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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

4, 23012331, 2004 Nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) were performed simul- taneously with aerosolACPD 4, 2301­2331, 2004 Nitrogen oxides measurements in an Amazon site A. M. Cordova et al. Title and Physics Discussions Nitrogen oxides measurements in an Amazon site and enhancements associated with a cold

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

THE NITROGEN OXIDES CONTROVERSY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including observed nitrogen dioxide," Pure App. Geophys.HN0 ) and probably nitrogen dioxide (N0 ) at a few parts perorganic molecule and nitrogen dioxide. Several examples

Johnston, Harold S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethane BackgroundFacilityOther Aircraft CampaignsOxides

4

Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

Skinn, Brian Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Technology Innovations and Experience Curves for Nitrogen Oxides Control Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

red power plants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is one of the sixeffects, including nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ground-levelgradually oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) once emitted

Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward S.; Taylor, Margaret R.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Effect of Mo Dispersion Size and Water Vapor on Oxidation of Two-Phase Directionally Solidified NiAl-9Mo In-Situ Composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation of two-phase NiAl-9Mo eutectics with 3 different growth rates/2nd phase Mo dispersion sizes were investigated at 900 C in air and air with 10% water vapor. Good oxidation resistance via alumina formation was observed in dry air, with Mo volatilization loss minimized by fine submicron Mo dispersions. However, extensive Mo volatilization and in-place internal oxidation of prior Mo phase regions was observed in wet air oxidation. Ramifications of this phenomenon for the development of multi-phase high-temperature alloys are discussed

Brady, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL] [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL] [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

9

Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

Haak, Hein

10

Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

Rochelle, Gary T.

11

Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

Li, Sonny X.

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

Apel, W.A.

1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

15

Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite itsKINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures: NOx in Nitrogen Gui-Bing Zhao, Xudong Hu, Man-Chung Yeung, Ovid A. Plumb,§ and Maciej Radosz

Yeung, Man-Chung

17

Assessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the formation and transport of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulate matter and other species throughout EuropeAssessment of soil nitrogen oxides emissions and implementation in LOTOS-EUROS Date 18 March 2013, climate and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen availability is in turn determined by N-deposition from

Haak, Hein

18

Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

Reynolds, J.G.

1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxygen react to give nitrogen dioxide, which rapidly reactsis simultaneous, the nitrogen dioxide formed reacts withaccomplished by absorbing nitrogen dioxide in water, usually

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

22

Production of ozone and nitrogen oxides by laser filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have experimentally measured that laser filaments in air generate up to 10{sup 14}, 3x10{sup 12}, and 3x10{sup 13} molecules of O{sub 3}, NO, and NO{sub 2}, respectively. The corresponding local concentrations in the filament active volume are 10{sup 16}, 3x10{sup 14}, and 3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, and allows efficient oxidative chemistry of nitrogen, resulting in concentrations of HNO{sub 3} in the parts per million range. The latter forming binary clusters with water, our results provide a plausible pathway for the efficient nucleation recently observed in laser filaments.

Petit, Yannick; Henin, Stefano; Kasparian, Jerome; Wolf, Jean-Pierre [GAP Biophotonics, Universite de Geneve, 20 rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, CH1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland)

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

23

The effects of nitrogen oxides on cytochrome P-450 mediated mixed-function oxidations in mammalian lung  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN ~IAN IUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Biology THE EFFECTS OF NITROGEN OXIDES ON CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MIXED-FUNCTION OXIDATIONS IN MAMMALIAN LUNG A Thesis by LEO DEAN TUCKER, II Approved as to style and content by...

Tucker, Leo Dean

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hypersonic reentry vehicles. In the Earth's atmosphere, oxygen and nitrogen atoms are generated in the shock1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

Martn, Pino

25

Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

27

Catalyst and method for reduction of nitrogen oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst was prepared by slurry coating ZSM-5 zeolite onto a cordierite monolith, then subliming an iron salt onto the zeolite, calcining the monolith, and then dipping the monolith either into an aqueous solution of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate and then calcining, or by similar treatment with separate solutions of manganese nitrate and cerium nitrate. The supported catalyst containing iron, manganese, and cerium showed 80 percent conversion at 113 degrees Celsius of a feed gas containing nitrogen oxides having 4 parts NO to one part NO.sub.2, about one equivalent ammonia, and excess oxygen; conversion improved to 94 percent at 147 degrees Celsius. N.sub.2O was not detected (detection limit: 0.6 percent N.sub.2O).

Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

28

Method of removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust gas mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of removing nitrogen oxides (NOX) from exhaust gas mixtures is described. The removal of NOX from exhaust gas mixtures is accomplished by exposing the exhaust gas mixture, in a manner that does not substantially impede the gas flow, to a ceramic material containing from about 75% to about 95% by weight silicon carbide and from about 0.3% to about 10.0% silica. A reduction of at least 85% of NOX from the mixture is to be expected and reductions up to 95 to 100% are attainable. Ceramic mixtures containing silicon nitride in amounts between about 10% and about 30% are found to reduce the amount of NOX in exhaust gases at temperatures as low as 200* C.

Batha, H.D.; Mason, J.H.; Thompson, S.R.

1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions for lean Burn Engine Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but only because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.

McGill, R.N.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Ozone Control Strategies: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Lin Sun B.S. Chemistry, Peking University, China: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Lin Sun Submitted

31

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ace079mukundan2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014:...

32

Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2014: Robust Nitrogen oxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines...

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polymer two-phase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

observed for the aqueous two-phase systems. This view is in accordance... , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, each phase being rich...

34

Nitrogen oxides removal by pulsed corona enhanced wet electrostatics precipitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a bench-scale pulsed-corona enhanced wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) application for removal of nitrogen oxides. This wESP is designed to operate wet/dry, positive/negative, and pulsed/non-pulsed conditions. The applied pulsed voltage is varied from 0 to 60 kV at 70 Hz. Gas flow rate is a nominal 7 m{sup 3}/hr and the collecting electrode area is 0.20 m{sup 2}. A simulated flue gas with NO concentration up to 1,200 ppm{sub v} has been used to determine the feasibility of NO{sub x} removal in the wESP. NO has to be oxidized to N{sub 2} before any removal takes place. NO{sub x} removal efficiency increased with gas residence time, inlet NO concentration and applied corona power. In the air stream with 10 seconds gas residence time, up to 20% of 1,000 ppm NO (or 22% NO{sub x}) was removed from an air stream of 1.9x10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3}/s with a water flow of 6.3 x 10{sup {minus}5} m{sup 3}/sec and 20 W, 70 Hz pulsed corona. Both ammonia and ozone injections improve the NO{sub x} removal for both the corona and non-corona cases. With the inclusion of NH{sub 3} (NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio 1.3) and 25 watts corona power, NO removal efficiency was increased from 28% to 57%. The amount of in-situ ozone is not enough to be considered as a major NO{sub x} removal mechanism in this wESP. However, the additional injection of ozone improves the NO removal from 29% to 38% for both the corona and non-corona cases. When the oxygen concentration is dropped to 3% in a simulated flue gas with 12% CO{sub 2} and 800 ppm NO and 70% relative humidity at 11.5 s of gas residence time, the removal efficiency of NO is only 5%. Adding NH{sub 3} (NH{sub 3}/NO{sub x} ratio 1) at 76 watts corona power, NO removal is increased to 13%.

Tseng, C.H.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

TITLE: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Types and Rates and Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Turfgrass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1). The effects of drought were also evident in clippings biomass, which was 61 to 70% less in dry28 TITLE: Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Types and Rates and Irrigation on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in concentrations of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas, and agriculture is considered a significant

36

Two phase titanium aluminide alloy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Liu, C. T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous two-phase poly Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

induced multiphase generation in waterorganic solvent mixtures. Summary: , such as polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Dextran, may form aqueous two- phase systems, each phase being rich...

38

Theory and tests of two-phase turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-phase turbines open the possibility of new types of power cycles operating with extremely wet mixtures of steam and water, organic fluids, or immiscible liquids and gases. Possible applications are geothermal power, waste-heat recovery, refrigerant expansion, solar conversion, transportation turbine engines, and engine bottoming cycles. A theoretical model for two-phase impulse turbines was developed. Apparatus was constructed for testing one- and two-stage turbines (using speed decrease from stage to stage). Turbines were tested with water-and-nitrogen mixtures and Refrigerant 22. Nozzle efficiencies were 0.78 (measured) and 0.72 (theoretical) for water-and-nitrogen mixtures at a water/nitrogen mixture ratio of 68, by mass; and 0.89 (measured) and 0.84 (theoretical) for Refrigerant 22 expanding from 0.02 quality to 0.28 quality. Blade efficiencies (shaft power before windage and bearing loss divided by nozzle jet power) were 0.63 (measured) and 0.71 (theoretical) for water-and-nitrogen mixtures and 0.62 (measured) and 0.63 (theoretical) for Refrigerant 22 with a single-stage turbine, and 0.70 (measured) and 0.85 (theoretical) for water-and-nitrogen mixtures with a two-stage turbine.

Elliot, D.G.

1982-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global inventory of nitrogen oxide emissions constrained by space-based observations of NO2 columns NO + NO2), and combine these with a priori information from a bottom- up emission inventory (with error and a factor of 2 over remote regions. We derive a top-down NOx emission inventory from the GOME data by using

Chance, Kelly

40

Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the staged combustion of the LCV gas, hydrocarbons are oxidized during the Erst stage mto CO, COz, and HtO. A portion of thc CO and Hz gases contained in the LCV gas are converted to CO z and HzO, espctively, daring this Sist stage. The remaining CO and H z...

Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oxidation of heterocyclic nitrogen yields to nitroheterocycles. [Nitrofurazans  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of finding new routes to synthesize nitrofurazans the investigators compared the oxidation of a sulfilimide and a phosphine imine derived from 3-amino-4-(chlorophenyl)furazan (1). The sulfilimine, 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-dimethyl-sulfiliminofurazan (2), was prepared by treating 1 with dimethyl sulfide ditriflate. Oxidation of 1 with peroxytrifluoroacetic acid (ptfa) in dichloromethane gave a mixture that was chromatographed to give 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-4- nitro-furazan (5) in 11% yield and azoxy(4-chlorophenylfurazan) (6) in 32% yield. Under the same conditions, 2 gave a 96% yield of 5 with no trace of 6. Oxidation of diaminofurazan (7) with ptfa gives 3-amino-4-nitrofurazan (8), which was converted to the sulfilimine. Treatment of the sulfilimine with anhydrous ptfa in dichloromethane gave a solution that contained dimethyl sulfone according to /sup 13/C-NMR analysis, but no nitrocarbon could be detected. However, the /sup 14/N-NMR spectrum contained a very sharp singlet with a width at half-height of 19 Hz and a chemical shift almost identical to that of 5. Thus, it appears that we may have formed dinitrofurazan in solution, but we have not been able to isolate it in pure form as yet. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Coburn, M.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Effect of adding nitrogen on the yield of hydrogen cyanide in oxidative ammonolysis of methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of an empirical model of the process of oxidative ammonolysis of methane, a study was made of the effect of adding nitrogen to the initial methane-ammonia-air mixture. In the general case, the N{sub 2} introduction was shown to decrease the autothermal temperature of the synthesis, though at small flows of the initial mixture some increase in t{sub conv} is possible. An explanation of this phenomenon was proposed.

Grin, G.I.; Trusov, N.V.; Dmitriev, N.M.

1994-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

43

Combustion method for simultaneous control of nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for combusting material with controlled generation of both nitrogen oxides and products of incomplete combustion comprising: (A) combusting material in a first combustion zone to produce gaseous exhaust containing products of incomplete combustion and products of complete combustion; (B) passing the gaseous exhaust from the first combustion zone into a second combustion zone having a width and an axial direction; (C) injecting through a lance with an orientation substantially parallel to said axial direction at least one stream of oxidant, without fuel, having a diameter less than 1/100 of the width of the second combustion zone and having an oxygen concentration of at least 30% into the second combustion zone at a high velocity of at least 300 feet per second; (D) aspirating products of incomplete combustion into the high velocity oxidant; (E) combusting products of incomplete combustion aspirated into the high velocity oxidant with high velocity oxidant within the second combustion zone to carry out a stable combustion by the mixing of the aspirated products of incomplete combustion with the high velocity oxidant; and (F) spreading out the combustion reaction by aspiration of products of complete combustion into the oxidant, said products of complete combustion also serving as a heat sink, to inhibit NO[sub x] formation.

Ho, Min-Da.

1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clarified the role of aqueous-phase production of strong acids in the atmosphere. Oxidation of dissolvedKINETICS OF OXIDATION OF AQUEOUS SULFUR(IV) BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE YIN-NAN LEE AND STEPHEN E. SCHWARTZ) are the precursors of the strong acids (i.e., HzS04 and HN03) found in precipitation,! the detailed mechanisms

Schwartz, Stephen E.

45

Direct deposition of aluminum oxide gate dielectric on graphene channel using nitrogen plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deposition of high-quality dielectric on a graphene channel is an essential technology to overcome structural constraints for the development of nano-electronic devices. In this study, we investigated a method for directly depositing aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on a graphene channel through nitrogen plasma treatment. The deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on graphene demonstrated excellent dielectric properties with negligible charge trapping and de-trapping in the gate insulator. A top-gate-structural graphene transistor was fabricated using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as the gate dielectric with nitrogen plasma treatment on graphene channel region, and exhibited p-type transistor characteristics.

Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Dongchool; Ju, Sanghyun [Department of Physics, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do 443-760 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

complexes between nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, nitrous1992) Indoor ozone and nitrogen dioxide: A potential pathwaybed of SiO 2 pellets. Nitrogen dioxide is introduced from a

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

D. , (2008a). Carbonyl and nitrogen dioxide emissions fromstudy of indoor nitrogen dioxide levels and respiratoryand modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations. All

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Catalytic and stoichiometric bromination of aromatic compounds in aqueous trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mono- and polybromination of benzene, halogenobenzenes, toluene, p-xylene, anisole, biphenyl, benzotrifluoride, benzoic acid, p-nitro- and p-carboxytoluene, p-methoxybenzonitrile, tetralin, and naphthalene were studied in trifluoroacetic acid and its aqueous solutions in systems containing stoichiometric amounts of bromine or alkali-metal bromide and stoichiometric or catalytic (in the presence of oxygen or air) amounts of nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent (nitrogen(IV) oxide, alkali-metal nitrate or nitrite). It is suggested that the brominating agent under the investigated conditions is nitryl bromide NO/sub 2/Br. Under the conditions of catalytic bromination anthracene is oxidized to anthraquinone with a preparative yield.

Cheprakov, A.V.; Makhon'kov, D.I.; Rodkin, M.A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

1988-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nitrogen oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality regulations may not effectively target a large source of fine, organic particle pollutants that contribute to hazy skies and poor air quality over the Los Angeles region. See also:

Tropospheric Ozone

50

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, it was planned to investigate the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and to obtain data on the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane. The investigation of the reaction mechanism will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations. The last component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long- term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the second year of the project, the catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than rhodium on the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study; the effectiveness of the promoter increases with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. The TPD profiles of the unpromoted catalyst (Cu/Ce=3) is different than those promoted with 0.1% rhodium. In the current reporting period, the screening of the promoted catalysts were completed, sufficient amount of the selected catalysts were prepared and delivered to TDA for long term deactivation testing.

Dr. Ates Akyurlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

2003-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

51

Field emission effects of nitrogenated carbon nanotubes on chlorination and oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With reference to our recent reports [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192107 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202102 (2007)] about the electronic structure of chlorine treated and oxygen-plasma treated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs), here we studied the electron field emission effects on chlorination (N-CNT:Cl) and oxidation (N-CNT:O) of N-CNT. A high current density (J) of 15.0 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved on chlorination, whereas low J of 0.0052 mA/cm{sup 2} is observed on oxidation compared to J=1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} for untreated N-CNT at an applied electric field E{sub A} of {approx}1.9 V/{mu}m. The turn-on electric field (E{sub TO}) was {approx}0.875. The 1.25 V/{mu}m was achieved for N-CNT:Cl and N-CNT:O, respectively, with respect to E{sub TO}=1.0 V/{mu}m for untreated one. These findings are due to the formation of different bonds with carbon and nitrogen in the N-CNT during the process of chlorine (oxygen)-plasma treatment by the charge transfer, or else that changes the density of free charge carriers and hence enhances (reduces) the field emission properties of N-CNTs:Cl (N-CNTs:O)

Ray, S. C.; Palnitkar, U.; Pao, C. W.; Tsai, H. M.; Pong, W. F.; Lin, I-N. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [NRI, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37OQB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ganguly, Abhijit; Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Two-phase flow in horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Flow in horizontal wells and two-phase flow interaction with the reservoir were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Two-phase flow behavior has been recognized as one of the most important problems in production engineering. The authors designed and constructed a new test facility suitable for acquiring data on the relationship between pressure drop and liquid holdup along the well and fluid influx from the reservoir. For the theoretical work, an initial model was proposed to describe the flow behavior in a horizontal well configuration. The model uses the inflow-performance-relationship (IPR) approach and empirical correlations or mechanistic models for wellbore hydraulics. Although good agreement was found between the model and experimental data, a new IPR apart from the extension of Darcy`s law must be investigated extensively to aid in the proper design of horizontal wells.

Ihara, Masaru [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Yanai, Koji [Nippon Kokan Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Yanai, Koji

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants Two-Phase Cooling Technology for Power Electronics with Novel Coolants 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

54

Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long-term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the first year of the project, the catalysts were investigated by the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) technique. The results from TPR indicated that the interaction with support appears to promote reduction at lower temperatures. Copper oxide in excess of monolayer coverage reduces at temperatures close to the reduction temperature of the unsupported copper oxide. Increased dispersion increases the support effect. Low activity of ceria in NO reduction may be due to its resistance to reduction at low temperatures.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Eddy-covariance observations of the atmosphere-biosphere exchange of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Kesselmeier, J. : Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) uptake byM. : Leaf uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in a tropicalMorikawa, H. : Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide gas is a plant

Min, Kyung-Eun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Magnetic properties of two-phase superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have recently proposed a theoretical model for superconductors endowed with two distinct superconducting phases, described by two scalar order parameters which condensate at different critical temperatures. On analyzing the magnetic behavior of such systems, we have found some observable differences with respect to the case of ordinary Ginzburg-Landau superconductors. In particular, at low temperature the London penetration length is strongly reduced and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter k becomes a function of temperature. By contrast, in the temperature region between the two phase transitions k is constant and the system is a type-I or a type-II superconductor depending on the ratio between the critical temperatures.

E. Di Grezia; S. Esposito; G. Salesi

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

58

Two phase cooling for superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A closed circuit tubular cooling system for superconducting magnets offers advantages of limiting boiloff and containing high pressures during quenches. Proper location of automatic valves to lower pressures and protect the refrigerator in the event of quenches is described. Theoretical arguments and exprimental evidence are given against a previously suggested method to determine He two phase flow regimes. If loss of flow occurs due to some types of refrigeration failure and transfer lines have enough heat leak to warm up, quenches are induced when the flow is restored. Examples are taken from experience with the TPC magnet.

Eberhard, P.H.; Gibson, G.A.; Green, M.A.; Ross, R.R.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Watt, R.D.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long- term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the second year of the project, the catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than rhodium on the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study; the effectiveness of the promoter increases with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. The TPD profiles of the unpromoted catalyst (Cu/Ce=3) is different than those promoted with 0.1% rhodium.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on highly dispersed technetium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to study, in infrared spectroscopy, the surface compounds formed on adsorption of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides on Tc/SiO/sub 2/. The samples were prepared by soaking Aerosil with aqueous solution of ammonium pertechnetate containing 10 wt.% of Tc. Reduction with hydrogen to the metal was carried out at 700-800/sup 0/C. Results indicated that chemisorption of CO on highly dispersed technetium gives rise to a single type of linear and several types of multicentered adsorption forms. Occurrence of bridge form of adsorbed CO was also suggested on the basis of the data on chemisorption stoichiometry. Formation of a structure characterizable by absorption at 1790 cm/sup -1/ may indicate, only after protracted analysis, that the surface of the technetium introduced gradually suffers significant rearrangement facilitating formation of this type of complexes.

Serebryakova, N.V.; Sokolova, N.P.; Spitsyn, V.S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Dissimilatory Metabolism of Nitrogen Oxides in Bacteria:Comparative Reconstruction of Transcriptional Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bacterial response to nitric oxide (NO) is of major importance since NO is an obligatory intermediate of the nitrogen cycle. Transcriptional regulation of the dissimilatory nitric oxides metabolism in bacteria is diverse and involves FNR-like transcription factors HcpR, DNR and NnrR, two-component systems NarXL and NarQP, NO-responsive activator NorR, and nitrite sensitive repressor NsrR. Using comparative genomics approaches we predict DNA-binding signals for these transcriptional factors and describe corresponding regulons in available bacterial genomes. Within the FNR family of regulators, we observed a correlation of two specificity-determining amino acids and contacting bases in corresponding DNA signal. Highly conserved regulon HcpR for the hybrid cluster protein and some other redox enzymes is present in diverse anaerobic bacteria including Clostridia, Thermotogales and delta-proteobacteria. NnrR and DNR control denitrification in alpha- and beta-proteobacteria, respectively. Sigma-54-dependent NorR regulon found in some gamma- and beta-proteobacteria contains various enzymes involved in the NO detoxification. Repressor NsrR, which was previously known to control only nitrite reductase operon in Nitrosomonas spp., appears to be the master regulator of the nitric oxides metabolism not only in most gamma- and beta-proteobacteria (including well-studied species like Escherichia coli), but also in Gram-positive Bacillus and Streptomyces species. Positional analysis and comparison of regulatory regions of NO detoxification genes allows us to propose the candidate NsrR-binding signal. The most conserved member of the predicted NsrR regulon is the NO-detoxifying flavohemoglobin Hmp. In enterobacteria, the regulon includes also two nitrite-responsive loci, nipAB (hcp-hcr) and nipC(dnrN), thus confirming the identity of the effector, i.e., nitrite. The proposed NsrR regulons in Neisseria and some other species are extended to include denitrification genes. As the result, we demonstrate considerable interconnection between various nitrogen-oxides-responsive regulatory systems for the denitrification and NO detoxification genes and evolutionary plasticity of this transcriptional network.

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Arkin, Adam P.; Alm, EricJ.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition. Quarterly report No. 7, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

63

DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane was investigated. Unpromoted and promoted catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than the other metals (Rh, Li, K, Na, Zn, and Sn) for the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study. The effectiveness of the promoter increased with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. Among the catalysts tested, the Cu1Ce3 catalyst promoted with 1 weight % Mn was found to be the best catalyst for the SCR of NO with methane. This catalyst was subjected to long-term testing at the facilities of our industrial partner TDA Research. TDA report indicated that the performance of this catalyst did not deteriorate during 100 hours of operation and the activity and selectivity of the catalyst was not affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. The conversions obtained by TDA were significantly lower than those obtained at Hampton University due to the transport limitations on the reaction rate in the TDA reactor, in which 1/8th inch pellets were used while the Hampton University reactor contained 250-425-{micro}m catalyst particles. The selected catalyst was also tested at the TDA facilities with high-sulfur heavy oil as the reducing agent. Depending on the heavy oil flow rate, up to 100% NO conversions were obtained. The temperature programmed desorption studies a strong interaction between manganese and cerium. Presence of manganese not only enhanced the reduction rate of NO by methane, but also significantly improved the N{sub 2} selectivity. To increase the activity of the Mn-promoted catalyst, the manganese content of the catalyst need to be optimized and different methods of catalyst preparation and different reactor types need to be investigated to lower the transport limitations in the reactor.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2003-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

GLOBAL AND FINITE TERMINATION OF A TWO-PHASE ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL AND FINITE TERMINATION OF A TWO-PHASE. AUGMENTED LAGRANGIAN FILTER METHOD FOR. GENERAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMS?.

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

65

System and method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in combustion exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit (32) provides efficient reduction of NOx and other pollutants from about 50-550.degree. C. in a power plant (19). Hydrogen (24) and ammonia (29) are variably supplied to the SCR unit depending on temperature. An upstream portion (34) of the SCR unit catalyzes NOx+NH.sub.3 reactions above about 200.degree. C. A downstream portion (36) catalyzes NOx+H.sub.2 reactions below about 260.degree. C., and catalyzes oxidation of NH.sub.3, CO, and VOCs with oxygen in the exhaust above about 200.degree. C., efficiently removing NOx and other pollutants over a range of conditions with low slippage of NH.sub.3. An ammonia synthesis unit (28) may be connected to the SCR unit to provide NH.sub.3 as needed, avoiding transport and storage of ammonia or urea at the site. A carbonaceous gasification plant (18) on site may supply hydrogen and nitrogen to the ammonia synthesis unit, and hydrogen to the SCR unit.

Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A

2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

66

Acoustics of Two-Phase Pipe Flows Samenstelling promotiecommissie  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acoustics of Two-Phase Pipe Flows #12;Samenstelling promotiecommissie: prof. dr. ir. L. van Universiteit Twente Acoustics of Two-Phase Pipe Flows P.J. van Dijk Cover: Lidewij van Rijssen Printed. ISBN 90-365-2188-2 c P.J. van Dijk, 2005. #12;ACOUSTICS OF TWO-PHASE PIPE FLOWS PROEFSCHRIFT ter

Twente, Universiteit

67

TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR AND OTHER APPLICATIONS Prepared For REPORT (FAR) TWO-PHASE FLOW TURBINE FOR COGENERATION, GEOTHERMAL, SOLAR AND OTHER APPLICATIONS EISG://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Two-Phase Flow Turbine For Cogeneration, Geothermal, Solar And Other Applications EISG

68

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10{degree}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500{degree}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degree}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO{sub x} remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

69

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retorting process has been found to be a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH[sub 3] as a reductant. Oxidized Green River oil shale heated at 10[degree]C/min in an Ar/O[sub 2]/NO/NH[sub 3] mixture ([approximately]93%/6%/2000 ppM/4000 ppM) with a gas residence time of [approximately]0.6 sec removed NO between 250 and 500[degree]C, with maximum removal of 70% at [approximately]400[degree]C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was [approximately]64%. When CO[sub 2] was added to the gas mixture at [approximately]8%, the NO removal dropped to [approximately]50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to [approximately]1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. Nitrogen balances of these experiments suggest selective catalytic reduction of NO is occurring using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. These results are not based on completely optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH[sub 3] as the reductant. Parameters calculated for implementing oxidized oil shale for NO[sub x] remediation on the current HRS retort indicate an abatement device is practical to construct.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1993-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

70

Implementing a time- and location-differentiated cap-and-trade program : flexible nitrogen oxide abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Studies suggest that timing and location of emissions can change the amount of ozone formed from a given amount of nitrogen oxide (NOx) by a factor of five (Mauzerall et al. 2005). Yet existing NOx cap-and-trade programs ...

Martin, Katherine C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Reducing the contribution of the power sector to ground-level ozone pollution : an assessment of time-differentiated pricing of nitrogen oxide emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a prevalent air pollutant across the United States and a requisite precursor for tropospheric (ground-level) ozone formation. Both pollutants significantly impact human health and welfare, so National ...

Craig, Michael T. (Michael Timothy)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Safety of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid solutions in two-phase systems at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses the prevention of self-accelerating oxidation of nitric acid and tributyl phosphate (TBP). An accident of this type, which occurred at Tomsk-7, Russia, in 1993, resulted from a slow chemical reaction occurring initially at sub-boiling temperatures. The accumulating heat and vapors overpressurized and burst a process tank. Two safety issues are addressed in this summary of experimental data: circumstances under which convection or radiation cooling of vessels will exceed reaction heat, and measures which can prevent or mitigate such reactions. Heat generations rates have been found to range widely. Thermodynamic calculations confirm that heat generation is reduced by a large factor when nitrogen oxides are able to escape from the reaction mixure. Scoping calculations show that the evaporation of water is potentially the most effective mechanism for heat removal in a large vessel, and experiments have demonstrated that water evaporation is effective for preventing runaway reactions in a vented, two-phase system operated below about 120 C. These data indicate that venting is the key to controlling runaway reactions. However, other experiments have indicated that the self-heating reaction did not present a danger, even if reaction heating led to an accelerating reaction, in a sufficiently vented system. To determine how much venting was required, experiments were performed with pure organic phase and two-phase TBP-nitric acid mixtures. Data show a critical ratio of organic mass to vent area, above which the reacting system can reach potentially dangerous pressures. Experiments show runaway reactions occurring in vented systems only as the temperature approaches 130 C. These results clearly indicate that adequate venting of vessels containing heated TBP and nitrate is the key to controlling their reaction.

Hyder, M.L.; Paddleford, D.F.; Thompson, M.C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

Millstein, Dev

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Nitrogen oxide stack sampling at the U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On November 7, 1997, the EPA proposed a Nitrogen Oxides State Implementation Plan Call (NO{sub x} SIP Call) for 22 states in the Eastern US which included the state of Tennessee. This initial proposal was followed by proposed statewide NO{sub x} budgets in the May 11, 1998, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. In the development of the NO{sub x} SIP Call, EPA performed a number of air quality analyses and determined that NO{sub x} emissions from Tennessee should be reduced. Industrial boilers, turbines, stationary internal combustion engines, and cement manufacturing are the only non-electric generating unit sources for which reductions are assumed in the budget calculation. Emission reductions are required if specific source heat input capacity is greater than 250 million Btu per hour. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Steam Plant consists of four Wickes pulverized coal fired boilers each rated at a maximum heat input capacity of 298 million Btu per hour, and will therefore be impacted by these regulatory actions. Each boiler is equipped with two pulverizing mills. Coal or natural gas or a combination of these two fuels may be fired. This paper provides the results of NO{sub x} emission stack testing conducted June 15--21, 1999, on the Y-12 Steam Plant Boilers 1 and 2. Measurements of oxygen (O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and stack gas flow were also performed. Information gained from these stack tests will be used to determine NO{sub x} emission control strategies for the steam plant for compliance with future emission requirements resulting from the NO{sub x} SIP Call.

L.V. Gibson, jr.; M.P. Humphreys; J.M. Skinner

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal production by Tracer dilution techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

77

Energy stable schemes and numerical simulations of two phase ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Energy stable schemes and numerical simulations of two phase complex fluids by the phase-field method Abstact: We present an energetic variational...

78

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program`s Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Current emission trends for nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds by month and state: Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of monthly sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and nonmethane voltatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by sector, region, and state in the contiguous United States for the years 1975 through 1988. This work has been funded as part of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program's Emissions and Controls Task Group by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The DOE project officer is Edward C. Trexler, DOE/FE Office of Planning and Environment.

Kohout, E.J.; Miller, D.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Rothman, D.S.; Saricks, C.L.; Stodolsky, F.; Hanson, D.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Characterization of a Dual Chambered, Two Phase Separator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new two phase separator for use in space applications has been invented. It is a vortex separator designed to accommodate gas driven two phase flows of gas and liquid. The work presented here is a first of a kind study of this newly invented...

Klein, Casey

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Estimated monthly emissions of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds for the 48 contiguous states, 1985-1986: Volume 2, Sectoral emissions by month for states  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A listing by source of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds emitted in 48 states of the US is provided. (CBS)

Kohout, E.J.; Knudson, D.A.; Saricks, C.L.; Miller, D.J.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Regenerative process and system for the simultaneous removal of particulates and the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen from a gas stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and system are described for simultaneously removing from a gaseous mixture, sulfur oxides by means of a solid sulfur oxide acceptor on a porous carrier, nitrogen oxides by means of ammonia gas and particulate matter by means of filtration and for the regeneration of loaded solid sulfur oxide acceptor. Finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is entrained in a gaseous mixture to deplete sulfur oxides from the gaseous mixture, the finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor being dispersed on a porous carrier material having a particle size up to about 200 microns. In the process, the gaseous mixture is optionally pre-filtered to remove particulate matter and thereafter finely-divided solid sulfur oxide acceptor is injected into the gaseous mixture.

Cohen, M.R.; Gal, E.

1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

83

Two-phase flow characteristics in multiple orifice valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents an experimental investigation on the characteristics of two-phase flow through multiple orifice valve (MOV), including frictional pressure drop and void fraction. Experiments were carried out using an MOV with three different sets of discs with throat thickness-diameter ratios (s/d) of 1.41, 1.66 and 2.21. Tests were run with air and water flow rates ranging between 1.0 and 3.0 m{sup 3}/h, respectively. The two-phase flow patterns established for the experiment were bubbly and slug. Two-phase frictional multipliers, frictional pressure drop and void fraction were analyzed. The determined two-phase multipliers were compared against existing correlations for gas-liquid flows. None of the correlations tested proved capable of predicting the experimental results. The large discrepancy between predicted and measured values points at the role played by valve throat geometry and thickness-diameter ratio in the hydrodynamics of two-phase flow through MOVs. A modification to the constants in the two-phase multiplier equation used for pipe flow fitted the experimental data. A comparison between computed frictional pressure drop, calculated with the modified two-phase multiplier equation and measured pressure drop yielded better agreement, with less than 20% error. (author)

Alimonti, Claudio [Sapienza University of Rome, Department ICMA, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma (Italy); Falcone, Gioia; Bello, Oladele [The Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3116 TAMU, Richardson Building, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Design of a microbreather for two-phase microchannel devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiphase flows in microchannels are encountered in a variety of microfluidic applications. Two-phase microchannel heat sinks leverage the latent heat of vaporization to offer an efficient method of dissipating large heat ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The effects of two-phase flow on streaming potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of streaming potentials assessed. Only limited information concerning two- phase flow and streaming potentials is available (Morgan, 1990). Two-phase flow in porous media has been addressed in models of hydraulic flow (Sorey et aL, 1980; Yuan and Slattery... & Stubbs (Wp) and Bretherton (Wn) equations, 53 7. The experimental W values as determined from the experimental sneaming potential enhancement values. 54 8. Core samples for porous media assessment. . . . . 61 9. Cementation exponent, saturation...

Estrada, Cecilia

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Catalytic activity of oxidized (combusted) oil shale for removal of nitrogen oxides with ammonia as a reductant in combustion gas streams, Part 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidized oil shale from the combustor in the LLNL hot recycle solids oil shale retorting process has been studied as a catalyst for removing nitrogen oxides from laboratory gas streams using NH{sub 3} as areductant. Combusted Green River oil shale heated at 10{degrees}C/min in an Ar/O{sub 2}/NO/NH{sub 3} mixture ({approximately}93%/6%/2000 ppm/4000 ppm) with a gas residence time of {approximately}0.6 sec exhibited NO removal between 250 and 500{degrees}C, with maximum removal of 70% at {approximately}400{degrees}C. Under isothermal conditions with the same gas mixture, the maximum NO removal was found to be {approximately}64%. When CO{sub 2} was added to the gas mixture at {approximately}8%, the NO removal dropped to {approximately}50%. However, increasing the gas residence time to {approximately}1.2 sec, increased NO removal to 63%. These results are not based on optimized process conditions, but indicate oxidized (combusted) oil shale is an effective catalyst for NO removal from combustion gas streams using NH{sub 3} as the reductant.

Reynolds, J.G.; Taylor, R.W.; Morris, C.J.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

87

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDES OF NITROGEN Nitrogen Dioxide (N0 2) Nitrous Oxide (NFigure 7. Emissions of nitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (by AiResearch(8)) . Nitrogen dioxide emissions from a

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

On-farm Assessment of Nitrogen Fertilizer application to corn on Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture. Nutr.1998. Nitrous oxide emission in three years as affected by2008. Soil-surface gas emissions. p.851-861. In: M.R. Carter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

90

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

91

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of bothZevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen 4.1 Introduction Probably the most damaging of the hazardous nitrogen compounds formed during combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen

Zevenhoven, Ron

93

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of bothZevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-1 Chapter 4 Nitrogen 4.1 Introduction Probably the most damaging of the hazardous nitrogen compounds formed during combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen

Laughlin, Robert B.

94

Reducing nitrogen oxides emissions from the combustion of LCV gas staged firing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by fluidized bed gasification at temperatures below the 1090 K (1500 F) ash fusion temperatur es. Subsequent burning of the LCV gas r esulted in the same type of severe slagging, fouling, and cor r osion pr oblems as wer e encounter ed dur ing combustion... concentrations during fuel rich combustion, can also fix N2 to give CN and HCN (Fenimore, 1971), thus contributing to the amount of fixed nitrogen available for the fuel NOx path. NOx formed by this path, suggested by Fenimore (1971), is known as "prompt...

Finch, Stanley Frank

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Nonequilibrium hydrogen combustion in one- and two-phase supersonic flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A time-splitting method for the numerical simulation of stiff nonequilibrium combustion problem was developed. The algorithm has been applied to simulate the shock-induced combustion and to investigate a supersonic one-and two-phase flowfield. The results are physically reasonable and demonstrate that the presence of particles has a dramatic effect on the nozzle flowfield and the thrust. Supersonic combustion usually happens in high speed flying aerodynamic problems, such as supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engine for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Particularly for the scramjet engine, due to short residence time in the combustion chamber, it still contains incomplete combustion fuel as it enters the nozzle. For solid propellant rocket motors, the exhaust stream contains particles of aluminum oxide. In these two-phase nozzle flows, transfer of momentum and heat between gas particles often result in a decrease of nozzle efficiency.

Chang, H.T.; Hourng, L.W. [National Central Univ., Chung Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Chien, L.C. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Physics

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The two phase commit protocol simulation and analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IDENTIFICATION II. A Failures in a. Distributed DBMS 10 HI ATOIYIIC COMMITMENT HI. A Uncertainty Period . HI. B Blocking HI C Independent Recovery 17 17 IU THE TWO PHASE COMMIT PROTOCOL V111 CHAPTER Pa, ge IV. A Timeout Actions 21 IV. B Recovery..., 55 LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page Comparison of three versions of the two phase comniit CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A database management system(DBMS) consists of a collection of interrelated, persis- tent data. and a set of programs to access this data...

Bokil, Anupam

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

98

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Flow reactor experiments on the selective non-catalytic removal of nitrogen oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?CO, and H, O are initially present in exhaust stream [57]. .. . . . 42 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Reaction path diagram for RAPRENOx process [63]. .. . Reduction of nitric oxide as a function of temperature, concentration of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and water... the influence of carbon monoxide [89]. . . . . . . . . 58 Fig. 28 Effect of residence time on the NOxOUT process as a function of temperature, NO(initial)=125ppm, 0-ratio of 4 [90]. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Fig. 29 Ammonia slip as a function...

Gentemann, Alexander M.G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Acoustic wave propagation in two-phase heterogeneous porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The propagation of an acoustic wave through two-phase porous media with spatial variation in porosity is studied. The evolutionary wave equation is derived, and the propagation of an acoustic wave is numerically analyzed in application to marine sediments with various physical parameters.

J. I. Osypik; N. I. Pushkina; Ya. M. Zhileikin

2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Structural Reliability Analysis for One Dimensional, Two Phase Miscible Flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structural Reliability Analysis for One Dimensional, Two Phase Miscible Flow David A. Coker­3600 December 22, 1992 Abstract An analytic structural reliability analysis is performed for first contact mis of the permeability. Key words: miscible flow, reliability methods, sensitivity analysis AMS(MOS): 35R60, 62N05,

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

102

Transient Performance of a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioscrubber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transient Performance of a Two-Phase Partitioning Bioscrubber Treating a Benzene-Contaminated Gas and deactivation due to inhibition by toxic substrates such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene-phasepartitioningbioreactor to improve the bioavailability of poorly water soluble substrates (5), a TPPB can increase the absorption

Daugulis, Andrew J.

103

Two Phase Spectrum Sharing for Frequency-Agile Radio Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Two Phase Spectrum Sharing for Frequency-Agile Radio Networks Zhenhua Feng and Yaling Yang of modern radios. We solve a joint spectrum sharing and end-to-end rate control problems for general technologies (e.g. software defined radio and cognitive radios) enable more flexible spectrum access through

Ha, Dong S.

104

COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPUTATION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN STEAM GENERATOR USING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION AND LOCAL ZOOM METHODS Abstract We present ow simulations in the Steam Generator of a pressurized water nuclear reactor using coherence between the zoom and the full domain. Key words: Steam Generator, Zoom, Domain Decomposition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Enthalpy transients in fractured two-phase geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical modeling techniques are used to study the changes in flowing enthalpy of fluids produced from a well completed in a fractured two-phase geothermal reservoir. Complex interactions between different fracture and porous matrix parameters control the enthalpy transients. The results show that the flowing enthalpy is most sensitive to the characteristics of the relative permeability curves, the magnitude of the matrix permeability and the effective fracture porosity. Other parameters such as the thermal conductivity and fracture spacing also significantly affect the flowing enthalpy. In spite of the complex phenomena associated with enthalpy transients in fractured two-phase systems, it is possible to infer useful information about the producing geothermal reservoirs from field data. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Gaulke, S.W.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Interplay between two-phase and solid solution reactions in highvoltag...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

two-phase and solid solution reactions in highvoltage spinel cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Interplay between two-phase and solid solution reactions in...

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - annulus two-phase flow Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TWO-PHASE FLOW IDENTIFICATION BY CORRELATION TECHNIQUES I. P.ZSIT* Studsvik... void fraction. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, two-phase flow patterns are classifiedby... an...

110

A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the submarine debris speed can be faster than the tsunami speed. This information can be useful for early warning strategies in the coastal regions. These findings substantially increase our understanding of complex multi-phase systems and multi-physics and flows, and allows for the proper modeling of landslide and debris induced tsunami, the dynamics of turbidity currents and sediment transport, and the associated applications to hazard mitigation, geomorphology and sedimentology.

Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

111

Measurement of steam quality in two-phase critical flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

through a venturi for subczitical flow of steam-water 45 13 Steam quality as a function of vapor-phase Reynolds number for subczitical flow of steam-water 46 14 Steam quality as a function of Collins and Gacesa parameter for subcritical flow of steam... high degree of accuracy. He suggested that the following correlation may be used to calculate two-phase flow rates through orifices to within an error of 1. 5 percent 339 K 3 9 9' J 9 v v a v w f + [ 1. 26 (1-f ) K Y /K ] ~p p where V and L...

Sinclair, John William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButlerTransportation6/14/11 Page 1Two NovelTwo Phase Transitions

113

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButlerTransportation6/14/11 Page 1Two NovelTwo Phase

114

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof Energy Two Companies RecognizedTwoinsideTwo Phase

115

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof Energy Two Companies RecognizedTwoinsideTwo PhaseTwo

116

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layeredof Energy Two Companies RecognizedTwoinsideTwoTwo Phase

117

Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to design reliable two-phase systems. The main objective of this present research is to develop a new mathematical model that can accurately predict the annular two-phase friction pressure drop to optimize the design of two-phase systems. The two-phase flow...

Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

118

Two Phase Transitions Make a High-Temperature Superconductor  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

generally believed that such a picture also applied to the copper oxide (cuprate) superconductors-first discovered 25 years ago and the current record holders for highest Tc....

119

Interfacial characteristic measurements in horizontal bubbly two- phase flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in the study of two-phase flow increasingly require detailed internal structure information upon which theoretical models can be formulated. The void fraction and interfacial area are two fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. However, little information is currently available on these parameters, and its mostly limited to vertical flow configurations. Particularly, there is virtually no data base for the local interfacial area concentration in spite of its necessary in multi-dimensional two-fluid model analysis. In view of the above, the internal phase distribution of cocurrent, air-water bubbly flow in a 50.3 mm diameter transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a double-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 3.74 to 5.60 m/s and 0.25 to 1.59 m/s, respectively, and average void fractions ranged from 2.12 to 22.5%. The local local values of void fractions, interfacial area concentration, mean bubble diameter, bubble interface velocity, bubble chord-length and bubble frequency distributions were measured. The experimental results indicate that the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency have local maxima near the upper pipe well, and the profiles tend to flatten with increasing void fraction. The observed peak void fraction can reach 0.65, the peak interfacial area can to up to 1000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}, and the bubble frequency can reach a value of 2200/s. These ranges of values have never been reported for vertical bubbly flow. It is found that either decreasing the liquid flow rate or increasing the gas flow would increase the local void fraction, the interfacial area concentration and the bubble frequency.

Wang, Z.; Kocamustafaogullari, G.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Interfacial characteristic measurements in horizontal bubbly two-phase flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advances in the study of two-phase flow increasingly require detailed internal structure information upon which theoretical models can be formulated. The void fraction and interfacial area are two fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. However, little information is currently available on these parameters, and it is mostly limited to vertical flow configurations. In view of the above, the internal phase distribution of cocurrent, air-water bubbly flow in a 50.3 mm diameter transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a double-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 3.74 to 5.60 m/s and 0.25 to 1.59 m/s, respectively, and average void fractions ranged from 2.12 to 22.5%. The local values of void fractions, interfacial area concentration, mean bubble diameter, bubble interface velocity, bubble chord-length and bubble frequency distributions were measured. The experimental results indicate that the void faction, interfacial area concentration and bubble frequency have local maxima near the upper pipe wall, and the profiles tend to flatten with increasing void fraction. The observed peak void fraction can reach 0.65, the peak interfacial area can go up to 900 {approx} 1000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3}, and the bubble frequency can reach a value of 2200/s. These ranges of values have never been reported for vertical bubbly flow. It is found that either decreasing the liquid flow rate or increasing the gas flow would increase the local void fraction, the interfacial area concentration and the bubble frequency. 85 refs., 124 figs., 2 tabs.

Wang, Z.; Huang, W.D.; Srinivasmurthy, S.; Kocamustafaogullari, G.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 13.4.2002 4-34 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the nitric oxide emission, the laughing gas emission at fluidized bed combustion must be accounted for too fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

Laughlin, Robert B.

122

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen NITROGEN 18.1.2004 4-35 4.11 Chemistry of nitrogen oxides at atmospheric fluidized bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the nitric oxide emission, the laughing gas emission at fluidized bed combustion must be accounted for too fluidized bed combustion, where the interaction between gas and particles is more intensive than in bubbling fluidized bed combustion In fluidized bed combustion, the combustion takes place in a bed of particles

Zevenhoven, Ron

123

Zinc Thiolate Reactivity toward Nitrogen Oxides: Insights into the Interaction of Zn[superscript 2+] with S-Nitrosothiols and Implications for Nitric Oxide Synthase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Zinc thiolate complexes containing N[subscript 2]S tridentate ligands were prepared to investigate their reactivity toward reactive nitrogen species, chemistry proposed to occur at the zinc tetracysteine thiolate site of ...

Kozhukh, Julia

124

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient nitric oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxides (NOx)." Other nitrogen oxides include nitrous acid and nitric acid. While... . Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of a group of highly reactive gasses known...

125

Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

DNS and LES of two-phase flows with cavitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on recent progress in the physical and numerical modeling of compressible two-phase flows that involve phase transition between the liquid and gaseous state of the fluid. The high-speed dynamics of cavitation bubbles is studied in well-resolved simulations (DNS) with a sharp-interface numerical model on a micro scale. The underlying assumption of the employed evaporation/condensation model is that phase change occurs in thermal non-equilibrium and that the associated timescale is larger than that of the wave dynamics. Results for the collapse of a spherical vapor bubble close to a solid wall are discussed for three different bubble-wall configurations. The major challenge for such numerical investigations is to accurately reproduce the dynamics of the interface between liquid and vapor during the entire collapse process, including the high-speed dynamics of the late stages, where compressibility of both phases plays a decisive role. Direct interface resolving simulations are intractable for real wor...

Hickel, Stefan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic two-phase flow Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

power-clock 8;. A PMOS SCAL gate operates in two phases: discharge and evaluate. The energy... . The two phases in the operation of an NMOS gate are charge and evaluate. 3...

128

Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

129

Pressure drop characteristics of gasliquid two-phase ow in vertical miniature triangular channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air±water two-phase ¯ow through vertical miniature triangular channels having hydraulic diameters of 0 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Air±water two-phase ¯ow; Drift velocity; Void] experimentally investigated the ¯ow of co- current upward air±water two-phase ¯ow in vertical miniature

Zhao, Tianshou

130

Dense Heterogeneous Continuum Model of Two-Phase Explosion Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion of a dense Aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. Let {alpha}{sub 1} denote the volume fraction occupied by the gas and {alpha}{sub 2} the fraction occupied by the solid, satisfying the volume conservation relation: {alpha}{sub 1} + {alpha}{sub 2} = 1. When the particle phase occupies a non-negligible volume fraction (i.e., {alpha}{sub 2} > 0), additional terms, proportional to {alpha}{sub 2}, appear in the conservation laws for two-phase flows. These include: (i) a particle pressure (due to particle collisions), (ii) a corresponding sound speed (which produces real eigenvalues for the particle phase system), (iii) an Archimedes force induced on the particle phase (by the gas pressure gradient), and (iv) multi-particle drag effects (which enhance the momentum coupling between phases). These effects modify the accelerations and energy distributions in the phases; we call this the Dense Heterogeneous Continuum Model. A characteristics analysis of the Model equations indicates that the system is hyperbolic with real eigenvalues for the gas phase: {l_brace}v{sub 1}, v{sub 1} {+-} {alpha}{sub 1}{r_brace} and for the 'particle gas' phase: {l_brace}v{sub 2}, v{sub 2} {+-}{alpha}{sub 2}{r_brace} and the particles: {l_brace}v{sub 2}{r_brace}, where v{sub i} and {alpha}{sub i} denote the velocity vector and sound speed of phase i. These can be used to construct a high-order Godunov scheme to integrate the conservation laws of a dense heterogeneous continuum.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B

2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen oxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle on-board Emissions Control Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Robust Nitrogen...

132

Nitrogen spark denoxer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Nitrogen Oxides in the Nocturnal Boundary Layer: Chemistry of Nitrous Acid (HONO) and the Nitrate Radical (N03)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary Chemical processes occurring at night in the lowest part of the urban atmosphere, the so called nocturnal boundary layer (NBL), can influence the composition of the atmosphere during the night as well as the following day. They may impact the budgets of some of the most important pollutants, such as ozone and nitrogen oxides, as well as influence size and composition of particular matter. Few studies have thus far concentrated on the nocturnal chemistry of the urban NBL, most likely due to the strong influence of vertical transport and mixing, which requires the measurement of trace gas profiles instead of simple point observations. Motivated by our lack of observations and understanding of nocturnal chemistry, the focus of this project was the study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and the altitude dependence of nocturnal chemistry under polluted conditions through field observations and modeling studies. The analysis of three field experiments (TEXAQS, Houston, 2000; Phoenix Sunrise Ozone Experiment, 2001; NAPOX, Boston, 2002), two of which were performed in this project, showed that ozone concentrations typically increase with height in the lowest 150m, while NO2 typically decreases. NO3, the dominant nocturnal radical species, showed much higher concentrations in the upper part of the NBL, and was often not present at the ground. With the help of a one-dimensional chemical transport model, developed in this project, we found that the interaction of ground emissions of NOx and hydrocarbons, together with their vertical transport, is responsible for the vertical profiles. The dominant chemical reactions influencing ozone, NO2 and NO3 are the reaction of ozone and NO3 with freshly emitted NO. Sensitivity studies with our model showed that the magnitude of the trace gas gradients depend both on the emission rates and the vertical stability of the NBL. Observations and model analysis clearly show that nocturnal chemistry in urban areas is altitude dependent. Measurements at one altitude, for example at the ground, where most air quality monitoring stations are located, are not representative for the rest of the NBL. Our model also revealed that radical chemistry is, in general, altitude dependent at night. We distinguish three regions: an unreactive, NO rich, ground layer; an upper, O3 and NO3 dominated layer, and a reactive mixing layer, where RO2 radicals are mixed from aloft with NO from the ground. In this reactive layer an active radical chemistry and elevated OH radical levels can be found. The downward transport of N2O5 and HO2NO2, followed by their thermal decay, was also identified as a radical source in this layer. Our observations also gave insight into the formation of HONO in the NBL. Based on our field experiments we were able to show that the NO2 to HONO conversion was relative humidity dependent. While this fact was well known, we found that it is most likely the uptake of HONO onto surfaces which is R.H. dependent, rather than the NO2 to HONO conversion. This finding led to the proposal of a new NO2 to HONO conversion mechanism, which is based on solid physical chemical principles. Noteworthy is also the observation of enhanced NO2 to HONO conversion during a dust storm event in Phoenix. The final activity in our project investigated the influence of the urban canopy, i.e. building walls and surfaces, on nocturnal chemistry. For the first time the surface area of a city was determined based on a Geographical Information System database of the city of Santa Monica. The surface to volume areas found in this study showed that, in the 2 lower part of the NBL, buildings provide a much larger surface area than the aerosol. In addition, buildings take up a considerable amount of the volume near the ground. The expansion of our model and sensitivity studies based on the Santa Monica data revealed that the surface area of buildings considerably influences HONO levels in urban areas. The volume reduction leads to a decrease of O3 and an increase of NO2 near the ground due to the stronger impact o

Jochen Stutz

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - actual nitric oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen... of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of both... O emissions at coal...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - affects nitric oxide Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

combustion are nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen... of the nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrogen dioxide, so the environmental effects of emissions of both... O emissions at coal...

136

Co-current airwater two-phase ow patterns in vertical triangular microchannels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-current air±water two-phase ¯ow patterns in vertical triangular microchannels T.S. Zhao * , Q Characteristics of co-current upward air±water two-phase ¯ow patterns in vertical equilateral triangular channels tubes has been re- ported. Damianides (1987) experimentally studied the two-phase ¯ow of air±water

Zhao, Tianshou

137

Optimization Online - Global and finite termination of a two-phase ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sep 17, 2006 ... Global and finite termination of a two-phase augmented Lagrangian filter method for general quadratic programs. Michael P. Friedlander (mpf...

Michael P. Friedlander

2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

138

High Performance Computing linear algorithms for two-phase flow in porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High Performance Computing linear algorithms for two-phase flow in porous media Robert Eymard High Performance Computing techniques. This implies to handle the difficult problem of solving

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - accurate two-phase approximate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of British Columbia Collection: Mathematics 15 Proceedings of FEDSM2005 2005 ASME Fluids Engineering Summer Conference Summary: , the two phase flow can be approximately...

140

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fertilizer and Nitrogen 1 billion tons of artificial nitrogen fertilizer used annually. Emissions. (fertilizers that use nitric acid or ammonium bicarbonate result in emissions of nitrogen oxides, nitrous oxide, ammonia and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.) ~Indirect: Phosphorus in excess causes eutrophication

Toohey, Darin W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Heterogeneous-phase reactions of nitrogen dioxide with vermiculite-supported magnesium oxide (as applied to the control of jet engine test cell emissions). Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) from a non-steady-state stationary source like a jet engine test cell (JETC) requires a method that is effective over a wide range of conditions. A heterogeneous, porous, high surface area sorbent material comprised of magnesium oxide powder attached to a vermiculite substrate has been commercially developed for this purpose. Data from extensive laboratory testing of this material in a packed-bed flow system are presented. NO2 removal efficiencies, kinetics, and proposed NO2 removal mechanisms over a range of representative JETC exhaust gas characteristics are described. Exhaust gas variables evaluated included: NO2 concentration, temperature, flow rate (retention time), oxygen content, and moisture content. Availability of water and oxygen were found to be important variables. It is probable that water is necessary for the conversion of MgO to Mg(OH)2, which is a more reactive compound having thermal stability over the range of temperatures evaluated. Gaseous oxygen serves to oxidize NO to NO2, the latter being more readily removed from the gas stream. The presence of oxygen also serves to offset thermal decomposition of NO2 or surface nitrite/nitrate. Effective `lifetime` and regenerability of the exposed sorbent material were also evaluated. NO2 removal efficiencies were found to greatly exceed those for NO, with a maximum value greater than 90 percent. The effective conversion of NO to NO2 is a crucial requirement for removal of the former. The reaction between NO2 and MgO-vermiculite is first-order with respect to NO2.

Kimm, L.T.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

LATEX TikZposter Simulation of two-phase flow for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aachen University Simulation of two-phase flow for direct steam-generating solar thermal power plantsLATEX TikZposter Simulation of two-phase flow for direct steam-generating solar thermal power University Concentrating solar thermal power plants Concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) plants

Ábrahám, Erika

143

EulerianEulerian two-phase numerical simulation of nanofluid laminar forced convection in a microchannel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by a cooling system to guarantee their appropriate performance. One possible way to cool these devises canEulerian­Eulerian two-phase numerical simulation of nanofluid laminar forced convection August 2010 Accepted 5 August 2010 Keywords: Nanofluid Microchannel Two-phase Laminar Heat transfer a b

Harting, Jens

144

Accurate Subgrid Models for Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

have a strong influence on flow and transport in oil reservoirs. In this work, a new modelAccurate Subgrid Models for Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Reservoirs Yalchin R. Efendiev, SPE for the representation of subgrid terms is introduced and applied to two-phase reservoir flows. The model entails

Efendiev, Yalchin

145

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam generators two phase flows numerical simulation with liquid and gas momentum equations M Abstract This work takes place in steam generators flow studies and we consider here steady state three words: Steam Generator, Two-phase Flow, Finite element Email address: Marc.Grandotto@cea.fr (M

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

146

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 3, January--March 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Quarterly report No. 6, October--December, 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor.

Not Available

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Clean coal technology: selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report discusses a project carried out under the US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulphur coal-fired boilers under typical boilers conditions in the United States. The project was conducted by Southern Company Services, Inc., who served as a co-funder and as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into boiler flue gas and passing the flue gas through a catalyst bed where the Nox and NH{sub 3} react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The results of the CCTDP project confirmed the applicability of SCR for US coal-fired power plants. In part as a result of the success of this project, a significant number of commercial SCR units have been installed and are operating successfully in the United States. By 2007, the total installed SCR capacity on US coal-fired units will number about 200, representing about 100,000 MWe of electric generating capacity. This report summarizes the status of SCR technology. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs., 10 photos.

NONE

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Analytical solution for two-phase flow in a wellbore using the drift-flux model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents analytical solutions for steady-state, compressible two-phase flow through a wellbore under isothermal conditions using the drift flux conceptual model. Although only applicable to highly idealized systems, the analytical solutions are useful for verifying numerical simulation capabilities that can handle much more complicated systems, and can be used in their own right for gaining insight about two-phase flow processes in wells. The analytical solutions are obtained by solving the mixture momentum equation of steady-state, two-phase flow with an assumption that the two phases are immiscible. These analytical solutions describe the steady-state behavior of two-phase flow in the wellbore, including profiles of phase saturation, phase velocities, and pressure gradients, as affected by the total mass flow rate, phase mass fraction, and drift velocity (i.e., the slip between two phases). Close matching between the analytical solutions and numerical solutions for a hypothetical CO{sub 2} leakage problem as well as to field data from a CO{sub 2} production well indicates that the analytical solution is capable of capturing the major features of steady-state two-phase flow through an open wellbore, and that the related assumptions and simplifications are justified for many actual systems. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution to evaluate how the bottomhole pressure in a well in which CO{sub 2} is leaking upward responds to the mass flow rate of CO{sub 2}-water mixture.

Pan, L.; Webb, S.W.; Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The transition from the annular to the slug flow regime in two-phase flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments were conducted to determine the transition from annular to semiannular flow regimes for two-phase, gas-liquid upflow in vertical tubes. The influencesof liquid flow rate, tube diameter, liquid viscosity, surface ...

Haberstroh, Robert D.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous two-phase extraction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Furfural is extracted into the organic phase from the aqueous xylose phase as it is produced by acid... only be used with the addition of salt to form a two phase system. We...

155

A Tracer Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Test Using Ethanol as a Two-Phase Tracer and 2-Naphthalene Sulfonate as a Liquid-Phase Tracer at the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

156

Experimental on two sensors combination used in horizontal pipe gas-water two-phase flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-water two phase flow phenomenon widely exists in production and living and the measurement of it is meaningful. A new type of long-waist cone flow sensor has been designed to measure two-phase mass flow rate. Six rings structure of conductance probe is used to measure volume fraction and axial velocity. The calibration of them have been made. Two sensors have been combined in horizontal pipeline experiment to measure two-phase flow mass flow rate. Several model of gas-water two-phase flow has been discussed. The calculation errors of total mass flow rate measurement is less than 5% based on the revised homogeneous flow model.

Wu, Hao; Dong, Feng [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

157

Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant.

Steven Enedy

2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

158

E-Print Network 3.0 - air water two-phase Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air water two-phase Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Proceedings of FEDSM2005 2005 ASME Fluids...

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - air-water two-phase flow Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: air-water two-phase flow Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Heat and Mass Transfer Laboratory Gnie...

160

A two-phase spherical electric machine for generating rotating uniform magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the design and construction of a novel two-phase spherical electric machine that generates rotating uniform magnetic fields, known as a fluxball machine. Alternative methods for producing uniform ...

Lawler, Clinton T. (Clinton Thomas)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Analytical Solutions for Multicomponent, Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media with Double Contact Discontinuities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents the first instance of a double contact discontinuity in analytical solutions for multicomponent, two-phase flow in porous media. We use a three-component system with constant equilibrium ratios and fixed ...

Orr, F. M. Jr

162

NUMERICAL MODEL OF TRANSIENT TWO-PHASE FLOW IN A WELLBORE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wellbore storage in geothermal wells: presented at 1979two-phase flow in a geothermal well has been modelled with asteam water flow in geothermal wells: Journal of Petroleum

Miller, Constance W.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Evaluation of a slotted orifice plate flow meter using horizontal two phase flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF A SLOTTED ORIFICE PLATE FLOW METER USING HORIZONTAL TWO PHASE FLOW A Thesis by ANITA ELENA FLORES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2000 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EVALUATION OF A SLOTTED ORIFICE PLATE FLOW METER USING HORIZONTAL TWO PHASE FLOW A Thesis by ANITA ELENA FLORES Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Flores, Anita Elena

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

167

Nitrogen sorption  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

168

Personal and Ambient Air Pollution is Associated with Increased Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Children with Asthma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1994. Nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide: Method 6014. In:Molecular mechanisms of nitrogen dioxide induced epithelialEC, OC), and 24-hr nitrogen dioxide. Ambient exposures

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Three-dimensional reconstruction of bubble distribution in two-phase bubbly flows with the dynamic programming method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...

Furukawa, Toru

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow with a 1D compositional free gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow with a 1D compositional free gas. Masson1 , L. Trenty2 , Y. Zhang1 Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional 3D Darcy flow #12 analysis K, Brenner1 , R. Masson1 , L. Trenty2 , Y. Zhang1 Coupling of a two phase gas liquid compositional

Ribot, Magali

171

Two-phase air-water stratified flow measurement using ultrasonic techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, a time resolved ultrasound system was developed for investigating two-phase air-water stratified flow. The hardware of the system includes a pulsed wave transducer, a pulser/receiver, and a digital oscilloscope. The time domain cross correlation method is used to calculate the velocity profile along ultrasonic beam. The system is able to provide velocities with spatial resolution of around 1mm and the temporal resolution of 200?s. Experiments were carried out on single phase water flow and two-phase air-water stratified flow. For single phase water flow, the flow rates from ultrasound system were compared with those from electromagnetic flow (EM) meter, which showed good agreement. Then, the experiments were conducted on two-phase air-water stratified flow and the results were given. Compared with liquid height measurement from conductance probe, it indicated that the measured velocities were explainable.

Fan, Shiwei; Yan, Tinghu; Yeung, Hoi [School of Engineering, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom)

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

172

Electrical impedance string probes for two-phase void and velocity measurements. [PWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An instrumentation scheme has been developed to measure two-phase flow velocity and void fraction during the refill/reflood stages of a loss-of-coolant accident in experimental test facilities. The instrumentation's principle of operation was based on measurement of the electrical impedance of two-phase mixtures. Two-phase velocity is estimated by time-of-flight analysis of signals from two spatially separate sensors. A relative capacitive technique was employed to measure void fraction. The impedance sensor consists of a pair of stainless steel wires strung back and forth across a stainless steel frame. This sensor was dubbed string probe for this reason. The string probe was designed to withstand temperatures of 350/sup 0/C, thermal transients of approx. 300/sup 0/C/s, and severe fluid- and condensation-induced shocks.

Hardy, J E; Hylton, J O

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Local Wettability Reversal during Steady-State Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two dimensional network model for porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from single-phase to two-phase flow regime. For the case of both phases being mobile we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.

Sinha, Santanu; degrden, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.037303

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Film boiling on spheres in single- and two-phase flows was studied experimentally and theoretically with an emphasis on establishing the film boiling heat transfer closure law, which is useful in the analysis of nuclear reactor core melt accidents. Systematic experimentation of film boiling on spheres in single-phase water flows was carried out to investigate the effects of liquid subcooling (from 0 to 40 C), liquid velocity (from 0 to 2 m/s), sphere superheat (from 200 to 900 C), sphere diameter (from 6 to 19 mm), and sphere material (stainless steel and brass) on film boiling heat transfer. Based on the experimental data a general film boiling heat transfer correlation is developed. Utilizing a two-phase laminar boundary-layer model for the unseparated front film region and a turbulent eddy model for the separated rear region, a theoretical model was developed to predict the film boiling heat transfer in all single-phase regimes. The film boiling from a sphere in two-phase flows was investigated both in upward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.2 to 0.65, water velocity from 0.6 to 3.2 m/s, and steam velocity from 3.0 to 9.0 m/s) and in downward two-phase flows (with void fraction from 0.7 to 0.95, water velocity from 1.9 to 6.5 m/s, and steam velocity from 1.1 to 9.0 m/s). The saturated single-phase heat transfer correlation was found to be applicable to the two-phase film boiling data by making use of the actual water velocity (water phase velocity), and an adjustment factor of (1 - {alpha}){sup 1/4} (with a being the void fraction) for downward flow case only. Slight adjustments of the Reynolds number exponents in the correlation provided an even better interpretation of the two-phase data. Preliminary experiments were also conducted to address the influences of multi-sphere structure on the film boiling heat transfer in single- and two-phase flows.

Liu, C.; Theofanous, T. G.

2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/4/2013 Page 1 of 12 Nitrogen Dioxide SOP Standard Operating Procedures Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitric Oxide Print a copy and insert into your laboratory the precautions and safe handling procedures for the use of Nitrogen Dioxide

Cohen, Ronald C.

176

Nitrogen Oxide Emission Statements (Ohio)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter of the law establishes that the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency requires any facility that emits 25 tons or more of NOx and/or 25 tons or more ofVOCduring the calendar year and...

177

A discontinuous Galerkin front tracking method for two-phase flows with surface tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A discontinuous Galerkin front tracking method for two-phase flows with surface tension Vinh with surface tension. ? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Interfaces separating regions tension. In this case, the interface separates two different fluids and the effect of surface tension re

Peraire, Jaime

178

Level Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

application is the lubricated pipelining of crude oil by the addition of water. We want to e?ciently transportLevel Set Based Simulations of Two-Phase Oil-Water Flows in Pipes Hyeseon Shim July 31, 2000 Abstract We simulate the axisymmetric pipeline transportation of oil and water numerically under

Soatto, Stefano

179

Power factor enhancement by inhomogeneous distribution of dopants in two-phase nanocrystalline systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that allows for high thermoelectric power factors in two-phase materials that are heavily doped. The thermoelectric performance of a material is quantified by the dimensionless figure of merit 2 /ZT S T , where conductivity [6, 7]. This was achieved even for traditionally poor thermoelectric materials such as Si

180

A two-phase model for compaction and damage 1. General Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and references therein], glaciology [Fowler, 1984], oil recovery and magma dynamics [McKenzie, 1984; Spiegel- man of earthquake dynamics [Segall and Rice, 1995; Sleep, 1995, 1997, 1998], and void-volatile self-lubrication of two phases by relating porosity to a weakening effect or a state variable. One of the most complex

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Study of a low Mach nuclear core model for two-phase flows with phase  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of a low Mach nuclear core model for two-phase flows with phase transition I: stiffened gas law Manuel Bernard , Stéphane Dellacherie , Gloria Faccanoni , Bérénice Grec§ and Yohan Penel¶ October 30, 2012 In this paper, we are interested in modelling the flow of the coolant (water) in a nuclear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

182

Two-Phase Fluid-Solid Flow Name of Supervisor: Dr D. Harris  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the fluid and the dispersion may be maintained by a fluid flow. There is a mechanical interaction between of discrete particles, (2) as a fluid, (3) as a dense gas and using the statistical mechanics of granular flowTwo-Phase Fluid-Solid Flow Name of Supervisor: Dr D. Harris Email: david

Sidorov, Nikita

183

Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 61256140 A two-dimensional, two-phase mass transport model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the unsaturated porous medium flow theory. The two-phase flow behavior in the anode flow channel is modeled by integrating those in the different regions is solved numerically using a home-written computer code because of its high efficiency, high energy density, low emission and simple structure [1]. However

Zhao, Tianshou

184

Fictitious domain methods for two-phase flow energy balance computations in nuclear  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is a software platform dedicated to the thermal- hydraulic numerical simulation of nuclear power plants from the local scale to the system scale through the component scale. The thermal-hydraulic simulation of nuclear power plants consists in modeling two-phase flow (wa- ter/steam) passing into obstacles: we are hence

Boyer, Edmond

185

The Measurement, interpretation and use of unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a two-phase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe by means of an impulse technique using a turning tee and beam. Different electrical filters have ...

Yih, Tien Sieh

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Response of a slotted plate flow meter to horizontal two phase flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

meter is always better in performance and accuracy than the standard orifice plate flow meter. This study is primarily based on how a slotted plate responds to horizontal two-phase flow with air and water being used as the working fluids. The plates...

Muralidharan, Vasanth

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

187

On the Riemann Problem for a Hyperbolic Two-Phase D. Zeidana,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

phases is much lower than the speed of sound of the two-phase mixture. A procedure is then developed problems in this paper describe one-dimensional isentropic mixtures of liquid and vapour, such as those for solving the Riemann problem for a mixture of liquid and vapour obeying an equation of state of the form

188

MultiFLIP for Energetic Two-Phase Fluid Simulation LANDON BOYD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MultiFLIP for Energetic Two-Phase Fluid Simulation LANDON BOYD and ROBERT BRIDSON University- ing up interesting behaviour. We present a new method which treats both air and liquid., ACM, Inc., 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 701, New York, NY 10121-0701 USA, fax +1 (212) 869-0481, or permissions

Bridson, Robert

189

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, indirect refrigeration systems renews interest as they enable to notably reduce the use of environmental the refrigeration applications to the air-conditioning systems. However, this kind of process only remainsRHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène

Boyer, Edmond

190

A stochastic analysis of transient two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the finite element heat and mass (FEHM) transfer code, whose results are considered ``true'' solutions equation (KLME) approach is implemented to model stochastic transient water-NAPL two-phase flow model and Parker and Lenhard models are adopted. The log-transformed intrinsic permeability, soil pore

Lu, Zhiming

191

The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - aox total nitrogen Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

appropriate environmental controls been applied? Summary: to the environment of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, total particulate matter, mercury, absorbable organic...

193

Time integration for diffuse interface models for two-phase flow  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a variant of the ?-scheme for diffuse interface models for two-phase flow, together with three new linearization techniques for the surface tension. These involve either additional stabilizing force terms, or a fully implicit coupling of the NavierStokes and CahnHilliard equation. In the common case that the equations for interface and flow are coupled explicitly, we find a time step restriction which is very different to other two-phase flow models and in particular is independent of the grid size. We also show that the proposed stabilization techniques can lift this time step restriction. Even more pronounced is the performance of the proposed fully implicit scheme which is stable for arbitrarily large time steps. We demonstrate in a Taylor-flow application that this superior coupling between flow and interface equation can decrease the computation time by several orders of magnitude.

Aland, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.aland@tu-dresden.de

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Cavitation and two-phase flow characteristics of SRPR (Savannah River Plant Reactor) pump. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possible head degradation of the SRPR pumps may be attributable to two independent phenomena, one due to the inception of cavitation and the other due to the two-phase flow phenomena. The head degradation due to the appearance of cavitation on the pump blade is hardly likely in the conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) since the coolant circulating line is highly pressurized so that the cavitation is difficult to occur even at LOCA (loss of coolant accident) conditions. On the other hand, the suction pressure of SRPR pump is order-of-magnitude smaller than that of PWR so that the cavitation phenomena, may prevail, should LOCA occur, depending on the extent of LOCA condition. In this study, therefore, both cavitation phenomena and two-phase flow phenomena were investigated for the SRPR pump by using various analytical tools and the numerical results are presented herein.

Not Available

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Two-phase power-law modeling of pipe flows displaying shear-thinning phenomena  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes work in modeling concentrated liquid-solids flows in pipes. COMMIX-M, a three-dimensional transient and steady-state computer program developed at Argonne National Laboratory, was used to compute velocities and concentrations. Based on the authors` previous analyses, some concentrated liquid-solids suspension flows display shear-thinning rather than Newtonian phenomena. Therefore, they developed a two-phase non-Newtonian power-law model that includes the effect of solids concentration on solids viscosity. With this new two-phase power-law solids-viscosity model, and with constitutive relationships for interfacial drag, virtual mass effect, shear lift force, and solids partial-slip boundary condition at the pipe walls, COMMIX-M is capable of analyzing concentrated three-dimensional liquid-solids flows.

Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Sha, W.T.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Effects of using a two-phase two-component working fluid in a Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the major problems associated with Stirling engines has been their low power density. Traditional solutions to this problem have been to use high pressure hydrogen or helium as working fluids to increase the pressure excursion for a given temperature difference. This paper discusses a computer program which models a Stirling engine using a two-phase two-component (TPTC) working fluid used to improve power density. With the model the pressure, temperature, mass flux, heat transfer, work output, and amount of condensed water vs. vapor can be determined for any position in the engine and at any time. With the engine configuration described in the paper, the model indicated that the total power increased as water was added but the power factor decreased due to increased losses without substantial gains from the condensing/boiling mechanism of the two-phase fluid.

Renfroe, D.A.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Enthalpy and mass flowrate measurements for two-phase geothermal production by Tracer dilution techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new technique has been developed for the measurement of steam mass flowrate, water mass flowrate and total enthalpy of two-phase fluids produced from geothermal wells. The method involves precisely metered injection of liquid and vapor phase tracers into the two-phase production pipeline and concurrent sampling of each phase downstream of the injection point. Subsequent chemical analysis of the steam and water samples for tracer content enables the calculation of mass flowrate for each phase given the known mass injection rates of tracer. This technique has now been used extensively at the Coso geothermal project, owned and operated by California Energy Company. Initial validation of the method was performed at the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal project on wells producing to individual production separators equipped with orificeplate flowmeters for each phase.

Hirtz, Paul; Lovekin, Jim; Copp, John; Buck, Cliff; Adams, Mike

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

198

Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Verification of using a single void fraction sensor to identify two-phase flow patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates methods using the signals detected by a single void fraction sensor to identify four kinds of typical vertical, cocurrent, upward, two-phase tube flow patterns. By analyzing 100 sets of time-varying void fraction signals acquired from an impedance device in an air-water two-phase loop, the results of the various methods are evaluated and demonstrated. With the high-frequency contribution fraction (HFCF) criteria, the success rate is 81%. An auxiliary criterion (the void fraction criterion) is proposed to increase the success rate to 92%. The results and the criteria from this study are compared with earlier studies. From the comparison, the applicability of the HFCF criterion to a system in which void fraction can be measured directly is verified.

Wang, Y.W.; Pei, B.S.; Lin, W.K. (National Tsing-Hua Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hsinchu 30043 (TW))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Local analysis of three-dimensional air cooled condenser using a two-phase flow diagram  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the development and application of an analytical method for the performance prediction of air cooled condensers. A local analysis is employed in which the condenser is considered as a matrix of small basic heat transfer modules. For each element, local film coefficients for both the air and the condensing fluid are determined according to the existing local conditions, including the two-phase flow regime. The paper considers an application of the method to heat pump condensing.

Parise, J.A.R.; Cartwright

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Lattice Boltzmann Methods to Address Fundamental Boiling and Two-Phase Problems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the progress made during the fourth (no cost extension) year of this three-year grant aimed at the development of a consistent Lattice Boltzmann formulation for boiling and two-phase flows. During the first year, a consistent LBM formulation for the simulation of a two-phase water-steam system was developed. Results of initial model validation in a range of thermo-dynamic conditions typical for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) were shown. Progress was made on several fronts during the second year. Most important of these included the simulation of the coalescence of two bubbles including the surface tension effects. Work during the third year focused on the development of a new lattice Boltzmann model, called the artificial interface lattice Boltzmann model (AILB model) for the 3 simulation of two-phase dynamics. The model is based on the principle of free energy minimization and invokes the Gibbs-Duhem equation in the formulation of non-ideal forcing function. This was reported in detail in the last progress report. Part of the efforts during the last (no-cost extension) year were focused on developing a parallel capability for the 2D as well as for the 3D codes developed in this project. This will be reported in the final report. Here we report the work carried out on testing the AILB model for conditions including the thermal effects. A simplified thermal LB model, based on the thermal energy distribution approach, was developed. The simplifications are made after neglecting the viscous heat dissipation and the work done by pressure in the original thermal energy distribution model. Details of the model are presented here, followed by a discussion of the boundary conditions, and then results for some two-phase thermal problems.

Rizwan Uddin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Nitrogen-incorporation induced changes in the microstructure...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in the microstructure of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films. Abstract: Nitrogen doped tungsten oxide (WO3) films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition by varying the...

203

Two-phase flow in geothermal energy sources. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A geothermal well consisting of single and two-phase flow sections was modeled in order to explore the variables important to the process. For this purpose a computer program was developed in a versatile form in order to be able to incorporate a variety of two phase flow void fraction and friction correlations. A parametric study indicated that the most significant variables controlling the production rate are: hydrostatic pressure drop or void fraction in the two-phase mixture; and, heat transfer from the wellbore to the surrounding earth. Downhole instrumentation was developed and applied in two flowing wells to provide experimental data for the computer program. The wells (East Mesa 8-1, and a private well) behaved differently. Well 8-1 did not flash and numerous shakedown problems in the probe were encountered. The private well did flash and the instrumentation detected the onset of flashing. A Users Manual was developed and presented in a workshop held in conjunction with the Geothermal Resources Council.

Not Available

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

A Novel Hyperbolization Procedure for The Two-Phase Six-Equation Flow Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We introduce a novel approach for the hyperbolization of the well-known two-phase six equation flow model. The six-equation model has been frequently used in many two-phase flow applications such as bubbly fluid flows in nuclear reactors. One major drawback of this model is that it can be arbitrarily non-hyperbolic resulting in difficulties such as numerical instability issues. Non-hyperbolic behavior can be associated with complex eigenvalues that correspond to characteristic matrix of the system. Complex eigenvalues are often due to certain flow parameter choices such as the definition of inter-facial pressure terms. In our method, we prevent the characteristic matrix receiving complex eigenvalues by fine tuning the inter-facial pressure terms with an iterative procedure. In this way, the characteristic matrix possesses all real eigenvalues meaning that the characteristic wave speeds are all real therefore the overall two-phase flowmodel becomes hyperbolic. The main advantage of this is that one can apply less diffusive highly accurate high resolution numerical schemes that often rely on explicit calculations of real eigenvalues. We note that existing non-hyperbolic models are discretized mainly based on low order highly dissipative numerical techniques in order to avoid stability issues.

Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert Nourgaliev; Nam Dinh

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Modeling studies of heat transfer and phase distribution in two-phase geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase distribution as well as mass flow and heat transfer behavior in two-phase geothermal systems have been studied by numerical modeling. A two-dimensional porous-slab model was used with a non-uniform heat flux boundary conditions at the bottom. Steady-state solutions are obtained for the phase distribution and heat transfer behavior for cases with different mass of fluid (gas saturation) in place, permeabilities, and capillary pressures. The results obtained show very efficient heat transfer in the vapor-dominated zone due to the development of heat pipes and near-uniform saturations. The phase distribution below the vapor-dominated zone depends on permeability. For relatively high-permeability systems, single-phase liquid zones prevail, with convection providing the energy throughput. For lower permeability systems, a two-phase liquid-dominated zone develops, because single-phase liquid convection is not sufficient to dissipate heat released from the source. These results are consistent with observations from the field, where most high-temperature liquid-dominated two-phase systems have relatively low permeabilities e.g. Krafla, Iceland; Kenya; Baca, New Mexico. The numerical results obtained also show that for high heat flow a high-temperature single-phase vapor zone can develop below a typical (240 C) vapor-dominated zone, as has recently been found at the Geysers, California, and Larderello, Italy.

Lai, C.H.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Truesdell, A.H. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

207

Two-Phase Flow Simulations In a Natural Rock Fracture using the VOF Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to exhibit several shortcomings that might be partially overcome with a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles (Hassanizadeh and Gray, 1990). This alternative two-phase flow model contains a set of new and non-standard parameters, including specific interfacial area. By incorporating interfacial area production, destruction, and propagation into functional relationships that describe the capillary pressure and saturation, a more physical model has been developed. Niessner and Hassanizadeh (2008) have examined this model numerically and have shown that the model captures saturation hysteresis with drainage/imbibition cycles. Several static experimental studies have been performed to examine the validity of this new thermodynamically based approach; these allow the determination of static parameters of the model. To date, no experimental studies have obtained information about the dynamic parameters required for the model. A new experimental porous flow cell has been constructed using stereolithography to study two-phase flow phenomena (Crandall et al. 2008). A novel image analysis tool was developed for an examination of the evolution of flow patterns during displacement experiments (Crandall et al. 2009). This analysis tool enables the direct quantification of interfacial area between fluids by matching known geometrical properties of the constructed flow cell with locations identified as interfaces from images of flowing fluids. Numerous images were obtained from two-phase experiments within the flow cell. The dynamic evolution of the fluid distribution and the fluid-fluid interface locations were determined by analyzing these images. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the thermodynamically based two-phase flow model, review the properties of the stereolithography flow cell, and show how the image analysis procedure has been used to obtain dynamic parameters for the numerical model. These parameters include production/destruction of interfacial area as a function of saturation and capillary pressure. Our preliminary results for primary drainage in porous media show that the specific interfacial area increased linearly with increasing gas saturation until breakthrough of the displacing gas into the exit manifold occurred.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Role of Nucleation and Growth in Two-Phase Microstructure Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the directional solidification of peritectic alloys, a rich variety of two-phase microstructures develop, and the selection process of a specific microstructure is complicated due to the following two considerations. (1) In contrast to many single phase and eutectic microstructures that grow under steady state conditions, two-phase microstructures in a peritectic system often evolve under non-steady-state conditions that can lead to oscillatory microstructures, and (2) the microstructure is often governed by both the nucleation and the competitive growth of the two phases in which repeated nucleation can occur due to the change in the local conditions during growth. In this research, experimental studies in the Sn-Cd system were designed to isolate the effects of nucleation and competitive growth on the dynamics of complex microstructure formation. Experiments were carried out in capillary samples to obtain diffusive growth conditions so that the results can be analyzed quantitatively. At high thermal gradient and low velocity, oscillatory microstructures were observed in which repeated nucleation of the two phases was observed at the wall-solid-liquid junction. Quantitative measurements of nucleation undercooling were obtained for both the primary and the peritectic phase nucleation, and three different ampoule materials were used to examine the effect of different contact angles at the wall on nucleation undercooling. Nucleation undercooling for each phase was found to be very small, and the experimental undercooling values were orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by the classical theory of nucleation. A new nucleation mechanism is proposed in which the clusters of atoms at the wall ahead of the interface can become a critical nucleus when the cluster encounters the triple junction. Once the nucleation of a new phase occurs, the microstructure is found to be controlled by the relative growth of the two phases that give rise to different oscillatory microstructures that depend on the imposed velocity and the size of the sample. At low thermal gradient to velocity ratio, a steady-state composite microstructure is observed. Two mechanisms of composite microstructure formation were examined: (1) the formation of the peritectic phase in the intercellular region of the primary phase where the solute rejected by the primary phase is absorbed by the peritectic phase. The peritectic phase forms a small distance behind the growing primary phase front. (2) The second mechanism is the coupled growth of the two phases with a macroscopically planar interface, as in the case of eutectic growth. Detailed studies showed that this composite microstructure, although it appears as a eutectic microstructure, did not grow in the coupled manner at the advancing interface in the Sn-cd system. However, a new observation was made when experiments were carried out in thin ampoule of Ta. The peritectic phase nucleated at the wall-interface triple junction and grew along the wall, while the primary phase continued to grow at the center, giving rise to a steady-state couple growth at some specific velocity. The mechanism of coupled growth in this case was shown to be operative due to the presence of a finite contact angle at the wall, and this was demonstrated by including the contact angle effect at the wall in the rod eutectic growth model. The experimental results were summarized to map out the conditions of thermal gradient and velocity on the regimes of composite and oscillatory microstructure formation. The formation of complex time-dependent microstructures was then discussed in terms of the time-dependent dynamics of planar interface growth.

Jong Ho Shin

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

ODD NITROGEN PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

including observed nitrogen dioxide, Pure Appl. Geophys,Stratosphere Observation of Nitrogen Dioxide Rates of Ozoneby photolysis of nitrogen dioxide and regeneration of ozone:

Johnston, Harold S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

One Component Two Phase Flow in Horizontal and Vertical Ducts: Some Basic Considerations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For a description and analysis of the flow they consider the conservation equations of the two phases separately, but in thermal and mechanical equilibrium, coupled by the itnerface shear forces (two fluid model, drift flux model). Coupling may be weak or strong, depending on Froude and Mach numbers of the flow. The fluid is highly compressible, not because the individual phases move at such speeds that their individual density changes are significant but because evapiration (phase change) results in large density changes of the system at moderate pressure or temperature changes once flashing occurs. The slip between the phases is caused by unequal wall shear stress, acceleration of the fluid or gravitational forces and is hindered by the interface interaction. if they denote by {gamma} the ratio of the liquid density to the vapor density and by {sigma} the ratio of the vapor speed to the liquid speed they find that in horizontal flows {sigma} = {gamma}{sup 1/2} yields the maximum slip (neglecting acceleration effects) that can be reached with no interface force acting (assuming equal friction coefficients for both phases at the wall). If one investigates the conditions of thermodynamic flow similarity between different substances in two phase flow, one finds that the latent heat of vaporization is the principal controlling parameter. Thus, a 5 cm diameter test section in two phase R-114, at room temperature, corresponds to a 30 cm diameter duct in water-steam at boiling conditions at high temperatures such as encountered in geothermal and other power production systems.

Maeder, Paul F.; Dickinson, David A.; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)ttpt for X&100 (/he m(N] tp for X&IQQ 0 1 = E+ 3 24 ? I. 'tl Fo. 045 Wee. oss AP2e m-(~ Jtlspt(t X & 0. 6 (OYERFREDIcr) LOW AND MIDRANGE QUALITIES (UNDERPREDICI) EQUATIONS APPLICABLE REGION @z pl~ DpsUs HIGH QUALITIES ANNULAR FLOW P~P &i (D-25... that: D 1 D-25 (24) where u is the void fraction. Thus, equation (14)becomes: (dE) d 24 Finally, the two-phase pressure drop is: Apze = -(~)zy L = ? ~ 4z; dz D Ma (25). (2~). m~dl Mcd 3 Friedel [13] proposed a method based on a bank of 25...

Lambert, Anne

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Two-phase, two-component Stirling engine with controlled evaporation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a Stirling-like engine, the specific power can be greatly increased by the use of a two-component, two-phase working fluid. Theory and experiments have indicated that a two- to threefold increase is easily attainable. This report shows that by controlling the rate at which the liquid is evaporated into the expansion cylinder, still larger increases may be achieved under quite reasonable operating conditions. Successful application of this principle would make it practicable to operate engines with moderate hot-end temperatures and perhaps even with the very low temperatures available from simple nontracking solar collectors.

West, C.D.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Estimating rock properties in two phase petroleum reservoirs: an error analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 60x10 1. 16x10 4. 16x10 1. 01 9. 13x10 1. 51 2. 07%10 6. 51x10 5. 42x10 8. 18 3. 16x10 26 function approximated in the tt parameter space gives a mean prediction error which is essentially zero. However, using the permeability estimates obtained.... G ver (Mem er) . L. Curry . D. Ho land ( d of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT Estimating Rock Properties In Two Phase Petroleum Reservoirs: An Error Analysis. (December 1983) Anthony Ian Paul B. Sc. , Imperial College, London University...

Paul, Anthony Ian

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and absolute contributions of nitric acid (HNO3) and NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) to totalTropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition, and Chemistry at Harvard Forest A thesis. Steven C. Wofsy Cassandra Volpe Horii Tropospheric Reactive Nitrogen Speciation, Deposition

216

On-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous acid (HONO) produced by internalOn-Road Emission Measurements of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds from Three California Cities G A R Y measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds from light-duty vehicles. At the San Jose and wLA sites

Denver, University of

217

Development of a Spectroscopic Technique for Continuous Online Monitoring of Oxygen and Site-Specific Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting-substance. Its sources are diffuse and poorly characterized, complicating efforts to understand anthropogenic impacts and develop mitigation policies. Online, ...

Harris, Eliza

218

Implementing a Time-and Location-Differentiated Cap-and-Trade Program: Flexible Nitrogen Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin B.A., Physics Reed College Oxide Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States by Katherine C. Martin Submitted

de Weck, Olivier L.

219

Two-phase behavior and compression effects in the PEFC gas diffusion medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key performance limitation in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. A key contributor to the mass transport loss is the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) due to the blockage of available pore space by liquid water thus rendering hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites in the electrode. The GDL, therefore, plays an important role in the overall water management in the PEFC. The underlying pore-morphology and the wetting characteristics have significant influence on the flooding dynamics in the GDL. Another important factor is the role of cell compression on the GDL microstructural change and hence the underlying two-phase behavior. In this article, we present the development of a pore-scale modeling formalism coupled With realistic microstructural delineation and reduced order compression model to study the structure-wettability influence and the effect of compression on two-phase behavior in the PEFC GDL.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulz, Volker P [APL-LANDAU GMBH; Wang, Chao - Yang [PENN STATE UNIV; Becker, Jurgen [NON LANL; Wiegmann, Andreas [NON LANL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

MPPC versus MRS APD in two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-phase Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) with combined THGEM/GAPD multiplier have become an emerging potential technique for dark matter search and coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments. In such a multiplier the THGEM hole avalanches are optically recorded in the Near Infrared (NIR) using a matrix of Geiger-mode APDs (GAPDs). To select the proper sensor, the performances of six GAPD types manufactured by different companies, namely by Hamamatsu (MPPCs), CPTA (MRS APDs) and SensL (SiPMs), have been comparatively studied at cryogenic temperatures when operated in two-phase CRADs in Ar at 87 K. While the GAPDs with ceramic packages failed to operate properly at cryogenic temperatures, those with plastic packages, namely MPPC S10931-100P and MRS APD 149-35, showed satisfactory performances at 87 K. In addition, MPPC S10931-100P turned out to be superior in terms of the higher detection efficiency, lower nose rate, lower pixel quenching resistor and better characteristics reproducibility.

Bondar, A; Dolgov, A; Shemyakina, E; Sokolov, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Seismic reflection evidence for two phase development of Tertiary basins from east-central Nevada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two east-west seismic reflection profiles crossing Antelope Valley, Smokey Valley, Railroad Valley and Big Sand Springs Valley demonstrate the evolution of Tertiary extension from broad sags to narrow, fault-bounded basins. Seismic reflection data was acquired for the Anschutz Corporation by the Digicon Corporation during the winter of 1988/1989. Reprocessing of a 480 channel, 60 fold, dynamite source experiment enabled good imaging of the basin stratigraphy. These data suggest two distinct phases of basin development occurred, separated by a regional unconformity. The early phase is characterized by development of a broad basin riddled with many small offset normal faults. The later phase shows a narrowing of the basin and subsidence along one dominant structure, an apparent planar normal fault. The unconformity separating the two phases of extension marks a transition from broad subsidence to local asymmetric tilting that took place over a short period of time relative to sedimentation rates. Antelope Valley and Railroad Valley clearly show strong evidence for two phase development, whereas Smokey Valley represents mostly the early phase and Big Sand Springs Valley represents only the later phase of extension. The absence of dating within the basins precludes the authors from determining if the abrupt tectonic transition within the basins resulted from differences in local strain rates or amounts, or was due to changes in regional stress fields.

Liberty, L.M.; Heller, P.L.; Smithson, S.B. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

223

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Semiannual report, Apr 1, 1998--Oct 31, 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823--900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures. The sorbents consisting of cerium oxide and copper oxide impregnated on alumina have been prepared and characterized. Their sulfation performance has been investigated in a TGA setup, studying mainly the effects of temperature and sorbent composition. The results of the sulfation experiments have been evaluated and presented in this report. A study to model the sulfation selectivity of the two constituents of the sorbents is also underway.

Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

1998-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Meso-Scale Modeling of Spall in a Heterogeneous Two-Phase Material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of the heterogeneous second-phase particle structure and applied loading conditions on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material was investigated. Quantitative metallography, three-dimensional (3D) meso-scale simulations (MSS), and small-scale spall experiments provided the foundation for this study. Nodular ductile iron (NDI) was selected as the model two-phase material for this study because it contains a large and readily identifiable second- phase particle population. Second-phase particles serve as the primary void nucleation sites in NDI and are, therefore, central to its ductile spall response. A mathematical model was developed for the NDI second-phase volume fraction that accounted for the non-uniform particle size and spacing distributions within the framework of a length-scale dependent Gaussian probability distribution function (PDF). This model was based on novel multiscale sampling measurements. A methodology was also developed for the computer generation of representative particle structures based on their mathematical description, enabling 3D MSS. MSS were used to investigate the effects of second-phase particle volume fraction and particle size, loading conditions, and physical domain size of simulation on the ductile spall response of a model two-phase material. MSS results reinforce existing model predictions, where the spall strength metric (SSM) logarithmically decreases with increasing particle volume fraction. While SSM predictions are nearly independent of applied load conditions at lower loading rates, which is consistent with previous studies, loading dependencies are observed at higher loading rates. There is also a logarithmic decrease in SSM for increasing (initial) void size, as well. A model was developed to account for the effects of loading rate, particle size, matrix sound-speed, and, in the NDI-specific case, the probabilistic particle volume fraction model. Small-scale spall experiments were designed and executed for the purpose of validating closely-coupled 3D MSS. While the spall strength is nearly independent of specimen thickness, the fragment morphology varies widely. Detailed MSS demonstrate that the interactions between the tensile release waves are altered by specimen thickness and that these interactions are primarily responsible for fragment formation. MSS also provided insights on the regional amplification of damage, which enables the development of predictive void evolution models.

Springer, H K

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

227

Qualitative Behaviour of Solutions for the Two-Phase Navier-Stokes Equations with Surface Tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The two-phase free boundary value problem for the isothermal Navier-Stokes system is studied for general bounded geometries in absence of phase transitions, external forces and boundary contacts. It is shown that the problem is well-posed in an Lp-setting, and that it generates a local semiflow on the induced phase manifold. If the phases are connected, the set of equilibria of the system forms a (n+1)-dimensional manifold, each equilibrium is stable, and it is shown that global solutions which do not develop singularities converge to an equilibrium as time goes to infinity. The latter is proved by means of the energy functional combined with the generalized principle of linearized stability.

Matthias Khne; Jan Pruess; Mathias Wilke

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Scaling of Steady-State Effective Permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent experiment has considered the effective permeability of two-phase flow of air and a water-glycerol solution under steady-state conditions in a two-dimensional model porous medium, and found a power law dependence with respect to capillary number. Running simulations on a two-dimensional network model a similar power law is found, for high viscosity contrast as in the experiment and also for viscosity matched fluids. Two states are found, one with stagnant clusters and one without. For the stagnant cluster state, a power law exponent 0.50 is found for viscosity matched fluids and 0.54 for large viscosity contrast. When there are no stagnant clusters the exponent depends on saturation and varies within the range of 0.67 - 0.80.

Grva, Morten

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media: Scaling of Steady-State Effective Permeability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent experiment has considered the effective permeability of two-phase flow of air and a water-glycerol solution under steady-state conditions in a two-dimensional model porous medium, and found a power law dependence with respect to capillary number. Running simulations on a two-dimensional network model a similar power law is found, for high viscosity contrast as in the experiment and also for viscosity matched fluids. Two states are found, one with stagnant clusters and one without. For the stagnant cluster state, a power law exponent 0.50 is found for viscosity matched fluids and 0.54 for large viscosity contrast. When there are no stagnant clusters the exponent depends on saturation and varies within the range of 0.67 - 0.80.

Morten Grva

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

230

Two-phase flow visualization in a transparent, atmospheric pressure, boiling water loop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Simulant Boiling Flow Visualization (SBFV) loop, a transparent, atmospheric pressure test apparatus employing boiling water as a simulant for boiling liquid sodium, has been designed and operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The objective of testing in this loop has been to study two-phase flow behavior that is phenomenologically similar to that observed in sodium boiling experiments, as part of the US Department of Energy Breeder Reactor Safety Program. A detailed description of the design of the SBFV loop is presented, as well as experimental results that show the similarity between low-power boiling behavior in water and liquid sodium. Future tests are planned in a seven-pin flow visualization bundle that will be installed in the SBFV loop. The design of this bundle is also discussed.

Levin, A.E.; Carbajo, J.J.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

A two-phase flow model of sediment transport: transition from bedload to suspended load  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transport of dense particles by a turbulent flow depends on two dimensionless numbers. Depending on the ratio of the shear velocity of the flow to the settling velocity of the particles (or the Rouse number), sediment transport takes place in a thin layer localized at the surface of the sediment bed (bedload) or over the whole water depth (suspended load). Moreover, depending on the sedimentation Reynolds number, the bedload layer is embedded in the viscous sublayer or is larger. We propose here a two-phase flow model able to describe both viscous and turbulent shear flows. Particle migration is described as resulting from normal stresses, but is limited by turbulent mixing and shear-induced diffusion of particles. Using this framework, we theoretically investigate the transition between bedload and suspended load.

Filippo Chiodi; Philippe Claudin; Bruno Andreotti

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

232

Effect of virtual mass on the characteristics and the numerical stability in two-phase flows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is known that the typical six equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow possesses complex characteristics, exhibits unbounded instabilities in the short-wavelength limit and constitutes an ill-posed initial value problem. Among the suggestions to overcome these difficulties, one model for the virtual mass force terms were studied here, because the virtual mass represents real physical effects to accomplish the dissipation for numerical stability. It was found that the virtual mass has a profound effect upon the mathematical characteristic and numerical stability. Here a quantitative bound on the coefficient of the virtual mass terms was suggested for mathematical hyperbolicity and numerical stability. It was concluded that the finite difference scheme with the virtual mass model is restricted only by the convective stability conditions with the above suggested value.

No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Fluid breakup during simultaneous two-phase flow through a three-dimensional porous medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use confocal microscopy to directly visualize the simultaneous flow of both a wetting and a non-wetting fluid through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium. We find that, for small flow rates, both fluids flow through unchanging, distinct, connected 3D pathways; in stark contrast, at sufficiently large flow rates, the non-wetting fluid is broken up into discrete ganglia. By performing experiments over a range of flow rates, using fluids of different viscosities, and with porous media having different geometries, we show that this transition can be characterized by a state diagram that depends on the capillary numbers of both fluids, suggesting that it is controlled by the competition between the viscous forces exerted on the flowing oil and the capillary forces at the pore scale. Our results thus help elucidate the diverse range of behaviors that arise in two-phase flow through a 3D porous medium.

Sujit S. Datta; Jean-Baptiste Dupin; David A. Weitz

2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development and validation of a two-phase, three-dimensional model for PEM fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To develop and validate a two-phase, three-dimensional transport modelfor simulating PEM fuel cell performance under a wide range of operating conditions; (2) To apply the validated PEM fuel cell model to improve fundamental understanding of key phenomena involved and to identify rate-limiting steps and develop recommendations for improvements so as to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell technology; (3) The validated PEMFC model can be employed to improve and optimize PEM fuel cell operation. Consequently, the project helps: (i) address the technical barriers on performance, cost, and durability; and (ii) achieve DOE's near-term technical targets on performance, cost, and durability in automotive and stationary applications.

Chen, Ken Shuang

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Preliminary tests using magnetic resonance imaging of two-phase flow patterns and transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of preliminary tests used to establish the feasibility of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine and quantitatively characterize two-phase flow patterns and flow transitions. These tests were performed at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine MRI Center as a collaborative research effort with Oregon State University (OSU). Special scanning sequences designed by UCSF for flow imaging were implemented in the tests. UCSF operated the MRI facility, and OSU constructed and operated a cocurrent air-water flow loop consisting of a 1-in.-diam test section capable of producing air superficial velocities j[sub g] ranging from 0.3 to 14 m/s, and water superficial velocities j[sub l] ranging from 0.08 to 1.3 m/s.

Reyes, J.N. Jr.; Lafi, A.Y. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)); Saloner, D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Numerical simulation of two-phase flow in discrete fractures using Rayleigh-Ritz finite element method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spontaneous imbibition plays a very important role in the displacement mechanism of non-wetting fluid in naturally fractured reservoirs. We developed a new 2D two-phase finite element numerical model, as available commercial simulators cannot...

Kaul, Sandeep P.

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

237

Two-phase xenon emission detector with electron multiplier and optical readout by multipixel avalanche Geiger photodiodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A successful operation of a new optical readout system (THGEM + WLS + MGPDs (multichannel array of multipixel avalanche Geiger photodiodes) in a two-phase liquid xenon detector was demonstrated.

Akimov, D Yu; Alexandrov, I S; Belov, V A; Bolozdynya, A I; Burenkov, A A; Buzulutskov, A F; Danilov, M V; Efremenko, Yu V; Kirsanov, M A; Kovalenko, A G; Stekhanov, V N

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

characterization and visualization of two-phase flow properties of gas diffusion layers used in a PEM fuel cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Due to the low-temperature operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), liquid water can build up in either flow channels or gas diffusion layers (GDL). Better understanding of the effect of two-phase ...

Gao, Yan

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

239

The effect of virtual mass on the characteristics and the numerical stability in two-phase flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is known that the typical six equation two-fluid model of the two-phase flow possesses complex characteristics, exhibits unbounded instabilities in the short-wavelength limit and constitutes an ill-posed initial value ...

No, H. C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Convergence of a MFEFV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Convergence of a MFE­FV method for two phase flow with applications to heap leaching of copper ores in porous media, with applications to heap leaching of copper ores. These approximations are based on mixed

Sepúlveda, Mauricio

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Phase-space representation of digital holographic and light field imaging with application to two-phase flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, two computational imaging techniques used for underwater research, in particular, two-phase flows measurements, are presented. The techniques under study, digital holographic imaging and light field imaging, ...

Tian, Lei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

The Effect of the Treatment of Localised Friction in Two-Phase Mixtures on the Stability of Parallel Channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional analytical model has been developed to be used for the linear analysis of density-wave oscillations in a parallel heated channel. The heated channel is divided into a single-phase and a two-phase region. The two-phase region is represented by the homogeneous model. The localised friction at the channel exit is treated considering the two-phase mixture. The exact equation for the total channel pressure drop is perturbed around the steady state. The stability characteristics of the heated channel are investigated using the Nyquist criterion. The marginal stability boundary (MSB) is determined in the two-dimensional thermodynamic equilibrium space parameters, the subcooled boiling number and the phase change number. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental results published in open literature. The results indicate a more stable system with (1) low system pressure, (2) high inlet restriction, (3) low outlet restriction, and (4) high inlet velocity. The results show that the model agrees well with the available experimental data. In particular, the results show the significance of correcting the localised friction due to the presence of the two-phase mixture in the two-phase region: explicit inclusion of the two-phase localised friction improves the agreement with experimental results. This effect is more important for high heating power and high inlet subcooling. (authors)

Abdou, H.N.; Garea, V.B. [Instituto Balseiro and Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche, RN 8400 (Argentina); Larreteguy, A.E. [Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Lima 717, 1073 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

High-nitrogen explosives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it has a greater CJ pressure and detonation velocity. In an effort to reduce the critical diameter of TATB without sacrificing its insensitivity, we have studied the explosive performances of TATB mixed with DAAzlF (X-0561) and TATB mixed with DAAF (X-0563).

Naud, D. (Darren); Hiskey, M. A. (Michael A.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Bishop, R. L. (Robert L.); Harry, H. H. (Herbert H.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.); Sullivan, G. K. (Gregg K.)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Quantum-chemical investigation of the interaction of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with the Lewis acid sites of aluminium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Within the framework of the cluster approximation, using covalent and ionic models of Lewis acid sites of aluminumoxide, their electronic structure, as well as that of complexes of nitrogen and carbon monoxide molecules with them, was calculated. It was shown that the Lewis acid sites, representing a truncated tetrahedron, exhibit stronger electron-acceptor properties than the corresponding sites in the form of a truncated octahedron. For both molecules, the linear form of adsorption is energetically more profitable than the T-shaped form. The results obtained by the nonempirical SCF MO LCAO method in the STO-3GF basis and by semiempirical methods in CNDO/2 and INDO approximatations, are qualitatively the same.

Senchenya, I.N.; Chuvylkin, N.D.; Kazanskii, V.B.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Experimental Study of Two Phase Flow Behavior Past BWR Spacer Grids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Performance of best estimate codes used in the nuclear industry can be significantly improved by reducing the empiricism embedded in their constitutive models. Spacer grids have been found to have an important impact on the maximum allowable Critical Heat Flux within the fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor core. Therefore, incorporation of suitable spacer grids models can improve the critical heat flux prediction capability of best estimate codes. Realistic modeling of entrainment behavior of spacer grids requires understanding the different mechanisms that are involved. Since visual information pertaining to the entrainment behavior of spacer grids cannot possibly be obtained from operating nuclear reactors, experiments have to be designed and conducted for this specific purpose. Most of the spacer grid experiments available in literature have been designed in view of obtaining quantitative data for the purpose of developing or modifying empirical formulations for heat transfer, critical heat flux or pressure drop. Very few experiments have been designed to provide fundamental information which can be used to understand spacer grid effects and phenomena involved in two phase flow. Air-water experiments were conducted to obtain visual information on the two-phase flow behavior both upstream and downstream of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) spacer grids. The test section was designed and constructed using prototypic dimensions such as the channel cross-section, rod diameter and other spacer grid configurations of a typical BWR fuel assembly. The test section models the flow behavior in two adjacent sub channels in the BWR core. A portion of a prototypic BWR spacer grid accounting for two adjacent channels was used with industrial mild steel rods for the purpose of representing the channel internals. Symmetry was preserved in this practice, so that the channel walls could effectively be considered as the channel boundaries. Thin films were established on the rod surfaces by injecting water through a set of perforations at the bottom ends of the rods, ensuring that the flow upstream of the bottom-most spacer grid is predominantly annular. The flow conditions were regulated such that they represent typical BWR operating conditions. Photographs taken during experiments show that the film entrainment increases significantly at the spacer grids, since the points of contact between the rods and the grids result in a peeling off of large portions of the liquid film from the rod surfaces. Decreasing the water flow resulted in eventual drying out, beginning at positions immediately upstream of the spacer grids. (authors)

Ratnayake, Ruwan K.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Ivanov, K.N.; Cimbala, J.M. [The Pennsylvania State University, 237 Reber Building, University Park, PA (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

The Influence of Morphology on the Charge Transport in Two-Phase Disordered Organic Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we use a three-dimensional Pauli master equation to investigate the charge carrier mobility of a two-phase system, which can mimic donor-acceptor and amorphous- crystalline bulk heterojunctions. Our approach can be separated into two parts: the morphology generation and the charge transport modeling in the generated blend. The morphology part is based on a Monte Carlo simulation of binary mixtures (donor/acceptor). The second part is carried out by numerically solving the steady-state Pauli master equation. By taking the energetic disorder of each phase, their energy offset and domain morphology into consideration, we show that the carrier mobility can have a significant different behavior when compared to a one-phase system. When the energy offset is non-zero, we show that the mobility electric field dependence switches from negative to positive at a threshold field proportional to the energy offset. Additionally, the influence of morphology, through the domain size and the interfacial roughness parameters, on the transport was also investigated.

Cristiano F. Woellner; Leonardo D. Machado; Pedro A. S. Autreto; Jose A. Freire; Douglas S. Galvao

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hot-film anemometer measurements in adiabatic two-phase flow through a vertical duct  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hot-film anemometer (HFA) probe was used to obtain local measurements of void fraction and bubble frequency in a vertically oriented, high aspect ratio duct containing R-134a under selected adiabatic two-phase flow conditions. Data were obtained along a narrow dimension scan over the range 0.03 {le} {bar Z} {le} 0.80, where {bar Z} is the distance from the wall normalized with the duct spacing dimension. The void fraction profiles displayed large gradients in the near-wall regions and broad maxima near the duct centerline. The trends in the bubble frequency data generally follow those for the local void fraction data. However, the relatively large number of bubbles at higher pressure implies a larger magnitude of the interfacial area concentration, for the same cross-sectional average void fraction. For the two annular flow conditions tested, analysis of the HFA output voltage signal enabled identification of three distinct regions of the flow field; liquid film with dispersed bubbles, interfacial waves, and continuous vapor with dispersed droplets.

Trabold, T.A.; Moore, W.E.; Morris, W.O. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Inflow performance relationship curves in two-phase and three-phase flow conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research investigates inflow performance relationship IPR curves for two and three-phase flow conditions, using a one-dimensional, three-phase cylindrical reservoir simulator. Using the simulator, a new method for predicting future IPR curves was developed. IPR curves for two-phase flow conditions from a well producing from low permeability formations are also presented. The purpose of this investigation is to predict the IPR curves at pseudo-steady state conditions using flowing test data obtained during the transient period. The new equations have also been applied to data from the simulator with good agreement. Three-phase IPR curves are also determined by using the simulator, and seven different hypothetical three-phase reservoir cases were studied. Three-hundred and eighty five data points were collected using 5 different values of water cut. Regression analysis techniques were applied to the data points and the new equations for predicting the three-phase IPR curves were developed. Comparison of the new equations to results from the simulator show excellent agreement.

Sukarno, P.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Determination of volume fractions in two-phase flows from sound speed measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of the composition of oil-water emulsions within the process environment is a challenging problem in the oil industry. Ultrasonic techniques are promising because they are non-invasive and can penetrate optically opaque mixtures. This paper presents a method of determining the volume fractions of two immiscible fluids in a homogenized two-phase flow by measuring the speed of sound through the composite fluid along with the instantaneous temperature. Two separate algorithms are developed by representing the composite density as (i) a linear combination of the two densities, and (ii) a non-linear fractional formulation. Both methods lead to a quadratic equation with temperature dependent coefficients, the root of which yields the volume fraction. The densities and sound speeds are calibrated at various temperatures for each fluid component, and the fitted polynomial is used in the final algorithm. We present results when the new algorithm is applied to mixtures of crude oil and process water from two different oil fields, and a comparison of our results with a Coriolis meter; the difference between mean values is less than 1%. Analytical and numerical studies of sensitivity of the calculated volume fraction to temperature changes and calibration errors are also presented.

Chaudhuri, Anirban [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Osterhoudt, Curtis F. [University of Alaska

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant to dissipate the heat energy (loss) generated by power electronics (PE) such as those associated with rectifiers, converters, and inverters for a specific application in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature of PE devices while conserving weight and volume of the heat sink without sacrificing equipment reliability. First, experimental tests that included an extended soak for more than 300 days were performed on a submerged IGBT and gate-controller card to study dielectric characteristics, deterioration effects, and heat flux capability of R134a. Results from these tests illustrate that R134a has high dielectric characteristics, no deterioration on electrical components, and a heat flux of 114 W/cm 2 for the experimental configuration. Second, experimental tests that included simultaneous operation with a mock automotive air-conditioner (A/C) system were performed on the same IGBT and gate controller card. Data extrapolation from these tests determined that a typical automotive A/C system has more than sufficient cooling capacity to cool a typical 30 kW traction inverter. Last, a discussion and simulation of active cooling of the IGBT junction layer with R134a refrigerant is given. This technique will drastically increase the forward current ratings and reliability of the PE device

Lowe, Kirk T [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Campbell, Jeremy B [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A simple extension of two-phase characteristic curves to include the dry region  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-phase characteristic curves are necessary for the simulation of water and vapor flow in porous media. Existing functions such as van Genuchten, Brooks and Corey, and Luckner et al. have significant limitations in the dry region as the liquid saturation goes to zero. This region, which is important in a number of applications including liquid and vapor flow and vapor-solid sorption, has been the subject of a number of previous investigations. Most previous studies extended standard capillary pressure curves into the adsorption region to zero water content and required a refitting of the revised curves to the data. In contrast, the present method provides for a simple extension of existing capillary pressure curves without the need to refit the experimental data. Therefore, previous curve fits can be used, and the transition between the existing fit and the relationship in the adsorption region is easily calculated. The data-model comparison shows good agreement. This extension is a simple and convenient way to extend existing curves to the dry region.

WEBB,STEPHEN W.

2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

252

Crossover from capillary fingering to compact invasion for two-phase drainage with stable viscosity ratios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motivated by a wide range of applications from enhanced oil recovery to carbon dioxide sequestration, we have developed a two-dimensional, pore-level model of immiscible drainage, incorporating viscous, capillary, and gravitational effects. This model has been validated quantitatively, in the very different limits of zero viscosity ratio and zero capillary number; flow patterns from modeling agree well with experiment. For a range of stable viscosity ratios (?injected/?displaced 1), we have increased the capillary number, Nc, and studied the way in which the flows deviate from capillary fingering (the fractal flow of invasion percolation) and become compact for realistic capillary numbers. Results exhibiting this crossover from capillary fingering to compact invasion are presented for the average position of the injected fluid, the fluidfluid interface, the saturation and fractional flow profiles, and the relative permeabilities. The agreement between our results and earlier theoretical predictions [Blunt M, King MJ, Scher H. Simulation and theory of two-phase flow in porous media. Phys Rev A 1992;46:768099; Lenormand R. Flow through porous media: limits of fractal patterns. Proc Roy Soc A 1989;423:15968; Wilkinson D. Percolation effects in immiscible displacement. Phys Rev A 1986;34:138090; Xu B, Yortsos YC, Salin D. Invasion Percolation with viscous forces. Phys Rev E 1998;57:73951] supports the validity of these general theoretical arguments, which were independent of the details of the porous media in both two and three dimensions.

Ferer, M.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Smith, D.H

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Two-phase unsaturated flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Report on Current Understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. civilian nuclear waste program is unique in its focus on disposal of high-level wastes in the unsaturated zone (UZ), above the water table. The potential repository site currently under investigation is located in a semi-arid region of the southwestern U.S. at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geology of the site consists of layered sequences of faulted, fractured, and bedded tuffs. The groundwater table is approximately 600 m beneath the land surface, while the proposed repository horizon is at a nominal depth of approximately 375 m. In this kind of environment, two-phase flow is not just a localized perturbation to natural conditions, as in the saturated zone, but is the predominant mode of water and gas flow. The purpose of this report is to review the current understanding of gas and water flow, and mass transport, in the unique hydrogeologic environment of Yucca Mountain. Characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site are examined, and concepts and mathematical modeling approaches are described for variably saturated flow in thick unsaturated zones of fractured rock. The paper includes a brief summary of the disposal concept and repository design, as developed by a team of engineering contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with strong participation from the DOE National Laboratories.

Pruess, K.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

NONE

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Lignite-based nitrogenous fertilizers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample of lignite from Elbistan was oxidized by nitric acid in two stages, using relatively dilute acid in the first stage and concentrated acid in the second stage, and then the oxidized product was ammoniated so that a coal-based fertilizer could be produced. The experiments of all the stages were designed by a 1/2 X full factorial design. It was observed that base exchange capacity and nitrogen content of coal-based fertilizers produced in this work were as good as or better than those obtained by other investigators.

Baris, H.; Dincer, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Two-phase flow instability and dryout in parallel channels in natural circulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique feature of parallel channel flows is that the pressure drop or driving head for the flow is maintained constant across any given channel by the flow in all the others, or by having a large downcomer or bypass in a natural circulation loop. This boundary condition is common in all heat exchangers, reactor cores and boilers, it is well known that the two-phase flow in parallel channels can exhibit both so-called static and dynamic instability. This leads to the question of the separability of the flow and pressure drop boundary conditions in the study of stability and dryout. For the areas of practical interest, the flow can be considered as incompressible. The dynamic instability is characterized by density (kinematic) or continuity waves, and the static instability by inertial (pressure drop) or manometric escalations. The static has been considered to be the zero-frequency or lowest mode of the dynamic case. We briefly review the status of the existing literature on both parallel channel static and dynamic instability, and the latest developments in theory and experiment. The difference between the two derivations lies in the retention of the time-dependent terms in the conservation equations. The effects and impact of design options are also discussed. Since dryout in parallel systems follows instability, it has been traditional to determine the dryout power for a parallel channel by testing a single channel with a given (inlet) flow boundary condition without particular regard for the pressure drop. Thus all modern dryout correlations are based on constant or fixed flow tests, a so-called hard inlet, and subchannel and multiple bundle effects are corrected for separately. We review the thinking that lead to this approach, and suggest that for all multiple channel and natural circulation systems close attention should be paid to the actual (untested) pressure drop conditions. A conceptual formulation is suggested as a basis for discussion.

Duffey, R.B.; Rohatgi, U.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hughes, E.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Magnetic Reconnection During the Two-Phase Evolution of a Solar Eruptive Flare  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a detailed multi-wavelength analysis and interpretation of the evolution of an M7.6 flare on October 24, 2003. The X-ray observations of the flare taken from the RHESSI spacecraft reveal two phases of the flare evolution. The first phase is characterized by the altitude decrease of the X-ray looptop (LT) source for $\\sim$11 minutes. Such a long duration of the descending LT source motion is reported for the first time. The EUV loops, located below the X-ray LT source, also undergo contraction with similar speed ($\\sim$15 km s$^{-1}$) in this interval. During the second phase the two distinct hard X-ray footpoints (FP) sources are observed which correlate well with UV and H$\\alpha$ flare ribbons. The X-ray LT source now exhibits upward motion. The RHESSI spectra during the first phase are soft and indicative of hot thermal emission from flaring loops with temperatures $T>25$ MK at the early stage. On the other hand, the spectra at high energies ($\\varepsilon \\gtrsim$25 keV) follow hard power laws during the second phase ($\\gamma = 2.6-2.8$). We show that the observed motion of the LT and FP sources can be understood as a consequence of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection at a separator in the corona. During the first phase of the flare, the reconnection releases an excess of magnetic energy related to the magnetic tensions generated before a flare by the shear flows in the photosphere. The relaxation of the associated magnetic shear in the corona by the reconnection process explains the descending motion of the LT source. During the second phase, the ordinary reconnection process dominates describing the energy release in terms of the standard model of large eruptive flares.

Bhuwan Joshi; Astrid Veronig; K. -S. Cho; S. -C. Bong; Y. -J. Moon; Jeongwoo Lee; B. V. Somov; P. K. Manoharan; Y. -H. Kim

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

Hassan, T.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides by ammonia over Fe{sup 3+}-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fe-exchanged TiO{sub 2}-pillared clay (PILC) catalysts were prepared and used for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by ammonia. They were also characterized for surface area, pore size distribution, and by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and FT-IR methods. The Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts showed high activities in the reduction of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3} in the presence of excess oxygen. SO{sub 2} further increased the catalytic activities at above 350 C, whereas H{sub 2}O decreased the activity slightly. The catalysts were about twice as active as commercial-type V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. Moreover, compared to the commercial catalyst, the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts had higher N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O product selectivities (e.g., 0--1% vs 9% N{sub 2}O at 400 C) and substantially lower activities (by 74--88%) for SO{sub 2} oxidation to SO{sub 3} under the same reaction conditions. The activity was further increased to over three times that of the vanadia-based catalyst when Ce was added. The high activity and low N{sub 2}O selectivity for the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were attributed to their low activity in the oxidation of ammonia, as compared with vanadia catalysts. XRD patterns of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC were similar to those of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, showing no peaks due to iron oxide, even when the iron content reached 20.1%. The TPR results indicated that iron in the Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts with lower iron contents existed in the form of isolated Fe{sup 3+} ions. The activities of Fe-TiO{sub 2}-PILC catalysts were consistent with their surface acidities, which were identified by FT-IR of the NH{sub 3}-adsorbed samples. The enhancement of activities by H{sub 2}O + SO{sub 2} was attributed to the increase of surface acidity resulting from the formation of surface sulfate species of iron.

Long, R.Q.; Yang, R.T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

262

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company's Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

263

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third quarter 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The primary goal of this project is the characterization of the low NO{sub x} combustion equipment through the collection and analysis of long-term emissions data. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The project provides a stepwise retrofit of an Advanced Overfire Air (AOFA) system followed by Low NO{sub x} Burners (LNB). During each test phase of the project, diagnostic, performance, long-term, and verification testing will be performed. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency.

Not Available

1992-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

265

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, [October--December, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NOx control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NOx concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NOx reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. During this quarter, tests of the LNCFS Level III system were conducted to determine the effect that fuel fineness has on NOx emissions and unburned carbon levels. Results showed that changing the fineness of the fuel has almost no effect on NOx emissions; however, unburned carbon levels can be reduced significantly by increasing fuel fineness.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 [times] l0[sup [minus]4] m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

Kielpinski, A.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Flow regime mapping of vertical two-phase downflow in a ribbed annulus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-phase flow regimes have been mapped for vertical, cocurrent downflow in a narrow annulus which is partially segmented by the presence of longitudinal ribs. This geometry and flow condition has application to the analysis of a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LB-LOCA) in the production K-Reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The ribbed annular geometry, particularly the presence of non-sealing ribs, gives rise to some unique phenomenological features. The flow behavior is influenced by the partial segmentation of the annulus into four quadrants or subchannels. A random element is induced by the natural bowing of the slender tubes; the width of the azimuthal flow path between two subchannels at a given axial location is indeterminate, and can take on any value between zero and the maximum clearance of 7.6 {times} l0{sup {minus}4} m. When the rib gap is zero at a given location, it is at a maximum 180P away at the same axial location. The range of rib gaps is spanned in a single test section, as it would be also in a reactor assembly. As a result of these effects, flow regime maps obtained by other researchers for downflow in annuli are not accurate for defining flow regimes in a ribbed annulus. Flow regime transitions similar to those noted by, e.g., Bamea, were observed; the locations of these transitions were displaced with respect to the transition equations derived by Bamea. Experimental bubble rise velocity measurements were also obtained in the same test section. The bubble rise velocities were much higher than expected from the theory developed for slug bubbles in tubes, unribbed annuli, and rectangular channels. An elliptical-cap bubble rises faster than a slug bubble of the same area. Large, slug-shaped bubbles injected into the test section were observed to reduce in size as they rose, due to interaction with a longitudinal rib. They thereby adopted a shape more like an elliptical-cap bubble, hence rising faster than the original slug bubble.

Kielpinski, A.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A PARALLEL LEVEL-SET APPROACH FOR TWO-PHASE FLOW PROBLEMS WITH SURFACE TENSION IN THREE SPACE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A PARALLEL LEVEL-SET APPROACH FOR TWO-PHASE FLOW PROBLEMS WITH SURFACE TENSION IN THREE SPACE equations by the continuum surface force method. Surface tension is evaluated using a smoothed delta from the free surface. For the discretization of surface tension we need to apply a smoothing scheme

Sminchisescu, Cristian

269

A coupled volume-of-fluid and level set (VOSET) method for computing incompressible two-phase flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710049, PR China a r t i c l e i n f o processes such as chemical reactor, power plant, copper refining and internal combustion engine developed to simulate complex two-phase flow problems. The most important methods include the front tracking

Frey, Pascal

270

Development of an equivalent homogenous fluid model for pseudo-two-phase (air plus water) flow through fractured rock  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fracture flow of two-phase mixtures is particularly applicable to the coal mining and coal bed methane projects in Australia. A one-dimensional steady-state pseudo-two-phase flow model is proposed for fractured rock. The model considers free flow of a compressible mixture of air and water in an inclined planar fracture and is based upon the conservation of momentum and the 'cubic' law. The flow model is coupled to changes in the stress environment through the fracture normal stiffness, which is related to changes in fracture aperture. The model represents the individual air and water phases as a single equivalent homogenous fluid. Laboratory testing was performed using the two-phase high-pressure triaxial apparatus on 54 mm diameter (approximately 2: 1 height: diameter) borehole cores intersected by induced near-axial fractures. The samples were of Triassic arenaceous fine-medium grained sandstone (known as the Eckersley Formation) that is found locally in the Southern Coalfield of New South Wales. The sample fracture roughness was assessed using a technique based upon Fourier series analysis to objectively attribute a joint roughness coefficient. The proposed two-phase flow model was verified using the recorded laboratory data obtained over a range of triaxial confining pressures (i.e., fracture normal stresses).

Price, J.; Indraratna, B. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). School of Civil Engineering

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

DEVELOPMENT AND CALIBRATION OF A TWO-DYE FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR USE IN TWO-PHASE MICRO FLOW THERMOMETRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT AND CALIBRATION OF A TWO-DYE FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR USE IN TWO-PHASE MICRO FLOW has verified the ability to use single dyes to measure void fraction in isothermal cases and suggested the possibility of simultaneous thermometry using a system of two dyes. In the present work, we verify the ability

Hidrovo, Carlos H.

272

Effective thermal conductivity of two-phase functionally graded particulate H. M. Yin, G. H. Paulino,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, a continuous trade-off of fracture toughness and high thermal conductivity of metals is made with ceramic of the ceramic portions of FGMs. The effective thermal properties in the gradation direction are es- sentialEffective thermal conductivity of two-phase functionally graded particulate composites H. M. Yin, G

Paulino, Glaucio H.

273

PLASTIC FLOW AND STRUCTURAL MORPHOLOGY OF TWO PHASE MATERIALS BRETHEAU T., CALDEMAISON D., FEYLESSOUFI A., ZAOUI A.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

698 PLASTIC FLOW AND STRUCTURAL MORPHOLOGY OF TWO PHASE MATERIALS BRETHEAU T., CALDEMAISON D. 23 (1988) 698 AVRIL 1988,1 Up to now, the microheterogeneous material plastic modelling developped is the phase volume fraction which leads, at best, to upper and lower bounds for the overall plastic behaviour

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Model Incorporating Local Water Balance and Reactant Consumption in PEM Fuel Cell Gas Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and directly affects cost and sizing of fuel cell subsystems. Within several regions of PEMFC operating Fuel Cell Gas Channels E. J. See and S. G. Kandlikar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The ability to model two-phase flow and pressure drop

Kandlikar, Satish

275

A phase-field method for 3D simulation of two-phase heat transfer , H. Babaee a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the efficiency of the new method in simulating 3D multi-phase convective heat transfer on stationary gridsA phase-field method for 3D simulation of two-phase heat transfer X. Zheng a , H. Babaee a , S Keywords: Spectral element Non-moving grid Cahn­Hilliard equation Large thermal conductivity ratio a b

Dong, Suchuan "Steven"

276

A Nonisothermal, Two-Phase Model for Polymer Electrolyte Yun Wang* and Chao-Yang Wang**,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heating arising from protonic/electronic resistance, and latent heat of water condensation and/or evaporation. A theoretical analysis is presented to show that in the two-phase zone, water transport via vapor water removal from the gas diffusion layer GDL under the channel and exacerbates GDL flooding under

277

Two phase mixing comparison, oil contamination comparison and manufacturing accuracy effect on calibration of slotted orifice meters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are visually documented. The effect of manufacturing accuracy on the slotted orifice plates is investigated as to the effect on the coefficient of discharge, percent change in pressure, and Reynolds number. The slotted orifice plate mixes two-phase flow better...

Sparks, Sara A.

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Final report for the ASC gas-powder two-phase flow modeling project AD2006-09.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents activities performed in FY2006 under the ''Gas-Powder Two-Phase Flow Modeling Project'', ASC project AD2006-09. Sandia has a need to understand phenomena related to the transport of powders in systems. This report documents a modeling strategy inspired by powder transport experiments conducted at Sandia in 2002. A baseline gas-powder two-phase flow model, developed under a companion PEM project and implemented into the Sierra code FUEGO, is presented and discussed here. This report also documents a number of computational tests that were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and robustness of the new model. Although considerable progress was made in implementing the complex two-phase flow model, this project has identified two important areas that need further attention. These include the need to compute robust compressible flow solutions for Mach numbers exceeding 0.35 and the need to improve conservation of mass for the powder phase. Recommendations for future work in the area of gas-powder two-phase flow are provided.

Evans, Gregory Herbert; Winters, William S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

A flow pattern independent drift flux model based void fraction correlation for a wide range of gasliquid two phase flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

components), refrigerant charge inventory in evaporators and condensers and two phase heat transfer­glycerin, argon­ acetone, argon­ethanol, argon­alcohol, refrigerants (R11, R12, R22, R134a, R114, R410A, R290 practical applications pertaining to chemical, nu- clear, refrigeration and petroleum industries

Ghajar, Afshin J.

280

The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

Delnick, Frank M.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - atrbohd-mediated oxidative burst Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Extinction Brandon Lohman Summary: triggered by cosmic events. A high intensity gamma ray burst directed toward Earth may have irradiated our... of nitrogen oxides. These oxides...

282

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO{sub x} emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO{sub x} emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO{sub x} combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

283

Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired boilers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company's Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO[sub x] combustion technologies on NO[sub x] emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO[sub x] reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO[sub x] control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO[sub x] concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO[sub x] reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progess report presents the LNCFS Level III long-term data collected during this quarter. NO[sub x] emissions for each day of long-term testing are presented. The average NO[sub x] emission during long-term testing was 0.39 lb/MBtu at an average load of 155 MW. The effect of the low NO[sub x] combustion system on other combustion parameters such as carbon monoxide, excess oxygen level, and carbon carryover are also included.

Not Available

1992-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, second quarter 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This quarterly report discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The project is being conducted at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2 located near Panama City, Florida. The primary objective of this demonstration is to determine the long-term effects of commercially available tangentially-fired low NO{sub x} combustion technologies on NO{sub x} emissions and boiler performance. A target of achieving fifty percent NO{sub x} reduction using combustion modifications has been established for the project. The stepwise approach that is being used to evaluate the NO{sub x} control technologies requires three plant outages to successively install the test instrumentation and the different levels of the low NO{sub x} concentric firing system (LNCFS). Following each outage, a series of four groups of tests are performed. These are (1) diagnostic, (2) performance, (3) long-term, and (4) verification. These tests are used to quantify the NO{sub x} reductions of each technology and evaluate the effects of those reductions on other combustion parameters such as particulate characteristics and boiler efficiency. This technical progress report presents the LNCFS Level I short-term data collected during this quarter. In addition, a comparison of all the long-term emissions data that have been collected to date is included.

Not Available

1992-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

286

Continued development of a semianalytical solution for two-phase fluid and heat flow in a porous medium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past few years the authors have developed a semianalytical solution for transient two-phase water, air, and heat flow in a porous medium surrounding a constant-strength linear heat source, using a similarity variable {eta} = r/{radical}t. Although the similarity transformation approach requires a simplified geometry, all the complex physical mechanisms involved in coupled two-phase fluid and heat flow can be taken into account in a rigorous way, so that the solution may be applied to a variety of problems of current interest. The work was motivated by adverse to predict the thermohydrological response to the proposed geologic repository for heat-generating high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in a partially saturated, highly fractured volcanic formation. The paper describes thermal and hydrologic conditions near the heat source; new features of the model; vapor pressure lowering; and the effective-continuum representation of a fractured/porous medium.

Doughty, C.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Two-phase friction pressure drop through corrugated tubes and quick-disconnect attachments in reduced gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . 48 . . . . . . 5 0 . . . . . . 5 I APPENDIX A. VITA . . . 54 . . . . . 63 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Typical acceleration environment on the KC-135. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figure 2 Reduced gravity acceleration environment... D~d Tube inner diameter (m or mm) Friction factor (dimensionless) Two-phase &iction factor (dimensionless) Acceleration due to gravity (9. 8 m/sz) Tube axial acceleration (g's or m/sz) x-sxis acceleration (g's or m/s ) y-axis acceleration (g...

Marsden, Kenneth

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly. Final CRADA Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A direct numerical simulation capability for two-phase flows with heat transfer in complex geometries can considerably reduce the hardware development cycle, facilitate the optimization and reduce the costs of testing of various industrial facilities, such as nuclear power plants, steam generators, steam condensers, liquid cooling systems, heat exchangers, distillers, and boilers. Specifically, the phenomena occurring in a two-phase coolant flow in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) fuel assembly include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for this purpose of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Advanced CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes provide a potential for detailed 3D simulations of coolant flow inside a fuel assembly, including flow around a spacer element using more fundamental physical models of flow regimes and phase interactions than sub-channel codes. Such models can extend the code applicability to a wider range of situations, which is highly important for increasing the efficiency and to prevent accidents.

Tentner, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

289

Design and Development of a Test Facility to Study Two-Phase Steam/Water Flow in Porous Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of relative permeability is the key concept in extending Darcy's law for single phase flow through porous media to the two-phase flow regime. Relative permeability functions are needed for simulation studies of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. These are poorly known inspite of considerable theoretical and experimental investigations during the last decade. Since no conclusive results exist, many investigators use ad hoc parametrization, or adopt results obtined from flow of oil and gas (Corey, 1954). It has been shown by Reda and Eaton (1980) that this can lead to serious deficiencies. Sensitivity of the relative permeability curves for prediction of mass flow rate and flowing enthalpy into geothermal wells has been studied by many investigators (e.g. Eaton and Reda (1980), Bodvarsson et al (1980), Sun and Ershagi (1979) etc.). It can be concluded from these studies that the beehavior of a two-phase steam/water reservoir depends greatly on the relative permeability curves used. Hence, there exists a need for obtaining reliable relative permeability functions.

Verma, Ashok K.; Pruess, Karsten; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Nitrogen dioxide detection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

Aulich, Ted R. (Grand Forks, ND); Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Jiang, Junhua (Grand Forks, ND)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

292

A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

Brent Marquis

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Process for preparing zinc oxide-based sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasad (Durham, NC)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

Pore-scale simulation of liquid CO2 displacement of water using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A lattice Boltzmann color-fluid model, which was recently proposed by Liu et al. [H. Liu, A.J. Valocchi, and Q. Kang. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. Phys. Rev. E, 85:046309, 2012.] based on a concept of continuum surface force, is improved to simulate immiscible two-phase flows in porous media. The new improvements allow the model to account for different kinematic viscosities of both fluids and to model fluid-solid interactions. The capability and accuracy of this model is first validated by two benchmark tests: a layered two-phase flow with a viscosity ratio, and a dynamic capillary intrusion. This model is then used to simulate liquid CO2 (LCO2) displacing water in a dual-permeability pore network. The extent and behavior of LCO2 preferential flow (i.e., fingering) is found to depend on the capillary number (Ca), and three different displacement patterns observed in previous micromodel experiments are reproduced. The predicted variation of LCO2 saturation with Ca, as well as variation of specific interfacial length with LCO2 saturation, are both in good agreement with the experimental observations. To understand the effect of heterogeneity on pore-scale displacement, we also simulate LCO2 displacing water in a randomly heterogeneous pore network, which has the same size and porosity as the dual-permeability pore network. In comparison to the dual-permeability case, the transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering occurs at a higher Ca, and LCO2 saturation is higher at low Ca but lower at high Ca. In either pore network, the LCO2-water specific interfacial length is found to obey a power-law dependence on LCO2 saturation.

Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Kang, Oinjun; Oostrom, Martinus

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

Alain Bourgeat; Mladen Jurak; Farid Sma

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

296

Two phase partially miscible flow and transport modeling in porous media: application to gas migration in a nuclear waste repository  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological repository for radioactive waste. This model includes capillary effects and the gas high diffusivity. Moreover, it is written in variables (total hydrogen mass density and liquid pressure) chosen in order to be consistent with gas appearance or disappearance. We discuss the well possedness of this model and give some computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas generation in a water saturated repository.

Bourgeat, Alain; Sma, Farid

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Non-isothermal flow in low permeable porous media: A comparison of Richards' and two-phase flow approaches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present work compares the performance of two alternative flow models for the simulation of thermal-hydraulic coupled processes in low permeable porous media: non-isothermal Richards and two-phase flow concepts. Both models take vaporization processes into account: however, the Richards model neglects dynamic pressure variations and bulk flow of the gaseous phase. For the comparison of the two approaches first published data from a laboratory experiment is studied involving thermally driven moisture flow in a partially saturated bentonite sample. Then a benchmark test of longer-term thermal-hydraulic behavior in the engineered barrier system of a geological nuclear waste repository is analyzed (DECOVALEX project). It was found that both models can be used to reproduce the vaporization process if the intrinsic permeability is relative high. However, when a thermal-hydraulic coupled problem has the same low intrinsic permeability for both the liquid and the gas phase, only the two-phase flow approach provides reasonable results.

Wang, W.; Rutqvist, J.; Gorke, U.-J.; Birkholzer, J.T.; Kolditz, O.

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

298

Experimental and numerical investigation of shock wave propagation through complex geometry, gas continuous, two-phase media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work presented here investigates the phenomenon of shock wave propagation in gas continuous, two-phase media. The motivation for this work stems from the need to understand blast venting consequences in the HYLIFE inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor. The HYLIFE concept utilizes lasers or heavy ion beams to rapidly heat and compress D-T targets injected into the center of a reactor chamber. A segmented blanket of falling molten lithium or Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} (Flibe) jets encircles the reactor`s central cavity, shielding the reactor structure from radiation damage, absorbing the fusion energy, and breeding more tritium fuel. X-rays from the fusion microexplosion will ablate a thin layer of blanket material from the surfaces which face toward the fusion site. This generates a highly energetic vapor, which mostly coalesces in the central cavity. The blast expansion from the central cavity generates a shock which propagates through the segmented blanket - a complex geometry, gas-continuous two-phase medium. The impulse that the blast gives to the liquid as it vents past, the gas shock on the chamber wall, and ultimately the liquid impact on the wall are all important quantities to the HYLIFE structural designers.

Chien-Chih Liu, J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nitrogen limiation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Leaking underground storage tanks are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water. Hydrocarbon biodegradation studies have been conducted in both ground water and topsoil regions, but few studies have been done on the unsaturated zone between these two. This study examines the effects of Nitrogen on propane and butane biodegradiations in an unsaturated sandy soil. Results indicate that nitrogen additions initially stimulated both propane and butane oxidizing organisms in the soil, but that propane-amended soil became N limited whereas butane-amended soil eventually overcame its N limitations by fixing Nitrogen and that nitrogen fixing organisms grew in butane amended but not in propane amended soil. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Toccalino, P.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Boone, D.R. (Oregon Graduate Institute of Science Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Development of models for the sodium version of the two-phase three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code THERMIT. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several different models and correlations were developed and incorporated in the sodium version of THERMIT, a thermal-hydraulics code written at MIT for the purpose of analyzing transients under LMFBR conditions. This includes: a mechanism for the inclusion of radial heat conduction in the sodium coolant as well as radial heat loss to the structure surrounding the test section. The fuel rod conduction scheme was modified to allow for more flexibility in modelling the gas plenum regions and fuel restructuring. The formulas for mass and momentum exchange between the liquid and vapor phases were improved. The single phase and two phase friction factors were replaced by correlations more appropriate to LMFBR assembly geometry.

Wilson, G.J.; Kazimi, M.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Transport of heat and mass in a two-phase mixture. From a continuous to a discontinuous description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a theory which describes the transport properties of the interfacial region with respect to heat and mass transfer. Postulating the local Gibbs relation for a continuous description inside the interfacial region, we derive the description of the Gibbs surface in terms of excess densities and fluxes along the surface. We introduce overall interfacial resistances and conductances as the coefficients in the force-flux relations for the Gibbs surface. We derive relations between the local resistivities for the continuous description inside the interfacial region and the overall resistances of the surface for transport between the two phases for a mixture. It is shown that interfacial resistances depend among other things on the enthalpy profile across the interface. Since this variation is substantial the coupling between heat and mass flow across the surface are also substantial. In particular, the surface puts up much more resistance to the heat and mass transfer then the homogeneous phases over a di...

Glavatskiy, Kirill

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Experimental investigation of interfacial shear in downward, two-phase, annular, co-current flow with diameter effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental rig has been designed and built to provide two phase annular cocurrent downward flow of air and water in tubes of four different inside diameters, ranging from 1.563 cm - 4.127 cm. Flow rates of the phases and static pressure drop were measured over a range of liquid film Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 26,700, and a range of air Reynolds numbers of 4500 to 21,400. The resulting data for the skin friction coefficient are in qualitative agreement with most previously obtained pertinent data. Various ways of presenting the data are explored and discussed, including the use of superficial, true, and relative gas velocities. The effect of the controlled parameters on the skin friction coefficient is discussed, and the importance of the dependence of skin friction coefficient on tube diameter is emphasized.

Hajiloo, M.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Results from One- and Two- Phase Fluid Flow Calculations within the Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site - 13310  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rock salt is one of the possible host rock formations for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Germany. The Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site (Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse Gorleben, VSG) evaluates the long-term safety of a hypothetical repository in the salt dome of Gorleben, Germany. A mature repository concept and detailed knowledge of the site allowed a detailed process analysis within the project by numerical modeling of single-phase and two-phase flow. The possibility of liquid transport from the shafts to the emplacement drifts is one objective of the present study. Also, the implications of brine inflow on radionuclide transport and gas generation are investigated. Pressure build-up due to rock convergence and gas generation, release of volatile radionuclides from the waste and pressure-driven contaminant transport were considered, too. The study confirms that the compaction behavior of salt grit backfill is one of the most relevant factors for the hydrodynamic evolution of the repository and the transport of contaminants. Due to the interaction between compaction, saturation and pore pressure, complex flow patterns evolve. Emplacement drifts serve as gas sinks or sources at different times. In most calculation cases, the backfill reaches its final porosity after a few hundred years. The repository is then sealed and radionuclides can only be transported by diffusion in the liquid phase. Estimates for the final porosity of compacted backfill range between 0 % and 2 %. The exact properties of the backfill regarding single- and two-phase flow are not well known for this porosity range. The study highlights that this uncertainty has a profound impact on flow and transport processes over long time-scales. Therefore, more research is needed to characterize the properties of crushed salt grit at low porosities or to reduce the adverse effects of possible higher porosities by repository optimization. (authors)

Kock, Ingo; Larue, Juergen; Fischer, Heidi; Frieling, Gerd; Navarro, Martin; Seher, Holger [Department of Final Disposal, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Cologne (Germany)] [Department of Final Disposal, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Cologne (Germany)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

SCORPIO: A Scalable Two-Phase Parallel I/O Library With Application To A Large Scale Subsurface Simulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inefficient parallel I/O is known to be a major bottleneck among scientific applications employed on supercomputers as the number of processor cores grows into the thousands. Our prior experience indicated that parallel I/O libraries such as HDF5 that rely on MPI-IO do not scale well beyond 10K processor cores, especially on parallel file systems (like Lustre) with single point of resource contention. Our previous optimization efforts for a massively parallel multi-phase and multi-component subsurface simulator (PFLOTRAN) led to a two-phase I/O approach at the application level where a set of designated processes participate in the I/O process by splitting the I/O operation into a communication phase and a disk I/O phase. The designated I/O processes are created by splitting the MPI global communicator into multiple sub-communicators. The root process in each sub-communicator is responsible for performing the I/O operations for the entire group and then distributing the data to rest of the group. This approach resulted in over 25X speedup in HDF I/O read performance and 3X speedup in write performance for PFLOTRAN at over 100K processor cores on the ORNL Jaguar supercomputer. This research describes the design and development of a general purpose parallel I/O library, SCORPIO (SCalable block-ORiented Parallel I/O) that incorporates our optimized two-phase I/O approach. The library provides a simplified higher level abstraction to the user, sitting atop existing parallel I/O libraries (such as HDF5) and implements optimized I/O access patterns that can scale on larger number of processors. Performance results with standard benchmark problems and PFLOTRAN indicate that our library is able to maintain the same speedups as before with the added flexibility of being applicable to a wider range of I/O intensive applications.

Sreepathi, Sarat [ORNL] [ORNL; Sripathi, Vamsi [Intel Corporation] [Intel Corporation; Mills, Richard T [ORNL] [ORNL; Hammond, Glenn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Mahinthakumar, Kumar [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

306

Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

307

RELAP5 Model of a Two-phase ThermoSyphon Experimental Facility for Fuels and Materials Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) does not have a separate materials-irradiation flow loop and requires most materials and all fuel experiments to be placed inside a containment. This is necessary to ensure that internal contaminants such as fission products cannot be released into the primary coolant. As part of the safety basis justification, HFIR also requires that all experiments be able to withstand various accident conditions (e.g., loss of coolant) without generating vapor bubbles on the surface of the experiment in the primary coolant. As with any parallel flow system, HFIR is vulnerable to flow excursion events when vapor is generated in one of those flow paths. The effects of these requirements are to artificially increase experiment temperatures by introducing a barrier between the experimental materials and the HFIR coolant and to reduce experiment heat loads to ensure boiling doesn t occur. A new experimental facility for materials irradiation and testing in the HFIR is currently being developed to overcome these limitations. The new facility is unique in that it will have its own internal cooling flow totally independent of the reactor primary coolant and boiling is permitted. The reactor primary coolant will cool the outside of this facility without contacting the materials inside. The ThermoSyphon Test Loop (TSTL), a full scale prototype of the proposed irradiation facility to be tested outside the reactor, is being designed and fabricated (Ref. 1). The TSTL is a closed system working as a two-phase thermosyphon. A schematic is shown in Fig. 1. The bottom central part is the boiler/evaporator and contains three electric heaters. The vapor generated by the heaters will rise and be condensed in the upper condenser, the condensate will drain down the side walls and be circulated via a downcomer back into the bottom of the boiler. An external flow system provides coolant that simulates the HFIR primary coolant. The two-phase flow code RELAP5-3D (Ref. 2) is the main tool employed in this design. The model has multiple challenges: boiling, condensation and natural convection flows need to be modeled accurately.

Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL] [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The removal of recalcitrant sulfur species, dibenzothiophene and its derivatives, from automotive fuels is an integral component in the development of cleaner burning and more efficient automobile engines. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) wherein the dibenzothiophene derivative is converted to its corresponding sulfoxide and sulfone is an attractive approach to sulfur removal because the oxidized species are easily extracted or precipitated and filtered from the hydrocarbon phase. Fe-TAML{reg_sign} activators of hydrogen peroxide (TAML is Tetra-Amido-Macrocyclic-Ligand) catalytically convert dibenzothiophene and its derivatives rapidly and effectively at moderate temperatures (50-60 C) and ambient pressure to the corresponding sulfoxides and sulfones. The oxidation process can be performed in both aqueous systems containing alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, or t-butanol, and in a two-phase hydrocarbon/aqueous system containing tert-butanol or acetonitrile. In the biphasic system, essentially complete conversion of the DBT to its oxidized products can be achieved using slightly longer reaction times than in homogeneous solution. Among the key features of the technology are the mild reaction conditions, the very high selectivity where no over oxidation of the sulfur compounds occurs, the near stoichiometric use of hydrogen peroxide, the apparent lack of degradation of sensitive fuel components, and the ease of separation of oxidized products.

Dr. Colin P. Horwitz; Dr. Terrence J. Collins

2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

309

The biogeochemistry of marine nitrous oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric nitrous oxide N?O concentrations have been rising steadily for the past century as a result of human activities. In particular, human perturbation of the nitrogen cycle has increased the N?O production rates ...

Frame, Caitlin H

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Transport of heat and mass in a two-phase mixture. From a continuous to a discontinuous description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a theory which describes the transport properties of the interfacial region with respect to heat and mass transfer. Postulating the local Gibbs relation for a continuous description inside the interfacial region, we derive the description of the Gibbs surface in terms of excess densities and fluxes along the surface. We introduce overall interfacial resistances and conductances as the coefficients in the force-flux relations for the Gibbs surface. We derive relations between the local resistivities for the continuous description inside the interfacial region and the overall resistances of the surface for transport between the two phases for a mixture. It is shown that interfacial resistances depend among other things on the enthalpy profile across the interface. Since this variation is substantial the coupling between heat and mass flow across the surface are also substantial. In particular, the surface puts up much more resistance to the heat and mass transfer then the homogeneous phases over a distance comparable to the thickness of the surface. This is the case not only for the pure heat conduction and diffusion but also for the cross effects like thermal diffusion. For the excess fluxes along the surface and the corresponding thermodynamic forces we derive expressions for excess conductances as integrals over the local conductivities along the surface. We also show that the curvature of the surface affects only the overall resistances for transport across the surface and not the excess conductivities along the surface.

Kirill Glavatskiy; Dick Bedeaux

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Turn-on fluorescent probes for detecting nitric oxide in biology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Investigating the Biological Roles of Nitric Oxide and Other Reactive Nitrogen Species Using Fluorescent Probes: This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in the field of reactive nitrogen species ...

McQuade, Lindsey Elizabeth, 1981-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Surface morphology of atomic nitrogen on Pt(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The surface morphology of chemisorbed N on the Pt(111) surface has been studied at the atomic level with low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). When N is coadsorbed with O on the surface, they form a mixed (2 2)-N+O structure. When the surface is covered with N atoms only, isolated atoms and incomplete (2 2) patches are observed at low coverages. In a dense N layer, two phases, (?3 ?3)R30-N and p(2 2)-N, are found to coexist at temperatures between 360 and 400 K. The (?3 ?3)R30 phase converts to the (2 2) phase as temperature increases. For both phases, nitrogen occupies fcc-hollow sites. At temperatures above 420 K, nitrogen starts to desorb. The p(2 2)-N phase shows a honeycomb structure in STM images with three nitrogen and three platinum atoms forming a six-membered ring, which can be attributed to the strong nitrogen binding to the underlying Pt surface.

Liang, Zhu; Trenary, Michael, E-mail: mtrenary@uic.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Jin Yang, Hyun [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan) [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kim, Yousoo, E-mail: ykim@riken.jp [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

Olmstead, W.N.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

314

A multicomponent, two-phase-flow model for CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced coalbed-methane recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Injection of CO{sub 2} into deep unminable coal seams is an option for geological storage of CO{sub 2} and may enhance the recovery of CH{sub 4} in these systems, making coal reservoirs interesting candidates for sequestration. New analytical solutions are presented for two-phase, three- and four-component flow with volume change on mixing in adsorbing systems. We analyze the simultaneous flow of water and gas containing multiple adsorbing components. The displacement problem is solved by the method of characteristics. Mixtures of N{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O are used to represent enhanced coalbed-methane (ECBM) recovery processes. The displacement behavior is demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the relative adsorption strength of the gas components. In ternary systems, two types of solutions result. When a gas rich in CO{sub 2} displaces a less strongly adsorbing gas (such as CH{sub 4}), a shock solution is obtained. As the injected gas propagates through the system, CO{sub 2} is removed from the mobile phase by adsorption, while desorbed gas propagates ahead of the CO{sub 2} front. The adsorption of CO{sub 2} reduces the flow velocity of the injected gas, delaying breakthrough and allowing for more CO{sub 2} to be sequestered per volume of CH{sub 4} produced. For injection gases rich in N{sub 2}, a decrease in partial pressure is required to displace the preferentially adsorbed CH{sub 4} and a rarefaction solution results. In quaternary displacements with injection-gas mixtures of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, the relative adsorption strength of the components results in solutions that exhibit features of both the N{sub 2}-rich and CO{sub 2}-rich ternary displacements. Analytical solutions for ECBM recovery processes provide insight into the complex interplay of adsorption, phase behavior, and convection.

Seto, C.J.; Jessen, K.; Orr, F.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

First limits on WIMP nuclear recoil signals in ZEPLIN-II: a two phase xenon detector for dark matter detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Results are presented from the first underground data run of ZEPLIN-II, a 31 kg two phase xenon detector developed to observe nuclear recoils from hypothetical weakly interacting massive dark matter particles. Discrimination between nuclear recoils and background electron recoils is afforded by recording both the scintillation and ionisation signals generated within the liquid xenon, with the ratio of these signals being different for the two classes of event. This ratio is calibrated for different incident species using an AmBe neutron source and Co-60 gamma-ray sources. From our first 31 live days of running ZEPLIN-II, the total exposure following the application of fiducial and stability cuts was 225 kgxdays. A background population of radon progeny events was observed in this run, arising from radon emission in the gas purification getters, due to radon daughter ion decays on the surfaces of the walls of the chamber. An acceptance window, defined by the neutron calibration data, of 50% nuclear recoil acceptance between 5 keVee and 20 keVee, had an observed count of 29 events, with a summed expectation of 28.6+/-4.3 gamma-ray and radon progeny induced background events. These figures provide a 90% c.l. upper limit to the number of nuclear recoils of 10.4 events in this acceptance window, which converts to a WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross-section with a minimum of 6.6x10^-7 pb following the inclusion of an energy dependent, calibrated, efficiency. A second run is currently underway in which the radon progeny will be eliminated, thereby removing the background population, with a projected sensitivity of 2x10^-7 pb for similar exposures as the first run.

G. J. Alner; H. M. Araujo; A. Bewick; C. Bungau; B. Camanzi; M. J. Carson; R. J. Cashmore; H. Chagani; V. Chepel; D. Cline; D. Davidge; J. C. Davies; E. Daw; J. Dawson; T. Durkin; B. Edwards; T. Gamble; J. Gao; C. Ghag; A. S. Howard; W. G. Jones; M. Joshi; E. V. Korolkova; V. A. Kudryavtsev; T. Lawson; V. N. Lebedenko; J. D. Lewin; P. Lightfoot; A. Lindote; I. Liubarsky; M. I. Lopes; R. Luscher; P. Majewski; K Mavrokoridis; J. E. McMillan; B. Morgan; D. Muna; A. St. J. Murphy; F. Neves; G. G. Nicklin; W. Ooi; S. M. Paling; J. Pinto da Cunha; S. J. S. Plank; R. M. Preece; J. J. Quenby; M. Robinson; F. Sergiampietri; C. Silva; V. N. Solovov; N. J. T. Smith; P. F. Smith; N. J. C. Spooner; T. J. Sumner; C. Thorne; D. R. Tovey; E. Tziaferi; R. J. Walker; H. Wang; J. White; F. L. H. Wolfs

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry. Final report, September 1988--November 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

Hassan, T.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

Gangwal, Santosh Kumar (Cary, NC); Turk, Brian Scott (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir Prasael (Durham, NC)

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

318

Interactions of Fluorine Redistribution and Nitrogen Incorporation with Boron Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interactions of Fluorine Redistribution and Nitrogen Incorporation with Boron Diffusion in Silicon Dioxide Mitra Navi and Scott Dunham Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Boston University diffusion. Gate oxides were grown with nitrogen contents varying from 0 to 1.4%. A series of SIMS mea

Dunham, Scott

319

The design of stable high nitrogen systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general strategy for the design of high nitrogen systems with an adequate degree of stability has been elaborated. The design of nitro compounds in which terminal nitro groups are bonded to the chain of several heteroatoms is a specific case within the strategy. In the process of working out the strategy a number of new high nitrogen systems (dinitrazenic acid or dinitroamide HN{sub 3}O{sub 4} and its salts, nitrodiazene oxides RN{sub 3}O{sub 3} and tetrazine dioxides) were discovered. A new of new types of nitro compounds (bicyclo nitro-bis-hydroxylamine, nitrohydrazine, nitrohydroxylamine, sulfo-N-nitroimide and bis-N-nitroimide) were synthesized. This study opens new prospects in the field of the synthesis of high energy materials.

Tartakovsky, V.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Inst. of Organic Chemistry

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthetic nitrous oxide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

such concentrations of anesthetics are safe... ), hypoxemia (eg, nitrogen and carbon monoxide), addiction (eg, nitrous oxide), or health effects resulting... from chronic exposure...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations [Lyons, Janotti, and Van de Walle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 (2009)] indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. The deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence band relative to the vacuum level.

McCluskey, M.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tarun, M.C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Iqbal, M. Zafar [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 106, NO B5, PAGES 8887-8906, MAY 10, 2001 A two-phase model for compaction and damage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and references therein], glaciology [Fowler, 1984], oil recovery and magma dynamics [McKenzie, 1984; Spiegel- man of earthquake dynamics [Segall and Rice, 1995; Sleep, 1995, 1997, 1998], and void-volatile self-lubrication of two phases by relating porosity to a weakening effect or a state variable. One of the most complex

323

Experimental and Modeling Studies of Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media and Its Effects on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental investigation was conducted to study the two-phase flow properties of porous media used in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The liquid and gas phase relative permeability of porous media used in PEM fuel cells was measured...

Wang, Xuhai

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

New chemistry with gold-nitrogen complexes: synthesis and characterization of tetra-, tri-, and dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complexes. Oxidative-addition to the dinuclear gold(I) amidinate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalyst precursors for CO oxidation on TiO2 surface reported to date (87% conversion). The dinuclear gold(I) amidinate complex with a Au Au distance of 2.711(3) is rare. To our knowledge, there is only one other example of a symmetrical dinuclear gold...

Abdou, Hanan Elsayed

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

325

8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (? 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ?20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found. Wettability of the surface was substantially increased for heater coupons boiled in alumina and zinc oxide nanofluids, and such wettability increase seems to correlate reasonably well with the observed marked CHF enhancement for the respective nanofluids. Interpretation of the experimental data was conducted in light of the governing surface parameters (surface area, contact angle, roughness, thermal conductivity) and existing models. It was found that no single parameter could explain the observed HTC or CHF phenomena.

Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Nitrogen containing shielding gases for GTAW duplex stainless steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The duplex stainless steel are alloys characterized as consisting of two phases; austenite and ferrite. As such, they combine the benefits of both phases i.e. good ductility and general corrosion resistance of austenite, but with improved stress corrosion cracking resistance and strength associate with ferrite. Carefully controlled manufacturing techniques are employed to produce this combination in roughly equal proportions to ensure optimum properties. The range of duplex alloys studied in this work covered both the standard grade (2205) and the latest generation of super duplex (2507) alloys; typical compositions are shown in Table 1. Although the standard duplex is the most commonly available and widely used, super duplexes, which are characterized by higher chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen contents, have even better corrosion properties and are finding increasing applications in the offshore industry. To benefit from the superior properties of duplex, it is vital that these alloys can be welded effectively and that the properties of the welded joint match those of the parent weld. The objective of the current investigation was to study the effect of nitrogen, in both the shielding and purge gas, on the weld metal nitrogen content, microstructure and corrosion resistance, with the eventual aim of recommending an effective shielding gas mixture for duplex stainless steels.

Creffield, G.K.; Cole, M.H.; Paciej, R.; Huang, W.; Urmston, S. [BOC Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

Biruduganti, Munidhar S. (Naperville, IL); Gupta, Sreenath Borra (Naperville, IL); Sekar, R. Raj (Naperville, IL); McConnell, Steven S. (Shorewood, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

328

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

329

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The effects of channel diameter on flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in circular micro-channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two-phase air-water flow characteristics are experimentally investigated in horizontal circular micro-channels. Test sections are made of fused silica. The experiments are conducted based on three different inner diameters of 0.53, 0.22 and 0.15 mm with the corresponding lengths of 320, 120 and 104 mm, respectively. The test runs are done at superficial velocities of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-42.36 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow visualisation is facilitated by systems mainly including stereozoom microscope and high-speed camera. The flow regime maps developed from the observed flow patterns are presented. The void fractions are determined based on image analysis. New correlation for two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical applications. (author)

Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Absorption Coefficients of the Methane-Nitrogen Binary Ice System: Implications for Pluto  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The methane-nitrogen phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich (1983) indicates that at temperatures relevant to the surfaces of icy dwarf planets like Pluto, two phases contribute to the methane absorptions: nitrogen saturated with methane $\\bf{\\bar{N_{2}}}$:CH$_{4}$ and methane saturated with nitrogen $\\bf{\\bar{CH_{4}}}$:N$_{2}$. No optical constants are available so far for the latter component limiting construction of a proper model, in compliance with thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. New optical constants for solid solutions of methane diluted in nitrogen (N$_{2}$:CH$_{4}$) and nitrogen diluted in methane (CH$_{4}$:N$_{2}$) are presented at temperatures between 40 and 90 K, in the wavelength range 1.1-2.7 $\\mu$m at different mixing ratios. These optical constants are derived from transmission measurements of crystals grown from the liquid phase in closed cells. A systematic study of the changes of methane and nitrogen solid mixtures spectral behavior with mixing ratio and temperature is prese...

Protopapa, S; Tegler, S C; Bergonio, J M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

ARM - Measurement - Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Relatedcontent ARM DatagovMeasurementsNitrogen ARM Data

333

Nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and ammonia detector for remote sensing of vehicle emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with sulfuric and nitric acids formed from at- mospheric oxidations of sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxides mobile sources comes from the combustion of sulfur compounds in fuel. The U.S. is in the process of reducing sulfur in fuel for all mobile sources. This process begins with ultralow sulfur on-road diesel

Denver, University of

334

Development of a Front Tracking Method for Two-Phase Micromixing of Incompressible Viscous Fluids with Interfacial Tension in Solvent Extraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This progress report describes the development of a front tracking method for the solution of the governing equations of motion for two-phase micromixing of incompressible, viscous, liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes. The ability to compute the detailed local interfacial structure of the mixture allows characterization of the statistical properties of the two-phase mixture in terms of droplets, filaments, and other structures which emerge as a dispersed phase embedded into a continuous phase. Such a statistical picture provides the information needed for building a consistent coarsened model applicable to the entire mixing device. Coarsening is an undertaking for a future mathematical development and is outside the scope of the present work. We present here a method for accurate simulation of the micromixing dynamics of an aqueous and an organic phase exposed to intense centrifugal force and shearing stress. The onset of mixing is the result of the combination of the classical Rayleigh- Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A mixing environment that emulates a sector of the annular mixing zone of a centrifugal contactor is used for the mathematical domain. The domain is small enough to allow for resolution of the individual interfacial structures and large enough to allow for an analysis of their statistical distribution of sizes and shapes. A set of accurate algorithms for this application requires an advanced front tracking approach constrained by the incompressibility condition. This research is aimed at designing and implementing these algorithms. We demonstrate verification and convergence results for one-phase and unmixed, two-phase flows. In addition we report on preliminary results for mixed, two-phase flow for realistic operating flow parameters.

Zhou, Yijie [ORNL; Lim, Hyun-Kyung [ORNL; de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Navamita, Ray [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Wang, Shuqiang [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Glimm, James G [ORNL; Li, Xiao-lin [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Jiao, Xiangmin [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The effects of cold water injection and two-phase flow on skin factor and permeability estimates from pressure falloff analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

33 54 78 LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Data for Bottomhole Temperature Calculation Reservoir and Thermal Properties for Model Verification Page 34 35 Water and Oil Viscosities for Model Verification . . 36 10 12 13 14 15 Water and Oil... Relative Permeabilities for Model Verification Data for Single-Phase Flow Runs Low Oil Viscosity for Single-Phase Flow Runs High Oil Viscosity for Single-Phase Flow Runs Data for Two-Phase Flow Runs Sumaary of Numerical Simulation Runs Results...

Linge, Frode

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Understanding Nitrogen Fixation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen could, in principle, be more energy-efficient. This is particularly attractive giv

Paul J. Chirik

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Two-phase flow with mass density contrast: Stable schemes for a thermodynamic consistent and frame-indifferent diffuse-interface model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a numerical scheme for the diffuse-interface model in [3] for two-phase flow of immiscible, incompressible fluids. As that model is in particular consistent with thermodynamics, energy estimates are expected to carry over to the discrete setting. By a subtle discretization of the convective coupling with the flux of the phase-field in the momentum equation, we prove discrete consistency with thermodynamics. Numerical experiments in two spatial dimensions ranging from RayleighTaylor instability to a comparison with previous modeling approaches indicate the full practicality of our scheme and enable a first validation of the new modeling approach in [3].

Grn, G., E-mail: gruen@am.uni-erlangen.de; Klingbeil, F.

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

The basics of the technology of creating a small interelectrode spacing in thermionic energy converters with the use of two-phase systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper presents peculiarities of the technology for creating a small interelectrode spacing in thermionic converters (TIC) using two-phase graphite-cesium and graphite-cesium-barium systems. Optimum conditions are discussed for cesium and barium intercalation into oriented graphite (load-bearing member) placed inside the converter interelectrode gap to obtain a stable ultra-small spacing. Principle design diagrams of a close-spaced TIC are presented, and their basic technical characteristics are assessed. The analytical relationship between the members of the load-bearing unit based on the graphite-cesium system and the TIC interelectrode spacing being formed is established from calculations and experiments.

Kalandarishvili, A.G. [Russian Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation). Kurchatov Inst.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

340

What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This publication explains the chemistry of nitrogen, the processes by which nitrogen is added to and removed from the soil, and methods of preventing nitrogen losses on agricultural lands....

Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

343

Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

primary goal has been to develop catalysts that will promote selective reduction of nitric oxide to nitrogen with various reducing agents. The use of metals and mixed metal oxide catalysts with reducing agents such as hydrogen, car- bon monoxide... the energy of the v* orbital of NO in relationship to tne energies 11, 12 of the d orbitals of the metal. ' Although nitric oxide is thermo- dynamically unstable, with respect to decomposition to nitrogen and The citations of the following cages follow...

Oates, Margaret Deron

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Two-phase viscoelastic jetting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equivalent circuit, which includes the e?ect of ink cartridge, supply channel, vibrationequivalent circuit which simulates the e?ect of the ink cartridge, supply channel, vibration

Yu, J-D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Experimental investigations of two-phase mixture level swell and axial void fraction distribution under high pressure, low heat flux conditions in rod bundle geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental data is reported from a series of quasi-steady-state two-phase mixture level swell and void fraction distribution tests. Testing was performed at ORNL in the Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility - a large electrically heated test loop configured to produce conditions similar to those expected in a small break loss of coolant accident. Pressure was varied from 2.7 to 8.2 MPa and linear power ranged from 0.33 to 1.95 kW/m. Mixture swell was observed to vary linearly with the total volumetric vapor generation rate over the power range of primary interest in small break analysis. Void fraction data was fit by a drift-flux model and both the drift-velocity and concentration parameter were observed to decrease with increasing pressure.

Anklam, T.M.; White, M.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for two-phase flow in the vicinity of the repository in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Undisturbed conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are presented for two-phase flow the vicinity of the repository under undisturbed conditions. Techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, partial correlation analysis and rank transformation are used to investigate brine inflow, gas generation repository pressure, brine saturation and brine and gas outflow. Of the variables under study, repository pressure is potentially the most important due to its influence on spallings and direct brine releases, with the uncertainty in its value being dominated by the extent to which the microbial degradation of cellulose takes place, the rate at which the corrosion of steel takes place, and the amount of brine that drains from the surrounding disturbed rock zone into the repository.

HELTON,JON CRAIG; BEAN,J.E.; ECONOMY,K.; GARNER,J.W.; MACKINNON,ROBERT J.; MILLER,JOEL D.; SCHREIBER,JAMES D.; VAUGHN,PALMER

2000-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

348

Managing Nitrogen Fertilizer in Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To be profitable, cotton producers must manage fertilization efficiently. This publication reports the results of a 5-year study that showed over-fertilization with nitrogen is a common problem. There are specific recommendations for soil testing...

Hons, F. M.; McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Nichols, Robert L.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Boman, R. K.; Saladino, V. A.; Jahn, R. L.; Stapper, J. R.

2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, progress was made on the following tasks: TPD techniques were employed to study the reaction mechanism of the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia over iron oxide pillared clay catalyst; and a sulfur dioxide resistant iron oxide/titanium oxide catalyst was developed.

Li, W.B.; Yang, R.T.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

EMSL - oxides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

oxides en Influence of Adsorption Site and Wavelength on the Photodesorption of NO from the (Fe,Cr)3O4(111) Mixed Oxide Surface. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

352

Oxidation Characteristics of Fe-18Cr-18Mn-stainless alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Air oxidation studies of Fe-18Cr-18Mn stainless steels were conducted at 525C, 625C, and 725C. Alloys were evaluated with respect to changes in oxidation properties as a result of interstitial additions of nitrogen and carbon and of minor solute additions of silicon, molybdenum, and nickel. Interstitial concentrations possibly had a small, positive effect on oxidation resistance. Minor solute additions significantly improved oxidation resistance but could also reduce interstitial solubility resulting in formation of chromium carbides. Loss of solute chromium resulted in a slight reduction in oxidation protection. Oxidation lasting over 500 hours produced a manganese rich, duplex oxide structure: an outer sesquioxide and an inner spinel oxide.

James Rawers

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Assessment of the Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride for Purifying Coolant and Heat Transfer Salts in the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the use of nitrogen trifluoride for removing oxide and water-caused contaminants in the fluoride salts that will be used as coolants in a molten salt cooled reactor.

Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.

2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

354

Oxygen minimization effects on nitrogen dioxide generation during oxyacetylene metal cutting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxides lies in the characteristic remission of initial symptoms, such as cough and chest discomfort, for up to several hours prior to onset of acute, potentially lethal pulmonary edema. The generation rate of nitrogen oxides is dependent on many... tract w1th acute severity ranging from a revers1ble irritant coughing to potentially lethal pulmonary edema. ( The danger involved here lies 1n the sudden onset of pulmonary edema occurring an unpredictable length of time after exposure. Very little...

Clendenen, David Lee

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Nitrogen oxide removal using diesel fuel and a catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbons, such as diesel fuel, are added to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x in the presence of a amphoteric catalyst support material. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbons.

Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Goerz, David A. (Brentwood, CA); Hsiao, Mark (San Jose, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernie M. (San Ramon, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Brusasco, Ray (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe Office of FossilMembershipoftheManagementHasdecDioxide Budget

357

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No.27 - Control of Nitrogen Oxide  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed. Government CommercialProgram andDetrimental

358

EFFECT OF NITROGEN OXIDE PRETREATMENTS ON ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-of Cellulose and the Production of Ethanol," LBL-6859,the cellulose is a major obstacle to hydrolysis. Ethanol The

Borrevik, R.K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Application of Two Phase (Liquid/Gas) Xenon Gamma-Camera for the Detection of Special Nuclear Material and PET Medical Imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The McKinsey group at Yale has been awarded a grant from DTRA for the building of a Liquid Xenon Gamma Ray Color Camera (LXe-GRCC), which combines state-of-the-art detection of LXe scintillation light and time projection chamber (TPC) charge readout. The DTRA application requires a movable detector and hence only a single phase (liquid) xenon detector can be considered in this case. We propose to extend the DTRA project to applications that allow a two phase (liquid/gas) xenon TPC. This entails additional (yet minimal) hardware and extension of the research effort funded by DTRA. The two phase detector will have better energy and angular resolution. Such detectors will be useful for PET medical imaging and detection of special nuclear material in stationary applications (e.g. port of entry). The expertise of the UConn group in gas phase TPCs will enhance the capabilities of the Yale group and the synergy between the two groups will be very beneficial for this research project as well as the education and research projects of the two universities. The LXe technology to be used in this project has matured rapidly over the past few years, developed for use in detectors for nuclear physics and astrophysics. This technology may now be applied in a straightforward way to the imaging of gamma rays. According to detailed Monte Carlo simulations recently performed at Yale University, energy resolution of 1% and angular resolution of 3 degrees may be obtained for 1.0 MeV gamma rays, using existing technology. With further research and development, energy resolution of 0.5% and angular resolution of 1.3 degrees will be possible at 1.0 MeV. Because liquid xenon is a high density, high Z material, it is highly efficient for scattering and capturing gamma rays. In addition, this technology scales elegantly to large detector areas, with several square meter apertures possible. The Yale research group is highly experienced in the development and use of noble liquid detectors for astrophysics, most recently in the XENON10 experiment. The existing facilities at Yale are fully adequate for the completion of this project. The facilities of the UConn group at the LNS at Avery Point include a (clean) lab for detector development and this group recently delivered an Optical Readout TPC (O-TPC) for research in Nuclear Astrophysics at the TUNL in Duke University. The machine shop at UConn will be used (free of charge) for producing the extra hardware needed for this project including grids and frames.

McKinsey, Daniel Nicholas [Yale University] [Yale University

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

360

An XMM-Newton Observation of NGC 1399 Reveals Two Phases of Hot Gas and Super-Solar Abundances in the Central Regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an initial analysis of a new XMM observation of NGC 1399, the central elliptical galaxy of the Fornax group. Spectral fitting of the spatially resolved spectral data of the EPIC MOS and pn CCDs reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase and cooling flow models within the central ~20 kpc. The preference for the 2T model applies whether or not the data are deprojected. The cooler component has a temperature (~0.9 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars while the hotter component has a temperature (~1.5 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of a ~10^{13} M_sun halo. The two-phase model (and other multitemperature models) removes the ``Fe Bias'' within r < ~20 kpc and gives Z_Fe/Z_sun 1.5-2. At larger radii the iron abundance decreases until Z_Fe/Z_sun \\~0.5 for r ~50 kpc. The Si abundance is super-solar (1.2-1.7 solar) within the central regions while Z_Si/Z_Fe ~0.8 over the entire region studied. These Fe and Si abundances imply that ~80% of the Fe mass within r ~50 kpc originates from Type Ia supernovae (SNIa). This SNIa fraction is similar to that inferred for the Sun and therefore suggests a stellar initial mass function similar to the Milky Way.

David A. Buote

2002-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Development of a generalized correlation for phase-velocity measurements obtained from impedance-probe pairs in two-phase flow systems. [PWR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A flag type electrical impedance probe has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) to measure liquid- and vapor-phase velocities in steam-water mixtures flowing through rod bundles. Measurements are made by utilizing the probes in pairs, installed in line, parallel to the flow direction, and extending out into the flow channel. The present study addresses performance difficulties by examining from a fundamental point of view the two-phase flow system which the impedance probes typically operate in. Specifically, the governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy) were formulated for both air-water and steam-water systems, and then subjected to a scaling analysis. The scaling analysis yielded the appropriate dimensionless parameters of significance in both kinds of systems. Additionally, with the aid of experimental data obtained at ORNL, those parameters of significant magnitude were established. As a result, a generalized correlation was developed for liquid and vapor phase velocities that makes it possible to employ the impedance probe velocity measurement technique in a wide variety of test configurations and fluid combinations.

Hsu, C.T.; Keshock, E.G.; McGill, R.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Power combination of two phase-locked high power microwave beams from a new coaxial microwave source based on dual beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams has demonstrated two phase-locked output microwave beams generated by its two sub-sources. In order to achieve a single higher output power, we present a three-port waveguide-based power combiner to combine the two microwave beams. Particle-in-cell simulation results show that when the diode voltage is 675?kV and the guiding magnetic field is 0.8?T, a combined microwave with an average power of about 4.0?GW and a frequency of 9.74 GHz is generated; the corresponding power conversion efficiency is 29%. The combination effect of the combiner is further validated in the diode voltage range from 675?kV to 755?kV as well as in the pulse regime. The simulations indicate that the maximum surface axial electric field strength of the electrodynamic structure is 720?kV/cm, which is relatively low corresponding to an output power of 4.0?GW. The stable combined output suggests the probability of long-pulse operation for the combined source.

Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping, E-mail: plinafly@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; Dang, Fangchao; Yan, Xiaolu [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of nitrogen and carbon monoxide with liquid niobium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics and mechanisms of interactions of N{sub 2} and CO with liquid niobium were investigated in the temperature range of 2,700 to 3,000 K in samples levitated in N{sub 2}/Ar and CO/Ar streams. The nitrogen absorption and desorption processes were found to be second-order with respect to nitrogen concentration, indicating that the rate controlling step is either the adsorption of nitrogen molecules on the liquid surface or dissociation of absorbed nitrogen molecules into adsorbed atoms. The carbon and oxygen dissolution in liquid niobium from CO gas is an exothermic process and the solubilities of carbon and oxygen (C{sub Ce}, C{sub Oe} in at%) are related to the temperature and the partial pressure of CO. The reaction CO {yields} (C) + (O) along with the evaporation of niobium oxide takes place during C and O dissolution, whereas C and O desorption occurs via CO evolution only.

Park, H.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Mechanistic models of oceanic nitrogen fixation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oceanic nitrogen fixation and biogeochemical interactions between the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron cycles have important implications for the control of primary production and carbon storage in the ocean. The biological ...

Monteiro, Fanny

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation? George Gregory Bates College, originating largely from septic systems and fertilizers, have caused significant eutrophication in freshwater nitrogen and phosphorus grew the highest concentration of phytoplankton, but eutrophic ponds grew a mean

Vallino, Joseph J.

366

Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

367

IN THIS ISSUE Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AGRONOMY NOTES July 2005 IN THIS ISSUE COTTON Nitrogen on Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Protecting Cotton Squares and Blooms / University of Florida / Larry Arrington, Interim Dean. #12;2 Nitrogen on Cotton Now is the time to apply N

Watson, Craig A.

368

Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was kept in open plastic containers and maintained nearconditions in open plastic containers Biological Nitrogen

Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

anthropogenic carbon dioxide may result from this atmospheric nitrogen fertilization, leading to a decreaseImpacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean R. A. Duce,1 * J. LaRoche,2 K quantities of atmospheric anthropogenic fixed nitrogen entering the open ocean could account for up to about

Ward, Bess

370

Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Effect of nitrogen-containing groups on enhanced capacitive behaviors of multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, electrochemical properties of surface treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are studied in supercapacitors. Nitrogen and oxygen functional groups containing MWNTs are prepared by urea and acidic treatments, respectively. The surface properties of the MWNTs are confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta-potential measurements. The textural properties are characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K using the BET eqaution, BJH method, and HK method. The electrochemical properties of the MWNTs are accumulated by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra, and charge-discharge cycling performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at room temperature. As a result, the functionalized MWNTs lead to an increase in capacitance as compared with pristine MWNTs. It suggests that the pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species have effects on the specific capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads results, the most important functional groups affecting capacitive behaviors. - Graphical Abstract: The N{sub 1s} spectra of nitrogen functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes are measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Highlights: > Facile method of increasing elemental composition of nitrogen functional groups on carbon materials. > Increased specific capacitance multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) for electrode materials as high as general chemical activation process. > Enhanced capacitive behaviors via introducing pyridinic and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen species onto the MWNTs. > Improvement of electron transfer at high current loads.

Kim, Ji-Il [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Jin, E-mail: sjpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, 253 Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fig. 1: (a) Conventional dual-pump degenerate PSA using a straight HNLF: phase regeneration effect varies with polarization alignment between BPSK signal and two phase-locked pumps. (b) Polarization-diversity PSA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fig. 1: (a) Conventional dual-pump degenerate PSA using a straight HNLF: phase regeneration effect varies with polarization alignment between BPSK signal and two phase-locked pumps. (b) Polarization. Pump 2Signal Pump 1 HNLF Impaired by phase noise I Q Single-polarization BPSK signal Pump1 (Phase

Touch, Joe

373

Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

Chen, H.L.

1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

374

Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RG and JA Bassham, Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts.chloroplasts during photosynthesis. Plant Physiol ~0:22H-2?NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS James A. Bassham,

Bassham, James A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Investigation on Nitric Oxide and Soot of Biodiesel and Conventional Diesel using a Medium Duty Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative fuel to the petroleum diesel fuel. It beneficially reduces regulated emission gases, but increases NOx (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) Thus, the increase in NOx is the barrier for potential growth...

Song, Hoseok

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ab initio atomistic thermodynamics study of the early stages of Cu(100) oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­3 catalytic conversion of nitrogen oxides,4 water-gas shift,5,6 and preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells.7 the nucleation limit of Cu2O, they are likely to exist due to kinetic hindrance. 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION Oxidation

McGaughey, Alan

378

Mechanisms of plant species impacts on ecosystem nitrogen cycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, this microbial nitrogen loop is driven by plant-supplied carbon and provides a strong negative feedback through by an increase in the relative nitrogen content in decomposing litter and a much lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio by a microbial nitrogen loop. Nitrogen is released from the soil organic matter and incorporated into microbial

Minnesota, University of

379

Oxidation catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

380

February 2010 Pasture Nitrogen Balance Worksheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Agronomy Guide ­ Table 1.2-14A N Recommendation (lb/A) 3 Planned Fertilizer (lb/A) 1 Residual Manure N 4 Residual Legume N (lb/A) 5 Net Nitrogen Requirement (lb/A) Calculation of Uncollected Manure Nitrogen Available N/A deposited at this stocking rate is under N balanced rate; may need

Guiltinan, Mark

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

NITROGEN ISOTOPES IN PALEOCLIMATE JULIAN P. SACHS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

denitrification, the conversion of nitrate to N2 gas with its subsequent loss to the atmosphere (25-180 Tg N of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and is the precursor to petroleum deposits it is important to understand nitrogen of nitrogen is atmospheric dinitrogen gas (N2), consisting of 3.9 x 109 Tg N (Wada and Hattori, 1990

Sachs, Julian P.

382

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

support in a precision farming context. Keywords: Carbon balances, carbon sequestration, decompositionCarbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model

383

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

Eagar, Thomas W.

384

Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most important are diatoms, which may form phytoplankton blooms under conditions of sufficient silicate

Jochem, Frank J.

385

Nutrient Management Module No. 3 Nitrogen Cycling,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, it is important to first understand the various transformations that N undergoes within the soil. Nitrogen Cycling to be the sum of ammonium and nitrate, although urea, a type of organic N, may also be plant available. Nitrogen a fraction) by dry yield (in lb/ac). It's useful to compare actual uptake rates to N fertilizer rates

Lawrence, Rick L.

386

Using Petiole Analysis for Nitrogen Management in Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For cotton growers, maintaining proper nitrogen balance is a major concern. Petiole analysis, the laboratory analysis of the nitrogen content of leaf stems, can be coupled with plant monitoring to form an effective nitrogen management program...

Livingston, Stephen; Hickey, M. G.; Stichler, Charles

1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Isothermal oxidation behavior of ternary Zr-Nb-Y alloys at high temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of yttrium content on isothermal oxidation behavior of Zr-2,5%Nb-0,5%Y, Zr-2,5%Nb-1%Y Zr-2,5%Nb-1,5%Y alloy at high temperature has been studied. High temperature oxidation carried out at tube furnace in air at 600,700 and 800C for 1 hour. Optical microscope is used for microstructure characterization of the alloy. Oxidized and un oxidized specimen was characterized by x-ray diffraction. In this study, kinetic oxidation of Zr-2,5%Nb with different Y content at high temperature has also been studied. Characterization by optical microscope showed that microstructure of Zr-Nb-Y alloys relatively unchanged and showed equiaxed microstructure. X-ray diffraction of the alloys depicted that the oxide scale formed during oxidation of zirconium alloys is monoclinic ZrO2 while unoxidised alloy showed two phase ? and ? phase. SEM-EDS examination shows that depletion of Zr composition took place under the oxide layer. Kinetic rate of oxidation of zirconium alloy showed that increasing oxidation temperature will increase oxidation rate but increasing yttrium content in the alloys will decrease oxidation rate.

Prajitno, Djoko Hadi, E-mail: djokohp@batan.go.id [Research Center for Nuclear Materials and Radiometry, Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Soepriyanto, Syoni; Basuki, Eddy Agus [Metallurgy Engineering, Institute Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Wiryolukito, Slameto [Materials Engineering, Institute Technology Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

388

INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

390

Nitrogen Fixation and Dentrification in Sediments of Eutrophic Mediterranean-Type Estuaries: Seasonal Patterns and Responses to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and mechanisms controlling sediment nitrogen fixation in aKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in UpperKane T & Fong P. 2007. Sediment nitrogen fixation in Upper

Kane, Tonya Lynn

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

393

Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds Accelerated by Evaporation of Water from Secondary Formation of Nitrogen- and Sulfur-Containing Light-Absorbing Compounds...

394

Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by...

395

Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

396

Oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1-8 wt. % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500.degree.-1000.degree. C.

Natesan, Ken (Naperville, IL); Baxter, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

398

Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

SHORT COMMUNICATION Nitrogen recovery from shrimp pond efuent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water as ammonia (total ammonia nitrogen, TAN), through either direct excretion by animals or ammoni

Lorenzen, Kai

403

Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School LIQUID NITROGEN TANK HANDLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School LIQUID NITROGEN TANK HANDLING HMS microfluidics/microfabrication facility has one high pressure liquid nitrogen tank which supplies the nitrogen for some equipment normal operation. In case the liquid nitrogen tank is malfunctioning and requires to be shut down or replaced make

Paulsson, Johan

404

Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy...

405

Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

406

Nitrogen is a natural and necessary part of every healthy ecosystem, but too much nitrogen in our rivers,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), sewage treatment plants, and animal ma- nure. Once in water, nitrogen can change in chemical form

Torgersen, Christian

407

Asphalt Oxidation Kinetics and Pavement Oxidation Modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most paved roads in the United States are surfaced with asphalt. These asphalt pavements suffer from fatigue cracking and thermal cracking, aggravated by the oxidation and hardening of asphalt. This negative impact of asphalt oxidation on pavement...

Jin, Xin

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

408

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus Nitrogen Synergism  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of nitrogen additives like urea, guanidine carbonate and melamine formaldehyde on the flame retardant efficacy of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of activation energy of decomposition of treated cotton indicated that nitrogen additives enhance the thermal stability during the burning process. SEM pictures of chars formed after LOI test showed the formation of protective polymeric coating on the surface. The surface of chars formed were evaluated using FTIR-ATR and XPS analysis which showed that the coating was composed of Phosphorus-Nitrogen-Oxygen containing species. Formation of this coating during the burning process could lead to the synergistic interaction of phosphorus and nitrogen. Based on the experimental data we have further proposed several reaction mechanisms which could contribute to synergistic action and formation of protective coating on the surface of char.

Gaan, Sabyasachi; Sun, Gang; Hutches, Katherine; Engelhard, Mark H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Nitrogen and Sulfur Requirements for Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii on Cellulosic Substrates in Minimal Nutrient Media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth media for cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum and Caldicellulosiruptor bescii bacteria usually contain excess nutrients that would increase costs for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production and create a waste stream with nitrogen, sulfur and phosphate. C. thermocellum was grown on crystalline cellulose with varying concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur compounds, and growth rate and alcohol production response curves were determined. Both bacteria assimilated sulfate in the presence of ascorbate reductant, increasing the ratio of oxidized to reduced fermentation products. From these results, a low ionic strength, defined minimal nutrient medium with decreased nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate and vitamin supplements was developed for the fermentation of cellobiose, cellulose and acid-pretreated Populus. Carbon and electron balance calculations indicate the unidentified residual fermentation products must include highly reduced molecules. Both bacterial populations were maintained in co-cultures with substrates containing xylan or hemicellulose in defined medium with sulfate and basal vitamin supplements.

Kridelbaugh, Donna M [ORNL; Nelson, Josh C [ORNL; Engle, Nancy L [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Graham, David E [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Autoignition in turbulent two-phase flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the principle of generating a charge that is enough well-mixed to allow for either premixed or partially premixed combustion. One of such methods is known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion, in which a lean, homogeneous fuel / air... that characterize diffusion flames and which are responsible for NOx emissions. In practical compression-ignition engines, HCCI- type combustion is achieved by exploiting a technique known as diesel low tem- 3 perature combustion. A straightforward implementation...

Borghesi, Giulio

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

411

Two-Phase Cooling of Power Electronics  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

412

Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Different Mechanisms Govern the Two-Phase  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,Physics Diagnostics

414

The dynamics of two-phase (gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2 . TensileTevatronPortalThe art dynamics

415

Photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} using TiO{sub 2}/activated carbon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes experimental results for a method of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission control. NO{sub x} was oxidized photocatalytically to nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) using different titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalysts. The addition of ferric oxide improved the performance of the TiO{sub 2}. Of four adsorbents tested, activated carbon performed best in suppressing NO{sub 2} concentration. Optimum catalyst compositions were determined. Initial results indicated that photocatalytic oxidation of NO{sub x} offers several advantages over other emission control methods.

Wang, S.; Chen, D.H.; Li, K.Y. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

416

Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V, .=DL ULL LI~C a~ailability 01 ILILKLL~: IIILIU~~I~ LU curn, l~aa, 8011 31LY3 1 27.3 .53 .I447 1 I 1 5: 1250 .I349 ic nitrogen ( 37.P' 1 -59 1 .2195 ru.. nv / 36.6 .57 1 .2086 I -2141 1 .O7b/ I 1. gm. nitrous nitrogen 30.2 1 .64 1 .I933 1... .12 -.01 ' .09 V1 -- I w 01 ---- I ------ el M - 1 --O6 X * ---- ------ U1 $ !z - --- i d $ --- - I -20 2 Y * F - I M 4 M .34 I --- .20 M .14 5 nitrogen --- --- -.02 .14 -.48 -.01 -12 .18 .OS...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerobic nitrogen cycle Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biological nitrogen fixation of gaseous nitrogen. The water cycle is important to ecosystem... and Nitrogen Cycles As ... Source: Barboza, Perry - Institute of Arctic Biology,...

419

E-Print Network 3.0 - acquire organic nitrogen Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and microorganisms can die of nitrogen defi- ciency, surrounded... nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizer is applied at planting to these legumes when grown on sandy or low organic......

420

The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogen mobilization and recycling in trees. Photosynthesisloci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. Journal ofNitrogen Assimilation and Recycling Stphanie M. Bernard 1

Bernard, S.M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of enzyme concentration upon nitrogen so1ubi 1i zed in carrot tops ( 10g dry weight) . Conditions of assay: pH = 3. 5, i ncubati on time = 20 hr, incubation temperature = 45'C. 24 hydrolysis. These data confirm earlier reports that -. 01% is the pro... roots and tops, a concentration of 1. 0% A-12-C at pH 3. 5 provided the maximum increase in soluble ni trogenous consti tuents . For car~ot roots, a concentration of 1. 0/ ficin at pH 4, 5 provided the maximum increase in soluble nitrogen. With carrot...

Curry, James Cannon

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

together by one of nature?s strongest chemical bonds. As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond. Some natural processes that can break dinitrogen apart include lightning and nitrogen...- cultural Engi- neer; Research Technician II; Associate Profes- sor and Exten- sion Agricultural Engineer?Waste Management, The Texas A&M System E-464 02-08 J. K. Upadhyay, B. W. Auvermann, K. J. Bush, and S. Mukhtar* Texas AgriLife Extension...

Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

423

Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

424

Mechanisms of synfuel degradation. 3. Interactive effects in nitrogen compound induced storage instability in shale derived diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality upon storage has been a continuing problem in the utilization of middle distillate fuels. For diesel fuels, instability is usually defined by the formation of insoluble sediments and gums and by the accumulation of hydroperoxides. Gravimetric accelerated storage stability tests conducted with model compounds as dopants in otherwise stable distillate fuels have demonstrated that oxidative condensation reactions of polar heterocycles are deleterious to stability. In particular, nitrogen containing aromatics (pyrroles, pyridines, indoles, etc.) appear to be very harmful.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Beaver, B.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO: The {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is used to characterize the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine interactions associated with neutral nitrogen acceptors in zinc oxide. Data are obtained from an n-type bulk crystal grown by the seeded chemical vapor transport method. Singly ionized nitrogen acceptors (N{sup ?}) initially present in the crystal are converted to their paramagnetic neutral charge state (N{sup 0}) during exposure at low temperature to 442 or 633?nm laser light. The EPR signals from these N{sup 0} acceptors are best observed near 5?K. Nitrogen substitutes for oxygen ions and has four nearest-neighbor cations. The zinc ion along the [0001] direction is referred to as an axial neighbor and the three equivalent zinc ions in the basal plane are referred to as nonaxial neighbors. For axial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn hyperfine parameters are A{sub ?}?=?37.0?MHz and A{sub ?}?=?8.4?MHz with the unique direction being [0001]. For nonaxial neighbors, the {sup 67}Zn parameters are A{sub 1}?=?14.5?MHz, A{sub 2}?=?18.3?MHz, and A{sub 3}?=?20.5?MHz with A{sub 3} along a [101{sup }0] direction (i.e., in the basal plane toward the nitrogen) and A{sub 2} along the [0001] direction. These {sup 67}Zn results and the related {sup 14}N hyperfine parameters provide information about the distribution of unpaired spin density at substitutional neutral nitrogen acceptors in ZnO.

Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C., E-mail: Nancy.Giles@afit.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Evans, S. M.; Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Stress dependent oxidation of sputtered niobium and effects on superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the suppression of room temperature oxidation of DC sputtered niobium films and the effects upon the superconductive transition temperature, T{sub c}. Niobium was sputter-deposited on silicon dioxide coated 150?mm wafers and permitted to oxidize at room temperature and pressure for up to two years. Resistivity and stress measurements indicate that tensile films greater than 400?MPa resist bulk oxidation with measurements using transmission electron microscope, electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectric spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry confirming this result. Although a surface oxide, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, consumed the top 610?nm, we measure less than 1 at.% oxygen and nitrogen in the bulk of the films after the oxidation period. T{sub c} measurements using a SQUID magnetometer indicate that the tensile films maintained a T{sub c} approaching the dirty superconductive limit of 8.4?K after two years of oxidation while maintaining room temperature sheet resistance. This work demonstrates that control over niobium film stress during deposition can prevent bulk oxidation by limiting the vertical grain boundaries ability to oxidize, prolonging the superconductive properties of sputtered niobium when exposed to atmosphere.

David Henry, M., E-mail: mdhenry@sandia.gov; Wolfley, Steve; Monson, Todd; Clark, Blythe G.; Shaner, Eric; Jarecki, Robert [Sandia National Labs, MESA Fabrication Facility PO Box 5800 MS 1084, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1084 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

429

Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12 SCIENCE Breath is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, inert gases. On the basis of proton affinity, the major constituents of air and breath (nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide

430

First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a...

431

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

substance. Materials: 5 or more Liters of liquid nitrogen (gloves, goggles, and lab coat recommended the liquid nitrogen and safety gear you wear have fun with it!) 4. Mix heavy cream, half & half, and sugar

433

Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

434

Introduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Global update 2005. Primary sources of air pollutants include combustion products from power generationIntroduction Air Quality and Nitrogen Dioxide Air pollution can be defined as "the presence effects to man and/or the environment". (DEFRA) "Clean air is considered to be a basic requirement

435

groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

producer profits. This will, in turn, benefit water bodies in the area that receive stream baseflow fromgroundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer water withdraws are used for irrigation while the cities of Vernon, Burk- burnett and Electra and many

436

Nitrogen chemistry during oil shale pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real time evolution of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), two major nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved during oil shale pyrolysis, was measured by means of a mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and by infrared spectroscopy. While the on-line monitoring of NH{sub 3} in oil shale pyrolysis games was possible by both techniques, HCN measurements were only possible by IR. We studied one Green River Formation oil shale and one New Albany oil shale. The ammonia from the Green River oil shale showed one broad NH{sub 3} peak maximizing at a high temperature. For both oil shales, most NH{sub 3} evolves at temperatures above oil-evolving temperature. The important factors governing ammonia salts such as Buddingtonite in Green River oil shales, the distribution of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen, and the retorting conditions. The gas phase reactions, such as NH{sub 3} decomposition and HCN conversion reactions, also play an important role in the distribution of nitrogen volatiles, especially at high temperatures. Although pyrolysis studies of model compounds suggests the primary nitrogen product from kerogen pyrolysis to be HCN at high temperatures, we found only a trace amount of HCN at oil-evolving temperatures and none at high temperatures (T {gt} 600{degree}C). 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Oh, Myongsook S.; Crawford, R.W.; Foster, K.G.; Alcaraz, A.

1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

437

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

438

A Mechanistic Investigation of Nitrogen Evolution and Corrosion with Oxy-Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A premixed, staged, down-fired, pulverized coal reactor and a flat flame burner were used to study the evolution of nitrogen in coal contrasting differences in air and oxy-combustion. In the premixed reactor, the oxidizer was staged to produce a fuel rich zone followed by a burnout zone. The initial nominal fuel rich zone stoichiometric ratio (S.R.) of 0.85 selected produced higher NO reductions in the fuel rich region under oxy-combustion conditions. Air was found to be capable of similar NO reductions when the fuel rich zone was at a much lower S.R. of 0.65. At a S.R. of 0.85, oxy-combustion was measured to have higher CO, unburned hydrocarbons, HCN and NH{sub 3} in the fuel rich region than air at the same S.R. There was no measured difference in the initial formation of NO. The data suggest devolatilization and initial NO formation is similar for the two oxidizers when flame temperatures are the same, but the higher CO{sub 2} leads to higher concentrations of CO and nitrogen reducing intermediates at a given equivalence ratio which increases the ability of the gas phase to reduce NO. These results are supported by flat flame burner experiments which show devolatilization of nitrogen from the coal and char to be similar for air and oxy-flame conditions at a given temperature. A model of premixed combustion containing devolatilization, char oxidation and detailed kinetics captures most of the trends seen in the data. The model suggests CO is high in oxy-combustion because of dissociation of CO{sub 2}. The model also predicts a fraction (up to 20%, dependent on S.R.) of NO in air combustion can be formed via thermal processes with the source being nitrogen from the air while in oxy-combustion equilibrium drives a reduction in NO of similar magnitude. The data confirm oxy-combustion is a superior oxidizer to air for NO control because NO reduction can be achieved at higher S.R. producing better char burnout in addition to NO from recirculated flue gas being reduced as it passes back through the flame.

Dale Tree; Andrew Mackrory; Thomas Fletcher

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

439

Evolutionary tradeoffs can select against nitrogen fixation and thereby maintain nitrogen limitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. evolutionary ecology model Biological nitrogen (N) fixation--the conversion of atmo- spheric N2 gas) but is equally important to explaining the paradox of N limitation. Unlike the successional question

Menge, Duncan

440

Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................ 6 Relation of the Crops to the Total Nitrogen of the Soil ........... 7 Relation of the Different Crops ................................. 8 Relation of Surface Soil to Subsoil ............................. 13 Acid Soils Compared with Non-Acid... of Production of Nitrates to the Results of the Pot Ex- periments ................................................ 21 Extensive Work ............................................ 24 Relation of Nitric Nitrogen to Nitrogen Removed by First Crop .... 24...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

QuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

al. 2004. Concentrations of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide at roadside verges, and their contributionQuestionQuestion How does nitrogen deposition affect roadside plant community composition? 1. Is there a gradient of nitrogen deposition to freeway verges from traffic exhaust? 2. Are there other sources of N

Hall, Sharon J.

442

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Pollution XVI 247 Emissions of Nitrogen Dioxide from Modern Diesel Vehicles G.A. Bishop and D negative implications for local photochemical ozone production. Keywords: Nitrogen dioxide, automobile strategies, Lemaire [1] suggests that nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was forgotten as a separate component of the NOx

Denver, University of

443

Simple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'' and spatial variations of gaseous dry N deposition (i.e., nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3)), thoughSimple approaches for measuring dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition to watersheds Heather E. Golden the effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition on surface water quality requires accurate accounts

Elliott, Emily M.

444

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen use in switchgrass grown for bioenergy across the USA V.N. Owens a , D.R. Viands b , H Available online 17 August 2013 Keywords: Nitrogen removal Switchgrass Bioenergy Nitrogen use efficiency as a forage, conservation, and bioenergy crop [1e5]. It offers a number of distinct benefits including broad

Pawlowski, Wojtek

445

NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

Chang, Ho-Myung

446

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

work on other phases of this project concerning cata- lytic oxidation of hydrocarbons has been described by Sanderson (59), Looney (34), Burns (11), Dunlop (17), Woodham (71), and Perkins (49). The early work of Sanderson indicated that chromia-alumina... and pro- moted chromia?alumina agents possessed the ability to catalyze the oxidation of propane by air. Subsequent work of Looney suggested that propylene was a primary product of this oxidation; hence most investigations since then have been confined...

Billingsley, David Stuart

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential...

448

Nitrogen-concentration control in GaNAs/AlGaAs quantum wells using nitrogen ?-doping technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GaNAs/Al{sub 0.35}Ga{sub 0.65}As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with nitrogen ?-doping were fabricated on GaAs (100) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High controllability of nitrogen-concentrations in the MQWs was achieved by tuning nitrogen ?-doping time. The maximum nitrogen concentration in the MQWs was 2.8%. The MQWs exhibit intense, narrow photoluminescence emission.

Mano, Takaaki; Jo, Masafumi; Kuroda, Takashi; Noda, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Yoshimasa; Sakuma, Yoshiki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Elborg, Martin; Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan and Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

DISSOLUTION OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDE RESIDUES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the development of a dissolution flowsheet for neptunium (Np) oxide (NpO{sub 2}) residues (i.e., various NpO{sub 2} sources, HB-Line glovebox sweepings, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) thermogravimetric analysis samples). Samples of each type of materials proposed for processing were dissolved in a closed laboratory apparatus and the rate and total quantity of off-gas were measured. Samples of the off-gas were also analyzed. The quantity and type of solids remaining (when visible) were determined after post-dissolution filtration of the solution. Recommended conditions for dissolution of the NpO{sub 2} residues are: Solution Matrix and Loading: {approx}50 g Np/L (750 g Np in 15 L of dissolver solution), using 8 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), 0.025 M potassium fluoride (KF) at greater than 100 C for at least 3 hours. Off-gas: Analysis of the off-gas indicated nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) as the only identified components. No hydrogen (H{sub 2}) was detected. The molar ratio of off-gas produced per mole of Np dissolved ranged from 0.25 to 0.4 moles of gas per mole of Np dissolved. A peak off-gas rate of {approx}0.1 scfm/kg bulk oxide was observed. Residual Solids: Pure NpO{sub 2} dissolved with little or no residue with the proposed flowsheet but the NpCo and both sweepings samples left visible solid residue after dissolution. For the NpCo and Part II Sweepings samples the residue amounted to {approx}1% of the initial material, but for the Part I Sweepings sample, the residue amounted to {approx}8 % of the initial material. These residues contained primarily aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) compounds that did not completely dissolve under the flowsheet conditions. The residues from both sweepings samples contained minor amounts of plutonium (Pu) particles. Overall, the undissolved Np and Pu particles in the residues were a very small fraction of the total solids.

Kyser, E

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

451

Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution) The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a wide- spread invasive plant in the southeastern United the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia

Mickley, Loretta J.

452

Synthesis and energetic properties of TAGDNAT: a new high-nitrogen material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of Bis-(triaminoguanidinium)3,3'-dinitro5,5'-azo-1,2,4-triazolate (TAGDNAT), a novel high-nitrogen molecule that derives its energy release from both a high heat of formation and intramolecular oxidation reactions. TAGDNAT shows promise as a propellant or explosive ingredient not only due to its high nitrogen content (66.35 wt%) but additionally due to its high hydrogen content (4.34 wt%). This new molecule has been characterized with respect to its morphology, sensitivity properties, explosive and combustion performance. The heat of formation of TAGDNAT was also experimentally determined. The results of these studies show that TAGDNAT has one of the gastest low-pressure burning rates (at 1000 PSI) we have yet measured, 6.79 cm/s at 100 p.s.i. (39% faster than triaminoguanidinium azotetrazolate (TAGzT), a comparable high-nitrogen/high-hydrogen material). Furthermore, its pressure sensitivity is 0.507, a 33% reduction compared to TAGzT.

Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

454

NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitrogenoxides,nitrogendioxide,and thenumberof(liquefiednaturalgas,nitrogen dioxide,nitrogenoxides,nitrogenoxides,nitrogendioxide,particle number, and

Singer, Brett C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Failure of ozone and nitrogen dioxide to enhance lung tumor development in hamsters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We tested the hypothesis that the two common oxidant air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, modulate the development of respiratory tract tumors in Syrian golden hamsters. The animals received subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (20 mg/kg) twice a week while being exposed continuously to an atmosphere of 0.8 parts per million (ppm)* of ozone or 15 ppm of nitrogen dioxide. Animals were killed 16 weeks or 24 to 32 weeks after the beginning of the treatment. Ozone delayed the appearance of tracheal tumors and reduced the incidence of tumors in the lung periphery. A suspected neuroendocrine differentiation of those lung tumors could not be established by immunocytochemistry due to overfixation of tissues. On the other hand, ozone seemed to mitigate development of hepatotoxic lesions mediated by diethylnitrosamine. In animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and exposed to nitrogen dioxide, fewer tracheal tumors and no lung tumors were found. Only a few lung tumors were produced in animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in an atmosphere of 65% oxygen. The previously observed neuroendocrine nature of tumors induced by simultaneous exposure to diethylnitrosamine and hyperoxia could not be established because the long fixation of tissues precluded immunocytochemical stains. Animals treated with diethylnitrosamine and kept in filtered air while being housed in wire-mesh cages developed fewer lung tumors than animals given the same treatment and kept on conventional bedding in shoebox cages. Although all inhalants tested are known to produce substantial cell proliferation in the respiratory tract, it was not possible to document whether this would enhance lung tumor development. The role of the two common air pollutants, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as possible additional risks in the pathogenesis of lung cancer in animals continues to remain uncertain.

Witschi, H.; Breider, M.A.; Schuller, H.M. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

John W. Grula

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

457

A study on oxidized glassy carbon sheets for bipolar supercapacitor electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) for high energy and power density applications, based on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes, are being developed in this laboratory. In the context of this project, GC sheets were oxidized and investigated with Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Nitrogen Gas Adsorption (BET). During oxidation on active film with open pores is built on the surface of the GC. Upon oxidation, the internal volumetric surface area of the active film decreases, whereas the volumetric electrochemical double layer capacitance increases. The authors show that this effect is correlated with the opening, the growth and the coalescence of the pores.

Braun, A.; Baertsch, M.; Geiger, F. [and others

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitric ox- ide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ammonia (NHNitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (Nitric Oxide (NO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

Clarke, D. E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Catalytic Oxidation Reaction on Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Laboratory (PAL), Pohang 790-784, Republic of Korea ABSTRACT: The capacities of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films grown on silicon substrate to cause the aniline to azobenzene oxidation

Kim, Sehun

463

Two-Phase Isentropic Compressibility and Two-Phase Sonic Velocity for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sonic velocity are used for a wide range of problems in the production and exploration of hydrocarbon in well testing, metering, and seismic exploration. In this work, a thermo- dynamic model is presented defined on the basis of the thermody- namic path. For an isothermal process, the compressibility relates

Firoozabadi, Abbas

464

Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not ...

Grula, J W

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Electro Catalytic Oxidation (ECO) Operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The power industry in the United States is faced with meeting many new regulations to reduce a number of air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, fine particulate matter, and mercury. With over 1,000 power plants in the US, this is a daunting task. In some cases, traditional pollution control technologies such as wet scrubbers and SCRs are not feasible. Powerspan's Electro-Catalytic Oxidation, or ECO{reg_sign} process combines four pollution control devices into a single integrated system that can be installed after a power plant's particulate control device. Besides achieving major reductions in emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg), ECO produces a highly marketable fertilizer, which can help offset the operating costs of the process system. Powerspan has been operating a 50-MW ECO commercial demonstration unit (CDU) at FirstEnergy Corp.'s R.E. Burger Plant near Shadyside, Ohio, since February 2004. In addition to the CDU, a test loop has been constructed beside the CDU to demonstrate higher NOx removal rates and test various scrubber packing types and wet ESP configurations. Furthermore, Powerspan has developed the ECO{reg_sign}{sub 2} technology, a regenerative process that uses a proprietary solvent to capture CO{sub 2} from flue gas. The CO{sub 2} capture takes place after the capture of NOx, SO{sub 2}, mercury, and fine particulate matter. Once the CO{sub 2} is captured, the proprietary solution is regenerated to release CO{sub 2} in a form that is ready for geological storage or beneficial use. Pilot scale testing of ECO{sub 2} began in early 2009 at FirstEnergy's Burger Plant. The ECO{sub 2} pilot unit is designed to process a 1-MW flue gas stream and produce 20 tons of CO{sub 2} per day, achieving a 90% CO{sub 2} capture rate. The ECO{sub 2} pilot program provided the opportunity to confirm process design and cost estimates, and prepare for large scale capture and sequestration projects. The objectives of this project were to prove at a commercial scale that ECO is capable of extended operations over a range of conditions, that it meets the reliability requirements of a typical utility, and that the fertilizer co-product can be consistently generated, providing ECO with an economic advantage over conventional technologies currently available. Further objectives of the project were to show that the ECO system provides flue gas that meets the inlet standards necessary for ECO{sub 2} to operate, and that the outlet CO{sub 2} and other constituents produced by the ECO{sub 2} pilot can meet Kinder-Morgan pipeline standards for purposes of sequestration. All project objectives are consistent with DOE's Pollution Control Innovations for Power Plants program goals.

Morgan Jones

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

W. Windes; R. Smith

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

468

Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered structure in Inconel 939 superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the integrated oxy-fuel combustion and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation that results in the loss of the strengthening precipitates. In an earlier study of the oxidation of Inconel 939 Ni-based superalloy exposed to oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 hours, a high-temperature-oxidation-induced phase transformation in the sub-surface region was noticed and a two-phase region formed at the expense of strengthening ?' phase. While one of the two phases was identified as the Ni-matrix (? solid solution, face-center-cubic) phase, the other product phase remained unidentified. In this study, the crystal structure of the unknown phase and its orientation relationship with the parent Ni-matrix phase was investigated through electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that the crystal structure of the unknown phase could be modeled as a ternary derivative of the ordered ?-Ni3Ti phase (D024) structure with lattice parameters of a = 0.5092 nm and c = 0.8336 nm, ? = 90, ? = 90 and ? = 120.

Zhu, Jingxi; Wise, Adam; Nuhfer, Thomas; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Sridhar, Seetharaman; Laughlin, David E.

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

470

Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Nitrogen is necessary for life on earth, but  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond from the air. Photosynthetic energy in plants and chemical energy in soil microorganisms also can originated from industrial fertilizer production since the early 1900s, when the Nobel Prize-winning German

Mukhtar, Saqib

471

Increasing Price of Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is often the largest contributor to the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

events; the distribution of more than 5,700 publications; and access to web-based guidance on deep and associated costs. Since 2007, the importance of deep-soil testing for nitrogen management has been-sampling methods and procedures. Economic and Environmental Impact The economic impact of deep-soil testing

472

Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

a new technology with the potential to reduce operating costs and increase productivity in bar and flat-rolled products for the steel industry. Nitrogen Control in...

473

Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Crop Science 37:807-811.water- deficit stress, and the absorption of foliar-appliedgrowth favorable for N absorption and translocation. Four

Oosterhuis, Derrick M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp....

475

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

alter carbon nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen Physics Websites Summary: and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are...

477

Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Abstract: Chemical doping with foreign...

478

Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of tributyl phosphate (TBP) has been investigated. From the LOI tests on treated cotton it is clear that the nitrogen additives have synergistic action. Estimation of...

479

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogeneous Species in Gas Turbine Exhaust, from Conkle, et82) Percent of Organic Gas Turbine Emissions which containnitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (from the data presented

Matthews, Ronald D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Effect of nitrogen incorporation on improvement of leakage properties in high-k HfO{sub 2} capacitors treated by N{sub 2}-plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nitrogen incorporation into the HfO{sub 2} films with an EOT (equivalent oxide thickness) of 9 A was performed by N{sub 2}-plasma to improve the electrical properties. The dielectric properties and a leakage current characteristics of the capacitors were investigated as a function of plasma power and plasma treatment temperature. The dielectric constant of the capacitors is not influenced by nitrogen incorporation. The N{sub 2}-plasma treatment at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits the most effective influence on improvement of the leakage current characteristics. Leakage current density of the capacitors treated at 300 deg. C and 70 W exhibits a half order of magnitude lower than that without plasma treatment. Nitrogen incorporated into the HfO{sub 2} films possesses the intrinsic effect that drastically reduce the electron leakage current through HfO{sub 2} dielectrics by deactivating the V{sub O} (oxygen vacancy) related gap states.

Seong, Nak-Jin; Yoon, Soon-Gil; Yeom, Seung-Jin; Woo, Hyun-Kyung; Kil, Deok-Sin; Roh, Jae-Sung; Sohn, Hyun-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daeduk Science Town, 305-764, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Hynix Semiconductor Inc., San 136-1 Ami-ri Bubal-eub Icheon-si Kyoungki-do, 467-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-phase nitrogen oxide" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

482

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Toward Institutional Sustainability: A Nitrogen Footprint for the Marine Biological Maggie Notopoulos  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amounts of resources including electricity and food to maintain their daily activities. Food purchases of reactive nitrogen (Nr), all nitrogen compounds other than N2, associated with their use. Most of the Nr: Reactive Nitrogen, Nitrogen Footprint, Sustainability, Fertilizer, Nitrogen Uptake Factors, Virtual

Vallino, Joseph J.

484

Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

O`Brien, J.V. [Process Systems International, Inc., Westborough, MA (United States); Maloney, J.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

485

Mixed oxide solid solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests? Protecting our forests from pollutant deposition is and has been a topical issue for some time. Nitrogen, as well as being an essential nutrient for trees, is one of the most important of these pollutants. This article

487

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance Stephanie L for supercapacitor applications. Surface modification increases the amount of nitrogen by four times when compared elements in highly porous carbon used for electric double-layer supercapacitors.1 These elements modify

Cao, Guozhong

488

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath Ecosystems with Emphasis on Cold-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I spend many hours introducing me to modeling carbon exchange, thank you. Also thanks to Karina Clemmensen