced by CO"2 injection are presented. The conceptual approach is based on balance equations for mass, momentum and energy ... Keywords: Carbon capture storage (CCS), Heat transport, OpenGeoSys (OGS), Porous media, Two-phase flow consolidation

O. Kolditz; S. Bauer; N. BöTtcher; D. Elsworth; U. -J. GöRke; C. -I. Mcdermott; C. -H. Park; A. K. Singh; J. Taron; W. Wang

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A filtered mass density function approach for modeling separated two-phase flows for LES II: Simulation of a droplet laden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and evaporation/reaction of dilute particulate­gas two-phase flows is extremely impor- tant in many natural the importance of variations in composition space in the phase-coupling terms. � 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Two-phase flow; FDF methods; Temporal mixing layer; LES; Droplet gas flow 1

DesJardin, Paul E.

236

Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, fourth quarter, 1994, October 1994--December 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NOx reduction technologies: Advanced overfire air (AOFA), Low NOx burners (LNB), LNB with AOFA, and Advanced Digital Controls and Optimization Strategies. The project has completed the baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB+AOFA test segments, fulfilling all testing originally proposed to DOE. Analysis of the LNB long-term data collected show the full load NOx emission levels to be near 0.65 lb/MBtu. This NOx level represents a 48 percent reduction when compared to the baseline, full load value of 1.24 lb/MBtu. These reductions were sustainable over the long-term test period and were consistent over the entire load range. Full load, fly ash LOI values in the LNB configuration were near 8 percent compared to 5 percent for baseline. Results from the LNB+AOFA phase indicate that full load NOx emissions are approximately 0.40 lb/MBtu with a corresponding fly ash LOI value of near 8 percent. Although this NOx level represents a 67 percent reduction from baseline levels, a substantial portion of the incremental change in NOx emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations was the result of operational changes and not the result of the AOFA system. Phase 4 of the project is now underway.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1994, July 1994--September 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NOx combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise evaluation of the following NOx reduction technologies: Advanced overfire air (AOFA), Low NOx burners (LNB), LNB, with AOFA, and Advanced Digital Controls and Optimization Strategies. Baseline, AOFA, LNB, and LNB plus AOFA test segments have been completed. Based on a preliminary analysis, approximately 17 percent of the incremental change in NOx emissions between the LNB and LNB+AOFA configurations is the result of AOFA, the balance of the NOx reduction resulting from other operational adjustments. Preliminary diagnostic testing was conducted during August and September. The purpose of these tests was to determine the emissions and performance characteristics of the unit prior to activation of the advanced control/optimization strategies. Short-term, full load NOx emissions were near 0.47 lb/MBtu, slightly higher than that seen during the LNB+AOFA test phase. Long-term NO{sub x} emissions for this quarter averaged near 0.41 lb/MBtu. Due to turbine problems, a four week outage has been planned for Hammond 4 starting October 1. Two on-line carbon-in-ash monitors are being installed at Hammond Unit 4 as part of the Wall-Fired Project. These monitors will be evaluated as to their accuracy, repeatability, reliability, and serviceability.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system  

SciTech Connect

Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT.

Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Two-phase flow visualization and relative permeability measurement in transparent replicas of rough-walled rock fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding and quantifying multi-phase flow in fractures is important for mathematical and numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and petroleum reservoirs. While the cubic law for single-phase flow has been well established for parallel-plate fractures theoretically and experimentally, no reliable measurements of multi-phase flow in fractures have been reported. This work reports the design and fabrication of an apparatus for visualization of two-phase flow and for measurement of gas-liquid relative permeability in realistic rough-walled rock fractures. A transparent replica of a natural rock fracture from a core specimen is fabricated by molding and casting in clear epoxy. Simultaneous flow of gas and liquid with control of capillary pressure at inlet and outlet is achieved with the Hassler sandwich'' design: liquid is injected to the fracture through a porous block, while gas is injected directly to the edge of the fracture through channels in the porous block. A similar arrangement maintains capillary separation of the two phases at the outlet. Pressure drops in each phase across the fracture, and capillary pressures at the inlet and outlet, are controlled by means of pumps and needle valves, and are measured by differential and absolute pressure transducers. The clear epoxy cast of the natural fracture preserves the geometry of the fracture and permits visual observation of phase distributions. The fracture aperture distribution can be estimated by filling the fracture with a dyed liquid, and making pointwise measurements of the intensity of transmitted light.

Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.; Myer, L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Downward two-phase flow effects in heat-loss and pressure-drop modeling of steam injection wells  

SciTech Connect

Modelling of the pressure drop and heat loss in steam injection wells has undergone a gradual evolution since the heavy interest in enhanced oil recovery by steam injection in the mid-60's. After briefly reviewing the evolution of steam models this paper presents a model which advances the state-of-the-art of steam modelling. The main advance presented in this paper is modelling the effects of the various flow regimens that occur during steam injection. The paper describes the formulation of a two-phase downward vertical flow pressure drop model which is not limited by the ''no-slip'' homogeneous flow assumptions in most previously published models. By using different correlations for mist, bubble, and slug flow, improved pressure drop calculations result, which in turn improve temperature predictions. The paper describes how the model handles temperature predictions differently in the single and two-phase steam flow situations. The paper also describes special features in the model to account for layered soil properties, soil dry out, cyclic injection, coupling heat losses, and reflux boiling in wet annuli. Two examples problems are presented which illustrate some of these features.

Galate, J.W.; Mitchell, R.F.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Nitrogen Fixation by Lightning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When some of the uncertainties associated with lightning are reviewed, it becomes difficult to support a large production of fixed nitrogen from the lightning shock wave.

G. A. Dawson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Design and development of a test facility to study two-phase steam/water flow in porous media  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The approach taken at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to obtain relative permeability curves and their dependence on fluid and matrix properties is summarized. Thermodynamic studies are carried out to develop the equations governing two-phase steam/water flow in porous media and to analyze the relationship between mass flow rate and flowing enthalpy. These relationships will be verified against experimental results and subsequently will be used to develop a field analysis technique to obtain in-situ relative permeability parameters. Currently our effort is concentrated on thermodynamic analysis and development of an experimental facility. Some of the findings of the theoretical work are presented and also the design and development effort for the experimental facility is described.

Verma, A.K.; Pruess, K.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Development of models for the sodium version of the two-phase three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code THERMIT. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Several different models and correlations were developed and incorporated in the sodium version of THERMIT, a thermal-hydraulics code written at MIT for the purpose of analyzing transients under LMFBR conditions. This includes: a mechanism for the inclusion of radial heat conduction in the sodium coolant as well as radial heat loss to the structure surrounding the test section. The fuel rod conduction scheme was modified to allow for more flexibility in modelling the gas plenum regions and fuel restructuring. The formulas for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor phases were improved. The single phase and two phase friction factors were replaced by correlations more appropriate to LMFBR assembly geometry.

Wilson, G.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Laser-Doppler velocimeter for measuring droplet velocities in two-phase liquid-dominated nozzle flows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new laser-Doppler velocimeter (LDV) arrangement for measuring droplet velocities in high velocity, liquid-dominated two-phase nozzle flows was developed. The transmitting optics arrangement for this LDV system is identical to that of a dual beam heterodyne LDV, i.e., the light beam from a single frequency argon laser is divided into two parallel identical beams, which are focused to an intersection volume in the flow. The light backscattered from droplets traveling through this volume is collected for analysis using a scanning confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). Because of the dual beam arrangement an unscattered or reference beam is not necessary, and the optical alignment ease and stability are greatly improved over similar LDV-FPI systems. Results of droplet velocity measurements in high velocity, high droplet concentration nozzle jet flows are presented.

Alger, T.W.; Crowe, C.T.; Giedt, W.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Theoretical and empirical study of single-substance, upward two-phase flow in a constant-diameter adiabatic pipe  

SciTech Connect

A Scheme is developed to describe the upward flow of a two-phase mixture of a single substance in a vertical adiabatic constant area pipe. The scheme is based on dividing the mixture into a homogeneous core surrounded by a liquid film. This core may be a mixture of bubbles in a contiguous liquid phase, or a mixture of droplets in a contiguous vapor phase. Emphasis is placed upon the latter case since the range of experimental measurements of pressure, temperature, and void fraction collected in this study fall in the slug-churn''- annular'' flow regimes. The core is turbulent, whereas the liquid film may be laminar or turbulent. Turbulent stresses are modeled by using Prandtl's mixing-length theory. The working fluid is Dichlorotetrafluoroethane CCIF{sub 2}-CCIF{sub 2} known as refrigerant 114 (R-114); the two-phase mixture is generated from the single phase substance by the process of flashing. In this study, the effect of the Froude and Reynolds numbers on the liquid film characteristics is examined. The compressibility is accounted for through the acceleration pressure gradient of the core and not directly through the Mach number. An expression for an interfacial friction coefficient between the turbulent core and the liquid film is developed; it is similar to Darcy's friction coefficient for a single phase flow in a rough pipe. Finally, an actual steam-water geothermal well is simulated; it is based on actual field data from New Zealand. A similarity theory is used to predict the steam-water mixture pressure and temperature starting with laboratory measurements on the flow of R-114.

Laoulache, R.N.; Maeder, P.F.; DiPippo, R.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

RELAP5 Model of a Two-phase ThermoSyphon Experimental Facility for Fuels and Materials Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) does not have a separate materials-irradiation flow loop and requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed inside a containment. This is necessary to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. As part of the safety basis justification, HFIR also requires that all experiments be able to withstand various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. As with any parallel flow system, HFIR is vulnerable to flow excursion events when vapor is generated in one of those flow paths. The effects of these requirements are to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant and to reduce experiment heat loads to ensure boiling doesn t occur. A new experimental facility for materials irradiation and testing in the HFIR is currently being developed to overcome these limitations. The new facility is unique in that it will have its own internal cooling flow totally independent of the reactor primary coolant and boiling is permitted. The reactor primary coolant will cool the outside of this facility without contacting the materials inside. The ThermoSyphon Test Loop (TSTL), a full scale prototype of the proposed irradiation facility to be tested outside the reactor, is being designed and fabricated (Ref. 1). The TSTL is a closed system working as a two-phase thermosyphon. A schematic is shown in Fig. 1. The bottom central part is the boiler/evaporator and contains three electric heaters. The vapor generated by the heaters will rise and be condensed in the upper condenser, the condensate will drain down the side walls and be circulated via a downcomer back into the bottom of the boiler. An external flow system provides coolant that simulates the HFIR primary coolant. The two-phase flow code RELAP5-3D (Ref. 2) is the main tool employed in this design. The model has multiple challenges: boiling, condensation and natural convection flows need to be modeled accurately.

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases  

SciTech Connect

Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

Brent Marquis

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Evolution of exciton states near the percolation threshold in two-phase systems with II-VI semiconductor quantum dots  

SciTech Connect

From studies of two-phase systems (borosilicate matrices containing ZnSe or CdS quantum dots), it was found that the systems exhibit a specific feature associated with the percolation phase transition of charge carriers (excitons). The transition manifests itself as radical changes in the optical spectra of both ZnSe and CdS quantum dot systems and by fluctuations of the emission band intensities near the percolation threshold. These effects are due to microscopic fluctuations of the density of quantum dots. The average spacing between quantum dots is calculated taking into account their finite dimensions and the volume fraction occupied by the quantum dots at the percolation threshold. It is shown that clustering of quantum dots occurs via tunneling of charge carriers between the dots. A physical mechanism responsible for the percolation threshold for charge carriers is suggested. In the mechanism, the permittivity mismatch of the materials of the matrix and quantum dots plays an important role in delocalization of charge carriers (excitons): due to the mismatch, 'a dielectric trap' is formed at the external surface of the interface between the matrix and a quantum dot and, thus, surface exciton states are formed there. The critical concentrations of quantum dots are determined, such that the spatial overlapping of such surface states provides the percolation transition in both systems.

Bondar, N. V., E-mail: jbond@iop.kiev.ua; Brodyn, M. S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Physics (Ukraine)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop Multipliers for SUVA R-134a Flowing in a Rectangular Duct  

SciTech Connect

The adiabatic two-phase frictional multipliers for SUVA, R-134a flowing in a rectangular duct (with D{sub H} = 4.8 mm) have been measured for 3 nominal system pressures (0.9 MPa, 1.38 MPa and 2.41 MPa) and 3 nominal mass fluxes (510, 1020 and 2040 kg/m{sup 2}/s). The data is compared with several classical correlations to assess their predictive capabilities. The Lockhart-Martinelli model gives reasonable results at the lowest pressure and mass flux, near the operating range of most refrigeration systems, but gives increasingly poor comparisons as the pressure and mass flux is increased. The Chisholm B-coefficient model is found to best predict the data over the entire range of test conditions; however, there is significant disagreement at the highest pressure tested (with the model over predicting the data upwards of 100% for some cases). The data shows an increased tendency toward homogeneous flow as the pressure and flow rate are increased, and in fact the homogeneous model best predicts the bulk of the data at the highest pressure tested.

P Vassallo; K Keller

2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

251

Pressure drop of two-phase dry-plug flow in round mini-channels: Effect of moving contact line  

SciTech Connect

In the present experimental study, the pressure drop of the two-phase dry-plug flow (dry wall condition at the gas portions) in round mini-channels was investigated. The air-water mixtures were flowed through the round mini-channels made of polyurethane and Teflon, respectively, with their inner diameters ranging from 1.62 to 2.16 mm. In the dry-plug flow regime, the pressure drop measured became larger either by increasing the liquid superficial velocity or by decreasing the gas superficial velocity due to the increase of the number of the moving contact lines in the test section. In such a case, the role of the moving contact lines turned out to be significant. Therefore, a pressure drop model of dry-plug flow was proposed through modification of the dynamic contact angle analysis taking account of the energy dissipation by the moving contact lines, which represents the experimental data within the mean deviation of 4%. (author)

Lee, Chi Young; Lee, Sang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Science Town, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Nitrogen Deposition Data Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Cycle Data Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of a data set prepared by Elisabeth Holland and colleagues titled "Global N Cycle: Fluxes and N2O Mixing Ratios...

253

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

254

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

Nitrogen-incorporation induced changes in the microstructure of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen doped tungsten oxide (WO3) films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition by varying the nitrogen content in the reactive gas mixture keeping the deposition temperature fixed at 400 C. The crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition, and electrical resistivity of nitrogen doped WO3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical conductivity measurements. The results indicate that the nitrogen-doping induced changes in the microstructure and electrical properties of WO3 films are significant. XRD measurements coupled with SEM analysis indicates that the increasing nitrogen content decreases the grain size and crystal quality. The nitrogen concentration increases from 0 at.% to 1.35 at.% with increasing nitrogen flow rate from 0 to 20 sccm. The corresponding dc electrical conductivity of the films had shown a decreasing trend with increasing nitrogen content.

Vemuri, Venkata Rama Sesha R.; Noor-A-Alam, M.; Gullapalli, Satya K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ramana, C.V.

2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Higher order FE-FV method on unstructured grids for transport and two-phase flow with variable viscosity in heterogeneous porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents higher order methods for the numerical modeling of two-phase flow with simultaneous transport and adsorption of viscosifying species within the individual phases in permeable porous media. The numerical scheme presented addresses ... Keywords: Finite-element finite volume method, Flow in porous media, Monotone upwind scheme for conservation laws, Slope limiter, Transport, Unstructured grid

K. S. Schmid; S. Geiger; K. S. Sorbie

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional breaking waves on a gravel slope using a two-phase flow Navier-Stokes model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wave breaking is mainly a three-dimensional flow problem characterized by wave energy dissipation due to turbulence. The understanding of the wave breaking mechanism on a beach is essential in studying coastal processes. The complexity of the wave-induced ... Keywords: CFD, Porous medium, Two phase, VOF, Wave breaking

P. Higuera; M. Del Jesus; J. L. Lara; I. J. Losada; Y. Guanche; G. Barajas

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Comparison of five organic wastes regarding their behaviour during composting: Part 2, nitrogen dynamic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aimed to compare household waste, separated pig solids, food waste, pig slaughterhouse sludge and green algae regarding processes ruling nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three composting simulations were performed in parallel in three similar reactors (300 L), each one under a constant aeration rate. The aeration flows applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the compost were characterized through the measurements of their contents in dry matter, total carbon, Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate. Kjeldahl and total ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrite and nitrate were measured in leachates and in condensates too. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions were monitored in continue. The cumulated emissions in ammonia and in nitrous oxide were given for each waste and at each aeration rate. The paper focused on process of ammonification and on transformations and transfer of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The parameters of nitrous oxide emissions were not investigated. The removal rate of total Kjeldahl nitrogen was shown being closely tied to the ammonification rate. Ammonification was modelled thanks to the calculation of the ratio of biodegradable carbon to organic nitrogen content of the biodegradable fraction. The wastes were shown to differ significantly regarding their ammonification ability. Nitrogen balances were calculated by subtracting nitrogen losses from nitrogen removed from material. Defaults in nitrogen balances were assumed to correspond to conversion of nitrate even nitrite into molecular nitrogen and then to the previous conversion by nitrification of total ammoniacal nitrogen. The pool of total ammoniacal nitrogen, i.e. total ammoniacal nitrogen initially contained in waste plus total ammoniacal nitrogen released by ammonification, was calculated for each experiment. Then, this pool was used as the referring amount in the calculation of the rates of accumulation, stripping and nitrification of total ammoniacal nitrogen. Separated pig solids were characterised by a high ability to accumulate total ammoniacal nitrogen. Whatever the waste, the striping rate depended mostly on the aeration rate and on the pool concentration in biofilm. The nitrification rate was observed as all the higher as the concentration in total ammoniacal nitrogen in the initial waste was low. Thus, household waste and green algae exhibited the highest nitrification rates. This result could mean that in case of low concentrations in total ammoniacal nitrogen, a nitrifying biomass was already developed and that this biomass consumed it. In contrast, in case of high concentrations, this could traduce some difficulties for nitrifying microorganisms to develop.

Guardia, A. de, E-mail: amaury.de-guardia@cemagref.f [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Mallard, P.; Teglia, C.; Marin, A.; Le Pape, C.; Launay, M.; Benoist, J.C.; Petiot, C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (? 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ?20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found. Wettability of the surface was substantially increased for heater coupons boiled in alumina and zinc oxide nanofluids, and such wettability increase seems to correlate reasonably well with the observed marked CHF enhancement for the respective nanofluids. Interpretation of the experimental data was conducted in light of the governing surface parameters (surface area, contact angle, roughness, thermal conductivity) and existing models. It was found that no single parameter could explain the observed HTC or CHF phenomena.

Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

262

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

263

The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

Frame, Caitlin H

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

266

Modeling the performance of a two-phase turbine using numerical methods and the results of nozzle, static cascade, and windage experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance models for a two-phase turbine were developed to verify the understanding of the loss mechanisms and to extrapolate from the single-nozzle test condition to a full-admission turbine. The numerical models for predicting the performance of the nozzle and the combined nozzle and rotor are described. Results from two-phase, static cascade tests and disk-friction and windage experiments are used to calibrate the performance model(s). Model predictions are compared with single-nozzle prototype-turbine test results, and extrapolations are made to a full-admission design. The modeling also provides predictions of performance for turbines with various blade geometries, inlet conditions, and droplet sizes. Thus the modeling provides insight into design improvements.

Comfort, W.J. III

1978-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

267

The effects of channel diameter on flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in circular micro-channels  

SciTech Connect

Two-phase air-water flow characteristics are experimentally investigated in horizontal circular micro-channels. Test sections are made of fused silica. The experiments are conducted based on three different inner diameters of 0.53, 0.22 and 0.15 mm with the corresponding lengths of 320, 120 and 104 mm, respectively. The test runs are done at superficial velocities of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-42.36 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow visualisation is facilitated by systems mainly including stereozoom microscope and high-speed camera. The flow regime maps developed from the observed flow patterns are presented. The void fractions are determined based on image analysis. New correlation for two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical applications. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing of Incompressible Viscous Fluids with Interfacial Tension in Solvent Extraction  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes the development of a front tracking method for the solution of the governing equations of motion for two-phase micromixing of incompressible, viscous, liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes. The ability to compute the detailed local interfacial structure of the mixture allows characterization of the statistical properties of the two-phase mixture in terms of droplets, filaments, and other structures which emerge as a dispersed phase embedded into a continuous phase. Such a statistical picture provides the information needed for building a consistent coarsened model applicable to the entire mixing device. Coarsening is an undertaking for a future mathematical development and is outside the scope of the present work. We present here a method for accurate simulation of the micromixing dynamics of an aqueous and an organic phase exposed to intense centrifugal force and shearing stress. The onset of mixing is the result of the combination of the classical Rayleigh- Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A mixing environment that emulates a sector of the annular mixing zone of a centrifugal contactor is used for the mathematical domain. The domain is small enough to allow for resolution of the individual interfacial structures and large enough to allow for an analysis of their statistical distribution of sizes and shapes. A set of accurate algorithms for this application requires an advanced front tracking approach constrained by the incompressibility condition. This research is aimed at designing and implementing these algorithms. We demonstrate verification and convergence results for one-phase and unmixed, two-phase flows. In addition we report on preliminary results for mixed, two-phase flow for realistic operating flow parameters.

Zhou, Yijie [ORNL; Lim, Hyun-Kyung [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Navamita, Ray [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Wang, Shuqiang [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Glimm, James G [ORNL; Li, Xiao-lin [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Jiao, Xiangmin [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of new, high efficiency and cleaner burning engines is strongly coupled with the removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from fuels. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein these dibenzothiophene derivatives are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones is an approach that has gained significant attention. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) convert in a catalytic process dibenzothiophene and its derivatives to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones rapidly at moderate temperatures (60 C) and ambient pressure. The reaction can be performed in both an aqueous system containing an alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol) to solubilize the DBT and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system where the alcohol is present in both phases and facilitates the oxidation. Under a consistent set of conditions using the FeBF{sub 2} TAML activator, the degree of conversion was found to be t-butanol > methanol > ethanol. In the cases of methanol and ethanol, both the sulfoxide and sulfone were observed while for t-butanol only the sulfone was detected. In the two-phase system, the alcohol may function as an inverse phase transfer agent. The oxidation was carried out using two different TAML activators. In homogeneous solution, approximately 90% oxidation of the DBT could be achieved using the prototype TAML activator, FeB*, by sonicating the solution at near room temperature. In bi-phasic systems conversions as high as 50% were achieved using the FeB* TAML activator and hydrogen peroxide at 100 C. The sonication method yielded only {approx}6% conversion but this may have been due to mixing.

Colin P. Horwitz; Terrence J. Collins

2003-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

270

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

271

Understanding Nitrogen Fixation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen could, in principle, be more energy-efficient. This is particularly attractive giv

Paul J. Chirik

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Nitrogen fixation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

274

Asymptotic behavior of two-phase flows in heterogeneous porous media for capillarity depending only on space. II. Non-classical shocks to model oil-trapping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a one-dimensional problem modeling two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media made of two homogeneous subdomains, with discontinuous capillarity at the interface between them. We suppose that the capillary forces vanish inside the domains, but not on the interface. Under the assumption that the gravity forces and the capillary forces are oriented in opposite directions, we show that the limit, for vanishing diffusion, is not the entropy solution of the hyperbolic scalar conservation law. A non-classical shock occurs on the interface, modeling oil-trapping.

Cancès, Clément

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Non-local equilibrium two-phase flow model with phase change in porous media and its application to reflooding of a severely damaged reactor core  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generalized non local-equilibrium, three-equation model was developed for the macroscopic description of two-phase flow heat and mass transfer in porous media subjected to phase change. Six pore-scale closure problems were proposed to determine all the effective transport coefficients for representative unit cells. An improved model is presented in this paper with the perspective of application to intense boiling phenomena. The objective of this paper is to present application of this model to the simulation of reflooding of severely damaged nuclear reactor cores. In case of accident at a nuclear power plant, water sources may not be available for a long period of time and the core heats up due to the residual power. Any attempt to inject water during core degradation can lead to quenching and further fragmentation of the core material. The fragmentation of fuel rods and melting of reactor core materials may result in the formation of a {sup d}ebris bed{sup .} The typical particle size in a debris bed might reach few millimeters (characteristic length-scale: 1 to 5 mm), which corresponds to a high permeability porous medium. The proposed two-phase flow model is implemented in the ICARECATHARE code, developed by IRSN to study severe accident scenarios in pressurized water reactors. Currently, the French IRSN has set up two experimental facilities to study debris bed reflooding, PEARL and PRELUDE, with the objective to validate safety models. The PRELUDE program studies the complex two phase flow of water and steam in a porous medium (diameter 180 mm, height 200 mm), initially heated to a high temperature (400 deg. C or 700 deg. C). The series of PRELUDE experiments achieved in 2010 constitute a significant complement to the database of high temperature bottom reflood experimental data. They provide relevant data to understand the progression of the quench front and the intensity of heat transfer. Modeling accurately these experiments required improvements to the reflooding model, especially in terms of the existence of various saturation regimes. The improved two-phase flow model shows a good agreement with PRELUDE experimental results.

Bachrata, A.; Fichot, F.; Quintard, M.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache (France); Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT - Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France) and CNRS (France); IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Cadarache (France)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

277

Nitrogen chiller acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the inspection and testing requirements for the Nitrogen Chiller unit. The Chiller will support the Rotary Mode core Sampling System during the summer. The Chiller cools the Nitrogen Purge Gas that is used when drilling in tank wastes to cool the drill bit.

Kostelnik, A.J.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

278

An evaluation of the neutron radiography facility at the Nuclear Science Center for dynamic imaging of two-phase hydrogenous fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Though both film and video radiographic image techniques are available in neutron radiography, radiographic cameras are commonly used to capture the dynamic flow patterns in a rapid sequence of images. These images may be useful to verify two-phase flow models in small diameter flow channels. An initial series of real-time neutron radiography experiments were performed at the Texas A&M University System, Texas Engineering Experiment Station, Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) to determined the image resolution of two-phase water and air flow regimes through small diameter metal flow channels. After evaluating these initial images, research was conducted to determine cost effective enhancements that would increase the dimensional accuracy and contrast of these flow images. Modifications were completed to the beam collimator and the radiography camera video processing board was realigned to provide a stronger vidio signal with less noise. Several hydrogenous-media reference standards were designed and constructed to evaluate the effectiveness of the modifications. The beamport collimator was redesigned and the radiography calibration methodology was changed. The post-modification images demonstrate that a smaller, more focused neutron beam and a more sensitive video camera provide clearer images with excellent dimensional characteristics. Specific research to quantify both the resolution and sensitivity limits is proposed and a change in dynamic target imaging methodology is proposed.

Carlisle, Bruce Scott

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Superconductors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Main Index Next Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen Superconductors What happens when a magnet is placed on a superconductor? Play the video to find...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NETL: News Release - Record Run by Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Comes...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the equivalent of 65 kilowatts of thermal energy in the form of hot water to the local district heating system. Air emissions from the unit - nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,...

282

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

283

TWO-PHASE FLOW STUDIES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PRIMARY CIRCUITS USING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present recent results of the application of the thermal-hydraulic code BAGIRA to the analysis of complex two-phase flows in nuclear power plants primary loops. In particular, we performed benchmark numerical simulation of an integral LOCA experiment performed on a test facility modeling the primary circuit of VVER-1000. In addition, we have also analyzed the flow patterns in the VVER-1000 steam generator vessel for stationary and transient operation regimes. For both of these experiments we have compared the numerical results with measured data. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of BAGIRA by modeling a hypothetical severe accident for a VVER-1000 type nuclear reactor. The numerical analysis, which modeled all stages of the hypothetical severe accident up to the complete ablation of the reactor cavity bottom, shows the importance of multi-dimensional flow effects.

KOHURT, P. (BNL), KALINICHENKO, S.D.; KROSHILIN, A.E.; KROSHILIN, V.E.; SMIRNOV, A.V.

2006-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Two-Phase Flow Studies in Nuclear Power Plant Primary Circuits Using the Three-Dimensional Thermal-Hydraulic Code BAGIRA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

in this paper we present recent results of the application of the thermal-hydraulic code BAGIRA to the analysis of complex two-phase flows in nuclear power plants primary loops. In particular, we performed benchmark numerical simulation of an integral LOCA experiment performed on a test facility modeling the primary circuit of VVER-1000. In addition, we have also analyzed the flow patterns in the VVER-1000 steam generator vessel for stationary and transient operation regimes. For both of these experiments we have compared the numerical results with measured data. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of BAGIRA by modeling a hypothetical severe accident for a VVER-1000 type nuclear reactor. The numerical analysis, which modeled all stages of the hypothetical severe accident up to the complete ablation of the reactor cavity bottom, shows the importance of multi-dimensional flow effects. (authors)

Kalinichenko, S.D.; Kroshilin, A.E.; Kroshilin, V.E.; Smirnov, A.V. [All-Russian Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operations (VNIIAES) 25 Ferganskaya St., 109507 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 475 Upton, NY 11973, (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

It's Elemental - The Element Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen The Element Nitrogen [Click for Isotope Data] 7 N Nitrogen 14.0067 Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Weight: 14.0067 Melting Point: 63.15 K (-210.00°C or -346.00°F) Boiling Point: 77.36 K (-195.79°C or -320.44°F) Density: 0.0012506 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words nitron and genes, which together mean "saltpetre forming." Say what? Nitrogen is pronounced as NYE-treh-gen. History and Uses: Nitrogen was discovered by the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. It is the fifth most abundant element in the universe and makes up

286

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Nitrogen removal from natural gas  

SciTech Connect

According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 MAY 1999 TOPICAL REPORT NUMBER 14 A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between: The U.S. Department of Energy and * The Babcock & Wilcox Company * Energy and Environmental Research Corporation * New York State Electric & Gas Corporation MAY 1999 Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Cover image: Schematic of reburning technology Source: Energy and Environmental Research Corporation Reburning Technologies for the Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Coal-Fired Boilers Executive Summary ..................................................................................................

289

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13 percent). U.S. nitrous oxide emissions rose from 1990 to 1994, fell from 1994 to 2002, and returned to an upward trajectory from 2003 to 2007, largely as a result of increased use of synthetic fertilizers. Fertilizers are the primary contributor of emissions from nitrogen fertilization of soils, which grew by more than 30 percent from

290

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Title Increased Cytotoxicity of Oxidized Flame Soot Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Holder, Amara L., Brietta J. Carter, Regine Goth-Goldstein, Donald Lucas, and Catherine P. Koshland Journal Atmospheric Pollution Research Volume 3 Start Page 25 Issue 1 Pagination 25-31 Date Published 01/2012 Keywords health effects, ozone, soot, toxicity Abstract Combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere undergo reactions with oxidants, which can change the particles' physiochemical characteristics. In this work, we compare the physical and chemical properties and cellular response of particles fresh from a flame with those oxidized by ozone and nitrogen dioxide. The reaction with ozone and nitrogen dioxide does not significantly modify the physical characteristics of the particles (primary particle size, fractal dimension, and surface area). However, oxidation affects the chemical characteristics of the particles, creating more oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, and increases their hydrophilicity. In addition, oxidized soot generates more reactive oxygen species, as measured by the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Furthermore, oxidized soot is 1.5-2 times more toxic than soot that was not reacted with ozone, but the inflammatory response, measured by interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion, is unchanged. These results imply that combustion-generated particles released into the atmosphere will have an increased toxicity on or after high ozone days.

291

Effect of flow topology on the calculation of two-phase frictional multipliers in uniformly heated flow of R-134a in a rectangular duct  

SciTech Connect

The two-phase frictional multipliers for SUVA R-134a flowing in a rectangular duct (with D{sub H} = 4.8 mm) have been measured for three nominal system pressures (0.88, 1.34 and 2.34 MPa) and four nominal mass fluxes (510, 1020 and 1740, 2040 kg/m{sup 2}/s) under uniform heat flux conditions. The data is compared with adiabatic data previously taken at similar flow conditions, as well as with several classical multiplier correlations. The comparisons reveal a strong effect of pressure and mass flux on the flow topology and, by extension, a large effect on the calculation of acceleration and frictional pressure drop components. For this fluid and this geometry, entrainment and fluid separation is enhanced at higher pressures and mass flux such that most of the liquid exists in the test section edges and as dispersed droplets in the core. For these cases, the classical simplified approach to calculate acceleration pressure drop fails to adequately predict the acceleration component and leads to erroneous calculations of frictional pressure drop from the measured total pressure drop. Best estimates of the true acceleration component are given, based on void profiles measured with a gamma densitometer system, comparisons to the adiabatic data, and recasting the data in terms of the total pressure drop multiplier as a function of the Martinelli parameter, X{sub tt}. (author)

Vassallo, Peter; Kevin Cope, W.; Smith, Walter C. [Bechtel Marine Propulsion Corporation, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

CFD Analyses for Water-Air Flow With the Euler-Euler Two-Phase Model in the Fluent4 CFD Code  

SciTech Connect

Framatome ANP develops a new boiling water reactor called SWR 1000. For the case of a hypothetical core melt accident it is designed in such a way that the core melt is retained in the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) at low pressure owing to cooling of the RPV exterior and high reliable depressurization devices. Framatome ANP performs - in co-operation with VTT - tests to quantify the safety margins of the exterior cooling concept for the SWR 1000, for determining the limits to avoid the critical heat fluxes (CHFs). The three step procedure has been set up to investigate the phenomenon: 1. Water-air study for a 1:10 scaled global model, with the aim to investigate the global flow conditions 2. Water-air study for a 1:10 scaled, 10 % sector model, with the aim to find a flow sector with almost similar flow conditions as in the global model. 3. Final CHF experiments for a 1:1-scaled, 10 % sector., the boarders of this model have been selected based on the first two steps. The instrumentation for the water/air experiments included velocity profiles, the vertically averaged average void fraction and void fraction profiles in selected positions. The experimental results from the air-water experiments have been analyzed at VTT using the Fluent-4.5.2 code with its Eulerian multiphase flow modeling capability. The aim of the calculations was to learn how to model complex two-phase flow conditions. The structural mesh required by Fluent-4 is a strong limitation in the complex geometry, but modeling of the 1/4 sector from the facility was possible, when the GAMBIT pre-processor was used for the mesh generation. The experiments were analyzed with the 150 x 150 x 18 grid for the geometry. In the analysis the fluid viscosity was the main dials for adjusting the vertical liquid velocity profiles and the bubble diameter for adjusting the phase separation. The viscosity ranged between 1 to 10000 times the molecular viscosity, and bubble diameter between 3 to 100 mm, when the calculation results were adjusted for a good agreement with the experimental data. The analysis results were very valuable for designing the final water/steam facility for final CHF tests. The validation against data from the air-water experiments proved that the present CFD codes approach to the state where they can be used for simulating such two-phase experiments, where the fraction of both phases is essential and the flow is strongly affected by the density differences. It is still too early to predict, if the CFD calculation of the 1:1 scale critical heat flux experiments is successful, could the result be used for formulating a new type of a critical heat flux correlation, where the effects of CRD's on the flow patterns and gap dimensions are model parameters. (authors)

Miettinen, Jaakko [VTT Process, P.O. Box 1000 Tietatie 3 Espoo FIN-02044 (Finland); Schmidt, Holger [Framatome ANP GmbH, Department FANP NT31, Freyeslebenstrasse 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

294

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen. Wastewater treatment facilities experience dual financial pressures - rising energy costs and meeting increasingly stringent nitrogen discharge

295

Nucleation and Characteristics of Liquid Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments on a refrigerating catalyst?liquid nitrogen (LN)?in different cloud chambers and their results. The nucleation threshold temperature of liquid nitrogen is 0°C, and when the temperature less than ?2°C, the ice ...

Cao Xuecheng; Wang Weimin

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is needed. Besides petroleum, the only sources from whichdependence on petroleum as a fuel and chemical source. In

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Have a question, comment, or suggestion for a future article? Send your feedback to todayinenergy@eia.gov

299

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

x Abatement and Control. IEA Coal Research: London, UnitedM. Air Pollution Control Costs for Coal-Fired PowerStations; IEA Coal Research: London, UK, 1995. 25. Arrow, K.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing Federal Nox regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

Information Center

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel ... acid rain program in the eastern half of the United States. ... and settlements under the Clean Air Act's New Source Review ...

302

Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

McGill, R.N.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

303

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) NOx Control; Prepared byNOx Removal Technologies. Volume 1. Selective Catalytic Reduction.

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

OXIDES OF NITROGEN: FORMATION AND CONTROL IN RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or RDF. NOx reduction by use of catalytic reduction and ammonia injection are clearly impractical research in this area, so that we can understand the principles of NOx reduction sufficiently to fill our·lined in cinerator by Hiraoka [2] reveals a reduction from 150 ppm NOx to below 100 ppm NOx (at 12% O2) by using

Columbia University

305

OXIDES OF NITROGEN: FORMATION AND CONTROL IN RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

utilizing all of the known techniques for NOx reduction. To be precise, the NOx formed within the flame] and several others [6, 7] have suggested certain reduction methods which are consistent with NOx formation, not solid waste. The results of NOx reduction techniques in coal combustion should be applied with caution

Columbia University

306

Greatly reduces harmful nitrogen oxides in engine exhaust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or RDF. NOx reduction by use of catalytic reduction and ammonia injection are clearly impractical research in this area, so that we can understand the principles of NOx reduction sufficiently to fill our·lined in cinerator by Hiraoka [2] reveals a reduction from 150 ppm NOx to below 100 ppm NOx (at 12% O2) by using

307

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations may apply to reciprocating engines, fuel-burning equipment, or waste combusting equipment which are either attached to major stationary sources of NOx or have high potential NOx...

308

Power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

State Energy Data System ... the program provided an economic incentive for coal-fired power plants to reduce emissions by installing pollution contro ...

309

Proposal to Designate an Emission Control Area for Nitrogen Oxides,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a massive scale. These processes include catalytic reforming (to increase the octane number), catalytic

Hanson, Thomas

310

Microbial nitrogen transformation potential in surface run-off leachate from a tropical landfill  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microbial nitrogen transformations can alleviate toxic ammonium discharge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aerobic ammonium oxidation was rate-limiting in Indonesian landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic nitrogen ammonification was most dominant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anaerobic nitrate reduction and ammonium oxidation potential were also high. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-stage aerobic-anaerobic nitrogen removal system needs to be implemented. - Abstract: Ammonium is one of the major toxic compounds and a critical long-term pollutant in landfill leachate. Leachate from the Jatibarang landfill in Semarang, Indonesia, contains ammonium in concentrations ranging from 376 to 929 mg N L{sup -1}. The objective of this study was to determine seasonal variation in the potential for organic nitrogen ammonification, aerobic nitrification, anaerobic nitrate reduction and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) at this landfilling site. Seasonal samples from leachate collection treatment ponds were used as an inoculum to feed synthetic media to determine potential rates of nitrogen transformations. Aerobic ammonium oxidation potential (<0.06 mg N L{sup -1} h{sup -1}) was more than a hundred times lower than the anaerobic nitrogen transformation processes and organic nitrogen ammonification, which were of the same order of magnitude. Anaerobic nitrate oxidation did not proceed beyond nitrite; isolates grown with nitrate as electron acceptor did not degrade nitrite further. Effects of season were only observed for aerobic nitrification and anammox, and were relatively minor: rates were up to three times higher in the dry season. To completely remove the excess ammonium from the leachate, we propose a two-stage treatment system to be implemented. Aeration in the first leachate pond would strongly contribute to aerobic ammonium oxidation to nitrate by providing the currently missing oxygen in the anaerobic leachate and allowing for the growth of ammonium oxidisers. In the second pond the remaining ammonium and produced nitrate can be converted by a combination of nitrate reduction to nitrite and anammox. Such optimization of microbial nitrogen transformations can contribute to alleviating the ammonium discharge to surface water draining the landfill.

Mangimbulude, Jubhar C. [Faculty of Biology, Universitas Kristen Satya Wacana, Jl Diponegoro 52-60, Salatiga 50711 (Indonesia); Straalen, Nico M. van [Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Roeling, Wilfred F.M., E-mail: wilfred.roling@falw.vu.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Physiology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, NL-1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation. Annual progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is directed toward understanding how the availability of nitrogen affects the accumulation of chloroplast pigments and proteins functioning in energy transduction and carbon metabolism. Molecular analyses performed with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown in a continuous culture system such that ammonium concentration is maintained at a low steady-state concentration so as to limit cell division. As compared to chloroplasts from cells of non-limiting nitrogen provisions, chloroplasts of N-limited cells are profoundly chlorophyll-deficient but still assimilate carbon for deposition of as starch and as storage lipids. Chlorophyll deficiency arises by limiting accumulation of appropriate nuclear-encoded mRNAs of and by depressed rates of translation of chloroplast mRNAs for apoproteins of reaction centers. Chloroplast translational effects can be partially ascribed to diminished rates of chlorophyll biosynthesis in N-limited cells, but pigment levels are not determinants for expression of the nuclear light-harvesting protein genes. Consequently, other signals that are responsive to nitrogen availability mediate transcriptional or post-transcriptional processes for accumulation of the mRNAs for LHC apoproteins and other mRNAs whose abundance is dependent upon high nitrogen levels. Conversely, limited nitrogen availability promotes accumulation of other proteins involved in carbon metabolism and oxidative electron transport in chloroplasts. Hence, thylakoids of N-limited cells exhibit enhanced chlororespiratory activities wherein oxygen serves as the electron acceptor in a pathway that involves plastoquinone and other electron carrier proteins that remain to be thoroughly characterized. Ongoing and future studies are also outlined.

Schmidt, G.W.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale Derived Heavy Oil Coal Sarofim and Flagan (1976) Coal Liquids Coal-oil Slurry Heap (1978) Heap (1978) Heap (1978) Nitric oxide production

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

314

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Phase 3A, Low NO{sub x} burner tests  

SciTech Connect

This Phase 3A test report summarizes the testing activities and results for the third testing phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. Described in this report are the test plans, data measurements, and data analyses performed during the Phase 3A effort. The present report also contains sufficient background material to provide an understanding of the overall program scope, the relationship of Phase 3A to the overall program, the testing methodologies, testing procedures, and unit configuration. Results from 66 short-term tests indicate increasing NO{sub x} emissions over the load range ranging from 0.5 lb/MBtu at 300 NM to around 0.65 lb/MBtu at 480 MW. Fly ash loss-on-ignition (LOI) for these loads ranged from 5.4 to 8.6 percent. Long-term test results indicated high load (480 MW) NO{sub x} emissions of approximately 0.65 lb/MBtu. At the 300 MW mid load point, the emissions dropped to 0.47 lb/MBtu which is slightly lower than the 0.50 lb/MBtu shown for the short-term data. The annual and 30-day average achievable NO{sub x} emissions were determined to be 0.55 and 0.64 lb/MBtu, respectively, for the load scenario experienced during the Phase 3A, long-term test period. Based on the long-term test results for Phase 3A, at full-load the low NO{sub x} burners (LNB) retrofit resulted in a NO{sub x} reduction of 48 percent from baseline, while at 300 MW the reduction was approximately 50 percent. A series of tests was also conducted to evaluate the effects of various burner equipment settings and mill coal flow biasing on both NO{sub x} and LOI emissions.

Not Available

1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Two-phase flow in a vertical pipe and the phenomenon of choking: Homogeneous diffusion model. Part I. Homogeneous flow models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The paper examines the topologic structure of all possible solutions which can exist in flows through adiabatic constant-area ducts for which the homogeneous diffusion model has been assumed. The conservation equations are one-dimensional with the single space variable z, but gravity effects are included. The conservation equations are coupled with three equations of state: a pure substance, a perfect gas with constant specific heats, and a homogeneous two-phase system in thermodynamic equilibrium. The preferred state variables are pressure P, enthalpy h, and mass flux G{sup 2}. The three conservation equations are first-order but nonlinear. They induce a family of solutions which are interpreted as curves in a four-dimensional phase space conceived as a union of three-dimensional spaces (h, G{sup 2};z) with G{sup 2} = const treated as a parameter. It is shown that all points in these spaces are regular, so that no singular solutions need to be considered. The existence and uniqueness theorem leads to the conclusion that through every point in phase space there passes one and only one solution-curve. The set of differential equations, treated as a system of algebraic equations at each point of the phase space, determines the components of a rate-of-change vector which are obtained explicitly by Cramer's rule. This vector is tangent to the solution curve. Each solution curve turns downward in z at some specific elevation z*, and this determines the condition for choking. Choking occurs always when the exit flow velocity at L=z* is equal to the local velocity of propagation of small plane disturbances of sufficiently large wavelength, that is when the flow rate G becomes equal to a specified, critical flow rate, G*. A criterion, analogous to the Mach number, which indicates the presence or absence of choking in a cross-section is the ratio K=G/G** of the mass-flow rate G to the local critical mass flow rate, G**, K=1 denoting choking. The critical parameters depend only on the thermodynamic properties of the fluid and are independent of the gravitational acceleration and shearing stress at the wall. The topological characteristics of the solutions allow us to study all flow patterns which can, and which cannot, occur in a pipe of given length L into which fluid is discharged through a rounded entrance from a stagnation reservoir and whose back-pressure is slowly lowered. The set of flow patterns is analogous to that which occurs with a perfect gas, except that the characteristic numerical values are different. They must be obtained by numerical integration and the influence of gravity must be allowed for. The preceding conclusions are valid for all assumptions concerning the shearing stress at the wall which make it dependent on the state parameters only, but not on their derivatives with respect to z. However, the study is limited to upward flows for which the shearing stress at the wall and the gravitational acceleration are codirectional.

Bilicki, Z.; Kestin, J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

NO-assisted molecular-beam epitaxial growth of nitrogen substituted EuO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated a method for substituting oxygen with nitrogen in EuO thin films, which is based on molecular beam epitaxy distillation with NO gas as the oxidizer. By varying the NO gas pressure, we produce crystalline, epitaxial EuO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} films with good control over the films' nitrogen concentration. In situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy reveals that nitrogen substitution is connected to the formation Eu{sup 3+}4f{sup 6} and a corresponding decrease in the number of Eu{sup 2+}4f{sup 7}, indicating that nitrogen is being incorporated in its 3{sup -} oxidation state. While small amounts of Eu{sup 3+} in over-oxidized Eu{sub 1-{delta}}O thin films lead to a drastic suppression of the ferromagnetism, the formation of Eu{sup 3+} in EuO{sub 1-x}N{sub x} still allows the ferromagnetic phase to exist with an unaffected T{sub c}, thus providing an ideal model system to study the interplay between the magnetic f{sup 7} (J = 7/2) and the non-magnetic f{sup 6} (J = 0) states close to the Fermi level.

Wicks, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altendorf, S. G.; Caspers, C.; Kierspel, H.; Sutarto, R. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Tjeng, L. H. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Damascelli, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

318

Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » Stanford Nitrogen Group National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Stanford Nitrogen Group Stanford University The Stanford Nitrogen Group developed a new wastewater treatment process for the removal and recovery of energy from waste nitrogen (i.e. ammonia). This process improves the efficiency and lowers the cost of nitrogen treatment. The process is termed the Coupled Aerobic-anoxic Nitrous Decomposition Operation (CANDO) and consists of 2 principal steps: biological conversion of ammonia to N2O gas, and combustion of a fuel (i.e. biogas) with N2O to recover energy. It's the first wastewater treatment process to recover energy from nitrogen.

319

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

Chen, H.L.

1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

320

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O.sub.2 /cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N.sub.2. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N.sub.2 at a much quicker rate than unexcited N.sub.2, greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed.

Chen, Hao-Lin (Walnut Creek, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Multifunctional Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3) Electric, ferroelectric, magnetic and photonic properties of oxides 4) Theoretical modeling of epitaxial growth, interfaces and microstructures 5) Composition ...

323

The Bevatron liquid nitrogen circulation system  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen liquefier and computer controlled valving system have been added to the Bevatron cryoliner vacuum system to cut operating costs by reducing liquid nitrogen consumption. The computer and interface electronic systems, which control the temperatures of twenty-eight liquid nitrogen circuits, have been chosen and designed to operate in the Bevatron's pulsating magnetic field. The nitrogen exhaust is routed back to a liquefier, of about five kilowatt capacity, liquefied, and rerouted through the cooling circuits. A description of the system and operating results are presented.

Hunt, D.; Stover, G.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen ...  

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers United States Patent. Patent Number: 8,152,988: Issued: April 10, 2012: Official Filing:

325

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RG and JA Bassham, Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts.chloroplasts during photosynthesis. Plant Physiol ~0:22H-2?NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS James A. Bassham,

Bassham, James A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Single- and Two-Phase Diversion Cross-Flows Between Triangle Tight Lattice Rod Bundle Subchannels - Data on Flow Resistance and Interfacial Friction Coefficients for the Cross-Flow  

SciTech Connect

Single- and two-phase diversion cross-flows arising from the pressure difference between tight lattice subchannels are our concern in this study. In order to obtain a correlation of the diversion cross-flow, we conducted adiabatic experiments using a vertical multiple-channel with two subchannels simplifying the triangle tight lattice rod bundle for air-water flows at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. In the experiments, data were obtained on the axial variations in the pressure difference between the subchannels, the ratio of flow rate in one subchannel to the whole channel, the void fraction in each subchannel for slug-churn and annular flows in two-phase flow case. These data were analyzed by use of a lateral momentum equation based on a two-fluid model to determine both the cross-flow resistance coefficient between liquid phase and channel wall and the gas-liquid interfacial friction coefficient. The resulting coefficients have been correlated in a way similar to that developed for square lattice subchannel case by Kano et al. (2002); the cross-flow resistance coefficient data can be well correlated with a ratio of the lateral velocity due to the cross-flow to the axial one irrespective of single- and two-phase flows; the interfacial friction coefficient data were well correlated with a Reynolds number, which is based on the relative velocity between gas and liquid cross-flows as the characteristic velocity. (authors)

Tatsuya Higuchi; Akimaro Kawahara; Michio Sadatomi; Hiroyuki Kudo [Kumamoto University, 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

328

INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

NITROGEN K-SHELL PHOTOABSORPTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable atomic data have been computed for the spectral modeling of the nitrogen K lines, which may lead to useful astrophysical diagnostics. Data sets comprise valence and K-vacancy level energies, wavelengths, Einstein A-coefficients, radiative and Auger widths, and K-edge photoionization cross sections. An important issue is the lack of measurements that are usually employed to fine-tune calculations so as to attain spectroscopic accuracy. In order to estimate data quality, several atomic structure codes are used and extensive comparisons with previous theoretical data have been carried out. In the calculation of K photoabsorption with the Breit-Pauli R-matrix method, both radiation and Auger dampings, which cause the smearing of the K edge, are taken into account. This work is part of a wider project to compute atomic data in the X-ray regime to be included in the database of the popular XSTAR modeling code.

GarcIa, J. [Catholic University of America, IACS, Physics Department, Washington DC 20064 (United States); Kallman, T. R.; Witthoeft, M.; Behar, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mendoza, C. [Centro de Fisica, IVIC, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Palmeri, P.; Quinet, P. [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Bautista, M.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Klapisch, M. [ARTEP, Inc., Ellicott City, MD 21042 (United States)], E-mail: javier@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: michael.c.witthoeft@nasa.gov, E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov, E-mail: behar@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: claudio@ivic.ve, E-mail: palmeri@umons.ac.be, E-mail: quinet@umons.ac.be, E-mail: bautista@vt.edu, E-mail: marcel.klapisch.ctr@nrl.navy.mil

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freezing Balloons!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Season Two Bloopers Season Two Bloopers Previous Video (Season Two Bloopers) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party!) Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Freezing Balloons! What happens when a balloon full of air is plunged into a container full of liquid nitrogen? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a really big balloon! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we place the balloon in the liquid nitrogen! Steve: Okay! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Wait! Isn't the balloon going to pop? Joanna: We'll see! Steve: Aw, man... Huh. Okay, so the balloon didn't pop. But, there's

331

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Insulators!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Popping Film Canisters! Popping Film Canisters! Previous Video (Popping Film Canisters!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Show!) Liquid Nitrogen Show! Insulators! Cups full of water are placed into bowls of liquid nitrogen! Which cup will insulate the best? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are two plastic cups! Joanna: Let's see which cup is the better insulator! Steve: Okay! So, um, how do we do that? Joanna: Well, we'll pour water into each of the cups and then we'll pour the liquid nitrogen into each of the bowls. If we then place the cup in the bowl, the heat from the water will try to pass through the cup into the

332

Visualizing Individual Nitrogen Dopants in Monolayer Graphene  

SciTech Connect

In monolayer graphene, substitutional doping during growth can be used to alter its electronic properties. We used scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, and first principles calculations to characterize individual nitrogen dopants in monolayer graphene grown on a copper substrate. Individual nitrogen atoms were incorporated as graphitic dopants, and a fraction of the extra electron on each nitrogen atom was delocalized into the graphene lattice. The electronic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene was strongly modified only within a few lattice spacings of the site of the nitrogen dopant. These findings show that chemical doping is a promising route to achieving high-quality graphene films with a large carrier concentration.

L Zhao; R He; K Rim; T Schiros; K Kim; H Zhou; C Gutierrez; S Chockalingam; C Arguello; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Effects of Chlorine and Other Flue Gas Parameters on Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology for Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technologythe technology of choice for meeting stringent nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission limits for coal-fired electric generating plantshas potential for oxidizing mercury, which would provide enhanced removal in downstream systems. Catalyst behavior is relatively well understood for deNOx and SO2 oxidation, but less is known about mercury oxidation behavior. This test program was designed to determine general behavior of typical SCR catalysts on mercury oxidation and ...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

336

On-site generated nitrogen cuts cost of underbalanced drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of on-site generated nitrogen, instead of liquid nitrogen, has reduced the cost of drilling underbalanced horizontal wells in Canada and the western US. Because nitrogen is inert and inflammable, it is the preferred gas for underbalanced drilling. Nitrogen can be supplied for oil field use by three different methods: cryogenic liquid separation, pressure swing adsorption, and hollow fiber membranes. The selection of nitrogen supply from one of these methods depends on the cost of delivered nitrogen, the required flow rates and pressure, the required nitrogen purity, and the availability and reliability of the equipment for nitrogen generation. These three methods are described, as well as the required equipment.

Downey, R.A. [Energy Ingenuity Co., Englewood, CO (United States)

1997-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

337

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

338

Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Yen, S.C. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Nitrogen Removal From Low Quality Natural Gas  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas provides more than one-fifth of all the primary energy used in the United States. It is especially important in the residential sector, where it supplies nearly half of all the energy consumed in U.S. homes. However, significant quantities of natural gas cannot be produced economically because its quality is too low to enter the pipeline transportation system without some type of processing, other than dehydration, to remove the undesired gas fraction. Such low-quality natural gas (LQNG) contains significant concentration or quantities of gas other than methane. These non- hydrocarbons are predominantly nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, but may also include other gaseous components. The nitrogen concentrations usually exceeds 4%. Nitrogen rejection is presently an expensive operation which can present uneconomic scenarios in the potential development of natural gas fields containing high nitrogen concentrations. The most reliable and widely used process for nitrogen rejection from natural gas consists of liquefying the feed stream using temperatures in the order of - 300{degrees}F and separating the nitrogen via fractionation. In order to reduce the gas temperature to this level, the gas is compressed, cooled by mullet-stream heat exchangers, and expanded to low pressure. Significant energy for compression and expensive materials of construction are required. Water and carbon dioxide concentrations must be reduced to levels required to prevent freezing. SRI`s proposed research involves screening new nitrogen selective absorbents and developing a more cost effective nitrogen removal process from natural gas using those compounds. The long-term objective of this project is to determine the technical and economical feasibility of a N{sub 2}2 removal concept based on complexation of molecular N{sub 2} with novel complexing agents. Successful development of a selective, reversible, and stable reagent with an appropriate combination of capacity and N{sub 2} absorption/desorption characteristics will allow selective separation of N{sub 2} from LQNG.

Alvarado, D.B.; Asaro, M.F.; Bomben, J.L.; Damle, A.S.; Bhown, A.S.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A toolbox for calculating net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ''Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Input'' (NANI) to a region represents an estimate of anthropogenic net nitrogen (N) fluxes across its boundaries, and is thus a measure of the effect of human activity on the regional nitrogen cycle. NANI accounts for ... Keywords: Anthropogenic, Nitrogen, Synthesis, Toolbox, Watershed

Bongghi Hong; Dennis P. Swaney; Robert W. Howarth

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Determination of the forms of nitrogen released in coal tar during rapid devolatilization. Semi-annual report, November 1, 1995--April 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Control of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from coal combustion systems is becoming a major design and retrofit consideration. Most NO{sub x} in coal combustion systems comes from nitrogen in the fuel, rather than from nitrogen in the air. Practical emission control strategies include burner design strategies (e.g., low NO{sub x} burners), overfire air, reburning, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) using reduction agents such as NH{sub 3} or urea, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The order listed also reflects the order of increasing costs for implementation. It is therefore most economically desirable to perform burner modifications to reduce NO{sub x} emissions rather than other control measures. Low-NO{sub x} burners work on the principle that devolatilized nitrogen species will form N{sub 2} rather than NO{sub x} under locally fuel-rich conditions with sufficient residence time at appropriate temperatures. The amount and form of nitrogen released during devolatilization influence the degree of NO{sub x} reduction attainable using burner design strategies for a given coal. Nitrogen in the char following devolatilization is released by heterogeneous oxidation, and may not be controlled by aerodynamic burner modifications. The objectives of this work are to perform detailed chemical measurements of the nitrogen in coal, tar, and char.

Fletcher, T.H.

1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Finnish energy system, 1900-2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In producing power, humans move the nutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from their long-term geological and biological stocks and release or emit them in soil, water, and the atmosphere. In Finland, peat combustion is an important driver of N and P fluxes from the environment to human economy. The flows of N and P in the Finnish energy system were quantified with partial substance flow analysis, and the driving forces of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) were analyzed using the ImPACT model. In the year 2000 in Finland, 140,000 tonnes of nitrogen entered the energy system, mainly in peat and hard coal. Combustion released an estimated 66,000 tonnes of N as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and another 74,000 tonnes as elemental N{sub 2}. Most of the emissions were borne in traffic. At the same time, 6,000 tonnes of P was estimated to enter the Finnish energy system, mostly in peat and wood. Ash was mainly used in earth construction and disposed in landfills; thus negligible levels of P were recycled back to nature. During the twentieth century, fuel-borne input of N increased 20-fold, and of P 8-fold. In 1900-1950, the increasing use of hard coal slowly boosted N input, whereas wood fuels were the main carrier of P. Since 1970, the fluxes have been on the rise. NOx emissions leveled off in the 1980s, though, and then declined in conjunction with improvements in combustion technologies such as NOx removal (de-NOx) technologies in energy production and catalytic converters in cars.

Saikku, L.; Antikainen, R.; Kauppi, P.E. [University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biology & Environmental Science

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

ONE DIMENSIONAL-TWO PHASE PARTICULATE FLOW  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CA, (1977). L. Brass, "The Effects of Microstructure ofIn this study, polished brass disks O.45mm thick arecan easily fit on one brass disk by rotating the bottom disk

Kleist, D.M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

345

Nitrogen control of chloroplast development and differentiation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growth and development of plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is commonly limited by the availability of nitrogen. Our work concerns understanding the mechanisms by which plants and algae that are subjected to nitrogen deprivation alter the composition of photosynthetic membranes and enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon metabolism. Toward these ends, we study biosynthetic and gene expression processes in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which is grown in an ammonium-limited continuous culture system. We have found that the expression of nuclear genes, including those encoding for light-harvesting proteins, are severely repressed in nitrogen-limited cells whereas, in general, chloroplast protein synthesis is attenuated primarily at the level of mRNA translation. Conversely, nitrogen deprivation appears to lead to enhanced synthesis of enzymes that are involved in starch and storage lipid deposition. In addition, as a possible means by which photosynthetic electron transport activities and ATP synthesis is sustained during chronic periods of nitrogen deprivation, thylakoid membranes become enriched with components for chlororespiration. Characterization of the chlororespiratory electron transport constituents, including cytochrome complexes and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase is a major current effort. Also, we are striving to isolate the genes encoding chlororespiration proteins toward determining how they and others that are strongly responsive to nutrient availability are regulated.

Schmidt, G.W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

347

Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

351

Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Modelling nitrogen leaching from overlapping urine patches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urine depositions have been shown to be the main source of N leaching from grazing systems and thus it is important to consider them in simulation models. The inclusion of urine patches considerably increases the complexity of the model and this can ... Keywords: APSIM, Grazing system, Heterogeneity, Leaching, Nitrogen, Simulation modelling, Urine patches

R. Cichota; V. O. Snow; I. Vogeler

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

355

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 The behavior of the core hole...

357

Plant Communities, Soil Carbon, and Soil Nitrogen Properties in a ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Brye KR, Kucharik CJ (2003) Carbon and nitrogen sequestration in two prairie topochronosequences on contrasting soils in Southern. Wisconsin. American ...

358

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

Chang, Ho-Myung

359

NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions yields of the primary tar as a function of reactor temperature in coal [N]tar nitrogen content in tar or soot N nitrogen N2 molecular nitrogen NH3 ammonia NMR Nuclear

Fletcher, Thomas H.

360

Effects of Emissions Reductions on Ozone Predictions by the Regional Oxidant Model during the July 1988 Episode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Oxidant Model, ROM2.2, was applied to a 2?10 July 1988 episode to test the regional episodic ozone response to different combinations of the across-the-board nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile ...

Shao-Hang Chu; William M. Cox

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion  

SciTech Connect

A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced as it passes back through the flame.

Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Striking nitrogen isotope anomaly in the Bencubbin and Weatherford meteorites  

SciTech Connect

The stony-iron meteorites Bencubbin and Weatherford contain nitrogen with a ratio of nitrogen-15 to nitrogen-14 larger than normal by as much as a factor of 2. The excess nitrogen-15 may be due either to a nucleosynthetic origin or to extreme isotopic fractionation. In the former case, it may reflect failure to homogenize nitrogen-15 produced in nova explosions. In the latter case, it may reflect chemical processing at temperatures below 40 K in a presolar molecular cloud. 34 references.

Prombo, C.A.; Clayton, R.N.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal are being performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation correlations will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature are also being investigated. SO2 oxidation is also being investigated for each test condition.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

364

NITROGEN -N2 MSDS (Document # 001040) PAGE 1 OF 10 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in an emergency? 1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION CHEMICAL NAME; CLASS: NITROGEN - N2 LIQUEFIED NITROGEN N2, (CryogenicNITROGEN - N2 MSDS (Document # 001040) PAGE 1 OF 10 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Prepared to U ppm ppm ppm Nitrogen 7727-37-9 >99 % There are no specific exposure limits for Nitrogen. Nitrogen

Choi, Kyu Yong

365

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

367

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Freeze the Rainbow!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! Freeze the Rainbow! Starburst candy. They're fruity. They're chewy. They're delicious! But, can they survive taking a bath in liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A student visiting Jefferson Lab from Huntington Middle School in Newport News, Virginia, asked what happens to a starburst if you put it in liquid nitrogen. Well, we're going to find out! Steve: At room temperature, starburst isn't really all that special. I can kind of squish it if I squeeze it hard enough and, if I drop it, nothing

368

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Giant Koosh Ball!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Previous Video (Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Giant Koosh Ball! Sometimes, you just want to know what's going to happen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! A while ago, I was at the mall and I saw this. And, the first thing that popped into my head was 'I wonder what would happen if we were to put this in liquid nitrogen?' Now, that's one thing I really love about science. If you have a question, you can, sometimes, do an experiment to find out what the answer is! Here at the Lab, we have a lot of liquid nitrogen, so that's

369

Nitrogen control of chloroplast differentiation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was directed toward understanding at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels of how photosynthetic organisms adapt to long-term nitrogen-deficiency conditions is quite incomplete even though limitation of this nutrient is the most commonly restricts plant growth and development. For our work on this problem, the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was grown in continuous cultures in which steady-state levels of nitrogen can be precisely controlled. N-limited cells exhibit the classical symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient, chlorosis and slow growth rates, and respond to nitrogen provision by rapid greening and chloroplast differentiation. We have addressed three aspects of this problem: (1) the regulation of pigment synthesis; (2) control of expression of nuclear genes encoding photosynthetic proteins; (3) changes in metabolic and electron transport pathways that enable sustained CO{sub 2} fixation even though they cannot be readily converted into amino and nucleic acids. For the last, principle components are: (a) enhanced mitochondrial respiratory activity intimately associated with photosynthates, and (b) the occurrence in thylakoids of a supplemental electron transport pathway that facilitates reduction of the plastoquinone pool. Together, these distinguishing features of N-limited cells are likely to enable cell survival, especially under conditions of high irradiance stress.

Schmidt, G.W.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Two-Phase Isentropic Compressibility and Two-Phase Sonic Velocity for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- ates................................................................ 24 Transfer Credit be transferred into the regular degree program if the students graduate committee and department head approve

Firoozabadi, Abbas

371

Synthesis and energetic properties of TAGDNAT: a new high-nitrogen material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of Bis-(triaminoguanidinium)3,3'-dinitro5,5'-azo-1,2,4-triazolate (TAGDNAT), a novel high-nitrogen molecule that derives its energy release from both a high heat of formation and intramolecular oxidation reactions. TAGDNAT shows promise as a propellant or explosive ingredient not only due to its high nitrogen content (66.35 wt%) but additionally due to its high hydrogen content (4.34 wt%). This new molecule has been characterized with respect to its morphology, sensitivity properties, explosive and combustion performance. The heat of formation of TAGDNAT was also experimentally determined. The results of these studies show that TAGDNAT has one of the gastest low-pressure burning rates (at 1000 PSI) we have yet measured, 6.79 cm/s at 100 p.s.i. (39% faster than triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT), a comparable high-nitrogen/high-hydrogen material). Furthermore, its pressure sensitivity is 0.507, a 33% reduction compared to TAGzT.

Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

373

Final Report for DOE grant no. DE-FG02-04ER63883: Can soil genomics predict the impact of precipitation on nitrous oxide flux from soil  

SciTech Connect

Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that is released by microorganisms in soil. However, the production of nitrous oxide in soil is highly variable and difficult to predict. Future climate change may have large impacts on nitrous oxide release through alteration of precipitation patterns. We analyzed DNA extracted from soil in order to uncover relationships between microbial processes, abundance of particular DNA sequences and net nitrous oxide fluxes from soil. Denitrification, a microbial process in which nitrate is used as an electron acceptor, correlated with nitrous oxide flux from soil. The abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea correlated positively, but weakly, with nitrous oxide production in soil. The abundance of bacterial genes in soil was negatively correlated with gross nitrogen mineralization rates and nitrous oxide release from soil. We suggest that the most important control over nitrous oxide production in soil is the growth and death of microorganisms. When organisms are growing nitrogen is incorporated into their biomass and nitrous oxide flux is low. In contrast, when microorganisms die, due to predation or infection by viruses, inorganic nitrogen is released into the soil resulting in nitrous oxide release. Higher rates of precipitation increase access to microorganisms by predators or viruses through filling large soil pores with water and therefore can lead to large releases of nitrous oxide from soil. We developed a new technique, stable isotope probing with 18O-water, to study growth and mortality of microorganisms in soil.

Egbert Schwartz

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Lipid Oxidation Pathways  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book reviews state-of-the-art developments in the understanding of the oxidation of lipids and its connection with the oxidation of other biological molecules such as proteins and starch. Lipid Oxidation Pathways Hardback Books Health - Nutrition -

375

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Program on Technology Innovation: Water Quality Trading Program for Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic releases of nitrogen have greatly increased environmental fluxes of biologically available nitrogen and contributed to serious ecological problems, such as algal blooms that cause waters to become severely depleted of oxygen. Power plant sources of nitrogen include NOx air emissions, the ammonia required for the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) systems that are used for NOx reduction, and the ammonia used for SOx control and ash pond condition...

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Selective methane oxidation over promoted oxide catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective was to selectively oxidize methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons and to oxygenates, in particular formaldehyde and methanol, in high space time yields under relatively mild reaction conditions. Results in this document are reported under the headings: methane oxidation over silica, methane oxidation over Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, and oxidative coupling of methane over sulfate-doped Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. 24 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogeneous Species in Gas Turbine Exhaust, from Conkle, et82) Percent of Organic Gas Turbine Emissions which containnitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (from the data presented

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Numerical Simulation of Carbon and Nitrogen Profiles Produced by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In advance of the nitrogen diffusion zone the carbon concentration is as high as 10 at. pct. ... Discovery of Efficient Metal-Organic Frameworks for CO2 Capture.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen ...  

... methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more ...

382

Why sequence functional metagenomics of methane and nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

functional metagenomics of methane and nitrogen cycles in freshwater lakes? Methane is a more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but it is also a potential source of...

383

Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene ...  

Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas United States Patent. Patent Number: 6,576,043: Issued: June 10, 2003: Official Filing:

385

Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Probing Core-Hole Localization in Molecular Nitrogen Print The behavior of the core hole created in molecular x-ray photoemission experiments has provided molecular scientists with...

386

Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air - Energy ...  

Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and ...

387

Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes ...  

A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using ...

388

The use of mathematical modeling and pilot plant testing to develop a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanistic mathematical model for carbon oxidation, nitrogen removal, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal was used to develop the Step Bio-P process, a new biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal process with a step-feed configuration. A 9,000-L pilot plant with diurnally varying influent process loading rates was operated to verify the model results and to optimize the Step Bio-P process for application at the lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, wastewater treatment plant. The pilot plant was operated for 10 months. An automatic on-line data acquisition system with multiple sampling and metering points for dissolved oxygen, mixed liquor suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen, ortho-phosphate, and flow rates was used. A sampling program to obtain off-line data was carried out to verify the information from the on-line system and monitor additional parameters. The on-line and off-line data were used to recalibrate the model, which was used as an experimental design and process optimization tool.

Nolasco, D.A.; Daigger, G.T.; Stafford, D.R.; Kaupp, D.M.; Stephenson, J.P.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath Ecosystems with Emphasis on Cold-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I spend many hours introducing me to modeling carbon exchange, thank you. Also thanks to Karina Clemmensen

390

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance Stephanie L for supercapacitor applications. Surface modification increases the amount of nitrogen by four times when compared elements in highly porous carbon used for electric double-layer supercapacitors.1 These elements modify

Cao, Guozhong

391

Effect of nitrogen incorporation on improvement of leakage properties in high-k HfO{sub 2} capacitors treated by N{sub 2}-plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nitrogen incorporation into the HfO{sub 2} films with an EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 9 A was performed by N{sub 2}-plasma to improve the electrical properties. The dielectric properties and a leakage current characteristics of the capacitors were investigated as a function of plasma power and plasma treatment temperature. The dielectric constant of the capacitors is not influenced by nitrogen incorporation. The N{sub 2}-plasma treatment at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits the most effective influence on improvement of the leakage current characteristics. Leakage current density of the capacitors treated at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits a half order of magnitude lower than that without plasma treatment. Nitrogen incorporated into the HfO{sub 2} films possesses the intrinsic effect that drastically reduce the electron leakage current through HfO{sub 2} dielectrics by deactivating the V{sub O} (oxygen vacancy) related gap states.

Seong, Nak-Jin; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Yeom, Seung-Jin; Woo, Hyun-Kyung; Kil, Deok-Sin; Roh, Jae-Sung; Sohn, Hyun-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Hynix Semiconductor Inc., San 136-1 Ami-ri Bubal-eub Icheon-si Kyoungki-do, 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

392

Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush  

SciTech Connect

The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

394

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Questions and Answers - Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How cold is liquid nitrogen? How cold is liquid nitrogen? Previous Question (How cold is liquid nitrogen?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen, would your body instantly crystallize?) If you jumped into a pool of liquid oxygen,would your body instantly crystallize? Is there anything colder than liquid nitrogen? Yes, there are things colder than liquid nitrogen, like most of the Universe! I assume, though, that you mean things on the Earth. There actually is an entire branch of science called cryogenics that deals with really cold things. Generally the science of cryogenics is when the temperature goes below that which we can reach with conventional refrigeration equipment, around 250 degrees (Fahrenheit) below zero. Many

396

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Popping Film Canisters!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exploding Rubber Stopper! Exploding Rubber Stopper! Previous Video (Exploding Rubber Stopper!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Insulators!) Insulators! Popping Film Canisters! What happens when liquid nitrogen is trapped inside a sealed container? Play the video to find out! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a container of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And these are a bunch of film canisters! Joanna: Let's see what happens when we trap the liquid nitrogen in the film canisters! Steve: Okay! Now the room, and everything in it, is way too hot for the liquid nitrogen to stay as a liquid. As soon as the liquid nitrogen touches anything in the room, it boils and changes into a gas.

397

Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

Ferrell, P.C.

1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

398

Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effects of soil substrate and nitrogen fertilizer on biomass production of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of soil substrate and nitrogen fertilizer on biomass production of Acacia senegal;Effects of soil substrate and nitrogen fertilizer on biomass production of Acacia senegal and Acacia, biomass allocation, fertilizer, growth rate, nitrogen, soil substrate Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet

400

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Multifunctional Oxides: Multifunctional Oxides: Synthesis and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy to Explore Magneoelectric Coupling in Multiferroic Oxide Heterostructures: Y-M Sheu1; S. Trugman1; L Yan1; C-P Chuu 1; ...

402

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement performance has not been considered adequately in pavement design. Part of the reason is that the process of asphalt oxidation in pavement is not well understood. This work focused on understanding the asphalt oxidation kinetics and on developing pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation and hardening in pavement under environmental conditions. A number of asphalts were studied in laboratory condition. Based on kinetics data, a fast-rate ? constant-rate asphalt oxidation kinetics model was developed to describe the early nonlinear fast-rate aging period and the later constant-rate period of asphalt oxidation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics parameters for the fast-rate and constant-rate reactions were empirically correlated, leading to a simplified model. And the experimental effort and time to obtain these kinetics parameters were significantly reduced. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanism of asphalt oxidation, two antioxidants were studied on their effectiveness. Asphalt oxidation was not significantly affected. It was found that evaluation of antioxidant effectiveness based on viscosity only is not reliable. The asphalt oxidation kinetics model was incorporated into the pavement oxidation model that predicts asphalt oxidation in pavement. The pavement oxidation model mimics the oxidation process of asphalt in real mixture at pavement temperatures. A new parameter, diffusion depth, defined the oxygen diffusion region in the mastic. A field calibration factor accounted for the factors not considered in the model such as the effect of small aggregate particles on oxygen diffusion. Carbonyl area and viscosity of binders recovered from field cores of three pavements in Texas were measured and were used for model calibration and validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed model estimates carbonyl growth over time in pavement, layer-by-layer, quite well. Finally, this work can be useful for incorporating asphalt oxidation into a pavement design method that can predict pavement performance with time and for making strategic decisions such as optimal time for maintenance treatments.

Jin, Xin

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides  

SciTech Connect

Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Thermal oxidation of tungsten-based sputtered coatings  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the addition of nickel, titanium, and nitrogen on the air oxidation behavior of W-based sputtered coatings in the temperature range 600 to 800 C was studied. In some cases these additions significantly improved the oxidation resistance of the tungsten coatings. As reported for bulk tungsten, all the coatings studied were oxidized by layers following a parabolic law. Besides WO{sub 3} and WO{sub x} phases detected in all the oxidized coatings, TiO{sub 2} and NiWO{sub 4} were also detected for W-Ti and W-Ni films, respectively. WO{sub x} was present as an inner protective compact layer covered by the porous WO{sub 3} oxide. The best oxidation resistance was found for W-Ti and W-N-Ni coatings which also presented the highest activation energies (E{sub a} = 234 and 218 kJ/mol, respectively, as opposed to E{sub a} {approx} 188 kJ/mol for the other coatings). These lower oxidation weight gains were attributed to the greater difficulty of the inward diffusion of oxygen ions for W-Ti films, owing to the formation of fine particles of TiO{sub 2}, and the formation of the external, more protective layer of NiWO{sub 4} for W-N-Ni coatings.

Louro, C.; Cavaleiro, A. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica-Polo II, Coimbra (Portugal)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Nitrogen-Doped Graphitic Nanoribbons: Synthesis, Characterization and Transport  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-doped graphitic nanoribbons (Nx-GNRs), synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using pyrazine as a nitrogen precursor, are reported for the first time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveal that the synthesized materials are formed by multi-layered corrugated graphitic nanoribbons (GNRs) which in most cases exhibit the formation of curved graphene edges (loops). This suggests that during growth, nitrogen atoms promote loop formation; undoped GNRs do not form loops at their edges. Transport measurements on individual pure carbon GNRs exhibit a linear I-V (current-voltage) behavior, whereas Nx-GNRs show reduced current responses following a semiconducting-like behavior, which becomes more prominent for high nitrogen concentrations. To better understand the experimental findings, electron density of states (DOS), quantum conductance for nitrogen doped zigzag and armchair single-layer GNRs are calculated for different N doping concentrations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and non-equilibrium Green functions. These calculations confirm the crucial role of nitrogen atoms in the transport properties, confirming that the nonlinear I-V curves are due to the presence of nitrogen atoms within the Nx-GNRs lattice that act as scattering sites. These characteristic Nx-GNRs transport could be advantageous in the fabrication of electronic devices including sensors in which metal-like undoped GNRs are unsuitable.

Jia, Xiaoting [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Dresselhaus, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Cruz Silva, Eduardo [ORNL; Munoz-Sandoval, E [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM, CSIC); Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto [ORNL; Lopez, Florentino [IPICyT

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

METHANE AND NITROGEN ABUNDANCES ON PLUTO AND ERIS  

SciTech Connect

We present spectra of Eris from the MMT 6.5 m Telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (5700-9800 A, 5 A pixel{sup -1}) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and of Pluto from the Steward Observatory 2.3 m Telescope and Boller and Chivens Spectrograph (7100-9400 A, 2 A pixel{sup -1}) on Kitt Peak, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra of methane-nitrogen and methane-argon ice mixtures. By anchoring our analysis in methane and nitrogen solubilities in one another as expressed in the phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich, and comparing methane bands in our Eris and Pluto spectra and methane bands in our laboratory spectra of methane and nitrogen ice mixtures, we find Eris' bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}10% and {approx}90% and Pluto's bulk methane and nitrogen abundances are {approx}3% and {approx}97%. Such abundances for Pluto are consistent with values reported in the literature. It appears that the bulk volatile composition of Eris is similar to the bulk volatile composition of Pluto. Both objects appear to be dominated by nitrogen ice. Our analysis also suggests, unlike previous work reported in the literature, that the methane and nitrogen stoichiometry is constant with depth into the surface of Eris. Finally, we point out that our Eris spectrum is also consistent with a laboratory ice mixture consisting of 40% methane and 60% argon. Although we cannot rule out an argon-rich surface, it seems more likely that nitrogen is the dominant species on Eris because the nitrogen ice 2.15 {mu}m band is seen in spectra of Pluto and Triton.

Tegler, S. C.; Cornelison, D. M.; Abernathy, M. R.; Bovyn, M. J.; Burt, J. A.; Evans, D. E.; Maleszewski, C. K.; Thompson, Z. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Grundy, W. M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Romanishin, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Vilas, F., E-mail: Stephen.Tegler@nau.ed, E-mail: David.Cornelison@nau.ed, E-mail: W.Grundy@lowell.ed, E-mail: wjr@nhn.ou.ed, E-mail: fvilas@mmto.or [MMT Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

407

On the Use of Thermal NF3 as the Fluorination and Oxidation Agent in Treatment of Used Nuclear Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of our investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for use in a process for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by employing the volatility of many transition metal and actinide fluorides. Nitrogen trifluoride is less chemically and reactively hazardous than the hazardous and aggressive fluorinating agents used to prepare uranium hexafluoride and considered for fluoride volatility based nuclear fuels reprocessing. In addition, nitrogen trifluoride’s less aggressive character may be used to separate the volatile fluorides from used fuel and from themselves based on the fluorination reaction’s temperature sensitivity (thermal tunability) rather than relying on differences in sublimation/boiling temperature and sorbents. Our thermodynamic calculations found that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to produce volatile fission product and actinide fluorides from candidate oxides and metals. Our simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses found that the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, rhodium, and plutonium fluorinated but did not form volatile fluorides and that depending on temperature volatile fluorides formed from the oxides of niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, uranium, and neptunium. We also demonstrated near-quantitative removal of uranium from plutonium in a mixed oxide.

Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Effect of Temperature on NOx Reduction by Nitrogen Atom Injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical reduction of NO{sub x} can be accomplished by injection of nitrogen atoms into the diesel engine exhaust stream. The nitrogen atoms can be generated from a separate stream of pure N{sub 2} by means of plasma jets or non-thermal plasma reactors. This paper examines the effect of exhaust temperature on the NO{sub x} reduction efficiency that can be achieved by nitrogen atom injection. It is shown that to achieve a high NO{sub x} reduction efficiency at a reasonable power consumption penalty, the exhaust temperature needs to be 100 C or less.

Penetrante, B

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications  

SciTech Connect

Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

410

A study on oxidized glassy carbon sheets for bipolar supercapacitor electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) for high energy and power density applications, based on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, are being developed in this laboratory. In the context of this project, GC sheets were oxidized and investigated with Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Nitrogen Gas Adsorption (BET). During oxidation on active film with open pores is built on the surface of the GC. Upon oxidation, the internal volumetric surface area of the active film decreases, whereas the volumetric electrochemical double layer capacitance increases. The authors show that this effect is correlated with the opening, the growth and the coalescence of the pores.

Braun, A.; Baertsch, M.; Geiger, F. [and others

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions in Agricultural Crop Production: Experience Validating a New GHG Offset Protocol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project report describes in part the second phase (years four through six, 2010–2012) of a two-phase, six-year long EPRI-sponsored research project entitled “Developing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offsets by Reducing Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions.” This project investigated an innovative approach to developing large-scale, cost-effective greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsets that potentially can be implemented across broad geographic areas of the ...

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

412

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 14 99.636% STABLE 15 0.364% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 10 No Data Available Proton Emission 100.00% 11 5.49×10-22 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 12 11.000 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% 13 9.965 minutes Electron Capture 100.00% 14 STABLE - - 15 STABLE - - 16 7.13 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00% Beta-minus Decay with delayed Alpha Decay 1.2×10-3 % 17 4.173 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

413

Effect of near atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma treatment on Pt/ZnO interface  

SciTech Connect

The effect of near atmospheric pressure nitrogen plasma (NAP) treatment of platinum (Pt)/zinc oxide (ZnO) interface was investigated. NAP can nitride the ZnO surface at even room temperature. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that NAP treatment reduced the surface electron accumulation at the ZnO surface and inhibited the Zn diffusion into the Pt electrode, which are critical issues affecting the Schottky barrier height and the ideality factor of the Pt/ZnO structure. After NAP treatment, the Pt Schottky contact indicated an improvement of electrical properties. NAP treatment is effective for the surface passivation and the Schottky contact formation of ZnO.

Nagata, Takahiro; Haemori, Masamitsu; Chikyow, Toyohiro [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Yamashita, Yoshiyuki [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Keisuke [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Uehara, Tsuyoshi [Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd., Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4292 (Japan)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The nitrogen cycle and ecohydrology of seasonally dry grasslands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses the coupling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes and, specifically, the organization of ecosystem traits with the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Observations from a factorial irrigation- ...

Parolari, Anthony Joseph

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - The Flying Ring!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Pewter Bells) Pewter Bells The Flying Ring! A copper ring leaps off an electromagnet when it's turned on. What happens when the ring's resistance is lowered using liquid nitrogen? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is an AC powered electromagnet. And this is a copper ring. When I place the copper ring on the electromagnet and turn it on, the magnet's changing magnetic field will induce an electric current in the copper ring. The current in the ring will then create it's own magnetic

416

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

417

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

418

Effects of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition on ocean biogeochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: Theorganic nitrogen to the oceans, Nature, 376, 243 – 246.trace species to the world ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cycles,

Krishnamurthy, Aparna; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles S; Luo, Chao

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Land Use and Reactive Nitrogen Discharge: Effects of Dietary Choices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern agriculture alters natural biological and geophysical processes, with magnitudes proportional to its spatial extent. Cultivation is also the main cause of artificially enhanced reactive nitrogen (Nr) availability in natural ecosystems. ...

Gidon Eshel; Pamela A. Martin; Esther E. Bowen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine", SAE 2002-Exhaust Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine", SAE 2002-

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements for the Ceramic Industry, A. Jillavenkatesa,Measurements for the Ceramic Industry, A. Jillavenkatesa,

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reducing Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Mercury from Electric Power Plants  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis responds to a request from Senators Bob Smith, George Voinovich, and Sam Brownback to examine the costs of specific multi-emission reduction strategies

J. Alan Beamon

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrolysis of N2O5, and ultimately leads to the computed reduction in NOx levels. 4. Effects of the different in the source magnitude of LtNOx can lead to a substantial10 reduction in the computed lifetimes of these trace. This increase of O3 at higher altitudes is responsible for the reduction of surface NOx levels simulated at high

426

REDUCING OXIDES OF NITROGEN EMISSIONS FROM WASTE-TO-ENERGY FACILITIES WITH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compromising combustion ef ficiency. Further research to determine the potential for NOx reduction via to a lower level by applying combustion control for the reduction of NOx, while still maintaining acceptable, resulting in a 30% reduction of NOx' The techniques developed from this test program are used today

Columbia University

427

Microbial removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas: The BioDeNOx-process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W) facilities. NOx levels below 60 ppm (7% O2) have been reliably achieved, which is a reduction of 70% below combustion controls to maximize NOx reduction and minimize ammonia slip. A simplified version of the process forward in the reduction of NOx emissions from EfW facilities. INTRODUCTION Emissions from U.S. Energy

Dekker, Cees

428

Solid State Electrochemical Sensors for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Detection in Lean Exhaust Gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Temperature Electrodes for SOFC’s”, EPRI /GRI / DOE FuelSm 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 as SOFC cathode", Sol. Stat. Ion. ,Low Temperature Electrodes for SOFC’s”, EPRI /GRI / DOE Fuel

Rheaume, Jonathan Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Resource Board, Sacramento, CA, April 2006. CARB (Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA. CARB (2009a).Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA. http://www.arb.ca.gov/

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid (Menlo Park, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Membrane-augmented cryogenic methane/nitrogen separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane separation process is described which is combined with a cryogenic separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane, nitrogen and at least one other component. The membrane separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and the other component and rejecting nitrogen. The process is particularly useful in removing components such as water, carbon dioxide or C{sub +2} hydrocarbons that might otherwise freeze and plug the cryogenic equipment. 10 figs.

Lokhandwala, K.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

432

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Partial oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factors for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxidesnitrogen dioxide, factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, 

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In recent years there has been an increasing demand to reduce and control the amount of dissolved gases in steel. Hydrogen and nitrogen are two of the most important gases which when dissolved in liquid steel affect its properties significantly. Several steelmaking additions have been investigated in this research for their effect on the hydrogen and nitrogen content of steels. It has been established that calcium hydroxide (hydrated lime) acts as a source of hydrogen. Carburizers, such as metallurgical coke, were found to result in no hydrogen pickup when added to liquid steel. Addition of petroleum coke, on the other hand, increased the hydrogen content of liquid steel. Ferroalloy such as medium carbon ferromanganese when added to the liquid iron was found to increase its nitrogen content, the increase being proportional to the amount of ferroalloy added. Similarly, addition of pitch coke, which had a significant nitrogen impurity, increased the nitrogen content of liquid iron. A mathematical model was developed to quantify the absorption of nitrogen and hydrogen from the air bubbles entrained during tapping of liquid steel. During the bottom stirring of liquid metal in a ladle, the inert gas escaping from the top displaces the slag layer and often forms an open eye. The absorption of atmospheric nitrogen through the spout eye was estimated for different slag thickness and gas flow rate. The ultimate goal of this research was to develop a comprehensive set of equations which could predict the nitrogen and hydrogen pickup from their various sources. Estimates of hydrogen and nitrogen pickup during the steel transfer operations such as tapping and ladle stirring and the predicted pickup from steelmaking additions were integrated into empirical equations. The comprehensive model is designed to predict the gas pickup under varying operating conditions such as the metal oxygen and sulfur content, the total tapping or stirring time, the stirring gas flow rate and the slag thickness. The model predictions are based on mathematical and empirical evidence which are derived from thermodynamic and kinetic fundamental principles.

Richard J. Fruehan; Siddhartha Misra

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

437

Synthesis and Characterization of Chromium, Nitrogen Co-Doped ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... requirements for high efficiency solar energy utilization, guided by theoretical ... Minimization of Thermal Conductivity in Oxide Thin Film Thermoelectrics.

438

Multifunctional Oxide Heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book is devoted to the rapidly developing field of oxide thin-films and heterostructures. Oxide materials combined with atomic-scale precision in a heterostructure exhibit an abundance of macroscopic physical properties involving the strong coupling between the electronic, spin, and structural degrees of freedom, and the interplay between magnetism, ferroelectricity, and conductivity. Recent advances in thin-film deposition and characterization techniques made possible the experimental realization of such oxide heterostructures, promising novel functionalities and device concepts.

Tsymbal, E Y [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL; Eom, Professor Chang-Beom [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy [University of California, Berkeley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Nitrogen control of chloroplast development and differentiation. Annual progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growth and development of plants and photosynthetic microorganisms is commonly limited by the availability of nitrogen. Our work concerns understanding the mechanisms by which plants and algae that are subjected to nitrogen deprivation alter the composition of photosynthetic membranes and enzymes involved in photosynthetic carbon metabolism. Toward these ends, we study biosynthetic and gene expression processes in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii which is grown in an ammonium-limited continuous culture system. We have found that the expression of nuclear genes, including those encoding for light-harvesting proteins, are severely repressed in nitrogen-limited cells whereas, in general, chloroplast protein synthesis is attenuated primarily at the level of mRNA translation. Conversely, nitrogen deprivation appears to lead to enhanced synthesis of enzymes that are involved in starch and storage lipid deposition. In addition, as a possible means by which photosynthetic electron transport activities and ATP synthesis is sustained during chronic periods of nitrogen deprivation, thylakoid membranes become enriched with components for chlororespiration. Characterization of the chlororespiratory electron transport constituents, including cytochrome complexes and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase is a major current effort. Also, we are striving to isolate the genes encoding chlororespiration proteins toward determining how they and others that are strongly responsive to nutrient availability are regulated.

Schmidt, G.W.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Phosphorus versus nitrogen limitation in the marine environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Limnological and marine geochemical opinion favors phosphorus limitation of organic production in aquatic environments, while marine biological opinion favors nitrogen limitation. Clues in the literature and nutrient budgets for selected marine ecosystems suggest that phosphorus vs. nitrogen limitation is a function of the relative rates of water exchange and internal biochemical processes acting to adjust the ratio of ecosystem N:P availability. A limiting factor to biological activity is that material available in an amount most closely approaching the critical minimum required to sustain that activity (Odum 197 1). This definition can be applied at any scale from cellular metabolism to global biogeochemical cycles. This paper deals with inorganic plant nutrients as limiting factors for the net production of new organic material in marine systems. Marine geochemists and biologists hold antithetical views about nutrient limitation in the ocean. The view held by most marine geochemists (e.g. Lerman et al. 1975; Meybeck 1982; Broecker and Peng 1982) can apparently be traced to the seminal paper by Redfield ( 1958). Redfield concluded that phosphorus availability limits net organic production in the sea. He pointed out that any nitrogen deficits can be met by the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, hence nitrogenous compounds can accumulate until the available phosphorus is utilized.

S. V. Smith

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Defect Structure of Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Classification of electrical conductors: oxides, sulfides, and nitrides...2 O 4 , NiAl 2 O 4 , (Tl 2 O),

443

Oxidation of gallium arsenide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to gallium arsenide semiconductors and, more particularly, to the oxidation of surface layers of gallium arsenide semiconductors for semiconductor device fabrication.

Hoffbauer, M.A.; Cross, J.B.

1991-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

444

Oxidation/Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2009 ... International Symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Oxidation/ ... on combustor liners of a Solar Turbines' industrial gas turbine engine, ...