National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for two-dimensional seismic surveying

  1. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5?Hz to 50?Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  2. Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Two-Dimensional Seismic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Surveying (Number of Elements) Two-Dimensional Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 4 2 12 6 0 0 0 0 NA 0 2010's 0

  3. Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Two-Dimensional Seismic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Surveying (Number of Elements) Two-Dimensional Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Two-Dimensional Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2000 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2003 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 2004 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2005 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2008 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  4. Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec...

  5. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At...

  6. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  7. A Survey Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Field, New Zealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Survey Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field, New...

  8. Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 13 4 23 12...

  9. U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb...

  10. Multiple long-streamer technology speeds seismic survey off Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeley, C.R.

    1995-09-18

    Now that 3D seismic is the survey of choice for most developing areas, the latest trend in conventional marine seismic acquisition has been pulling more streamers (sensor cables) behind each vessel. The goal behind the multi-streamer movement is obtaining the best data set as inexpensively as possible. PGS Exploration Inc. used its R/V Atlantic Explorer, pulling four seismic streamers measuring 4,000 m each with 160 recording channels/streamer, to complete a survey in 77 days--13 to 18 days earlier than planned--for Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras) in the Cabo Frio area of the Campos basin in Brazilian territorial waters. The survey was conducted from Jan. 19 to Apr. 4 in an area southeast of the existing Campos development, site of at least nine world records for deepwater production. It was performed in water depths ranging from 130 m to 2,000 m. Petrobras desired the 3D survey, the first int hat part of the Campos basin and the first turnkey 3D seismic contract signed by Petrobras, after its discovery of Guarajuba field last year in that region. The paper describes data acquisition and processing.

  11. Two-Dimensional IHCP Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-11-18

    QUENCH2D* is developed for the solution of general, non-linear, two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problems. This program provides estimates for the surface heat flux distribution and/or heat transfer coefficient as a function of time and space by using transient temperature measurements at appropriate interior points inside the quenched body. Two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric geometries such as turnbine disks and blades, clutch packs, and many other problems can be analyzed using QUENCH2D*.

  12. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  13. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Surveys at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, April 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seth S. Haines; Bethany L. Burton; Donald S. Sweetkind; Theodore H. Asch

    2009-03-30

    In April 2007, the USGS collected direct-current (DC) electrical resistivity data and shear- (S) and compressional- (P) wave seismic data to provide new detail of previously mapped, overlapping fault splays at two administrative areas in the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In NTS Area 7, we collected two-dimensional DC resistivity data along a transect crossing the Yucca Fault parallel to, and between, two transects along which resistivity data were collected in a previous study in 2006. In addition, we collected three-dimensional DC resistivity data in a grid that overlies part of the 2007 transect. The DC resistivity data show that the fault has a footwall that is more conductive than the hanging wall and an along-strike progression of the fault in a location where overlapping splays are present. Co-located with the northernmost of the two 2006 DC resistivity transects, we acquired S- and P-wave seismic data for both reflection and refraction processing. The S-wave data are corrupted by large amounts of converted (P-wave) energy likely due to the abundance of fractured caliche in the shallow subsurface. The P-wave data show minimal reflected energy, but they show clear refracted first arrivals. We have inverted these first arrival times to determine P-wave seismic velocity models. The seismic model for the transect in Area 7 shows low velocities extending to the base of the model at the location of the Yucca Fault, as well as low velocities at the eastern end of the transect, in the vicinity of the adjacent crater. These new surveys provide further detail about the geometry of the Yucca Fault in this location where it shows two overlapping splays. We collected P- and S-wave seismic data along a transect in the southern part of NTS Area 2, corresponding with the location of a 2006 DC resistivity transect that targeted a set of small faults identified with field mapping. Again, the S-wave data are difficult to interpret. The P-wave data show clear first arrivals that we inverted, yielding a velocity model that shows lateral heterogeneity similar to the 2006 DC resistivity models. Finally, we collected P-wave data along a second transect in Area 2, located north of the first line and in an area of a very minor fault that was targeted by another 2006 DC resistivity survey. The P-wave refraction velocity model shows generally high velocities, with a zone of somewhat lower velocities in the central part of the transect. The position of the low velocity zone corresponds with the location of a minor fault, though it is unclear whether the two are related. Together, these results demonstrate the value of geophysical data for mapping the subsurface extent of faults. The 2007 DC resistivity data complement the 2006 data and provide important new detail of the overlapping fault splays. The seismic data demonstrate the ability of P-wave refraction methods to identify the damage zones at faults, and they show the difficulties associated with S-wave methods in areas with caliche. Combining all of the geophysical data from the Area 7 studies, we are able to develop a coherent interpretation of the relation between the site geology, the fault, and the observations.

  14. U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 615 717 624 481...

  15. Pen Branch fault program: Consolidated report on the seismic reflection surveys and the shallow drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.L.; Stephenson, D.E.; Aadland, R.K.

    1991-03-23

    The Pen Branch fault was identified in the subsurface at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989 based upon interpretation of earlier seismic reflection surveys and other geologic investigations (Seismorgraph Services Incorp., 1973; Chapman and DiStefano, 1989; Snipes, Fallaw and Price, 1989). A program was initiated at that time to determine the capability of the fault to release seismic energy (Price and others, 1989) as defined in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines, 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. This report presents the results of the Pen Branch fault investigation based on data acquired from seismic reflection surveys and shallow drilling across the fault completed at this time. The Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has reviewed the results of these investigations and unanimously agrees with the conclusion of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) that the Pen Branch fault is a non-capable fault. ESAC is a committee of 12 earth science professionals from academia and industry with the charter of providing outside peer review of SRS geotechnical, seismic, and ground water modeling programs.

  16. Two-Dimensional Ground Water Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-05

    FRACFLO computes the two-dimensional, space, time dependent, convective dispersive transport of a single radionuclide in an unbounded single or multiple parallel fracture system with constant aperture. It calculates the one-dimensional diffusive transport into the rock matrix as well as the mass flux and cumulative mass flux at any point in the fracture. Steady-state isothermal ground water flow and parallel streamlines are assumed in the fracture, and the rock matrix is considered to be fully saturatedmore » with immobile water. The model can treat a single or multiple finite patch source or a Gaussian distributed source subject to a step or band release mode.« less

  17. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  18. Universal entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal quantum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    critical points (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Universal entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal quantum critical points Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Universal entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal quantum critical points We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two-dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e., systems with scale-invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on

  19. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-07-25

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits.

  20. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  1. Compositions comprising free-standing two-dimensional nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Gogotsi, Yury; Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Mashtalir, Olha

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is directed to compositions comprising free standing and stacked assemblies of two dimensional crystalline solids, and methods of making the same.

  2. Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Imaging of High Mobility ...

  3. A Two-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Prismatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Like This Return to Search A Two-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Model for Prismatic Lithium Ion Cells National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology...

  4. CASL - Analysis of Two-Dimensional Lattice Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Two-Dimensional Lattice Physics CASL is developing the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications (VERA) as a key capability to support the analysis of the CASL...

  5. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS field-effect transistors Prev Next Title: Integrated digital inverters based on ...

  6. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less

  7. Chiral Jacobians and two-dimensional QED at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.; Dittrich, W.

    1985-07-15

    We show that in massless two-dimensional QED there is no restoration of gauge symmetry at finite temperature (because the boson mass is temperature independent), using zeta-function techniques to solve the fermionic determinant exactly.

  8. A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    magnetoelectric transducer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer In this study, a magnetoelectric vibration energy harvester was demonstrated, which aims at addressing the limitations of the existing approaches in single dimensional operation with narrow working bandwidth. A

  9. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geophysical and wellbore data for the area, and these data will be complemented with modern, state-of-the-art reflection seismic data. Three-component geophones will record...

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of pulsational pair-instability supernovae

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Two-dimensional simulations of pulsational pair-instability supernovae Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-dimensional simulations of pulsational pair-instability supernovae Massive stars that end their lives with helium cores in the range of 35-65 M {sub ☉} are known to produce repeated thermonuclear outbursts due to a recurring pair-instability. In some of these events, solar masses of material are ejected in repeated outbursts of several ×

  11. Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  12. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  13. Dynamical confinement in bosonized two-dimensional QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrando, A. ); Vento, V. )

    1994-03-15

    In the bosonized version of two-dimensional theories nontrivial boundary conditions (topology) play a crucial role. They are inevitable if one wants to describe nonsinglet states. In Abelian bosonization, color is the charge of a topological current in terms of a nonlinear meson field. We show that confinement appears as the dynamical collapse of the topology associated with its nontrivial boundary conditions.

  14. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ?15 water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  15. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in the vanguard of non-intrusive approaches to increase knowledge of the shallow subsurface; our work is a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures.

  16. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2004-08-17

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  17. Methods and apparatus of suppressing tube waves within a bore hole and seismic surveying systems incorporating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Haefner, Daryl

    2005-12-13

    Methods and apparatus for attenuating waves in a bore hole, and seismic surveying systems incorporating the same. In one embodiment, an attenuating device includes a soft compliant bladder coupled to a pressurized gas source. A pressure regulating system reduces the pressure of the gas from the gas source prior to entering the bladder and operates in conjunction with the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid in a bore hole to maintain the pressure of the bladder at a specified pressure relative to the surrounding bore hole pressure. Once the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid exceeds that of the gas source, bore hole fluid may be admitted into a vessel of the gas source to further compress and displace the gas contained therein. In another embodiment, a water-reactive material may be used to provide gas to the bladder wherein the amount of gas generated by the water-reactive material may depend on the hydrostatic pressure of the bore hole fluid.

  18. A Two-Dimensional Compressible Gas Flow Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-03-17

    F2D is a general purpose, two dimensional, fully compressible thermal-fluids code that models most of the phenomena found in situations of coupled fluid flow and heat transfer. The code solves momentum, continuity, gas-energy, and structure-energy equations using a predictor-correction solution algorithm. The corrector step includes a Poisson pressure equation. The finite difference form of the equation is presented along with a description of input and output. Several example problems are included that demonstrate the applicabilitymore »of the code in problems ranging from free fluid flow, shock tubes and flow in heated porous media.« less

  19. Laminar flame and acoustic waves in two-dimensional flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, M. L., E-mail: mlzaytsev@gmail.com; Akkerman, V. B., E-mail: slava.akkerman@gmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nuclear Safety Institute (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    The complete system of fluid dynamics equations describing the development of instability of a reaction front in a two-dimensional flow in reversed time are reduced to a closed system of equations of front dynamics by using Lagrangian variables and integrals of motion. The system can be used to analyze processes behind the front without solving the complete system of fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics equations. It is demonstrated how the gas density disturbances induced by the moving front can be described in the adiabatic approximation.

  20. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-10

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less

  1. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  2. Two-dimensional interpreter for field-reversed configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinhauer, Loren

    2014-08-15

    An interpretive method is developed for extracting details of the fully two-dimensional (2D) “internal” structure of field-reversed configurations (FRC) from common diagnostics. The challenge is that only external and “gross” diagnostics are routinely available in FRC experiments. Inferring such critical quantities as the poloidal flux and the particle inventory has commonly relied on a theoretical construct based on a quasi-one-dimensional approximation. Such inferences sometimes differ markedly from the more accurate, fully 2D reconstructions of equilibria. An interpreter based on a fully 2D reconstruction is needed to enable realistic within-the-shot tracking of evolving equilibrium properties. Presented here is a flexible equilibrium reconstruction with which an extensive data base of equilibria was constructed. An automated interpreter then uses this data base as a look-up table to extract evolving properties. This tool is applied to data from the FRC facility at Tri Alpha Energy. It yields surprising results at several points, such as the inferences that the local β (plasma pressure/external magnetic pressure) of the plasma climbs well above unity and the poloidal flux loss time is somewhat longer than previously thought, both of which arise from full two-dimensionality of FRCs.

  3. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in two dimensional lattice super QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catterall, Simon; Veernala, Aarti

    2015-10-02

    We report on a non-perturbative study of two dimensional N=(2,2) super QCD. Our lattice formulation retains a single exact supersymmetry at non-zero lattice spacing, and contains Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of a U(Nc) gauge group. The lattice action we employ contains an additional Fayet-Iliopoulos term which is also invariant under the exact lattice supersymmetry. This work constitutes the first numerical study of this theory which serves as a toy model for understanding some of the issues that are expected to arise in four dimensional super QCD. As a result, we present evidence that the exact supersymmetry breaks spontaneously when Nf < Nc in agreement with theoretical expectations.

  4. Two-Dimensional Integral Combustion for Multiple Phase Flow

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-05-05

    This ANL multiphase two-dimensional combustion computer code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and solid particles (or droplets) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by ellipitic-type partial differential equations are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthaply, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation for a two-phase reacting flow. Associated submodels include an integral combustion, a two-parameter turbulence, a particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly-developed integral combustion submodel replacingmore »an Arrhenius-type differential reaction submodel is implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. The two-parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. The evaporation submodel treats size dispersion as well as particle evaporation. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer.« less

  5. High speed two-dimensional optical beam position detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutten, Paul Edmond

    2011-07-15

    Disclosed is the design of a high speed two-dimensional optical beam position detector which outputs the X and Y displacement and total intensity linearly. The experimental detector measures the displacement from DC to 123 MHz and the intensity of an optical spot in a similar way as a conventional quadrant photodiode detector. The design uses four discrete photodiodes and simple dedicated optics for the position decomposition which enables higher spatial accuracy and faster electronic processing than conventional detectors. Measurements of the frequency response and the spatial sensitivity demonstrate high suitability for atomic force microscopy, scanning probe data storage applications, and wideband wavefront sensing. The operation principle allows for position measurements up to 20 GHz and more in bandwidth.

  6. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Reconnection events in two-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donato, S.; Servidio, S.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Fisica de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The statistical study of magnetic reconnection events in two-dimensional turbulence has been performed by comparing numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). The analysis reveals that the Hall term plays an important role in turbulence, in which magnetic islands simultaneously reconnect in a complex way. In particular, an increase of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to system size, broadens the distribution of reconnection rates relative to the MHD case. Moreover, in HMHD the local geometry of the reconnection region changes, manifesting bifurcated current sheets and quadrupolar magnetic field structures in analogy to laminar studies, leading locally to faster reconnection processes in this case of reconnection embedded in turbulence. This study supports the idea that the global rate of energy dissipation is controlled by the large scale turbulence, but suggests that the distribution of the reconnection rates within the turbulent system is sensitive to the microphysics at the reconnection sites.

  8. Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional System of Quantum Dipoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzanti, F.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.

    2009-03-20

    A detailed microscopic analysis of the dynamic structure function S(k,{omega}) of a two-dimensional Bose system of dipoles polarized along the direction perpendicular to the plane is presented and discussed. Starting from ground-state quantities obtained using a quantum diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm, the density-density response is evaluated in the context of the correlated basis functions (CBF) theory. CBF predicts a sharp peak and a multiexcitation component at higher energies produced by the decay of excitations. We discuss the structure of the phonon-roton peak and show that the Feynman and Bogoliubov predictions depart from the CBF result already at low densities. We finally discuss the emergence of a roton in the spectrum, but find the roton energy not low enough to make the system unstable under density fluctuations up to the highest density considered that is close to the freezing point.

  9. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in two dimensional lattice super QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Catterall, Simon; Veernala, Aarti

    2015-10-02

    We report on a non-perturbative study of two dimensional N=(2,2) super QCD. Our lattice formulation retains a single exact supersymmetry at non-zero lattice spacing, and contains Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of a U(Nc) gauge group. The lattice action we employ contains an additional Fayet-Iliopoulos term which is also invariant under the exact lattice supersymmetry. This work constitutes the first numerical study of this theory which serves as a toy model for understanding some of the issues that are expected to arise in four dimensional super QCD. As a result, we present evidence that the exact supersymmetry breaks spontaneouslymore » when Nf < Nc in agreement with theoretical expectations.« less

  10. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  11. Seismic Vulnerability Evaluations Within The Structural And Functional Survey Activities Of The COM Bases In Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuccaro, G.; Cacace, F.; Albanese, V.; Mercuri, C.; Papa, F.; Pizza, A. G.; Sergio, S.; Severino, M.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes technical and functional surveys on COM buildings (Mixed Operative Centre). This activity started since 2005, with the contribution of both Italian Civil Protection Department and the Regions involved. The project aims to evaluate the efficiency of COM buildings, checking not only structural, architectonic and functional characteristics but also paying attention to surrounding real estate vulnerability, road network, railways, harbours, airports, area morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, hazardous activities, etc. The first survey was performed in eastern Sicily, before the European Civil Protection Exercise 'EUROSOT 2005'. Then, since 2006, a new survey campaign started in Abruzzo, Molise, Calabria and Puglia Regions. The more important issue of the activity was the vulnerability assessment. So this paper deals with a more refined vulnerability evaluation technique by means of the SAVE methodology, developed in the 1st task of SAVE project within the GNDT-DPC programme 2000-2002 (Zuccaro, 2005); the SAVE methodology has been already successfully employed in previous studies (i.e. school buildings intervention programme at national scale; list of strategic public buildings in Campania, Sicilia and Basilicata). In this paper, data elaborated by SAVE methodology are compared with expert evaluations derived from the direct inspections on COM buildings. This represents a useful exercise for the improvement either of the survey forms or of the methodology for the quick assessment of the vulnerability.

  12. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.

  13. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Wei; Anderson, Roger N.

    1998-01-01

    A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management.

  14. Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

    1998-08-25

    A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

  15. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Monolayer InN Quantum Wells....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Monolayer InN Quantum Wells. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Monolayer InN Quantum Wells. Abstract not...

  16. Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals...

  17. Full Reviews: Seismicity and Seismic

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer reviewer comments for Seismicity and Seismic.

  18. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azad, Abul K; Chen, Houtong; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John F; Han, Jiaguang; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  19. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; et al

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulkmore » solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.« less

  20. Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional Materials Beyond Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Liang, Liangbo; Cooper, Valentino R.; Bhimanapati, Ganesh; Lin, Zhong; Jung, Yeongwoong; Cha, Judy; Das, Saptarshi; Xiao, Di; Son, Youngwoo; Strano, Michael; Louie, Steven G.; Ringe, Emilie; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Yeliang; Akinwande, Deji; Zhu, Jun; Schuller, John; Schaak, Raymond; Robinson, Joshua A

    2015-11-06

    The isolation of graphene in 2004 by peeling apart the atomically-thin sheets that comprise graphite was a defining moment for the birth of a field: Two-dimensional (2D) materials. In recent years, there has been a rapidly increasing number of papers focusing on non-graphene layered materials, including transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), because of the new properties and applications that emerge upon 2D confinement. Here we review significant recent advances and important new developments in 2D materials beyond graphene . We provide insight into the theoretical modeling and understanding of the van der Waals forces that hold together the 2D layers in bulk solids, as well as their excitonic properties and growth morphologies. Additionally, we highlight recent breakthroughs in TMD synthesis and characterization and discuss the newest families of 2D materials, including monoelement 2D materials (i.e., silicene, phosphorene, etc.) and transition metal carbide- and carbon nitride-based MXenes. We then discuss the doping and functionalization of 2D materials beyond graphene, which enable device applications, followed by advances in electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices and theory. Finally, we provide perspectives on the future of 2D materials beyond graphene.

  1. Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in; Joy, Ashwin [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Undriven, incompressible Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional doubly periodic strongly coupled dusty plasma is modelled using generalised hydrodynamics, both in linear and nonlinear regime. A complete stability diagram is obtained for low Reynolds numbers R and for a range of viscoelastic relaxation time ?{sub m} [0?

  2. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy signatures of the glass transition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, K. L. .M.; Myers, J. A.; Fuller, F.; Tekavec, P. F.; Ogilvie, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of solvation dynamics. Using a pump–probe geometry with a pulse shaper [ Optics Express 15 (2007), 16681-16689; Optics Express 16 (2008), 17420-17428], we present temperature dependent 2D spectra of laser dyes dissolved in glass-forming solvents. At low waiting times, the system has not yet relaxed, resulting in a spectrum that is elongated along the diagonal. At longer times, the system loses its memory of the initial excitation frequency, and the 2D spectrum rounds out. As the temperature is lowered, the time scale of this relaxation grows, and the elongation persists for longermore » waiting times. This can be measured in the ratio of the diagonal width to the anti-diagonal width; the behavior of this ratio is representative of the frequency–frequency correlation function [ Optics Letters 31 (2006), 3354–3356]. Near the glass transition temperature, the relaxation behavior changes. Understanding this change is important for interpreting temperature-dependent dynamics of biological systems.« less

  3. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sebastien

    2011-02-15

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k{sub ||}=0 and in the area k{sub ||}>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvenic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  4. The intrinsic two-dimensional size of Sagittarius A*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Markoff, Sera; Brunthaler, Andreas; Falcke, Heino; Law, Casey; Maitra, Dipankar; Clavel, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Morris, M. R.; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A. M.

    2014-07-20

    We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array observations at a wavelength of 7 mm. The intrinsic source is modeled as an elliptical Gaussian with major-axis size 35.4 12.6 R{sub S} in position angle 95 east of north. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the intrinsic major-axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports the conclusion that NIR and X-ray flares are primarily due to electron excitation and not to an enhanced accretion rate onto the black hole.

  5. Unexpected Stable Two-dimensional Silicon Phosphides with Different Stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Bing; Zhuang, Houlong; Yoon, Mina; Wei, Su-Huai; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of stable two-dimensional, earth-abundant, semiconducting materials is of great interest and may impact future electronic technologies. By combining global structural prediction and first-principles calculations, we have theoretically discovered several previously unknown semiconducting silicon phosphides (SixPy) monolayers, which could be formed stably at the stoichiometries of y/x1. Unexpectedly, some of these compounds, i.e., P-6m2 Si1P1 and Pm Si1P2, have comparable or even lower formation enthalpies than their previously known bulk allotropes. The band gaps (Eg) of SixPy compounds can be dramatically tuned in an extremely wide range (0< Eg < 3 eV) by simply changing the number of layers or applying an in-plane strain. Moreover, we find that carrier doping can drive the ground state of C2/m Si1P3 from a nonmagnetic state into a robust half-metallic spin-polarized state, originating from its unique valence band structure, which can extend the use of Si-related compounds for spintronics.

  6. Two-dimensional photochemical model of the troposphere. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment using a time-dependent, two-dimensional photochemical model of the troposphere to model the vertical and zonal distribution of ozone and its precursors is presented. The experiment examines two cases. Case I simulates vertical transport due to diffusion and zonal transport due to advection, with surface emissions of ozone precursors in the center of the model domain representing an urban environment with light wind conditions favorable for the formation of ozone in concentrations greater than 80 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). In Case II, an elevated source of ozone and its precursors is introduced at the upstream boundary in order to investigate the role of advection of these chemical species on ozone concentrations. the first simulation produces surface ozone concentrations greater than 120 ppbv in the air above the urban area, and the second simulation produces an increase of 3 - 10 percent in this region. A comparison of Case I and Case II results shows that enhanced photochemical production of ozone due to the addition of ozone's precursors play an important role in this increase.

  7. Refractory two-dimensional hole gas on hydrogenated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi; Daicho, Akira; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2012-12-15

    Use of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), induced on a hydrogenated diamond surface, is a solution to overcoming one of demerits of diamond, i.e., deep energy levels of impurities. This 2DHG is affected by its environment and accordingly needs a passivation film to get a stable device operation especially at high temperature. In response to this requirement, we achieved the high-reliability passivation forming an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film on the diamond surface using an atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) method with an H{sub 2}O oxidant at 450 Degree-Sign C. The 2DHG thus protected survived air annealing at 550 Degree-Sign C for an hour, establishing a stable high-temperature operation of 2DHG devices in air. In part, this achievement is based on high stability of C-H bonds up to 870 Degree-Sign C in vacuum and above 450 Degree-Sign C in an H{sub 2}O-containing environment as in the ALD. Chemically, this stability is supported by the fact that both the thermal decomposition of C-H bonds and reaction between C-H bonds and H{sub 2}O are endothermic processes. It makes a stark contrast to the instability of Si-H bonds, which decompose even at room temperature being exposed to atomic hydrogen. In this respect, the diamond 2DHG devices are also promising as power devices expectedly being free from many instability phenomena, such as hot carrier effect and negative-bias temperature instability, associated with Si devices. As to adsorbate, which is the other prerequisite for 2DHG, it desorbed in vacuum below 250 Degree-Sign C, and accordingly some new adsorbates should have adsorbed during the ALD at 450 Degree-Sign C. As a clue to this question, we certainly confirmed that some adsorbates, other than those at room temperature, adsorbed in air above 100 Degree-Sign C and remained at least up to 290 Degree-Sign C. The identification of these adsorbates is open for further investigation.

  8. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor materials releases 2D structures. In this Account, in addition to graphene and TMO, we focused on MXenes as an example for the use of selective extraction synthesis to produce novel 2D materials. About 10 new carbides and carbonitrides of transition metals have been produced by this method in the past 3 years. They offer an unusual combination of metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity and show very attractive electrochemical properties. We hope that this Account will encourage researchers to extend the use of selective extraction to other layered material systems that in turn will result in expanding the world of nanomaterials in general and 2D materials in particular, generating new materials that cannot be produced by other means.

  9. 2D Seismic Reflection Data across Central Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Valerie; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    In a continuing collaboration with the Midwest Geologic Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) on the Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco acquired two-dimensional (2D) seismic data in the Illinois Basin. This work included the design, acquisition and processing of approximately 125 miles of (2D) seismic reflection surveys running west to east in the central Illinois Basin. Schlumberger Carbon Services and WesternGeco oversaw the management of the field operations (including a pre-shoot planning, mobilization, acquisition and de-mobilization of the field personnel and equipment), procurement of the necessary permits to conduct the survey, post-shoot closure, processing of the raw data, and provided expert consultation as needed in the interpretation of the delivered product. Three 2D seismic lines were acquired across central Illinois during November and December 2010 and January 2011. Traversing the Illinois Basin, this 2D seismic survey was designed to image the stratigraphy of the Cambro-Ordovician sections and also to discern the basement topography. Prior to this survey, there were no regionally extensive 2D seismic data spanning this section of the Illinois Basin. Between the NW side of Morgan County and northwestern border of Douglas County, these seismic lines ran through very rural portions of the state. Starting in Morgan County, Line 101 was the longest at 93 miles in length and ended NE of Decatur, Illinois. Line 501 ran W-E from the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) site to northwestern Douglas County and was 25 miles in length. Line 601 was the shortest and ran N-S past the IBDP site and connected lines 101 and 501. All three lines are correlated to well logs at the IBDP site. Originally processed in 2011, the 2D seismic profiles exhibited a degradation of signal quality below ~400 millisecond (ms) which made interpretation of the Mt. Simon and Knox sections difficult. The data quality also gradually decreased moving westward across the state. To meet evolving project objectives, in 2012 the seismic data was re-processed using different techniques to enhance the signal quality thereby rendering a more coherent seismic profile for interpreters. It is believed that the seismic degradation could be caused by shallow natural gas deposits and Quaternary sediments (which include abandoned river and stream channels, former ponds, and swamps with peat deposits) that may have complicated or changed the seismic wavelet. Where previously limited by seismic coverage, the seismic profiles have provided valuable subsurface information across central Illinois. Some of the interpretations based on this survey included, but are not limited to: - Stratigraphy generally gently dips to the east from Morgan to Douglas County. - The Knox Supergroup roughly maintains its thickness. There is little evidence for faulting in the Knox. However, at least one resolvable fault penetrates the entire Knox section. - The Eau Claire Formation, the primary seal for the Mt. Simon Sandstone, appears to be continuous across the entire seismic profile. - The Mt. Simon Sandstone thins towards the western edge of the basin. As a result, the highly porous lowermost Mt. Simon section is absent in the western part of the state. - Overall basement dip is from west to east. - Basement topography shows evidence of basement highs with on-lapping patterns by Mt. Simon sediments. - There is evidence of faults within the lower Mt. Simon Sandstone and basement rock that are contemporaneous with Mt. Simon Sandstone deposition. These faults are not active and do not penetrate the Eau Claire Shale. It is believed that these faults are associated with a possible failed rifting event 750 to 560 million years ago during the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia.

  10. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques

  11. Ultrathin nanosheets of CrSiTe3: A semiconducting two-dimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ferromagnetic material (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ultrathin nanosheets of CrSiTe3: A semiconducting two-dimensional ferromagnetic material Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 27, 2016 Title: Ultrathin nanosheets of CrSiTe3: A semiconducting two-dimensional ferromagnetic material Finite range ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) systems within an isotropic Heisenberg model at non-zero temperature were

  12. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin L.

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  13. Results from laboratory tests of the two-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D; Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2014-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of two dimensional time-encoded imaging. A prototype two-dimensional time encoded imaging system was designed and constructed. Results from imaging measurements of single and multiple point sources as well as extended source distributions are presented. Time encoded imaging has proven to be a simple method for achieving high resolution two-dimensional imaging with potential to be used in future arms control and treaty verification applications.

  14. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TRANSPORT (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD)

  15. Miniband Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Miniband Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Strong Periodic Unidirectional Potential Modulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Miniband...

  16. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Accepted Manuscript: Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas Title: Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a...

  17. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Basis To assess the benefits of surface seismic surveys Notes Different migration procedures were applied to image a synthetic reservoir model and seismic data. After...

  18. SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN GEOTHERMAL FIELDS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assess the benefits of surface seismic surveys in such settings, we applied different migration procedures to image a synthetic reservoir model and seismic data from the Coso...

  19. Quasi-equilibrium phase diagram and optical response in two-dimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electron-hole system (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Quasi-equilibrium phase diagram and optical response in two-dimensional electron-hole system Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quasi-equilibrium phase diagram and optical response in two-dimensional electron-hole system We study two dimensional electron-hole system in quasi-equilibrium. By using the self-consistent screened T matrix approximation, we present density dependence of ionization ratio. We also discuss the

  20. Method and system for determining a volume of an object from two-dimensional images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abercrombie, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Schlicher, Bob G. (Portsmouth, NH) [Portsmouth, NH

    2010-08-10

    The invention provides a method and a computer program stored in a tangible medium for automatically determining a volume of three-dimensional objects represented in two-dimensional images, by acquiring at two least two-dimensional digitized images, by analyzing the two-dimensional images to identify reference points and geometric patterns, by determining distances between the reference points and the component objects utilizing reference data provided for the three-dimensional object, and by calculating a volume for the three-dimensional object.

  1. X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    magnifications (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications A two-dimensional stigmatic x-ray imaging scheme, consisting of two spherically bent crystals, one concave and one convex, was recently proposed [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E527 (2012)]. The Bragg angles and the

  2. Deepwater seismic acquisition technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, J.

    1996-09-01

    Although truly new technology is not required for successful acquisition of seismic data in deep Gulf of Mexico waters, it is helpful to review some basic aspects of these seismic surveys. Additionally, such surveys are likely to see early use of some emerging new technology which can improve data quality. Because such items as depth imaging, borehole seismic, 4-D and marine 3-component recording were mentioned in the May 1996 issue of World Oil, they are not discussed again here. However, these technologies will also play some role in the deepwater seismic activities. What is covered in this paper are some new considerations for: (1) longer data records needed in deeper water, (2) some pros and cons of very long steamer use, and (3) two new commercial systems for quantifying data quality.

  3. Two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two-dimensional gas-phase coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (2D-CARS): simultaneous planar imaging and multiplex spectroscopy in a single laser shot. Citation Details...

  4. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, Himadri R. Jha, Prafulla K.

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  5. Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The use of two-dimensional CFD models can significantly extend the capabilities for the detailed analysis of the complex heat transfer and gas dynamic processes which occur in the ...

  6. Nonlinear Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Periodically

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modulated Potential. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Nonlinear Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Periodically Modulated Potential. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Periodically Modulated Potential. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lyo, Sungkwun K. ; Pan, Wei Publication Date: 2010-09-01 OSTI Identifier: 1122349 Report Number(s): SAND2010-6325J 491442 DOE Contract Number:

  7. Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working process

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a Stirling engine (Conference) | SciTech Connect Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working process of a Stirling engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working process of a Stirling engine Stirling engines have several potential advantages over existing types of engines, in particular they can use renewable energy sources for power production and their performance meets the demands on the

  8. Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local Imaging of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Systems with Virtual Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Authors: Pelliccione, M. ; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /UC, Santa Barbara ; Bartel, J. ; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Sciambi, A. ; /Stanford U.,

  9. A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hysteresis (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic hysteresis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic hysteresis This paper deals with a neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. Such approach to the problem seems promising in order to couple the numerical treatment of magnetic hysteresis to FEM numerical solvers

  10. DIOPTAS: a program for reduction of two-dimensional X-ray diffraction data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and data exploration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect DIOPTAS: a program for reduction of two-dimensional X-ray diffraction data and data exploration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DIOPTAS: a program for reduction of two-dimensional X-ray diffraction data and data exploration Authors: Prescher, Clemens ; Prakapenka, Vitali B. [1] + Show Author Affiliations (UC) Publication Date: 2015-08-20 OSTI Identifier: 1212922 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  11. Stability of skyrmion lattices and symmetries of quasi-two-dimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chiral magnets (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Stability of skyrmion lattices and symmetries of quasi-two-dimensional chiral magnets This content will become publicly available on February 23, 2017 Title: Stability of skyrmion lattices and symmetries of quasi-two-dimensional chiral magnets Authors: Güngördü, Utkan ; Nepal, Rabindra ; Tretiakov, Oleg A. ; Belashchenko, Kirill ; Kovalev, Alexey A. Publication Date: 2016-02-24 OSTI Identifier: 1239428

  12. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-06-20

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  13. Stability analysis for two-dimensional ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seadawy, A. R.

    2014-05-15

    The quantum hydrodynamic model is applied to two-dimensional ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasmas. The two-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model is used to obtain a deformed Kortewegde Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive perturbation method. By using the solution of auxiliary ordinary equations, a extended direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact solutions for nonlinear quantum dKdV equation. The present results are describing the generation and evolution of such waves, their interactions, and their stability.

  14. The Electronic Structure of a Two-Dimensional Pure Copper Oxide Lattice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Electronic Structure of a Two-Dimensional Pure Copper Oxide Lattice The Electronic Structure of a Two-Dimensional Pure Copper Oxide Lattice Print Monday, 27 October 2014 09:44 All superconducting cuprates share a common crystal structure, consisting of charge reservoirs stacked between layers of CuO2, the distinctive building blocks. An undoped version of these materials, including only copper and oxygen, is not available in nature. CuO2 does not exist as a self-standing compound, and CuO

  15. Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electrongas (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electrongas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electrongas We describe measurements of spin dynamics in thetwo-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells. Opticaltechniques, including transient spin-grating spectroscopy, are used toprobe the relaxation rates of spin polarization waves in the wavevectorrange from zero to 6E4 cm-1. We find that the

  16. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.

    2014-11-24

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Bose gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilati, S.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Giorgini, S.

    2005-02-01

    The equation of state of a homogeneous two-dimensional Bose gas is calculated using quantum Monte Carlo methods. The low-density universal behavior is investigated using different interatomic model potentials, both finite ranged and strictly repulsive and zero ranged, supporting a bound state. The condensate fraction and the pair distribution function are calculated as a function of the gas parameter, ranging from the dilute to the strongly correlated regime. In the case of the zero-range pseudopotential we discuss the stability of the gaslike state for large values of the two-dimensional scattering length, and we calculate the critical density where the system becomes unstable against cluster formation.

  18. Testable Signatures of Quantum Nonlocality in a Two-Dimensional Chiral

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    p-Wave Superconductor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Testable Signatures of Quantum Nonlocality in a Two-Dimensional Chiral p-Wave Superconductor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Testable Signatures of Quantum Nonlocality in a Two-Dimensional Chiral p-Wave Superconductor A class of topological excitations--the odd-winding number vortices--in a spinless 2D chiral p-wave (p{sub x}+ip{sub y}) superconductor traps Majorana fermion states in the vortex cores. For a dilute gas of

  19. A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchhill Co., NV

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Summary: Understanding geothermal reservoirs requires multi-discipline, integrated 3D GIS: Access down hole geophysical logs, surface geophysics, isotherms, isoresistivity surfaces, seismic data, cross-sections, etc. instantaneously; Wells tell where youve been; MT shows the direction to go; Seismic provides the map; & Be prepared for discoveries.

  20. Demonstration of two-dimensional time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; McMillan, K.; Nowack, A.; Galloudec, N. Renard-Le; Sweany, M.

    2015-09-09

    Here, we present a neutron detector system based on time-encoded imaging, and demonstrate its applicability toward the spatial mapping of special nuclear material. We also demonstrate that two-dimensional fast-neutron imaging with 2° resolution at 2 m stand-off is feasible with only two instrumented detectors.

  1. Symmetry operators for Dirac's equation on two-dimensional spin manifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatibene, Lorenzo; McLenaghan, Raymond G.; Smith, Shane N.; Rastelli, Giovanni

    2009-05-15

    It is shown that the second order symmetry operators for the Dirac equation on a general two-dimensional spin manifold may be expressed in terms of Killing vectors and valence 2 Killing tensors. The role of these operators in the theory of separation of variables for the Dirac equation is studied.

  2. Investigation of transient, two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, L.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference numerical model has been developed to study coupled heat and moisture flow in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered construction. The model is based on a mechanistic approach formulated by Milly and developed from the work of Philip and deVries. Using soil temperatures and matric potentials as the dependent variables, the model is capable of simulating unsaturated/saturated flow conditions in heterogeneous soil domains. The model is a fully implicit, integrated finite difference approach based on the Patankar Spalding method. The numerical modeling of the governing heat and moisture equations was validated against a number of analytical and quasi-analytical solutions. An axisymmetric, two-dimensional experiment was then defined to which the numerical model could be compared. The experimental apparatus was composed of a cylinder filled with a dredged Mississippi River sand. A series of one and two dimensional heat and moisture flow experiments were run, using boundary conditions consistent with those that occur in the soil surrounding a building. Soil properties used in the model were either calculated from theoretical models or measured experimentally. Agreement between the model and experiments were good, with an error of 10-15% obtained for the two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow experiment.

  3. Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezayi, Edward

    2013-07-25

    Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.

  4. Demonstration of two-dimensional time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; McMillan, K.; Nowack, A.; Galloudec, N. Renard-Le; Sweany, M.

    2015-09-09

    Here, we present a neutron detector system based on time-encoded imaging, and demonstrate its applicability toward the spatial mapping of special nuclear material. We also demonstrate that two-dimensional fast-neutron imaging with 2 resolution at 2 m stand-off is feasible with only two instrumented detectors.

  5. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS₂ field-effect transistors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching -Hwa; et al

    2015-05-07

    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS₂) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS₂ field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (~10⁷) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconductingmore » materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS₂ anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications.« less

  6. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teplow, William J.; Warren, Ian

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  7. Coherent imaging with two-dimensional focal-plane arrays: design and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Emery, M.S.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Miller, G.H.; Richards, R.K.; Sitter, D.N.

    1997-09-01

    Scanned, single-channel optical heterodyne detection has been used in a variety of lidar applications from ranging and velocity measurements to differential absorption spectroscopy. We describe the design of a coherent camera system that is based on a two-dimensional staring array of heterodyne receivers for coherent imaging applications. Experimental results with a single HgCdTe detector translated in the image plane to form a synthetic two-dimensional array demonstrate the ability to obtain passive heterodyne images of chemical vapor plumes that are invisible to normal video infrared cameras. We describe active heterodyne imaging experiments with use of focal-plane arrays that yield hard-body Doppler lidar images and also demonstrate spatial averaging to reduce speckle effects in static coherent images. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  8. Excitonic effects in two-dimensional semiconductors: Path integral Monte Carlo approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-11-11

    The most striking features of novel two-dimensional semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers or phosphorene) is a strong Coulomb interaction between charge carriers resulting in large excitonic effects. In particular, this leads to the formation of multicarrier bound states upon photoexcitation (e.g., excitons, trions, and biexcitons), which could remain stable at near-room temperatures and contribute significantly to the optical properties of such materials. In our work we have used the path integral Monte Carlo methodology to numerically study properties of multicarrier bound states in two-dimensional semiconductors. Specifically, we have accurately investigated and tabulated the dependence of single-exciton, trion, and biexcitonmore » binding energies on the strength of dielectric screening, including the limiting cases of very strong and very weak screening. Our results of this work are potentially useful in the analysis of experimental data and benchmarking of theoretical and computational models.« less

  9. Resonant tunneling device with two-dimensional quantum well emitter and base layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Sherwin, Marc E.; Drummond, Timothy J.; Weckwerth, Mark V.

    1998-01-01

    A double electron layer tunneling device is presented. Electrons tunnel from a two dimensional emitter layer to a two dimensional tunneling layer and continue traveling to a collector at a lower voltage. The emitter layer is interrupted by an isolation etch, a depletion gate, or an ion implant to prevent electrons from traveling from the source along the emitter to the drain. The collector is similarly interrupted by a backgate, an isolation etch, or an ion implant. When the device is used as a transistor, a control gate is added to control the allowed energy states of the emitter layer. The tunnel gate may be recessed to change the operating range of the device and allow for integrated complementary devices. Methods of forming the device are also set forth, utilizing epoxy-bond and stop etch (EBASE), pre-growth implantation of the backgate or post-growth implantation.

  10. Resonant tunneling device with two-dimensional quantum well emitter and base layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, J.A.; Sherwin, M.E.; Drummond, T.J.; Weckwerth, M.V.

    1998-10-20

    A double electron layer tunneling device is presented. Electrons tunnel from a two dimensional emitter layer to a two dimensional tunneling layer and continue traveling to a collector at a lower voltage. The emitter layer is interrupted by an isolation etch, a depletion gate, or an ion implant to prevent electrons from traveling from the source along the emitter to the drain. The collector is similarly interrupted by a backgate, an isolation etch, or an ion implant. When the device is used as a transistor, a control gate is added to control the allowed energy states of the emitter layer. The tunnel gate may be recessed to change the operating range of the device and allow for integrated complementary devices. Methods of forming the device are also set forth, utilizing epoxy-bond and stop etch (EBASE), pre-growth implantation of the backgate or post-growth implantation. 43 figs.

  11. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamaraju, N. Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P.; Pan, W.; Reno, J.; Ekenberg, U.; Gvozdić, D. M.; Boubanga-Tombet, S.; Upadhya, P. C.

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  12. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamaraju, N.; Pan, W.; Ekenberg, U.; Gvozdić, D. M.; Boubanga-Tombet, S.; Upadhya, P. C.; Reno, J.; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P.

    2015-01-21

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We then used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also found that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  13. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kamaraju, N.; Pan, W.; Ekenberg, U.; Gvozdić, D. M.; Boubanga-Tombet, S.; Upadhya, P. C.; Reno, J.; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P.

    2015-01-21

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We then used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also found that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG,more » in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.« less

  14. Large scale two-dimensional arrays of magnesium diboride superconducting quantum interference devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Wong, T. J.; Cho, E. Y.; Beeman, J. W.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.

    2014-05-05

    Magnetic field sensors based on two-dimensional arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices were constructed from magnesium diboride thin films. Each array contained over 30?000 Josephson junctions fabricated by ion damage of 30?nm weak links through an implant mask defined by nano-lithography. Current-biased devices exhibited very large voltage modulation as a function of magnetic field, with amplitudes as high as 8?mV.

  15. Two-dimensional fluid droplet arrays generated using a single nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-11-02

    Amplitudes of drive pulses received by a horizontally-placed dropper determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to an ejection aperture of the dropper. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  16. Instantons and the fixed point topological charge in the two-dimensional O(3) {sigma} model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blatter, M.; Burkhalter, R.; Hasenfratz, P.; Niedermayer, F.

    1996-01-01

    We define a fixed point topological charge for the two-dimensional O(3) lattice {sigma} model which is free of topological defects. We use this operator in combination with the fixed point action to measure the topological susceptibility for a wide range of correlation lengths. The results strongly suggest that it is not a physical quantity in this model. The procedure, however, can be applied to other asymptotically free theories as well. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. Non-intrusive, high-resolution, real-time, two-dimensional imaging of multiphase materials using acoustic array sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassiède, M.; Shaw, J. M.

    2015-04-15

    Two parallel multi-element ultrasonic acoustic arrays combined with sets of focal laws for acoustic signal generation and a classical tomographic inversion algorithm are used to generate real-time two-dimensional micro seismic acoustic images of multiphase materials. Proof of concept and calibration measurements were performed for single phase and two phase liquids, uniform polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plates, and aluminum cylinders imbedded in PVC plates. Measurement artefacts, arising from the limited range of viewing angles, and the compromise between data acquisition rate and image quality are discussed. The angle range of scanning and the image resolution were varied, and the effects on the quality of the reproduction of the speed of sound profiles of model solids and liquids with known geometries and compositions were analysed in detail. The best image quality results were obtained for a scanning angle range of [−35°, 35°] at a step size of 2.5° post processed to generate images on a 40 μm square grid. The data acquisition time for high quality images with a 30 mm × 40 mm view field is 10 min. Representation of two-phase solids with large differences in speed of sound between phases and where one phase is dispersed in the form of macroscopic objects (greater than 1 mm in diameter) proved to be the most difficult to image accurately. Liquid-liquid and liquid-vapor phase boundaries, in micro porous solids by contrast, were more readily defined. Displacement of air by water and water by heptane in natural porous limestone provides illustrative kinetic examples. Measurement results with these realistic cases demonstrate the feasibility of the technique to monitor in real time and on the micrometer length scale local composition and flow of organic liquids in inorganic porous media, one of many envisioned engineering applications. Improvement of data acquisition rate is an area for future collaborative study.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic waves in two-dimensional prominences embedded in coronal arcades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terradas, J.; Soler, R.; Daz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2013-11-20

    Solar prominence models used so far in the analysis of MHD waves in two-dimensional structures are quite elementary. In this work, we calculate numerically magnetohydrostatic models in two-dimensional configurations under the presence of gravity. Our interest is in models that connect the magnetic field to the photosphere and include an overlying arcade. The method used here is based on a relaxation process and requires solving the time-dependent nonlinear ideal MHD equations. Once a prominence model is obtained, we investigate the properties of MHD waves superimposed on the structure. We concentrate on motions purely two-dimensional, neglecting propagation in the ignorable direction. We demonstrate how, by using different numerical tools, we can determine the period of oscillation of stable waves. We find that vertical oscillations, linked to fast MHD waves, are always stable and have periods in the 4-10 minute range. Longitudinal oscillations, related to slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves, have longer periods in the range of 28-40 minutes. These longitudinal oscillations are strongly influenced by the gravity force and become unstable for short magnetic arcades.

  19. Preliminary results for a two-dimensional simulation of the working process of a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1998-07-01

    Stirling engines have several potential advantages over existing types of engines, in particular they can use renewable energy sources for power production and their performance meets the demands on the environmental security. In order to design Stirling Engines properly, and to put into effect their potential performance, it is important to more accurately mathematically simulate its working process. At present, a series of very important mathematical models are used for describing the working process of Stirling Engines and these are, in general, classified as models of three levels. All the models consider one-dimensional schemes for the engine and assume a uniform fluid velocity, temperature and pressure profiles at each plane of the internal gas circuit of the engine. The use of two-dimensional CFD models can significantly extend the capabilities for the detailed analysis of the complex heat transfer and gas dynamic processes which occur in the internal gas circuit, as well as in the external circuit of the engine. In this paper a two-dimensional simplified frame (no construction walls) calculation scheme for the Stirling Engine has been assumed and the standard {kappa}-{var{underscore}epsilon} turbulence model has been used for the analysis of the engine working process. The results obtained show that the use of two-dimensional CFD models gives the possibility of gaining a much greater insight into the fluid flow and heat transfer processes which occur in Stirling Engines.

  20. Seismic event classification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  1. Seismic event classification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  2. One- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation using experimentally generated reversing flow turbuulence models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, L.F.

    1990-08-01

    The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year`s funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge.

  3. A compact chaotic laser device with a two-dimensional external cavity structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunada, Satoshi Adachi, Masaaki; Fukushima, Takehiro; Shinohara, Susumu; Arai, Kenichi; Harayama, Takahisa

    2014-06-16

    We propose a compact chaotic laser device, which consists of a semiconductor laser and a two-dimensional (2D) external cavity for delayed optical feedback. The overall size of the device is within 230 μm × 1 mm. A long time delay sufficient for chaos generation can be achieved with the small area by the multiple reflections at the 2D cavity boundary, and the feedback strength is controlled by the injection current to the external cavity. We experimentally demonstrate that a variety of output properties, including chaotic output, can be selectively generated by controlling the injection current to the external cavity.

  4. Thermal conductivity of configurable two-dimensional carbon nanotube architecture and strain modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, H. F.; Bell, J. M.; Gu, Y. T., E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St., Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Zhang, G. [Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)

    2014-10-13

    We reported the thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT)-based architecture, which can be constructed through welding of single-wall CNTs by electron beam. Using large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the thermal conductivity is found to vary with different junction types due to their different phonon scatterings at the junction. The strong length and strain dependence of the thermal conductivity suggests an effective avenue to tune the thermal transport properties of the CNT-based architecture, benefiting the design of nanoscale thermal rectifiers or phonon engineering.

  5. Weakly interacting two-dimensional system of dipoles: Limitations of the mean-field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2007-06-15

    We consider a homogeneous two-dimensional Bose gas with repulsive dipole-dipole interactions. The ground-state equation of state, calculated using the diffusion Monte Carlo method, shows quantitative differences from the predictions of the commonly used Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field theory. The static structure factor, pair distribution function, and condensate fraction are calculated in a wide range of the gas parameter. Differences from mean-field theory are reflected in the frequency of the lowest ''breathing'' mode for harmonically trapped systems.

  6. Surveys

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Surveys can be a useful way to gauge the opinions of your readers and learn more about your website's audiences, but you'll often need approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to run...

  7. Investigation of organometallic reaction mechanisms with one and two dimensional vibrational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahoon, James Francis

    2008-12-16

    One and two dimensional time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the elementary reactions of several prototypical organometallic complexes in room temperature solution. The electron transfer and ligand substitution reactions of photogenerated 17-electron organometallic radicals CpW(CO){sub 3} and CpFe(CO){sub 2} have been examined with one dimensional spectroscopy on the picosecond through microsecond time-scales, revealing the importance of caging effects and odd-electron intermediates in these reactions. Similarly, an investigation of the photophysics of the simple Fischer carbene complex Cr(CO){sub 5}[CMe(OMe)] showed that this class of molecule undergoes an unusual molecular rearrangement on the picosecond time-scale, briefly forming a metal-ketene complex. Although time-resolved spectroscopy has long been used for these types of photoinitiated reactions, the advent of two dimensional vibrational spectroscopy (2D-IR) opens the possibility to examine the ultrafast dynamics of molecules under thermal equilibrium conditions. Using this method, the picosecond fluxional rearrangements of the model metal carbonyl Fe(CO){sub 5} have been examined, revealing the mechanism, time-scale, and transition state of the fluxional reaction. The success of this experiment demonstrates that 2D-IR is a powerful technique to examine the thermally-driven, ultrafast rearrangements of organometallic molecules in solution.

  8. Effective field theory and integrability in two-dimensional Mott transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottesi, Federico L.; Zemba, Guillermo R.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Mott transition in 2d lattice fermion model. > 3D integrability out of 2D. > Effective field theory for Mott transition in 2d. > Double Chern-Simons. > d-Density waves. - Abstract: We study the Mott transition in a two-dimensional lattice spinless fermion model with nearest neighbors density-density interactions. By means of a two-dimensional Jordan-Wigner transformation, the model is mapped onto the lattice XXZ spin model, which is shown to possess a quantum group symmetry as a consequence of a recently found solution of the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation. A projection (from three to two space-time dimensions) property of the solution is used to identify the symmetry of the model at the Mott critical point as U{sub q}(sl(2)-circumflex)xU{sub q}(sl(2)-circumflex), with deformation parameter q = -1. Based on this result, the low-energy effective field theory for the model is obtained and shown to be a lattice double Chern-Simons theory with coupling constant k = 1 (with the standard normalization). By further employing the effective filed theory methods, we show that the Mott transition that arises is of topological nature, with vortices in an antiferromagnetic array and matter currents characterized by a d-density wave order parameter. We also analyze the behavior of the system upon weak coupling, and conclude that it undergoes a quantum gas-liquid transition which belongs to the Ising universality class.

  9. High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.

    2016-02-11

    In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less

  10. X-ray tests of a two-dimensional stigmatic imaging scheme with variable magnifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, J.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Caughey, T. A.; Brunner, J.

    2014-11-15

    A two-dimensional stigmatic x-ray imaging scheme, consisting of two spherically bent crystals, one concave and one convex, was recently proposed [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E527 (2012)]. The Bragg angles and the radii of curvature of the two crystals of this imaging scheme are matched to eliminate the astigmatism and to satisfy the Bragg condition across both crystal surfaces for a given x-ray energy. In this paper, we consider more general configurations of this imaging scheme, which allow us to vary the magnification for a given pair of crystals and x-ray energy. The stigmatic imaging scheme has been validated for the first time by imaging x-rays generated by a micro-focus x-ray source with source size of 8.4 ?m validated by knife-edge measurements. Results are presented from imaging the tungsten L?1 emission at 8.3976 keV, using a convex Si-422 crystal and a concave Si-533 crystal with 2d-spacings of 2.21707 and 1.65635 and radii of curvature of 500 1 mm and 823 1 mm, respectively, showing a spatial resolution of 54.9 ?m. This imaging scheme is expected to be of interest for the two-dimensional imaging of laser produced plasmas.

  11. Detector-Response Correction of Two-Dimensional γ -Ray Spectra from Neutron Capture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rusev, G.; Jandel, M.; Arnold, C. W.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S. M.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron-capture reaction produces a large variety of γ-ray cascades with different γ-ray multiplicities. A measured spectral distribution of these cascades for each γ-ray multiplicity is of importance to applications and studies of γ-ray statistical properties. The DANCE array, a 4π ball of 160 BaF2 detectors, is an ideal tool for measurement of neutron-capture γ-rays. The high granularity of DANCE enables measurements of high-multiplicity γ-ray cascades. The measured two-dimensional spectra (γ-ray energy, γ-ray multiplicity) have to be corrected for the DANCE detector response in order to compare them with predictions of the statistical model or use them in applications. Themore » detector-response correction problem becomes more difficult for a 4π detection system than for a single detector. A trial and error approach and an iterative decomposition of γ-ray multiplets, have been successfully applied to the detector-response correction. Applications of the decomposition methods are discussed for two-dimensional γ-ray spectra measured at DANCE from γ-ray sources and from the 10B(n, γ) and 113Cd(n, γ) reactions.« less

  12. Peak picking and the assessment of separation performance in two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiochon, Georges A; Shalliker, R. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    An algorithm was developed for 2DHPLC that automated the process of peak recognition, measuring their retention times, and then subsequently plotting the information in a two-dimensional retention plane. Following the recognition of peaks, the software then performed a series of statistical assessments of the separation performance, measuring for example, correlation between dimensions, peak capacity and the percentage of usage of the separation space. Peak recognition was achieved by interpreting the first and second derivatives of each respective one-dimensional chromatogram to determine the 1D retention times of each solute and then compiling these retention times for each respective fraction 'cut'. Due to the nature of comprehensive 2DHPLC adjacent cut fractions may contain peaks common to more than one cut fraction. The algorithm determined which components were common in adjacent cuts and subsequently calculated the peak maximum profile by interpolating the space between adjacent peaks. This algorithm was applied to the analysis of a two-dimensional separation of an apple flesh extract separated in a first dimension comprising a cyano stationary phase and an aqueous/THF mobile phase as the first dimension and a second dimension comprising C18-Hydro with an aqueous/MeOH mobile phase. A total of 187 peaks were detected.

  13. Confinement effects of magnetic field on two-dimensional hydrogen atom in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahar, M. K.; Soylu, A.

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the first time, the Schrdinger equation with more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential is solved numerically in the presence and in the absence of an external magnetic field within two-dimensional formalism using the asymptotic iteration method. The MGECSC potential includes four different potential forms when considering different sets of the parameters in the potential. The plasma screening effects in the weak and strong magnetic field regimes as well as the confinement effects of magnetic field on the two-dimensional hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasmas are investigated by solving the corresponding equations. It is found that applying a uniform magnetic field on the hydrogen atom embedded in a plasma leads to change in the profile of the total interaction potential. Thus, confinement effects of magnetic field on hydrogen atom embedded in Debye and quantum plasmas modeled by a MGECSC potential lead to shift bound state energies. This effect would be important to isolate the plasma from the external environment in the experimental applications of plasma physics.

  14. Ground-state and dynamical properties of two-dimensional dipolar Fermi liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedinpour, Saeed H.; Asgari, Reza; Tanatar, B.; Polini, Marco

    2014-01-15

    We study the ground-state properties of a two-dimensional spin-polarized fluid of dipolar fermions within the EulerLagrange Fermi-hypernetted-chain approximation. Our method is based on the solution of a scattering Schrdinger equation for the pair amplitude ?(g(r)), where g(r) is the pair distribution function. A key ingredient in our theory is the effective pair potential, which includes a bosonic term from JastrowFeenberg correlations and a fermionic contribution from kinetic energy and exchange, which is tailored to reproduce the HartreeFock limit at weak coupling. Very good agreement with recent results based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations is achieved over a wide range of coupling constants up to the liquid-to-crystal quantum phase transition. Using the fluctuationdissipation theorem and a static approximation for the effective inter-particle interactions, we calculate the dynamical densitydensity response function, and furthermore demonstrate that an undamped zero-sound mode exists for any value of the interaction strength, down to infinitesimally weak couplings. -- Highlights: We have studied the ground state properties of a strongly correlated two-dimensional fluid of dipolar fermions. We have calculated the effective inter-particle interaction and the dynamical densitydensity response function. We have shown that an undamped zero sound mode exists at any value of the interaction strength.

  15. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion for pyramidally textured silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Fa-Jun Duttagupta, Shubham; Shetty, Kishan Devappa; Meng, Lei; Hoex, Bram; Peters, Ian Marius; Samudra, Ganesh S.

    2014-11-14

    Multidimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion is of great relevance for the improvement of industrial n-type crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. However, surface passivation of boron diffused area is typically studied in one dimension on planar lifetime samples. This approach neglects the effects of the solar cell pyramidal texture on the boron doping process and resulting doping profile. In this work, we present a theoretical study using a two-dimensional surface morphology for pyramidally textured samples. The boron diffusivity and segregation coefficient between oxide and silicon in simulation are determined by reproducing measured one-dimensional boron depth profiles prepared using different boron diffusion recipes on planar samples. The established parameters are subsequently used to simulate the boron diffusion process on textured samples. The simulated junction depth is found to agree quantitatively well with electron beam induced current measurements. Finally, chemical passivation on planar and textured samples is compared in device simulation. Particularly, a two-dimensional approach is adopted for textured samples to evaluate chemical passivation. The intrinsic emitter saturation current density, which is only related to Auger and radiative recombination, is also simulated for both planar and textured samples. The differences between planar and textured samples are discussed.

  16. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

    2006-07-31

    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  17. Two-dimensional modeling of the cathode sheath formation during the streamer-cathode interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wen; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Fucheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, a computational simulation of the sheath formation during the streamer-surface interaction at atmospheric pressure is presented. A two-dimensional fluid model of a point-to-plane configuration is applied to investigate the evolution of the discharge in the vicinity of cathode plane. The effects of the surfaces on the properties of streamer have been studied for three cases, i.e., conductive surface with secondary electron emission (SEE), conductive surface without SEE, and dielectric surface. In all cases, we found that the axial propagation velocity of the streamer front decreases as the streamer arrives at the boundary of the cathode sheath. And the simulation results showed that the properties of the surface have a significant effect on the streamer. Besides the influences, the secondary emission coefficient and the relative permittivity on the streamer-surface interactions are also studied.

  18. Photonic-band-gap effects in two-dimensional polycrystalline and amorphous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jin-Kyu; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng-Fatt; Schreck, Carl; Guy, Mikhael I.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui

    2010-11-15

    We study numerically the density of optical states (DOS) in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range positional order and observe a transition from polycrystalline to amorphous photonic systems. In polycrystals, photonic band gaps (PBGs) are formed within individual domains, which leads to a depletion of the DOS similar to that in periodic structures. In amorphous photonic media, the domain sizes are too small to form PBGs, thus the depletion of the DOS is weakened significantly. The critical domain size that separates the polycrystalline and amorphous regimes is determined by the attenuation length of Bragg scattering, which depends not only on the degree of positional order but also the refractive-index contrast of the photonic material. Even with relatively low-refractive-index contrast, we find that modest short-range positional order in photonic structures enhances light confinement via collective scattering and interference.

  19. Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of two-dimensional sum frequency generation spectra at vapor/water interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro; Tahara, Tahei

    2015-06-07

    Two-dimensional heterodyne-detected vibrational sum frequency generation (2D HD-VSFG) spectra at vapor/water interface were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with a classical flexible and nonpolarizable model. The present model well describes the spectral diffusion of 2D infrared spectrum of bulk water as well as 2D HD-VSFG at the interface. The effect of isotopic dilution on the 2D HD-VSFG was elucidated by comparing the normal (H{sub 2}O) water and HOD water. We further performed decomposition analysis of 2D HD-VSFG into the hydrogen-bonding and the dangling (or free) OH vibrations, and thereby disentangled the different spectral responses and spectral diffusion in the 2D HD-VSFG. The present MD simulation demonstrated the role of anharmonic coupling between these modes on the cross peak in the 2D HD-VSFG spectrum.

  1. Lifshitz transitions and crystallization of fully polarized dipolar fermions in an anisotropic two-dimensional lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Sam T.; Quintanilla, Jorge; Betouras, Joseph J.

    2010-07-15

    We consider a two-dimensional model of noninteracting chains of spinless fermions weakly coupled via a small interchain hopping and a repulsive interchain interaction. The phase diagram of this model has a surprising feature: an abrupt change in the Fermi surface as the interaction is increased. We study in detail this metanematic transition and show that the well-known 2(1/2)-order Lifshitz transition is the critical end point of this first-order quantum phase transition. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the end point, the order parameter has a nonperturbative BCS-type form. We also study a competing crystallization transition in this model and derive the full phase diagram. This physics can be demonstrated experimentally in dipolar ultracold atomic or molecular gases. In the presence of a harmonic trap, it manifests itself as a sharp jump in the density profile.

  2. Two-dimensional cylindrical ion-acoustic solitary and rogue waves in ultrarelativistic plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ata-ur-Rahman; National Centre for Physics at QAU Campus, Shahdrah Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 ; Ali, S.; Moslem, W. M.; Mushtaq, A.; Department of Physics, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200

    2013-07-15

    The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitary and rogue waves is investigated in a two-dimensional ultrarelativistic degenerate warm dense plasma. By using the reductive perturbation technique, the cylindrical KadomtsevPetviashvili (KP) equation is derived, which can be further transformed into a Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation. The latter admits a solitary wave solution. However, when the frequency of the carrier wave is much smaller than the ion plasma frequency, the KdV equation can be transferred to a nonlinear Schrdinger equation to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable modified IA wavepackets. The propagation characteristics of the IA solitary and rogue waves are strongly influenced by the variation of different plasma parameters in an ultrarelativistic degenerate dense plasma. The present results might be helpful to understand the nonlinear electrostatic excitations in astrophysical degenerate dense plasmas.

  3. Spectral evolution of two-dimensional kinetic plasma turbulence in the wavenumber-frequency domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comi?el, H.; Institute for Space Sciences, Atomi?tilor 409, P.O. Box MG-23, Bucharest-M?gurele RO-077125 ; Verscharen, D.; Narita, Y.; Motschmann, U.; Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut fr Planetenforschung, Rutherfordstr. 2, D-12489 Berlin

    2013-09-15

    We present a method for studying the evolution of plasma turbulence by tracking dispersion relations in the energy spectrum in the wavenumber-frequency domain. We apply hybrid plasma simulations in a simplified two-dimensional geometry to demonstrate our method and its applicability to plasma turbulence in the ion kinetic regime. We identify four dispersion relations: ion-Bernstein waves, oblique whistler waves, oblique Alfvn/ion-cyclotron waves, and a zero-frequency mode. The energy partition and frequency broadening are evaluated for these modes. The method allows us to determine the evolution of decaying plasma turbulence in our restricted geometry and shows that it cascades along the dispersion relations during the early phase with an increasing broadening around the dispersion relations.

  4. Miniband Transport in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with a Strong Periodic Unidirectional Potential Modulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Pan, Wei

    2014-08-07

    In this paper, we study the Bloch oscillations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a strong periodic potential-modulation and miniband transport along the field at low temperatures, assuming a free motion in the transverse direction. The dependence of the current on the field, the electron density, and the temperature is investigated by using a relaxation-time approximation for inelastic scattering. Moreover, for a fixed total scattering rate, the field dependence of the current is sensitive to the ratio of the elastic and inelastic scattering rates in contrast with the recent result of a multiband but otherwise similar model with a weakmore » potential modulation.« less

  5. Two-dimensional water quality modeling of Town Creek embayment on Guntersville Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, M.D.; Shiao, Ming C.; Hauser, G.E. . Engineering Lab.); Butkus, S.R. . Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-09-01

    TVA investigated water quality of Town Creek embayment using a branched two-dimensional model of Guntersville Reservoir. Simulation results were compared in terms of algal biomass, nutrient concentrations, and volume of embayment with depleted dissolved oxygen. Stratification and flushing play a significant role in the embayment water quality. Storms introduce large loadings of organics, nutrients, and suspended solids. Dissolved oxygen depletion is most severe after storms followed by low flow that fails to flush the embayment. Embayment water quality responses to potential animal waste and erosion controls were explored. Modeling indicated animal waste controls were much more cost-effective than erosion controls. Erosion controls will decrease embayment suspended solids and thereby increase algal biomass due to greater light penetration. 29 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Wideband radar cross section reduction using two-dimensional phase gradient metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yongfeng; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Chen, Hongya; Zhang, Jieqiu; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2014-06-02

    Phase gradient metasurface (PGMs) are artificial surfaces that can provide pre-defined in-plane wave-vectors to manipulate the directions of refracted/reflected waves. In this Letter, we propose to achieve wideband radar cross section (RCS) reduction using two-dimensional (2D) PGMs. A 2D PGM was designed using a square combination of 49 split-ring sub-unit cells. The PGM can provide additional wave-vectors along the two in-plane directions simultaneously, leading to either surface wave conversion, deflected reflection, or diffuse reflection. Both the simulation and experiment results verified the wide-band, polarization-independent, high-efficiency RCS reduction induced by the 2D PGM.

  7. Device for two-dimensional gas-phase separation and characterization of ion mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to a device for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions. The device incorporates an ion source, a field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) drift tube, and an ion detector. In one aspect of the invention, FAIMS operating voltages are electrically floated on top of the IMS drift voltage. In the other aspect, the FAIMS/IMS interface is implemented employing an electrodynamic ion funnel, including in particular an hourglass ion funnel. The present invention improves the efficiency (peak capacity) and sensitivity of gas-phase separations; the online FAIMS/IMS coupling creates a fundamentally novel two-dimensional gas-phase separation technology with high peak capacity, specificity, and exceptional throughput.

  8. Quantum Phase Transition in a Two-Dimensional System of Dipoles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2007-02-09

    The ground-state phase diagram of a two-dimensional Bose system with dipole-dipole interactions is studied by means of a quantum Monte Carlo technique. Our calculation predicts a quantum phase transition from a gas to a solid phase when the density increases. In the gas phase, the condensate fraction is calculated as a function of the density. Using the Feynman approximation, the collective excitation branch is studied and the appearance of a roton minimum is observed. The results of the static structure factor at both sides of the gas-solid phase are also presented. The Lindemann ratio at the transition point becomes {gamma}=0.230(6). The condensate fraction in the gas phase is estimated as a function of the density.

  9. Two-dimensional positive column structure in a discharge tube with radius discontinuity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zobnin, A. V. Usachev, A. D.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The low-pressure (40 and 90?Pa) low-current (4 and 10?mA) direct current discharge in a tube with a sharp change of its radius is studied both numerically and experimentally. A fully self-consistent hybrid numerical model of a two-dimensional non-uniform positive column in neon is developed using a nonlocal approach. The model combines kinetic simulation of the electrons (under two-terms approach) and fluid description of the neon ions and permits to calculate the distribution of all plasma parameters in the direct current discharges in the cameras with cylindrical geometry and radius discontinuity. The simulation results are compared with the measured 585.3?nm neon spectral line absolute intensities and excited 1s{sub 3} metastable neon atom number densities. Non-local electron kinetics in the transition region and formation of standing strata are discussed.

  10. One- and two-dimensional simulations of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaiser, T.B.; Garrison, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of one- and two-dimensional full-wave equations for ordinary and extraordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the use of the reflection of ultra-short-pulse microwaves as an effective probe of the density or magnetic profile in the presence of density or magnetic fluctuations in the plasma. Bragg resonance effects can be identified in the reflected signals, which give information on fluctuations. It is also demonstrated that ultra-short-pulse reflectometry can be used to perform correlation reflectometry measurements in which correlation lengths for density fluctuations are deduced from the observed cross-correlation function of phase shifts as a function of frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. One- and two-dimensional simulations of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B.I.; Kaiser, T.B.; Garrison, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ultra-short-pulse reflectometry is studied by means of the numerical integration of one- and two-dimensional full-wave equations for ordinary and extraordinary modes propagating in a plasma. The numerical calculations illustrate the use of the reflection of ultra-short-pulse microwaves as an effective probe of the density or magnetic profile in the presence of density or magnetic fluctuations in the plasma. Bragg resonance effects can be identified in the reflected signals, which give information on fluctuations. It is also demonstrated that ultra-short-pulse reflectometry can be used to perform correlation reflectometry measurements in which correlation lengths for density fluctuations are deduced from the observed cross-correlation function of phase shifts as a function of frequency. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Fuel-air mixing and combustion in a two-dimensional Wankel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, T.I.P.; Schock, H.J.; Ramos, J.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mixture stratification at the intake port and gaseous fuel injection on the flow field and fuel-air mixing in a two-dimensional rotary engine model have been investigated by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, an algebraic grid generation method and an approximate factorization time-linearized numerical technique. It is shown that the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber is a function of the air-fuel mixture fluctuations at the intake port. The fuel is advected by the flow field induced by the rotor and is concentrated near the leading apex during the intake stroke. During compression, the fuel concentration is highest near the trailing apex and lowest near the rotor. The penetration of gaseous fuel injected into the combustion chamber during the compression stroke increases with the injection velocity.

  13. Epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen atomic sheet in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, Yukihiro, E-mail: y.harada@eedept.kobe-u.ac.jp; Yamamoto, Masuki; Baba, Takeshi; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-01-27

    We have grown an epitaxial two-dimensional nitrogen (N) atomic sheet in GaAs by using the site-controlled N ?-doping technique. We observed a change of the electronic states in N ?-doped GaAs from the isolated impurity centers to the delocalized impurity band at 1.49?eV with increasing N-doping density. According to the excitation-power- and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, the emission related to localized levels below the impurity band edge was dominant at low excitation power and temperature, whereas the effects of the localized levels can be neglected by increasing the excitation power and temperature. Furthermore, a clear Landau shift of the PL-peak energy was observed at several Tesla in the Faraday configuration, in contrast to the case in the impurity limit.

  14. Collision-dependent power law scalings in two dimensional gyrokinetic turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerri, S. S. Ban Navarro, A.; Told, D.; Jenko, F.

    2014-08-15

    Nonlinear gyrokinetics provides a suitable framework to describe short-wavelength turbulence in magnetized laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In the electrostatic limit, this system is known to exhibit a free energy cascade towards small scales in (perpendicular) real and/or velocity space. The dissipation of free energy is always due to collisions (no matter how weak the collisionality), but may be spread out across a wide range of scales. Here, we focus on freely decaying two dimensional electrostatic turbulence on sub-ion-gyroradius scales. An existing scaling theory for the turbulent cascade in the weakly collisional limit is generalized to the moderately collisional regime. In this context, non-universal power law scalings due to multiscale dissipation are predicted, and this prediction is confirmed by means of direct numerical simulations.

  15. Study of vaneless diffuser rotating stall based on two-dimensional inviscid flow analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu; Yoshida, Yoshiki [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Mori, Yasumasa [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Ohta, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Rotating stalls in vaneless diffusers are studied from the viewpoint that they are basically two-dimensional inviscid flow instability under the boundary conditions of vanishing velocity disturbance at the diffuser inlet and of vanishing pressure disturbance at the diffuser outlet. The linear analysis in the present report shows that the critical flow angle and the propagation velocity are functions of only the diffuser radius ratio. It is shown that the present analysis can reproduce most of the general characteristics observed in experiments: critical flow angle, propagation velocity, velocity, and pressure disturbance fields. It is shown that the vanishing velocity disturbance at the diffuser inlet is caused by the nature of impellers as a resistance and an inertial resistance, which is generally strong enough to suppress the velocity disturbance at the diffuser inlet. This explains the general experimental observations that vaneless diffuser rotating stalls are not largely affected by the impeller.

  16. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  17. Integrated Seismic Studies At The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    carbonate basement and the overlying sedimentary sequence, striking east-west. The geometry of the structure is corroborated by results from a seismic-reflection survey, and by...

  18. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (2) For probabilistic analyses supporting the demonstration of compliance with preclosure performance objectives, provide a mean seismic hazard curve for the surface facilities area. Results should be consistent with the PSHA for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (3) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for postclosure analyses, provide site-specific seismic time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement) for the waste emplacement level. Time histories should be consistent with the PSHA and reflect available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (4) In support of ground-motion site-response modeling, perform field investigations and laboratory testing to provide a technical basis for model inputs. Characterize the repository block and areas in which important-to-safety surface facilities will be sited. Work should support characterization and reduction of uncertainties in inputs to ground-motion site-response modeling. (5) On the basis of rock mechanics, geologic, and seismic information, determine limits on extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain and document the technical basis for them. (6) Update the ground-motion site-response model, as appropriate, on the basis of new data. Expand and enhance the technical basis for model validation to further increase confidence in the site-response modeling. (7) Document seismic methodologies and approaches in reports to be submitted to the NRC. (8) Address condition reports.

  19. Two-dimensional inverse planning and delivery with a preclinical image guided microirradiator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; The Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Recent advances in preclinical radiotherapy systems have provided the foundation for scaling many of the elements of clinical radiation therapy practice to the dimensions and energy demanded in small animal studies. Such systems support the technical capabilities to accurately deliver highly complex dose distributions, but methods to optimize and deliver such distributions remain in their infancy. This study developed an optimization method based on empirically measured two-dimensional dose kernel measurements to deliver arbitrary planar dose distributions on a recently developed small animal radiotherapy platform.Methods: A two-dimensional dose kernel was measured with repeated radiochromic film measurements for the circular 1 mm diameter fixed collimator of the small animal radiotherapy system at 1 cm depth in a solid water phantom. This kernel was utilized in a sequential quadratic programming optimization framework to determine optimal beam positions and weights to deliver an arbitrary desired dose distribution. The positions and weights were then translated to a set of stage motions to automatically deliver the optimized dose distribution. End-to-end efficacy of the framework was quantified through five repeated deliveries of two dosimetric challenges: (1) a 5 mm radius bullseye distribution, and (2) a sock distribution contained within a 9 13 mm bounding box incorporating rectangular, semicircular, and exponentially decaying geometric constructs and a rectangular linear dose gradient region. These two challenges were designed to gauge targeting, geometric, and dosimetric fidelity.Results: Optimization of the bullseye and sock distributions required 2.1 and 5.9 min and utilized 50 and 77 individual beams for delivery, respectively. Automated delivery of the resulting optimized distributions, validated using radiochromic film measurements, revealed an average targeting accuracy of 0.32 mm, and a dosimetric delivery error along four line profiles taken through the sock distribution of 3.9%. Mean absolute delivery error across the 01 Gy linear dose gradient over 7.5 mm was 0.01 Gy.Conclusions: The work presented here demonstrates the potential for complex dose distributions to be planned and automatically delivered with millimeter scale heterogeneity at submillimeter accuracy. This capability establishes the technical foundation for preclinical validation of biologically guided radiotherapy investigations and development of unique radiobiological experiments.

  20. Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Gritto, Et Al.) Rye Patch Area Integrated Seismic Studies At The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir, Nevada Reflection Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) Rye Patch Area Federal...

  1. Method for laser-based two-dimensional navigation system in a structured environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boultinghouse, Karlan D. (Sandia Park, NM); Schoeneman, J. Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A low power, narrow laser beam, generated by a laser carried by a mobile vehicle, is rotated about a vertical reference axis as the vehicle navigates within a structured environment. At least three stationary retroreflector elements are located at known positions, preferably at the periphery of the structured environment, with one of the elements having a distinctive retroreflection. The projected rotating beam traverses each retroreflector in succession, and the corresponding retroreflections are received at the vehicle and focussed on a photoelectric cell to generate corresponding electrical signals. The signal caused by the distinctive retroreflection serves as an angle-measurement datum. An angle encoder coupled to the apparatus rotating the projected laser beam provides the angular separation from this datum of the lines connecting the mobile reference axis to successive retroreflectors. This real-time angular data is utilized with the known locations of the retroreflectors to trigonometrically compute using three point resection, the exact real-time location of the mobile reference axis (hence the navigating vehicle) vis-a-vis the structured environment, e.g., in terms of two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates associated with the environment.

  2. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mario Agio

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  3. Towards enhancing two-dimensional electron gas quantum confinement effects in perovskite oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong

    2015-03-21

    We explore the possibility of achieving highly confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) within one single atomic layer through a comprehensive comparison study on three prototypical perovskite heterostructures, LaAlO{sub 3}/ATiO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba), using first-principles electronic structure calculations. We predict that the heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} has a highly confined 2DEG within a single atomic layer of the substrate BaTiO{sub 3}, and exhibits relatively higher interfacial charge carrier density and larger magnetic moments than the well-known LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} system. The long Ti-O bond length in the ab-plane of the LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} heterostructure is responsible for the superior charge confinement. We propose BaTiO{sub 3} as an exceptional substrate material for 2DEG systems with potentially superior properties.

  4. Dynamical theory of strongly coupled two-dimensional Coulomb fluids in the weakly degenerate quantum domain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Mukunda P.; Golden, Kenneth I.; Green, Frederick

    2001-10-01

    We study the problem of dynamical response and plasma mode dispersion in strongly coupled two-dimensional Coulomb fluids (2DCFs) in the weakly degenerate quantum domain. Adapting the nonlinear response function approach of Golden and Kalman [Phys. Rev. A 19, 2112 (1979)] to the 2DCF, we construct a self-consistent approximation scheme for the calculation of the density response functions and plasma mode dispersion at long wavelengths. The basic ingredients in the construction are (i) the first kinetic equation in the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy, (ii) the velocity-average-approximation (VAA) hypothesis, (iii) the quadratic fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and (iv) the dynamical superposition approximation (DSA) closure hypothesis. The reliability of the VAA-DSA theory can be assessed by observing that the principal coupling correction to the 2D temperature-dependent Lindhard function is identified as being precisely the part of the third-frequency-moment sum-rule coefficient proportional to the potential energy.

  5. Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2016-02-09

    Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines themore » selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In conclusion, we suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.« less

  6. Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings of Two-Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Yoon, Mina; Puretzky, Alexander A; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0 or 60 interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale andmore » the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. The combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.« less

  7. Patterned arrays of lateral heterojunctions within monolayer two-dimensional semiconductors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Lin, Ming-Wei; Wang, Kai; Lupini, Andrew R.; Lee, Jaekwang; Basile, Leonardo; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The formation of semiconductor heterojunctions and their high density integration are foundations of modern electronics and optoelectronics. To enable two-dimensional (2D) crystalline semiconductors as building blocks in next generation electronics, developing methods to deterministically form lateral heterojunctions is crucial. Here we demonstrate a process strategy for the formation of lithographically-patterned lateral semiconducting heterojunctions within a single 2D crystal. E-beam lithography is used to pattern MoSe2 monolayer crystals with SiO2, and the exposed locations are selectively and totally converted to MoS2 using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of sulfur in order to form MoSe2/MoS2 heterojunctions in predefined patterns. The junctions and conversionmore » process are characterized by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. This demonstration of lateral semiconductor heterojunction arrays within a single 2D crystal is an essential step for the lateral integration of 2D semiconductor building blocks with different electronic and optoelectronic properties for high-density, ultrathin circuitry.« less

  8. Apparatus and method for reading two-dimensional electrophoretograms containing .beta.-ray-emitting labeled compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Herbert L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kinnison, W. Wayne (Los Alamos, NM); Lillberg, John W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus and method for electronically reading planar two dimensional .beta.-ray emitter-labeled gel electrophoretograms. A single, flat rectangular multiwire proportional chamber is placed in close proximity to the gel and the assembly placed in an intense uniform magnetic field disposed in a perpendicular manner to the rectangular face of the proportional chamber. Beta rays emitted in the direction of the proportional chamber are caused to execute helical motions which substantially preserve knowledge of the coordinates of their origin in the gel. Perpendicularly oriented, parallel wire, parallel plane cathodes electronically sense the location of the .beta.-rays from ionization generated thereby in a detection gas coupled with an electron avalanche effect resulting from the action of a parallel wire anode located therebetween. A scintillator permits the present apparatus to be rendered insensitive when signals are generated from cosmic rays incident on the proportional chamber. Resolution for concentrations of radioactive compounds in the gel exceeds 700 .mu.m. The apparatus and method of the present invention represent a significant improvement over conventional autoradiographic techniques in dynamic range, linearity and sensitivity of data collection. A concentration and position map for gel electrophoretograms having significant concentrations of labeled compounds and/or highly radioactive labeling nuclides can generally be obtained in less than one hour.

  9. Apparatus for reading two-dimensional electrophoretograms containing. beta. -ray-emitting labeled compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.L.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lillberg, J.W.

    1985-04-30

    An apparatus and method for electronically reading planar two-dimensional ..beta..-ray emitter-labeled gel electrophoretograms. A single, flat rectangular multiwire proportional chamber is placed in close proximity to the gel and the assembly placed in an intense uniform magnetic field disposed in a perpendicular manner to the rectangular face of the proportional chamber. Beta rays emitted in the direction of the proportional chamber are caused to execute helical motions which substantially preserve knowledge the coordinates of their origin in the gel. Perpendicularly oriented, parallel wire, parallel plane cathodes electronically sense the location of the ..beta..-rays from ionization generated thereby in a detection gas coupled with an electron avalanche effect resulting from the action of a parallel wire anode located therebetween. A scintillator permits the present apparatus to be rendered insensitive when signals are generated from cosmic rays incident on the proportional chamber. Resolution for concentrations of radioactive compounds in the gel exceeds 700-..mu..m. The apparatus and method of the present invention represent a significant improvement over conventional autoradiographic techniques in dynamic range, linearity and sensitivity of data collection. A concentration and position map for gel electrophoretograms having significant concentrations of labeled compounds and/or highly radioactive labeling nuclides can generally be obtained in less than one hour.

  10. Two-dimensional flux-corrected transport solver for convectively dominated flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical technique designed to solve a wide class of convectively dominated flow problems is presented. An attractive feature of the technique is its ability to resolve the behavior of field quantities possessing large gradients and/or shocks. The method is a finite-difference technique known as flux-corrected transport (FCT) that maintains four important numerical considerations - stability, accuracy, monotonicity, and conservation. The theory and methodology of two-dimensional FCT is presented. The method is applied in demonstrative example calculations of a 2-D Riemann problem with known exact solutions and to the Euler equations in a study of classical Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability problems. The FCT solver has been vectorized for execution on the Cray 1S - a typical call with a 50 by 50 mesh requires about 0.00428 cpu seconds of execution time per call to the routine. Additionally, we have maintained a modular structure for the solver that eases its implementation. Fortran listings of two versions of the 2-D FCT solvers are appended with a driver main program illustrating the call sequence for the modules. 59 refs., 49 figs.

  11. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

    2014-01-15

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (? ? z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79??10{sup 6} cm{sup ?2}s{sup ?1} and 2.20 10{sup 5} cm{sup ?3}s{sup ?1}, respectively.

  12. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to the interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane WS lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of WW bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.

  13. Spinstand demonstration of areal density enhancement using two-dimensional magnetic recording (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippman, Thomas Brockie, Richard; Contreras, John; Garzon, Samir; Leong, Tom; Marley, Arley; Wood, Roger; Zakai, Rehan; Zolla, Howard; Coker, Jon; Galbraith, Rick; Hanson, Weldon; Duquette, Paul; Petrizzi, Joe

    2015-05-07

    Exponential growth of the areal density has driven the magnetic recording industry for almost sixty years. But now areal density growth is slowing down, suggesting that current technologies are reaching their fundamental limit. The next generation of recording technologies, namely, energy-assisted writing and bit-patterned media, remains just over the horizon. Two-Dimensional Magnetic Recording (TDMR) is a promising new approach, enabling continued areal density growth with only modest changes to the heads and recording electronics. We demonstrate a first generation implementation of TDMR by using a dual-element read sensor to improve the recovery of data encoded by a conventional low-density parity-check (LDPC) channel. The signals are combined with a 2D equalizer into a single modified waveform that is decoded by a standard LDPC channel. Our detection hardware can perform simultaneous measurement of the pre- and post-combined error rate information, allowing one set of measurements to assess the absolute areal density capability of the TDMR system as well as the gain over a conventional shingled magnetic recording system with identical components. We discuss areal density measurements using this hardware and demonstrate gains exceeding five percent based on experimental dual reader components.

  14. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrdinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual extended unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.

  15. Natural abundance 17O DNP two-dimensional and surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-06-22

    Due to its extremely low natural abundance and quadrupolar nature, the 17O nuclide is very rarely used for spectroscopic investigation of solids by NMR without isotope enrichment. Additionally, the applicability of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which leads to sensitivity enhancements of 2 orders of magnitude, to 17O is wrought with challenges due to the lack of spin diffusion and low polarization transfer efficiency from 1H. Here, we demonstrate new DNP-based measurements that extend 17O solid-state NMR beyond its current capabilities. The use of the PRESTO technique instead of conventional 1H–17O cross-polarization greatly improves the sensitivity and enables the facile measurementmore » of undistorted line shapes and two-dimensional 1H–17O HETCOR NMR spectra as well as accurate internuclear distance measurements at natural abundance. This was applied for distinguishing hydrogen-bonded and lone 17O sites on the surface of silica gel; the one-dimensional spectrum of which could not be used to extract such detail. As a result, this greatly enhanced sensitivity has enabled, for the first time, the detection of surface hydroxyl sites on mesoporous silica at natural abundance, thereby extending the concept of DNP surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy to the 17O nuclide.« less

  16. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  17. Hollow cathode theory and experiment. II. A two-dimensional theoretical model of the emitter region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2005-12-01

    Despite their long history and wide range of applicability that includes electric propulsion, detailed understanding of the driving physics inside orificed hollow cathodes remains elusive. The theoretical complexity associated with the multicomponent fluid inside the cathode, and the difficulty of accessing empirically this region, have limited our ability to design cathodes that perform better and last longer. A two-dimensional axisymmetric theoretical model of the multispecies fluid inside an orificed hollow cathode is presented. The level of detail attained by the model is allowed by its extended system of governing equations not solved for in the past within the hollow cathode. Such detail is motivated in part by the need to quantify the effect(s) of the plasma on the emitter life, and by the need to build the foundation for future modeling that will assess erosion of the keeper plate. Results from numerical simulations of a 1.2-cm-diam cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A and a gas flow rate of 5 SCCM show that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.45 A of ion current return back to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current is 33.8 A and the peak emitter temperature is found to be 1440 K. Comparisons with the measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma is possible near the orifice region. The model predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2034 K and peak voltage drops near the emitting surface not exceeding 8 V.

  18. Two-dimensional relativistic space charge limited current flow in the drift space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y. L.; Chen, S. H.; Koh, W. S.; Ang, L. K.

    2014-04-15

    Relativistic two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic (ES) formulations have been derived for studying the steady-state space charge limited (SCL) current flow of a finite width W in a drift space with a gap distance D. The theoretical analyses show that the 2D SCL current density in terms of the 1D SCL current density monotonically increases with D/W, and the theory recovers the 1D classical Child-Langmuir law in the drift space under the approximation of uniform charge density in the transverse direction. A 2D static model has also been constructed to study the dynamical behaviors of the current flow with current density exceeding the SCL current density, and the static theory for evaluating the transmitted current fraction and minimum potential position have been verified by using 2D ES particle-in-cell simulation. The results show the 2D SCL current density is mainly determined by the geometrical effects, but the dynamical behaviors of the current flow are mainly determined by the relativistic effect at the current density exceeding the SCL current density.

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lpez Fuentes, Marcelo; Klimchuk, James A.

    2015-02-01

    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of 2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  20. Ultrathin nanosheets of CrSiTe3: A semiconducting two-dimensional ferromagnetic material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Ming -Wei; Zhung, Houlong L.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ward, Thomas Zac; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Gai, Zheng; Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; et al

    2015-11-27

    Finite range ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) systems within an isotropic Heisenberg model at non-zero temperature were originally proposed to be impossible. However, recent theoretical studies using an Ising model have recently shown that 2D magnetic crystals can exhibit magnetism. Experimental verification of existing 2D magnetic crystals in this system has remained elusive. In this work we for the first time exfoliate the CrSiTe3, a bulk ferromagnetic semiconductor, to mono- and few-layer 2D crystals onto a Si/SiO2 substrate. The Raman spectra show the good stability and high quality of the exfoliated flakes, consistent with the computed phonon spectra ofmore » 2D CrSiTe3, giving a strong evidence for the existence of 2D CrSiTe3 crystals. When the thickness of the CrSiTe3 crystals is reduced to few-layers, we observed a clear change in resistivity at 80~120 K, consistent with the theoretical calculations on the Curie temperature (Tc) of ~80 K for the magnetic ordering of 2D CrSiTe3 crystals. As a result, the ferromagnetic mono- and few-layer 2D CrSiTe3 indicated here should enable numerous applications in nano-spintronics.« less

  1. Revealing the Preferred Interlayer Orientations and Stackings of Two-Dimensional Bilayer Gallium Selenide Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xufan; Basile Carrasco, Leonardo A; Yoon, Mina; Ma, Cheng; Puretzky, Alexander A; Lee, Jaekwang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Chi, Miaofang; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing and controlling the interlayer orientations and stacking order of bilayer two-dimensional (2D) crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure is crucial to optimize their electrical and optoelectronic properties. The four polymorphs of layered gallium selenide (GaSe) that result from different layer stacking provide an ideal platform to study the stacking configurations in bilayer 2D crystals. Here, through a controllable vapor-phase deposition method we selectively grow bilayer GaSe crystals and investigate their two preferred 0 or 60 interlayer rotations. The commensurate stacking configurations (AA and AB-stacking) in as-grown 2D bilayer GaSe crystals are clearly observed at the atomic scale and the Ga-terminated edge structure are identified for the first time by using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Theoretical analysis of the interlayer coupling energetics vs. interlayer rotation angle reveals that the experimentally-observed orientations are energetically preferred among the bilayer GaSe crystal polytypes. The combined experimental and theoretical characterization of the GaSe bilayers afforded by these growth studies provide a pathway to reveal the atomistic relationships in interlayer orientations responsible for the electronic and optical properties of bilayer 2D crystals and vdW heterostructures.

  2. Low-frequency Raman 'fingerprints' of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenide layer stacking configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puretzky, Alexander A; Liang, Liangbo; Li, Xufan; Xiao, Kai; Wang, Kai; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Basile, Leonardo; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Geohegan, David B

    2015-01-01

    Stacked monolayers of two-dimensional (2D) materials present a new class of hybrid materials with tunable optoelectronic properties determined by their stacking orientation, order, and atomic registry. Atomic-resolution Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (AR-Z-STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) can be used to determine the exact atomic registration between different layers, in few-layer 2D stacks, however fast optical characterization techniques are essential for rapid development of the field. Here, using two- and three-layer MoSe2 and WSe2 crystals synthesized by chemical vapor deposition we show that the generally unexplored low frequency (LF) Raman modes (< 50 cm-1) that originate from interlayer vibrations can serve as fingerprints to characterize not only the number of layers, but also their stacking configurations. Ab initio calculations and group theory analysis corroborate the experimental assignments determined by AR-Z-STEM and show that the calculated LF mode fingerprints are related to the 2D crystal symmetries.

  3. Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-disk fan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engin, Tahsin; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cesmeci, Sevki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sakarya, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    A multiple-disk Tesla type fan has been designed, tested and analyzed two-dimensionally using the conservation of angular momentum principle. Experimental results showed that such multiple-disk fans exhibited exceptionally low performance characteristics, which could be attributed to the low viscosity, tangential nature of the flow, and large mechanical energy losses at both suction and discharge sections that are comparable to the total input power. By means of theoretical analysis, local and overall shearing stresses on the disk surfaces have been determined based on tangential and radial velocity distributions of the air flow of different volume flow rates at prescribed disk spaces and rotational speeds. Then the total power transmitted by rotating disks to air flow, and the power acquired by the air flow in the gap due to transfer of angular momentum have been obtained by numerically integrating shearing stresses over the disk surfaces. Using the measured shaft and hydraulic powers, these quantities were utilized to evaluate mechanical energy losses associated with the suction and discharge sections of the fan. (author)

  4. Transmission and reflection of terahertz plasmons in two-dimensional plasmonic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Choonee, Kaushal; Dyer, Gregory Conrad

    2015-03-10

    We found that plasmons in two-dimensional semiconductor devices will be reflected by discontinuities, notably, junctions between gated and non-gated electron channels. The transmitted and reflected plasmons can form spatially- and frequency-varying signals, and their understanding is important for the design of terahertz detectors, oscillators, and plasmonic crystals. Using mode decomposition, we studied terahertz plasmons incident on a junction between a gated and a nongated channel. The plasmon reflection and transmission coefficients were found numerically and analytically and studied between 0.3 and 1 THz for a range of electron densities. At higher frequencies, we could describe the plasmons by a simplifiedmore » model of channels in homogeneous dielectrics, for which the analytical approximations were accurate. At low frequencies, however, the full geometry and mode spectrum had to be taken into account. Moreover, the results agreed with simulations by the finite-element method. As a result, mode decomposition thus proved to be a powerful method for plasmonic devices, combining the rigor of complete solutions of Maxwell's equations with the convenience of analytical expressions.« less

  5. Nano-Scale Hydroxyapatite: Synthesis, Two-Dimensional Transport Experiments, and Application for Uranium Remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kanel, S. R.; Clement, T. P.; Barnett, M. O.; Goltz, M. N.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic nano-scale hydroxyapatite (NHA) was prepared and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The XRD data confirmed that the crystalline structure and chemical composition of NHA correspond to Ca 5 OH(PO 4 ) 3 . The SEM data confirmed the size of NHA to be less than 50 nm. A two-dimensional physical model packed with saturated porous media was used to study the transport characteristics of NHA under constant flow conditions. The data show that the transport patterns of NHA were almost identical to tracer transport patterns. This result indicates that the NHA material canmore » move with water like a tracer, and its movement was neither retarded nor influenced by any physicochemical interactions and/or density effects. We have also tested the reactivity of NHA with 1 mg/L hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) and found that complete removal of U(VI) is possible using 0.5 g/L NHA at pH 5 to 6. Our results demonstrate that NHA has the potential to be injected as a dilute slurry for in situ treatment of U(VI)-contaminated groundwater systems.« less

  6. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Transmission and reflection of terahertz plasmons in two-dimensional plasmonic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydoruk, Oleksiy; Choonee, Kaushal; Dyer, Gregory Conrad

    2015-03-10

    We found that plasmons in two-dimensional semiconductor devices will be reflected by discontinuities, notably, junctions between gated and non-gated electron channels. The transmitted and reflected plasmons can form spatially- and frequency-varying signals, and their understanding is important for the design of terahertz detectors, oscillators, and plasmonic crystals. Using mode decomposition, we studied terahertz plasmons incident on a junction between a gated and a nongated channel. The plasmon reflection and transmission coefficients were found numerically and analytically and studied between 0.3 and 1 THz for a range of electron densities. At higher frequencies, we could describe the plasmons by a simplified model of channels in homogeneous dielectrics, for which the analytical approximations were accurate. At low frequencies, however, the full geometry and mode spectrum had to be taken into account. Moreover, the results agreed with simulations by the finite-element method. As a result, mode decomposition thus proved to be a powerful method for plasmonic devices, combining the rigor of complete solutions of Maxwell's equations with the convenience of analytical expressions.

  8. Hanford quarterly seismic monitoring report 96C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, S.P.

    1996-09-24

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975 the University of Washington assumed responsibility for and expanded the network. In 1979 the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the site as part of site characterization. Rockwell International Operations followed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Geosciences Group, operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network operated by the University of Washington. Funding ended for BWIP in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and the University of Washington contract was then transferred WHC`s Environmental Division. Seismic Monitoring is currently assigned to WHC`s Hanford Technical Services (HTS), part of the Environmental Division. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site.

  9. Two-step growth of two-dimensional WSe2/MoSe2 heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gong, Yongji; Lei, Sidong; Lou, Jun; Liu, Zheng; Vajtai, Robert; Zhou, Wu; Ajayan, Pullikel M.

    2015-08-03

    Two dimensional (2D) materials have attracted great attention due to their unique properties and atomic thickness. Although various 2D materials have been successfully synthesized with different optical and electrical properties, a strategy for fabricating 2D heterostructures must be developed in order to construct more complicated devices for practical applications. Here we demonstrate for the first time a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for growing transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) heterostructures, where MoSe2 was synthesized first and followed by an epitaxial growth of WSe2 on the edge and on the top surface of MoSe2. Compared to previously reported one-step growth methods, thismore » two-step growth has the capability of spatial and size control of each 2D component, leading to much larger (up to 169 μm) heterostructure size, and cross-contamination can be effectively minimized. Furthermore, this two-step growth produces well-defined 2H and 3R stacking in the WSe2/MoSe2 bilayer regions and much sharper in-plane interfaces than the previously reported MoSe2/WSe2 heterojunctions obtained from one-step growth methods. The resultant heterostructures with WSe2/MoSe2 bilayer and the exposed MoSe2 monolayer display rectification characteristics of a p-n junction, as revealed by optoelectronic tests, and an internal quantum efficiency of 91% when functioning as a photodetector. As a result, a photovoltaic effect without any external gates was observed, showing incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) efficiencies of approximately 0.12%, providing application potential in electronics and energy harvesting.« less

  10. Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A.; Gross, Matthew L.

    2011-03-01

    The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

  11. Transfer matrix computation of critical polynomials for two-dimensional Potts models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Scullard, Christian R.

    2013-02-04

    We showed, In our previous work, that critical manifolds of the q-state Potts model can be studied by means of a graph polynomial PB(q, v), henceforth referred to as the critical polynomial. This polynomial may be defined on any periodic two-dimensional lattice. It depends on a finite subgraph B, called the basis, and the manner in which B is tiled to construct the lattice. The real roots v = eK — 1 of PB(q, v) either give the exact critical points for the lattice, or provide approximations that, in principle, can be made arbitrarily accurate by increasing the size ofmore » B in an appropriate way. In earlier work, PB(q, v) was defined by a contraction-deletion identity, similar to that satisfied by the Tutte polynomial. Here, we give a probabilistic definition of PB(q, v), which facilitates its computation, using the transfer matrix, on much larger B than was previously possible.We present results for the critical polynomial on the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices for bases of up to respectively 96, 162, and 243 edges, compared to the limit of 36 edges with contraction-deletion. We discuss in detail the role of the symmetries and the embedding of B. The critical temperatures vc obtained for ferromagnetic (v > 0) Potts models are at least as precise as the best available results from Monte Carlo simulations or series expansions. For instance, with q = 3 we obtain vc(4, 82) = 3.742 489 (4), vc(kagome) = 1.876 459 7 (2), and vc(3, 122) = 5.033 078 49 (4), the precision being comparable or superior to the best simulation results. More generally, we trace the critical manifolds in the real (q, v) plane and discuss the intricate structure of the phase diagram in the antiferromagnetic (v < 0) region.« less

  12. Unveiling Surface Redox Charge Storage of Interacting Two-Dimensional Hetero-Nanosheets in Hierarchical Architectures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahmood, Qasim; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Min G.; Yun, Sol; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Shin, Hyeon S.; Kim, Woo S.; Braun, Paul V.; Park, Ho S.

    2015-03-03

    Two-dimensional (2D) heteronanosheets are currently the focus of intense study due to the unique properties that emerge from the interplay between two low-dimensional nanomaterials with different properties. However, the properties and new phenomena based on the two 2D heteronanosheets interacting in a 3D hierarchical architecture have yet to be explored. Here, we unveil the surface redox charge storage mechanism of surface-exposed WS2 nanosheets assembled in a 3D hierarchical heterostructure using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. The surface dominating redox charge storage of WS2 is manifested in a highly reversible and ultrafast capacitive fashion due to themore » interaction of heteronanosheets and the 3D connectivity of the hierarchical structure. In contrast, compositionally identical 2D WS2 structures fail to provide a fast and high capacitance with different modes of lattice vibration. The distinctive surface capacitive behavior of 3D hierarchically structured heteronanosheets is associated with rapid proton accommodation into the in-plane W–S lattice (with the softening of the E2g bands), the reversible redox transition of the surface-exposed intralayers residing in the electrochemically active 1T phase of WS2 (with the reversible change in the interatomic distance and peak intensity of W–W bonds), and the change in the oxidation state during the proton insertion/deinsertion process. This proposed mechanism agrees with the dramatic improvement in the capacitive performance of the two heteronanosheets coupled in the hierarchical structure.« less

  13. Two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Y.; Huang, L. H.; Yang, F. P. Y.

    2015-05-15

    The present study analytically reinvestigates the two-dimensional lift-up problem for a rigid porous bed that was studied by Mei, Yeung, and Liu [Lifting of a large object from a porous seabed, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 203 (1985)]. Mei, Yeung, and Liu proposed a model that treats the bed as a rigid porous medium and performed relevant experiments. In their model, they assumed the gap flow comes from the periphery of the gap, and there is a shear layer in the porous medium; the flow in the gap is described by adhesion approximation [D. J. Acheson, Elementary Fluid Dynamics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1990), pp. 243-245.] and the pore flow by Darcys law, and the slip-flow condition proposed by Beavers and Joseph [Boundary conditions at a naturally permeable wall, J. Fluid Mech. 30, 197 (1967)] is applied to the bed interface. In this problem, however, the gap flow initially mainly comes from the porous bed, and the shear layer may not exist. Although later the shear effect becomes important, the empirical slip-flow condition might not physically respond to the shear effect, and the existence of the vertical velocity affects the situation so greatly that the slip-flow condition might not be appropriate. In contrast, the present study proposes a more general model for the problem, applying Stokes flow to the gap, the Brinkman equation to the porous medium, and Song and Huangs [Laminar poroelastic media flow, J. Eng. Mech. 126, 358 (2000)] complete interfacial conditions to the bed interface. The exact solution to the problem is found and fits Meis experiments well. The breakout phenomenon is examined for different soil beds, mechanics that cannot be illustrated by Meis model are revealed, and the theoretical breakout times obtained using Meis model and our model are compared. The results show that the proposed model is more compatible with physics and provides results that are more precise.

  14. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

  15. White Noise Path Integral Treatment of a Two-dimensional Dirac Oscillator in a Uniform Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastatas, Lyndon D.; Bornales, Jinky B.

    2008-06-18

    White noise path integral prescription is applied to solve the Dirac equation for a two-dimensional Dirac oscillator in a uniform magnetic field. The energy spectrum obtained agrees with the result obtained by Villalba and Maggiolo using the differential approach.

  16. A two-dimensional matrix correction for off-axis portal dose prediction errors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, Daniel W.; Kumaraswamy, Lalith; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Podgorsak, Matthew B.

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This study presents a follow-up to a modified calibration procedure for portal dosimetry published by Bailey et al. ['An effective correction algorithm for off-axis portal dosimetry errors,' Med. Phys. 36, 4089-4094 (2009)]. A commercial portal dose prediction system exhibits disagreement of up to 15% (calibrated units) between measured and predicted images as off-axis distance increases. The previous modified calibration procedure accounts for these off-axis effects in most regions of the detecting surface, but is limited by the simplistic assumption of radial symmetry. Methods: We find that a two-dimensional (2D) matrix correction, applied to each calibrated image, accounts for off-axis prediction errors in all regions of the detecting surface, including those still problematic after the radial correction is performed. The correction matrix is calculated by quantitative comparison of predicted and measured images that span the entire detecting surface. The correction matrix was verified for dose-linearity, and its effectiveness was verified on a number of test fields. The 2D correction was employed to retrospectively examine 22 off-axis, asymmetric electronic-compensation breast fields, five intensity-modulated brain fields (moderate-high modulation) manipulated for far off-axis delivery, and 29 intensity-modulated clinical fields of varying complexity in the central portion of the detecting surface. Results: Employing the matrix correction to the off-axis test fields and clinical fields, predicted vs measured portal dose agreement improves by up to 15%, producing up to 10% better agreement than the radial correction in some areas of the detecting surface. Gamma evaluation analyses (3 mm, 3% global, 10% dose threshold) of predicted vs measured portal dose images demonstrate pass rate improvement of up to 75% with the matrix correction, producing pass rates that are up to 30% higher than those resulting from the radial correction technique alone. As in the 1D correction case, the 2D algorithm leaves the portal dosimetry process virtually unchanged in the central portion of the detector, and thus these correction algorithms are not needed for centrally located fields of moderate size (at least, in the case of 6 MV beam energy).Conclusion: The 2D correction improves the portal dosimetry results for those fields for which the 1D correction proves insufficient, especially in the inplane, off-axis regions of the detector. This 2D correction neglects the relatively smaller discrepancies that may be caused by backscatter from nonuniform machine components downstream from the detecting layer.

  17. Seismic sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  18. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  19. Seismic, side-scan survey, diving, and coring data analyzed by a Macintosh II sup TM computer and inexpensive software provide answers to a possible offshore extension of landslides at Palos Verdes Peninsula, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F. ); Slosson, J.E. ); McEachen, D.B. )

    1990-05-01

    A Macintosh II{sup TM} computer and commercially available software were used to analyze and depict the topography, construct an isopach sediment thickness map, plot core positions, and locate the geology of an offshore area facing an active landslide on the southern side of Palos Verdes Peninsula California. Profile data from side scan sonar, 3.5 kHz, and Boomer subbottom, high-resolution seismic, diving, echo sounder traverses, and cores - all controlled with a mini Ranger II navigation system - were placed in MacGridzo{sup TM} and WingZ{sup TM} software programs. The computer-plotted data from seven sources were used to construct maps with overlays for evaluating the possibility of a shoreside landslide extending offshore. The poster session describes the offshore survey system and demonstrates the development of the computer data base, its placement into the MacGridzo{sup TM} gridding program, and transfer of gridded navigational locations to the WingZ{sup TM} data base and graphics program. Data will be manipulated to show how sea-floor features are enhanced and how isopach data were used to interpret the possibility of landslide displacement and Holocene sea level rise. The software permits rapid assessment of data using computerized overlays and a simple, inexpensive means of constructing and evaluating information in map form and the preparation of final written reports. This system could be useful in many other areas where seismic profiles, precision navigational locations, soundings, diver observations, and core provide a great volume of information that must be compared on regional plots to develop of field maps for geological evaluation and reports.

  20. UNDERSTANDING SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOR JAPANESE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    UNDERSTANDING SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA FOR JAPANESE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Y.J. Park and C.H. Hofmayer Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, Long Island, New York 11973 J.F. Costello U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington, D.C. 20555 ABSTRACT This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non- nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized.

  1. Seismic sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A. (Oakland, CA); Cook, Neville G. W. (Lafayette, CA); McEvilly, Thomas V. (Berkeley, CA); Majer, Ernest L. (El Cirrito, CA); Witherspoon, Paul A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  2. Surface harmonics method for two-dimensional time-dependent neutron transport problems of square-lattice nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Kondrushin, A. E.; Fomichenko, P. A.

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent equations of the Surface Harmonics Method (SHM) have been derived from the time-dependent neutron transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons for solving the two-dimensional time-dependent problems. These equations have been realized in the SUHAM-TD code. The TWIGL benchmark problem has been used for verification of the SUHAM-TD code. The results of the study showed that computational costs required to achieve necessary accuracy of the solution can be an order of magnitude less than with the use of the conventional finite difference method (FDM). (authors)

  3. Finite-size effects on the phase diagram of difermion condensates in two-dimensional four-fermion interaction models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, L. M.; Malbouisson, J. M. C.; Malbouisson, A. P. C.

    2011-01-15

    We investigate finite-size effects on the phase structure of chiral and difermion condensates at finite temperature and density in the framework of the two-dimensional large-N Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We take into account size-dependent effects by making use of zeta-function and compactification methods. The thermodynamic potential and the gap equations for the chiral and difermion condensed phases are then derived in the mean-field approximation. Size-dependent critical lines separating the different phases are obtained considering antiperiodic boundary conditions for the spatial coordinate.

  4. Reconstruction of two-dimensional molecular structure with laser-induced electron diffraction from laser-aligned polyatomic molecules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-10-27

    Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. Lastly, with picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement.

  5. One- and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopic studies of solution-phase homogeneous catalysis and spin-forbidden reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Karma Rae

    2008-12-12

    Understanding chemical reactions requires the knowledge of the elementary steps of breaking and making bonds, and often a variety of experimental techniques are needed to achieve this goal. The initial steps occur on the femto- through picosecond time-scales, requiring the use of ultrafast spectroscopic methods, while the rate-limiting steps often occur more slowly, requiring alternative techniques. Ultrafast one and two-dimensional infrared and step-scan FTIR spectroscopies are used to investigate the photochemical reactions of four organometallic complexes. The analysis leads to a detailed understanding of mechanisms that are general in nature and may be applicable to a variety of reactions.

  6. Ultra-directional source of longitudinal acoustic waves based on a two-dimensional solid/solid phononic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-07

    Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.

  7. Reconfigurable site-selective manipulation of atomic quantum systems in two-dimensional arrays of dipole traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, J.; Gierl, C.; Schlosser, M.; Birkl, G.

    2010-06-15

    We trap atoms in versatile two-dimensional (2D) arrays of optical potentials, prepare flexible 2D spin configurations, perform site-selective coherent manipulation, and demonstrate the implementation of simultaneous measurements of different system properties, such as dephasing and decoherence. This approach for the flexible manipulation of atomic quantum systems is based on the combination of 2D arrays of microlenses and 2D arrays of liquid crystal light modulators. This offers extended types of control for the investigation of quantum degenerate gases, quantum information processing, and quantum simulations.

  8. Self-assembled two-dimensional nanoporous molecular arrays and photoinduced polymerization of 4-bromo-4?-hydroxybiphenyl on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Qian; He, Jing Hui; Zhang, Jia Lin; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-14

    Self-assembled two-dimensional molecular arrays and photoinduced polymerization of 4-bromo-4?-hydroxybiphenyl on Ag(111) were studied using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy combined with density functional theory calculations. Square-like self-assembled structures of 4-bromo-4?-hydroxybiphenyl stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen and halogen bonds were transformed into hexagonal nanopores of biphenyl biradicals by 266 nm UV laser irradiation at 80 K. The biradicals further coupled to each other and formed covalently linked polyphenylene polymer chains at room temperature.

  9. Seismic Monitoring - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Resource Protection Home Cultural Resource Program and Curation Services Ecological Monitoring Environmental Surveillance Meteorology and Climatology Services Seismic...

  10. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye Patch Area (Feighner, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reflectivity in the area and to obtain velocity information for the design and potential processing of the proposed 3-D seismic survey Feighner et al. (1998). Because the results...

  11. Assessing Beyond Design Basis Seismic Events and Implications on Seismic

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Risk | Department of Energy Assessing Beyond Design Basis Seismic Events and Implications on Seismic Risk Assessing Beyond Design Basis Seismic Events and Implications on Seismic Risk September 19, 2012 Presenter: Jeffrey Kimball, Technical Specialist (Seismologist) Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Topics Covered: Department of Energy Approach to Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design (Seismic) Design Basis and Beyond Design Basis Seismic Events Seismic Risk Implications - Key

  12. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010 Title: Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010 Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines. Authors: Michael Lane

  13. Discriminating trpzip2 and trpzip4 peptides folding landscape using the two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Zhuang, Wei, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Yang, Lijiang, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-07

    We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two ?-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GB{sup OBC} implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.

  14. Mott-insulator-to-superfluid transition in Bose-Bose mixtures in a two-dimensional lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guglielmino, M.; Penna, V.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.

    2010-08-15

    We perform a numeric study (worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations) of ultracold two-component bosons in two-dimensional optical lattices. We study how the Mott-insulator-to-superfluid transition is affected by the presence of a second superfluid bosonic species. We find that, at fixed interspecies interaction, the upper and lower boundaries of the Mott lobe are differently modified. The lower boundary is strongly renormalized even for relatively low filling factor of the second component and moderate (interspecies) interaction. The upper boundary, instead, is affected only for large enough filling of the second component. Whereas boundaries are renormalized we find evidence of polaron-like excitations. Our results are of interest for current experimental setups.

  15. Simultaneous sensing of light and sound velocities of fluids in a two-dimensional phoXonic crystal with defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoudache, Samira; Pennec, Yan Djafari Rouhani, Bahram; Khater, Antoine; Lucklum, Ralf; Tigrine, Rachid

    2014-04-07

    We theoretically investigate the potentiality of dual phononic-photonic (the so-called phoxonic) crystals for liquid sensing applications. We study the transmission through a two-dimensional (2D) crystal made of infinite cylindrical holes in a silicon substrate, where one row of holes oriented perpendicular to the propagation direction is filled with a liquid. The infiltrated holes may have a different radius than the regular holes. We show, in the defect structure, the existence of well-defined features (peaks or dips) in the transmission spectra of acoustic and optical waves and estimate their sensitivity to the sound and light velocity of the analyte. Some of the geometrical requirements behave in opposite directions when searching for an efficient sensing of either sound or light velocities. Hence, a compromise in the choice of the parameters may become necessary in making the phoxonic sensor.

  16. Development of a novel x-ray focusing technique using crystals with two-dimensionally modulated surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, W.Z.; Kley, E.B.; Fuchs, H.J.; Schnabel, B.; Foerster, E.; Chukhovskii, F.N.

    1995-12-31

    Theoretical investigations for obtaining x-ray point focusing by using crystals with two-dimensionally modulated surfaces are carried out. Based on the Bragg and Fresnel diffraction principles, formulae of modulated surfaces (structures) are derived for both flat and bent crystals for focusing x-rays to micron or submicron size. It is found that elliptically-shaped and linearly modulated structures are suitable for flat and cylindrically bent crystals, respectively. For the given Ti K{alpha} radiation and geometric parameters, Si(111) and InSb(111) reflections are used for the calculations of flat and bent crystals in terms of their focus characteristics, namely the focusing efficiency and the focus width. The influence of the distribution of the Bragg amplitude on flat and bent crystals is also discussed.

  17. Electron heating due to microwave photoexcitation in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanayaka, A. N.; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    We extract the electron temperature in the microwave photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) by studying the influence of microwave radiation on the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) in a regime where the cyclotron frequency, ?{sub c}, and the microwave angular frequency, ?, satisfy 2? ? ?{sub c} ? 3.5? The results indicate that increasing the incident microwave power has a weak effect on the amplitude of the SdHOs and therefore the electron temperature, in comparison to the influence of modest temperature changes on the dark-specimen SdH effect. The results indicate negligible electron heating under modest microwave photo-excitation, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. Two-dimensional resonant magnetic excitation in BaFe1.84Co0.16As2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsden, Mark D; Christianson, Andrew D; Parshall, Daniel; Stone, Matthew B; Nagler, Stephen E; Mook Jr, Herbert A; Lokshin, Konstantin A; Egami, Takeshi; Abernathy, Douglas L; Goremychkin, E. A.; Osborn, R.; McGuire, Michael A; Safa-Sefat, Athena; Jin, Rongying; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David

    2009-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering measurements on single crystals of superconducting BaFe1.84Co0.16As2 clearly reveal a magnetic excitation located at wavevectors (1/2 1/2 L) in tetragonal notation. The scattering is much broader in L than are spin waves observed in the parent compound BaFe2As2 indicating that the excitations in the superconducting material are more two-dimensional in nature. The excitation appears gapless for T > TC and becomes gapped on cooling below TC. The observed gap energy is approximately 9.6 meV corresponding to 5 kBTC which is remarkably similar to the canonical value for the resonance energy in the cuprates.

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL STUDY FOR RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR AND RICHTMYER-MESHKOV INSTABILITIES IN RELATIVISTIC JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumoto, Jin; Masada, Youhei

    2013-07-20

    We study the stability of a non-rotating single-component jet using two-dimensional special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. By assuming translational invariance along the jet axis, we exclude the destabilization effect by Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. The nonlinear evolution of the transverse structure of the jet with a normal jet velocity is highlighted. An intriguing finding in our study is that Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov type instabilities can destroy cylindrical jet configuration as a result of spontaneously induced radial oscillating motion. This is powered by in situ energy conversion between the thermal and bulk kinetic energies. The effective inertia ratio of the jet to the surrounding medium {eta} determines a threshold for the onset of instabilities. The condition {eta} < 1 should be satisfied for the transverse structure of the jet being persisted.

  20. Two-dimensional numerical study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in air at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Wen; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Dezhen; Liu, Fucheng

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a computational study of two counter-propagating helium plasma jets in ambient air is presented. A two-dimensional fluid model is applied to investigate the physical processes of the two plasma jets interaction (PJI) driven by equal and unequal voltages, respectively. In all studied cases, the PJI results in a decrease of both plasma bullets propagation velocity. When the two plasma jets are driven by equal voltages, they never merge but rather approach each other around the middle of the gas gap at a minimum approach distance, and the minimal distance decreases with the increase of both the applied voltages and initial electron density, but increases with the increase of the relative permittivity. When the two plasma jets are driven by unequal voltages, we observe the two plasma jets will merge at the position away from the middle of the gas gap. The effect of applied voltage difference on the PJI is also studied.

  1. The internal structure of a vortex in a two-dimensional superfluid with long healing length and its implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Avraham; Aleiner, Igor L.; Agam, Oded

    2014-07-15

    We analyze the motion of quantum vortices in a two-dimensional spinless superfluid within Popovs hydrodynamic description. In the long healing length limit (where a large number of particles are inside the vortex core) the superfluid dynamics is determined by saddle points of Popovs action, which, in particular, allows for weak solutions of the GrossPitaevskii equation. We solve the resulting equations of motion for a vortex moving with respect to the superfluid and find the reconstruction of the vortex core to be a non-analytic function of the force applied on the vortex. This response produces an anomalously large dipole moment of the vortex and, as a result, the spectrum associated with the vortex motion exhibits narrow resonances lying within the phonon part of the spectrum, contrary to traditional view.

  2. Two-dimensional

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P. Franz Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, 35127 Padova, Italy F. Bonomo Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, 35127 Padova, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit ...

  3. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, Makoto; Kondo, Yutaka; Fast, Jerome D.; Takigawa, M.

    2014-09-30

    Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we developed an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS), that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF), black carbon (BC) aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 m to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins) and BC mixing state (10 bins) for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module was implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials was about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement was estimated to be 10 20% over northern East Asia and 20 35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast was also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations: NPF increased CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles) over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increased CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles) over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also showed that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depended strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA processes under different meteorological conditions and emissions.

  4. Turbulence structure of drag-reducing surfactant solution in two-dimensional channel with additional heat transfer enhancement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.W.; Daisaka, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Yabe, A.; Hishida, K.; Maeda, M.

    1999-07-01

    The turbulent characteristics of a surfactant water solution in changing from drag-reducing flow to turbulent flow inside a two-dimensional smooth channel and in changing from turbulent flow to drag-reducing flow in the same channel with a mesh plug were investigated through LDV measurement in this study. The mesh plug was used to exert high shear stress to destroy micelle structures in the surfactant solution so that turbulence could be produced for better heat transfer. The two-component LDV system was installed on a movable platform, which could be moved streamwise of the flow to measure the two-dimensional velocity at different stations downstream from the mesh plug. The surfactant tested was Cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl, abbreviated as CTAC). Local tap water was used as solvent and same weight concentration of sodium salicylate was used as the counter-ion material. The investigation of turbulent parameters for the drag-reducing flow with increasing Reynolds number showed that when the Reynolds number exceeded the drag-reducing region, the turbulent character was the same as that of water. The turbulent parameters of surfactant flow downstream the mesh plug showed that the high heat transfer region had the same turbulent intensity as that of water flow. As the critical Reynolds number was approached, it became easier to obtain such a turbulent region by mesh plug. In such cases, the mesh helped to create high wall shear stress and therefore to destroy the super-ordered structures of rod-like micelles for introducing turbulence. However, it was found that the turbulent intensities of the velocity gradually decreased to the same as those of drag-reducing flow downstream from the mesh because the mesh plug only produced a local high shear stress.

  5. NON-INVASIVE DETERMINATION OF THE LOCATION AND DISTRBUTION OF FREE-PHASE DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS (DNAPL) BY SEISMIC REFLECTION TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Waddell; William J. Domoracki; Jerome Eyer

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Sciences and Resources Institute, University of South Carolina is conducting a proof of concept study to determine the location and distribution of subsurface DNAPL carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) contamination at the 216-Z-9 crib, 200 West area, DOE Hanford Site, Washington by use of two-dimensional high-resolution seismic reflection surveys and borehole geophysical data. The study makes use of recent advances in seismic reflection amplitude versus offset (AVO) technology to directly detect the presence of subsurface DNAPL. The techniques proposed are noninvasive means of site characterization and direct free-phase DNAPL detection. This final report covers the results of Tasks 1, 2, and 3. Task (1) contains site evaluation and seismic modeling studies. The site evaluation consists of identifying and collecting preexisting geological and geophysical information regarding subsurface structure and the presence and quantity of DNAPL. The seismic modeling studies were undertaken to determine the likelihood that an AVO response exists and its probable manifestation. Task (2) is the design and acquisition of 2-D seismic reflection data to image areas of probable high concentration of DNAPL. Task (3) is the processing and interpretation of the 2-D data. During the commission of these tasks four seismic reflection profiles were collected. Subsurface velocity information was obtained by vertical seismic profile surveys in three wells. The interpretation of these data is in two parts. Part one is the construction and interpretation of structural contour maps of the contact between the Hanford Fine unit and the underlying Plio/Pleistocene unit and of the contact between the Plio/Pleistocene unit and the underlying caliche layer. These two contacts were determined to be the most likely surfaces to contain the highest concentration CCl{sub 4}. Part two of the interpretation uses the results of the AVO modeling to locate any seismic amplitude anomalies that might be associated with the presence of high concentrations of CCl{sub 4}. Based on the modeling results three different methods of AVO analysis were preformed on the seismic data: enhanced amplitude stacks, offset range limited stacks, and gradient stacks. Seismic models indicate that the reflection from the contact between the Hanford Fine and the Plio/Pleistocene should exhibit amplitude variations where there are high concentrations of CCl{sub 4}. A series of different scenarios were modeled. The first scenario is the Hanford Fine pores are 100% saturated with CCl{sub 4} and the underlying Plio/Pleistocene pores are saturated with air. In this scenario the reflection coefficients are slightly negative at the small angles of incidence and become increasing more negative at the larger angles of incidence (dim-out). The second scenario is the Hanford Fine pores are saturated with air and Plio/Pleistocene pores are saturated with CCl{sub 4}. In this scenario the reflection coefficients are slightly positive at the small angles of incidence and become negative at the large angles of incidence (polarity reversal). Finally the third scenario is both the Hanford Fine and the Plio/Pleistocene pores are saturated CCl{sub 4}. In this scenario the reflection coefficients at the small angles of incidence are slightly positive, but much less than background response, and with increasing angle of incidence the reflection coefficients become slightly more positive. On the field data areas where extraction wells have high concentrations of CCl{sub 4} a corresponding dim-out and/or a polarity reversal is noted.

  6. Seismicity Protocol | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismicity Protocol Seismicity Protocol Project objectives: Develop an updated protocol/best engineering practices to address public and industry issues associated with induced seismicity. PDF icon seismic_majer_induced_protocol.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of an Updated Induced Seismicity Protocol for the Application of Microearthquake (MEQ) Monitoring for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Microearthquake

  7. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  8. USING MICRO-SEISMICITY AND SEISMIC VELOCITIES TO MAP SUBSURFACE...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    some cases, although a significant portion of seismicity remains diffuse and does not cluster into sharply defined structures. The seismic velocity structure reveals heterogeneous...

  9. Using Micro-Seismicity and Seismic Velocities to Map Subsurface...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    some cases, although a significant portion of seismicity remains diffuse and does not cluster into sharply defined structures. The seismic velocity structure reveals heterogeneous...

  10. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  11. Short-Period Seismic Noise in Vorkuta (Russia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishkina, S B; Spivak, A A; Sweeney, J J

    2008-05-15

    Cultural development of new subpolar areas of Russia is associated with a need for detailed seismic research, including both mapping of regional seismicity and seismic monitoring of specific mining enterprises. Of special interest are the northern territories of European Russia, including shelves of the Kara and Barents Seas, Yamal Peninsula, and the Timan-Pechora region. Continuous seismic studies of these territories are important now because there is insufficient seismological knowledge of the area and an absence of systematic data on the seismicity of the region. Another task of current interest is the necessity to consider the seismic environment in the design, construction, and operation of natural gas extracting enterprises such as the construction of the North European Gas Pipeline. Issues of scientific importance for seismic studies in the region are the complex geodynamical setting, the presence of permafrost, and the complex tectonic structure. In particular, the Uralian Orogene (Fig. 1) strongly affects the propagation of seismic waves. The existing subpolar seismic stations [APA (67,57{sup o}N; 33,40{sup o}E), LVZ (67,90{sup o}N; 34,65{sup o}E), and NRIL (69,50{sup o}N; 88,40{sup o}E)] do not cover the extensive area between the Pechora and Ob Rivers (Fig. 1). Thus seismic observations in the Vorkuta area, which lies within the area of concern, represent a special interest. Continuous recording at a seismic station near the city of Vorkuta (67,50{sup o}N; 64,11{sup o}E) [1] has been conducted since 2005 for the purpose of regional seismic monitoring and, more specifically, detection of seismic signals caused by local mining enterprises. Current surveys of local seismic noise [7,8,9,11], are particularly aimed at a technical survey for the suitability of the site for installation of a small-aperture seismic array, which would include 10-12 recording instruments, with the Vorkuta seismic station as the central element. When constructed, this seismic array will considerably improve the recording capacity of regional and local seismic events. It will allow detection of signatures of seismic waves propagating in submeridional and sublatitudinal directions. The latter is of special interest not only to access the influence of the Urals on propagation patterns of seismic waves, but also to address other questions, such as the structure and dynamic characteristics of the internal dynamo of the Earth [9,13]. Recording seismic waves at low angular distances from seismically active subpolar zones will allow us to collect data on vortical and convective movements in subpolar lithosphere blocks and at the boundary of the inner core of the Earth, possibly giving essential clues to the modeling of the Earth's electromagnetic field [3,13]. The present study considers basic features of seismic noise at the Vorkuta station obtained through the analysis of seismic records from March, 2006 till December, 2007.

  12. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "?genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  13. The inversion layer of electric fields and electron phase-space-hole structure during two-dimensional collisionless magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Lijen; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Torbert, Roy B.; Daughton, William S.

    2011-01-15

    Based on two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations that resolve the electron diffusion layer in undriven collisionless magnetic reconnection with zero guide field, this paper reports the existence and evolution of an inversion layer of bipolar electric fields, its corresponding phase-space structure (an electron-hole layer), and the implication to collisionless dissipation. The inversion electric field layer is embedded in the layer of bipolar Hall electric field and extends throughout the entire length of the electron diffusion layer. The electron phase-space hole structure spontaneously arises during the explosive growth phase when there exist significant inflows into the reconnection layer, and electrons perform meandering orbits across the layer while being cyclotron-turned toward the outflow directions. The cyclotron turning of meandering electrons by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer is shown to be a primary factor limiting the current density in the region where the reconnection electric field is balanced by the gradient (along the current sheet normal) of the off-diagonal electron pressure-tensor.

  14. Two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase in Sb/Bi planar honeycomb with tunable Dirac gap

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hsu, Chia -Hsiu; Huang, Zhi -Quan; Crisostomo, Christian P.; Yao, Liang -Zi; Chuang, Feng -Chuan; Liu, Yu -Tzu; Wang, Baokai; Hsu, Chuang -Han; Lee, Chi -Cheng; Lin, Hsin; et al

    2016-01-14

    We predict planar Sb/Bi honeycomb to harbor a two-dimensional (2D) topological crystalline insulator (TCI) phase based on first-principles computations. Although buckled Sb and Bi honeycombs support 2D topological insulator (TI) phases, their structure becomes planar under tensile strain. The planar Sb/Bi honeycomb structure restores the mirror symmetry, and is shown to exhibit non-zero mirror Chern numbers, indicating that the system can host topologically protected edge states. Our computations show that the electronic spectrum of a planar Sb/Bi nanoribbon with armchair or zigzag edges contains two Dirac cones within the band gap and an even number of edge bands crossing themore » Fermi level. Lattice constant of the planar Sb honeycomb is found to nearly match that of hexagonal-BN. As a result, the Sb nanoribbon on hexagonal-BN exhibits gapped edge states, which we show to be tunable by an out-of the-plane electric field, providing controllable gating of edge state important for device applications.« less

  15. Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated two-dimensional detector array using a single element detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauss, C.E.

    1997-11-18

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO{sub 2} laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart. 4 figs.

  16. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore » the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less

  17. Trigonometrical sums connected with the chiral Potts model, Verlinde dimension formula, two-dimensional resistor network, and number theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chair, Noureddine

    2014-02-15

    We have recently developed methods for obtaining exact two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. We use these methods to obtain closed formulas of certain trigonometrical sums that arise in connection with one-dimensional lattice, in proving Scotts conjecture on permanent of Cauchy matrix, and in the perturbative chiral Potts model. The generalized trigonometrical sums of the chiral Potts model are shown to satisfy recursion formulas that are transparent and direct, and differ from those of Gervois and Mehta. By making a change of variables in these recursion formulas, the dimension of the space of conformal blocks of SU(2) and SO(3) WZW models may be computed recursively. Our methods are then extended to compute the corner-to-corner resistance, and the Kirchhoff index of the first non-trivial two-dimensional resistor network, 2N. Finally, we obtain new closed formulas for variant of trigonometrical sums, some of which appear in connection with number theory. -- Highlights: Alternative derivation of certain trigonometrical sums of the chiral Potts model are given. Generalization of these trigonometrical sums satisfy recursion formulas. The dimension of the space of conformal blocks may be computed from these recursions. Exact corner-to-corner resistance, the Kirchhoff index of 2N are given.

  18. Analysis of photonic band gaps in two-dimensional photonic crystals with rods covered by a thin interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L.F.; Pallares, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-11-15

    We investigate different aspects of the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional photonic structures consisting of rods covered with a thin dielectric film. Specifically, triangular and honeycomb lattices in both complementary arrangements, i.e., air rods drilled in silicon matrix and silicon rods in air, are studied. We consider that the rods are formed of a dielectric core (silicon or air) surrounded by a cladding layer of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), or germanium (Ge). Such photonic lattices present absolute photonic band gaps, and we study the evolution of these gaps as functions of the cladding material and thickness. Our results show that in the case of air rods in dielectric media the existence of dielectric cladding reduces the absolute gap width and may cause complete closure of the gap if thick layers are considered. For the case of dielectric rods in air, however, the existence of a cladding layer can be advantageous and larger absolute PBG's can be achieved.

  19. Ultrathin nanosheets of CrSiTe3: A semiconducting two-dimensional ferromagnetic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Ming -Wei; Zhung, Houlong L.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ward, Thomas Zac; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Gai, Zheng; Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kent, Paul R. C.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Mandrus, David G.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-11-27

    Finite range ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism in two-dimensional (2D) systems within an isotropic Heisenberg model at non-zero temperature were originally proposed to be impossible. However, recent theoretical studies using an Ising model have recently shown that 2D magnetic crystals can exhibit magnetism. Experimental verification of existing 2D magnetic crystals in this system has remained elusive. In this work we for the first time exfoliate the CrSiTe3, a bulk ferromagnetic semiconductor, to mono- and few-layer 2D crystals onto a Si/SiO2 substrate. The Raman spectra show the good stability and high quality of the exfoliated flakes, consistent with the computed phonon spectra of 2D CrSiTe3, giving a strong evidence for the existence of 2D CrSiTe3 crystals. When the thickness of the CrSiTe3 crystals is reduced to few-layers, we observed a clear change in resistivity at 80~120 K, consistent with the theoretical calculations on the Curie temperature (Tc) of ~80 K for the magnetic ordering of 2D CrSiTe3 crystals. As a result, the ferromagnetic mono- and few-layer 2D CrSiTe3 indicated here should enable numerous applications in nano-spintronics.

  20. High-precision determination of low-energy effective parameters for a two-dimensional Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, F.-J.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2011-04-15

    The two-dimensional (2D) spin-(1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnet with exchange coupling J is investigated on a periodic square lattice of spacing a at very small temperatures using the loop-cluster algorithm. Monte Carlo data for the staggered and uniform susceptibilities are compared with analytic results obtained in the systematic low-energy effective field theory for the staggered magnetization order parameter. The low-energy parameters of the effective theory, i.e., the staggered magnetization density M{sub s}=0.307 43(1)/a{sup 2}, the spin stiffness {rho}{sub s}=0.180 81(11)J, and the spin wave velocity c=1.6586(3)Ja, are determined with very high precision. Our study may serve as a test case for the comparison of lattice quantum chromodynamics Monte Carlo data with analytic predictions of the chiral effective theory for pions and nucleons, which is vital for the quantitative understanding of the strong interaction at low energies.

  1. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; K?os, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.

    2014-01-28

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain isofrequency contours of spin waves. Isofrequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.

  2. Natural abundance 17O DNP two-dimensional and surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perras, Frdric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-06-22

    Due to its extremely low natural abundance and quadrupolar nature, the 17O nuclide is very rarely used for spectroscopic investigation of solids by NMR without isotope enrichment. Additionally, the applicability of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which leads to sensitivity enhancements of 2 orders of magnitude, to 17O is wrought with challenges due to the lack of spin diffusion and low polarization transfer efficiency from 1H. Here, we demonstrate new DNP-based measurements that extend 17O solid-state NMR beyond its current capabilities. The use of the PRESTO technique instead of conventional 1H17O cross-polarization greatly improves the sensitivity and enables the facile measurement of undistorted line shapes and two-dimensional 1H17O HETCOR NMR spectra as well as accurate internuclear distance measurements at natural abundance. This was applied for distinguishing hydrogen-bonded and lone 17O sites on the surface of silica gel; the one-dimensional spectrum of which could not be used to extract such detail. As a result, this greatly enhanced sensitivity has enabled, for the first time, the detection of surface hydroxyl sites on mesoporous silica at natural abundance, thereby extending the concept of DNP surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy to the 17O nuclide.

  3. Solutions of the two-dimensional Hubbard model: Benchmarks and results from a wide range of numerical algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Antipov, Andrey E.; Becca, Federico; Bulik, Ireneusz W.; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Chung, Chia -Min; Deng, Youjin; Ferrero, Michel; Henderson, Thomas M.; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A.; et al

    2015-12-14

    Numerical results for ground-state and excited-state properties (energies, double occupancies, and Matsubara-axis self-energies) of the single-orbital Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice are presented, in order to provide an assessment of our ability to compute accurate results in the thermodynamic limit. Many methods are employed, including auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo, bare and bold-line diagrammatic Monte Carlo, method of dual fermions, density matrix embedding theory, density matrix renormalization group, dynamical cluster approximation, diffusion Monte Carlo within a fixed-node approximation, unrestricted coupled cluster theory, and multireference projected Hartree-Fock methods. Comparison of results obtained by different methods allows for the identification ofmore » uncertainties and systematic errors. The importance of extrapolation to converged thermodynamic-limit values is emphasized. Furthermore, cases where agreement between different methods is obtained establish benchmark results that may be useful in the validation of new approaches and the improvement of existing methods.« less

  4. Reducing Uncertainty in the Seismic Design Basis for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, Thomas M.; Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve; Gardner, Martin G.

    2007-02-27

    The seismic design basis for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Department of Energys (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland was re-evaluated in 2005, resulting in an increase by up to 40% in the seismic design basis. The original seismic design basis for the WTP was established in 1999 based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis completed in 1996. The 2005 analysis was performed to address questions raised by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) about the assumptions used in developing the original seismic criteria and adequacy of the site geotechnical surveys. The updated seismic response analysis used existing and newly acquired seismic velocity data, statistical analysis, expert elicitation, and ground motion simulation to develop interim design ground motion response spectra which enveloped the remaining uncertainties. The uncertainties in these response spectra were enveloped at approximately the 84th percentile to produce conservative design spectra, which contributed significantly to the increase in the seismic design basis.

  5. SEISMIC MODELING ENGINES PHASE 1 FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRUCE P. MARION

    2006-02-09

    Seismic modeling is a core component of petroleum exploration and production today. Potential applications include modeling the influence of dip on anisotropic migration; source/receiver placement in deviated-well three-dimensional surveys for vertical seismic profiling (VSP); and the generation of realistic data sets for testing contractor-supplied migration algorithms or for interpreting AVO (amplitude variation with offset) responses. This project was designed to extend the use of a finite-difference modeling package, developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, to the advanced applications needed by industry. The approach included a realistic, easy-to-use 2-D modeling package for the desktop of the practicing geophysicist. The feasibility of providing a wide-ranging set of seismic modeling engines was fully demonstrated in Phase I. The technical focus was on adding variable gridding in both the horizontal and vertical directions, incorporating attenuation, improving absorbing boundary conditions and adding the optional coefficient finite difference methods.

  6. Seismic Emissions Surveys | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well with the location of productive wells or known geology. Authors Katz and Lewis J. Published Journal Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 1984 DOI Not Provided...

  7. Refraction Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Laney, 2005) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Hot Sulphur Springs Area Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley....

  8. Refraction Survey At Rye Patch Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Details Location Rye Patch Area Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley....

  9. Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finally, the gravity survey also shows anomalies that correlate with the seismic and microseismic data. All of these results will be integrated to obtain the most probable...

  10. Ground Gravity Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finally, the gravity survey also shows anomalies that correlate with the seismic and microseismic data. All of these results will be integrated to obtain the most probable...

  11. Refraction Survey At Chena Geothermal Area (Wescott & Turner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute. Notes A seismic refraction survey confirmed the presence of fractured, water-saturated granitic bedrock, as indicated by the Schlumberger soundings measured in...

  12. Equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Kurbakov, I. L.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2009-05-15

    The equation of state of a weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose gas is studied at zero temperature by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. Going down to as low densities as na{sup 2}{proportional_to}10{sup -100} permits us to obtain agreement on beyond mean-field level between predictions of perturbative methods and direct many-body numerical simulation, thus providing an answer to the fundamental question of the equation of state of a two-dimensional dilute Bose gas in the universal regime (i.e., entirely described by the gas parameter na{sup 2}). We also show that the measure of the frequency of a breathing collective oscillation in a trap at very low densities can be used to test the universal equation of state of a two-dimensional Bose gas.

  13. Two-dimensional equations of the surface harmonics method for solving problems of spatial neutron kinetics in square-lattice reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarinov, V. F. Kondrushin, A. E. Fomichenko, P. A.

    2014-12-15

    Two-dimensional time-dependent finite-difference equations of the surface harmonics method (SHM) for the description of the neutron transport are derived for square-lattice reactors. These equations are implemented in the SUHAM-TD code. Verification of the derived equations and the developed code are performed by the example of known test problems, and the potential and efficiency of the SHM as applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron transport equation in the diffusion approximation in two-dimensional geometry are demonstrated. These results show the substantial advantage of SHM over direct finite-difference modeling in computational costs.

  14. Van der Waals epitaxial growth of two-dimensional single-crystalline GaSe domains on graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Basile, Leonardo; Huang, Bing; Ma, Cheng; Lee, Jaekwang; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Lin, Ming -Wei; Chi, Miaofang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; et al

    2015-07-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are a family of artificially-structured materials that promise tunable optoelectronic properties for devices with enhanced functionalities. Compared to stamping, direct epitaxy of vdW heterostructures is ideal for clean interlayer interfaces and scalable device fabrication. Here, we explore the synthesis and preferred orientations of 2D GaSe atomic layers on graphene (Gr) by vdW epitaxy. Guided by the wrinkles on graphene, GaSe nuclei form that share a predominant lattice orientation. Due to vdW epitaxial growth many nuclei grow as perfectly aligned crystals and coalesce to form large (tens of microns), single-crystal flakes. Through theoretical investigationsmore » of interlayer energetics, and measurements of preferred orientations by atomic-resolution STEM and electron diffraction, a 10.9 interlayer rotation of the GaSe lattice with respect to the underlying graphene is found to be the most energetically preferred vdW heterostructure with the largest binding energy and the longest-range ordering. These GaSe/Gr vdW heterostructures exhibit an enhanced Raman E21g band of monolayer GaSe along with highly-quenched photoluminescence due to strong charge transfer. Despite the very large lattice mismatch of GaSe/Gr through vdW epitaxy, the predominant orientation control and convergent formation of large single-crystal flakes demonstrated here is promising for the scalable synthesis of large-area vdW heterostructures for the development of new optical and optoelectronic devices.« less

  15. Van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of Single-Crystal Two-Dimensional GaSe on Graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xufan; Basile, Leonardo; Huang, Bing; Ma, Cheng; Lee, Jaekwang; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chi, Miaofang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; et al

    2015-07-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are a family of artificially-structured materials that promise tunable optoelectronic properties for devices with enhanced functionalities. Compared to stamping, direct epitaxy of vdW heterostructures is ideal for clean interlayer interfaces and scalable device fabrication. Here, we explore the synthesis and preferred orientations of 2D GaSe atomic layers on graphene (Gr) by vdW epitaxy. Guided by the wrinkles on graphene, GaSe nuclei form that share a predominant lattice orientation. Due to vdW epitaxial growth many nuclei grow as perfectly aligned crystals and coalesce to form large (tens of microns), single-crystal flakes. Through theoretical investigationsmoreof interlayer energetics, and measurements of preferred orientations by atomic-resolution STEM and electron diffraction, a 10.9 interlayer rotation of the GaSe lattice with respect to the underlying graphene is found to be the most energetically preferred vdW heterostructure with the largest binding energy and the longest-range ordering. These GaSe/Gr vdW heterostructures exhibit an enhanced Raman E21g band of monolayer GaSe along with highly-quenched photoluminescence due to strong charge transfer. Despite the very large lattice mismatch of GaSe/Gr through vdW epitaxy, the predominant orientation control and convergent formation of large single-crystal flakes demonstrated here is promising for the scalable synthesis of large-area vdW heterostructures for the development of new optical and optoelectronic devices.less

  16. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The H? tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  17. Van der Waals epitaxial growth of two-dimensional single-crystalline GaSe domains on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xufan; Basile, Leonardo; Huang, Bing; Ma, Cheng; Lee, Jaekwang; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Lin, Ming -Wei; Chi, Miaofang; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2015-07-22

    Two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are a family of artificially-structured materials that promise tunable optoelectronic properties for devices with enhanced functionalities. Compared to stamping, direct epitaxy of vdW heterostructures is ideal for clean interlayer interfaces and scalable device fabrication. Here, we explore the synthesis and preferred orientations of 2D GaSe atomic layers on graphene (Gr) by vdW epitaxy. Guided by the wrinkles on graphene, GaSe nuclei form that share a predominant lattice orientation. Due to vdW epitaxial growth many nuclei grow as perfectly aligned crystals and coalesce to form large (tens of microns), single-crystal flakes. Through theoretical investigations of interlayer energetics, and measurements of preferred orientations by atomic-resolution STEM and electron diffraction, a 10.9 interlayer rotation of the GaSe lattice with respect to the underlying graphene is found to be the most energetically preferred vdW heterostructure with the largest binding energy and the longest-range ordering. These GaSe/Gr vdW heterostructures exhibit an enhanced Raman E21g band of monolayer GaSe along with highly-quenched photoluminescence due to strong charge transfer. Despite the very large lattice mismatch of GaSe/Gr through vdW epitaxy, the predominant orientation control and convergent formation of large single-crystal flakes demonstrated here is promising for the scalable synthesis of large-area vdW heterostructures for the development of new optical and optoelectronic devices.

  18. Seismic hazard methodology for the Central and Eastern United States:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Volume 1: Part 2, Methodology (Revision 1): Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Central and Eastern United States: Volume 1: Part 2, Methodology (Revision 1): Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Seismic hazard methodology for the Central and Eastern United States: Volume 1: Part 2, Methodology (Revision 1): Final report Aided by its consultant, the US Geologic Survey (USGS), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed ''Seismic Hazard Methodology for

  19. Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization.

  20. Seismic Hazard Assessment for Western Kentucky, Northeastern Kentucky and Southeastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, James C; Wang, Zhenming; Woolery, Edward W; Kiefer, John D

    2002-07-01

    Earthquakes pose a seismic hazards and risk to the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Furthermore, the seismic hazards and risk vary throughout the Commonwealth. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the seismic hazard maps developed by the US Geological Survey for seismic safety regulation for nuclear facilities. Under current US Geological Survey's seismic hazard assessment it is economically unfeasible to build a new uranium plant near Paducah relative to the Portsmouth, Ohio site. This is not to say that the facility cannot be safely engineered to withstand the present seismic load, but enormously expensive to do so. More than 20 years observations and research at UK have shown that the US Geological Survey has overestimated seismic hazards in western Kentucky, particularly in the Jackson Purchase area that includes Paducah. Furthermore, our research indicates underestimated seismic hazards in northeastern Kentucky and southeastern Ohio. Such overestimation and underestimation could jeopardize possible site selection of PGDP for the new uranium plant. The existing database, research experience, and expertise in UK's Kentucky Geological Survey and Department of Geological Science put this institution in a unique position to conduct a comprehensive seismic hazard evaluation.

  1. Seismicity Protocol | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismicity Protocol Seismicity Protocol Project objectives: Develop an updated protocol/best engineering practices to address public and industry issues associated with induced seismicity. PDF icon seismic_majer_induced_protocol.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of an Updated Induced Seismicity Protocol for the Application of Microearthquake (MEQ) Monitoring for Characterizing Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Monitoring the Effect

  2. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  3. Evaluation of delivered monitor unit accuracy of gated step-and-shoot IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Sei-Kwon; Lee, MeYeon; Kim, Su SSan; Park, SoAh; Hwang, Tae-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Ju; Oh, Do Hoon; Bae, Hoonsik; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: To overcome the problem of organ motion in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), gated IMRT is often used for the treatment of lung cancer. In this study, the authors investigated the accuracy of the delivered monitor units (MUs) from each segment during gated IMRT using a two-dimensional detector array for user-specific verification purpose. Methods: The authors planned a 6 MV photon, seven-port step-and-shoot lung IMRT delivery. The respiration signals for gated IMRT delivery were obtained from the one-dimensional moving phantom using the real-time position management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). The beams were delivered using a Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with the Millennium 120 MLC. The MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry GmbH, Germany) was validated through consistency and reproducibility tests as well as comparison with measurements from a Farmer-type ion chamber. The authors delivered beams with varying dose rates and duty cycles and analyzed the MatriXX data to evaluate MU delivery accuracy. Results: There was quite good agreement between the planned segment MUs and the MUs computed from the MatriXX within {+-}2% error. The beam-on times computed from the MatriXX data were almost identical for all cases, and they matched well with the RPM beam-on and beam-off signals. A slight difference was observed between them, but it was less than 40 ms. The gated IMRT delivery demonstrated an MU delivery accuracy that was equivalent to ungated IMRT, and the delivered MUs with a gating signal agreed with the planned MUs within {+-}0.5 MU regardless of dose rate and duty cycle. Conclusions: The authors can conclude that gated IMRT is able to deliver an accurate dose to a patient during a procedure. The authors believe that the methodology and results can be transferred to other vendors' devices, particularly those that do not provide MLC log data for a verification purpose.

  4. Category:Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Seismic Techniques page? For detailed information on Seismic...

  5. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F - Seismicity Relocation Analyses Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis 2014 F.1 Appendix F Seismicity Relocation Analyses Final Report: High-Resolution...

  6. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  7. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Lane

    2010-01-01

    Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines.

  8. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Michael Lane

    Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010. ArcGIS map package containing topographic base map, Township and Range layer, Oski BLM and private leases at time of survey, and locations, with selected shot points, of the five seismic lines.

  9. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ?4 10{sup 19} m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  10. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for...

  11. Controllable seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2014-08-19

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  12. Controllable seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2015-09-29

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  13. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  14. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  15. Verification of electrical spin injection into InGaAs two-dimensional electron gas from CoFe electrode by four-terminal non-local geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidaka, S.; Kondo, T.; Akabori, M.; Yamada, S.

    2013-12-04

    We performed electrical spin injection into In{sub 0.75}Ga{sub 0.25}As two-dimensional electron gases from Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2} electrodes by four-terminal non-local spin-valve (NLSV) measurement. We observed clear SV signals in NL resistance at 1.5 K. From the electrode spacing dependence of the signals, we estimated spin diffusion length and spin polarization to be ?5.1 ?m and ?5.7 %, respectively. These are larger than those reported in similar systems.

  16. Tunable bilayer two-dimensional electron gas in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, H. J. Harsan E-mail: phyarian@nus.edu.sg; Annadi, A.; Zeng, S. W.; Ariando E-mail: phyarian@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Z.; L, W. M.; Wong, L. M.; Wang, S. J.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-07-07

    We report magnetotransport properties of double heterointerfaces in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}(001) (LAO/STO/LAO/STO). A strong nonlinearity in the Hall resistivity is found when the temperature is below 80?K. This effect is attributed to multichannel conduction of interfacial charges generated in double heterostructures of LAO/STO where two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is produced. The multichannel conduction is confirmed by back gating modulation of Hall effect. Our result suggests the possibility to achieve coupled bilayer 2DEG layers in LAO/STO superlattices.

  17. Large voltage modulation in magnetic field sensors from two-dimensional arrays of Y-Ba-Cu-O nano Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cybart, Shane A. Dynes, R. C.; Cho, E. Y.; Wong, T. J.; Glyantsev, V. N.; Huh, J. U.; Yung, C. S.; Moeckly, B. H.; Beeman, J. W.; Ulin-Avila, E.; Wu, S. M.

    2014-02-10

    We have fabricated and tested two-dimensional arrays of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} superconducting quantum interference devices. The arrays contain over 36?000 nano Josephson junctions fabricated from ion irradiation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7??} through narrow slits in a resist-mask that was patterned with electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. Measurements of current-biased arrays in magnetic field exhibit large voltage modulations as high as 30?mV.

  18. Seismic Structure And Seismicity Of The Cooling Lava Lake Of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of The Cooling Lava Lake Of Kilauea Iki, Hawaii Abstract The use of multiple methods is indispensable for the determination of the seismic properties of a complex body...

  19. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Heath, J. T.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  20. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

    2011-07-01

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  1. I Historical Information H. 6 SeismicIGround Motion Activity

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Historical Information H. 6 SeismicIGround Motion Activity Book 3 Seismic Data from Rulison DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. This page intentionally left blank S E I S M I C D A T A F R O M R U L I S O N ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SERVICES ADMINISTRATION COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY Prepared By SPECIAL SEISMOLOGICAL ANALYSIS BRANCH James N. Jordan, Chief Sponsored By U .S. ARMS CONTROL AND

  2. Induced Seismicity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Project DOE Funding Total Project Cost Mapping Diffuse Seismicity for Geothermal Reservoir Management with Matched Field Processing California Lawrence Livermore National...

  3. NORTH HILL CREEK 3-D SEISMIC EXPLORATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc T. Eckels; David H. Suek; Denise H. Harrison; Paul J. Harrison

    2004-05-06

    Wind River Resources Corporation (WRRC) received a DOE grant in support of its proposal to acquire, process and interpret fifteen square miles of high-quality 3-D seismic data on non-allotted trust lands of the Uintah and Ouray (Ute) Indian Reservation, northeastern Utah, in 2000. Subsequent to receiving notice that its proposal would be funded, WRRC was able to add ten square miles of adjacent state and federal mineral acreage underlying tribal surface lands by arrangement with the operator of the Flat Rock Field. The twenty-five square mile 3-D seismic survey was conducted during the fall of 2000. The data were processed through the winter of 2000-2001, and initial interpretation took place during the spring of 2001. The initial interpretation identified multiple attractive drilling prospects, two of which were staked and permitted during the summer of 2001. The two initial wells were drilled in September and October of 2001. A deeper test was drilled in June of 2002. Subsequently a ten-well deep drilling evaluation program was conducted from October of 2002 through March 2004. The present report discusses the background of the project; design and execution of the 3-D seismic survey; processing and interpretation of the data; and drilling, completion and production results of a sample of the wells drilled on the basis of the interpreted survey. Fifteen wells have been drilled to test targets identified on the North Hill Creek 3-D Seismic Survey. None of these wildcat exploratory wells has been a dry hole, and several are among the best gas producers in Utah. The quality of the data produced by this first significant exploratory 3-D survey in the Uinta Basin has encouraged other operators to employ this technology. At least two additional 3-D seismic surveys have been completed in the vicinity of the North Hill Creek Survey, and five additional surveys are being planned for the 2004 field season. This project was successful in finding commercial oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids production on a remote part of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation. Much of the natural gas and natural gas liquids are being produced from the Wingate Formation, which to our knowledge has never produced commercially anywhere. Another large percentage of the natural gas is being produced from the Entrada Formation which has not previously produced in this part of the Uinta Basin. In all, at least nine geologic formations are contributing hydrocarbons to these wells. This survey has clearly established the fact that high-quality data can be obtained in this area, despite the known obstacles.

  4. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  5. Development of the Multi-Level Seismic Receiver (MLSR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sleefe, G.E.; Engler, B.P.; Drozda, P.M.; Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.

    1995-02-01

    The Advanced Geophysical Technology Department (6114) and the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in conjunction with the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a Multi-Level Seismic Receiver (MLSR) for use in crosswell seismic surveys. The MLSR was designed and evaluated with the significant support of many industry partners in the oil exploration industry. The unit was designed to record and process superior quality seismic data operating in severe borehole environments, including high temperature (up to 200{degrees}C) and static pressure (10,000 psi). This development has utilized state-of-the-art technology in transducers, data acquisition, and real-time data communication and data processing. The mechanical design of the receiver has been carefully modeled and evaluated to insure excellent signal coupling into the receiver.

  6. Induced Seismicity Impact | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismicity Impact Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleInducedSeismicityImpact&oldid612409" Feedback Contact needs updating...

  7. Seismic & Natural Phenomena Hazards | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    designed to withstand the hazards. CNS maintains a panel of experts known as the Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel, which meets periodically to discuss seismic issues impacting DOE...

  8. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B - PPRP Closure Letter Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis 2014 B.1 Appendix B PPRP Closure Letter 2014 Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis...

  9. Single-valley quantum Hall ferromagnet in a dilute MgxZn1-xO/ZnO strongly correlated two-dimensional electron system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Maryenko, D.; Falson, J.; Bell, C.; Kim, M.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H. Y.; Kawasaki, M.

    2012-02-03

    We investigate the spin susceptibility (g*m*) of dilute two-dimensional (2D) electrons confined at the MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterointerface. Magnetotransport measurements show a four-fold enhancement of g*m*, dominated by the increase in the Land g-factor. The g-factor enhancement leads to a ferromagnetic instability of the electron gas as evidenced by sharp resistance spikes. At high magnetic field, the large g*m* leads to full spin polarization, where we found sudden increase in resistance around the filling factors of half-integer, accompanied by complete disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (QH) states. Along with its large effective mass and the high electron mobility, our result indicates thatmorethe ZnO 2D system is ideal for investigating the effect of electron correlations in the QH regime.less

  10. Numerical modeling of the groundwater contaminant transport for the Lake Karachai Area: The methodological approach and the basic two- dimensional regional model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, A.V.; Samsonova, L.M.; Vasil`kova, N.A.; Zinin, A.I.; Zinina, G.A. |

    1994-06-01

    Methodological aspects of the numerical modeling of the groundwater contaminant transport for the Lake Karachay area are discussed. Main features of conditions of the task are the high grade of non-uniformity of the aquifer in the fractured rock massif and the high density of the waste solutions, and also the high volume of the input data: both on the part of parameters of the aquifer (number of pump tests) and on the part of observations of functions of processes (long-time observations by the monitoring well grid). The modeling process for constructing the two dimensional regional model is described, and this model is presented as the basic model for subsequent full three-dimensional modeling in sub-areas of interest. Original powerful mathematical apparatus and computer codes for finite-difference numerical modeling are used.

  11. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-01-28

    The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water.

  12. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSCs should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRAs will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  13. Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Three-Dimensional Seismic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Surveying (Number of Elements) Three-Dimensional Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Three-Dimensional Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2000 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 2001 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2002 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 2003 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1

  14. Alaska Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Three-Dimensional Seismic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Surveying (Number of Elements) Three-Dimensional Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 9 2 11 6

  15. Development of Seismic Isolation Systems Using Periodic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yiqun; Mo, Yi-Lung; Menq, Farn-Yuh; Stokoe, II, Kenneth H.; Perkins, Judy; Tang, Yu

    2014-12-10

    Advanced fast nuclear power plants and small modular fast reactors are composed of thin-walled structures such as pipes; as a result, they do not have sufficient inherent strength to resist seismic loads. Seismic isolation, therefore, is an effective solution for mitigating earthquake hazards for these types of structures. Base isolation, on which numerous studies have been conducted, is a well-defined structure protection system against earthquakes. In conventional isolators, such as high-damping rubber bearings, lead-rubber bearings, and friction pendulum bearings, large relative displacements occur between upper structures and foundations. Only isolation in a horizontal direction is provided; these features are not desirable for the piping systems. The concept of periodic materials, based on the theory of solid-state physics, can be applied to earthquake engineering. The periodic material is a material that possesses distinct characteristics that prevent waves with certain frequencies from being transmitted through it; therefore, this material can be used in structural foundations to block unwanted seismic waves with certain frequencies. The frequency band of periodic material that can filter out waves is called the band gap, and the structural foundation made of periodic material is referred to as the periodic foundation. The design of a nuclear power plant, therefore, can be unified around the desirable feature of a periodic foundation, while the continuous maintenance of the structure is not needed. In this research project, three different types of periodic foundations were studied: one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional. The basic theories of periodic foundations are introduced first to find the band gaps; then the finite element methods are used, to perform parametric analysis, and obtain attenuation zones; finally, experimental programs are conducted, and the test data are analyzed to verify the theory. This procedure shows that the periodic foundation is a promising and effective way to mitigate structural damage caused by earthquake excitation.

  16. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DC Hartshorn; SP Reidel; AC Rohay

    1998-12-22

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with theJ.J.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975, the University of Washington (UW) assumed responsibility for the network and subsequently expanded it. In 1979, the Basalt Waste o Isolation Program (13WIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the Hdord Site as part of site " characterization activities. Rockwell Htiord Operations, followed by Westinghouse Ha&ord Company . (WHC), operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network @wRN) operated and maintained by the UW. Funding for BWIP ended in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and responsibility for the University of Washington contract were then trans- ferred to WHC'S Environmental Division. Maintenance responsibilities for the EWRN were also Assigned to WHC, who made major upgrades to EWRN sites. Effective October 1,1996, Seismic Monitoring was transfemed to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PI@lL*). Seismic Monitoring is part of PNNL's Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group, Energy Technology Division. The Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometer network was constructed during 1997 and came online in May 1997. It operated continuously until September 30, 1997, when it was mothballed due to can- . cellation of fimding. Funding was restored on October 1, 1998, by joint agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and PNNL. Operation of the free-field sites resumed on November 20, 1998.

  17. Post-processing of seismic parameter data based on valid seismic event determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEvilly, Thomas V.

    1985-01-01

    An automated seismic processing system and method are disclosed, including an array of CMOS microprocessors for unattended battery-powered processing of a multi-station network. According to a characterizing feature of the invention, each channel of the network is independently operable to automatically detect, measure times and amplitudes, and compute and fit Fast Fourier transforms (FFT's) for both P- and S- waves on analog seismic data after it has been sampled at a given rate. The measured parameter data from each channel are then reviewed for event validity by a central controlling microprocessor and if determined by preset criteria to constitute a valid event, the parameter data are passed to an analysis computer for calculation of hypocenter location, running b-values, source parameters, event count, P- wave polarities, moment-tensor inversion, and Vp/Vs ratios. The in-field real-time analysis of data maximizes the efficiency of microearthquake surveys allowing flexibility in experimental procedures, with a minimum of traditional labor-intensive postprocessing. A unique consequence of the system is that none of the original data (i.e., the sensor analog output signals) are necessarily saved after computation, but rather, the numerical parameters generated by the automatic analysis are the sole output of the automated seismic processor.

  18. Seismic Readings from the Deepest Borehole in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolery, Edward W; Wang, Zhenming; Sturchio, Neil C

    2006-03-01

    Since the 1980s, the research associated with the UK network has been primarily strong-motion seismology of engineering interest. Currently the University of Kentucky operates a strong-motion network of nine stations in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. A unique feature of the network is the inclusions of vertical strong-motion arrays, each with one or two downhole accelerometers. The deepest borehole array is 260 m below the surfaces at station VASA in Fulton County, Kentucky. A preliminary surface seismic refraction survey was conducted at the site before drilling the hole at VSAS (Woolery and Wang, 2002). The depth to the Paleozoic bedrock at the site was estimated to be approximately 595 m, and the depth to the first very stiff layer (i.e. Porters Creek Clay) was found to be about 260 m. These depths and stratigraphic interpretation correlated well with a proprietary seismic reflection line and the Ken-Ten Oil Exploration No. 1 Sanger hole (Schwalb, 1969), as well as our experience in the area (Street et al., 1995; Woolery et al., 1999).

  19. Exploration 3-D Seismic Field Test/Native Tribes Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Chen, K.C.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.I.; Reeves,T.K.; Sharma,Bijon

    1999-04-27

    To determine current acquisition procedures and costs and to further the goals of the President's Initiative for Native Tribes, a seismic-survey project is to be conducted on Osage tribal lands. The goals of the program are to demonstrate the capabilities, costs, and effectiveness of 3-D seismic work in a small-operator setting and to determine the economics of such a survey. For these purposes, typical small-scale independent-operator practices are being followed and a shallow target chose in an area with a high concentration of independent operators. The results will be analyzed in detail to determine if there are improvements and/or innovations which can be easily introduced in field-acquisition procedures, in processing, or in data manipulation and interpretation to further reduce operating costs and to make the system still more active to the small-scale operator.

  20. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  1. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly evaluated and identified. This document supersedes the seismic classifications, assignments, and computations in ''Seismic Analysis for Preclosure Safety'' (BSC 2004a).

  2. Seismicity and seismic stress in the Coso Range, Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and seismic stress in the Coso Range, Coso geothermal field, and Indian Wells Valley region, Southeast-Central California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  3. Seismic Design Expectations Report | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Seismic Design Expectations Report Seismic Design Expectations Report The Seismic Design Expectations Report (SDER) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the technical sufficiency of the project seismic design activities prior to Critical Decision (CD) approvals at CD-0, CD-1, CD-2, CD-3 and CD-4. PDF icon Seismic Design Expectations Report More Documents & Publications Natural Phenomena Hazards DOE-STD 1020-2012 & DOE Handbook DOE-STD-1020-2012 DOE

  4. Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    impedance boundary7 References (Majer, n.d.) "3-D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment- Summary" 2.0 2.1 2.2 (Dobrin and Savit, 1988)...

  5. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Roger N. (New York, NY); Boulanger, Albert (New York, NY); Bagdonas, Edward P. (Brookline, MA); Xu, Liqing (New Milford, NJ); He, Wei (New Milford, NJ)

    1996-01-01

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells.

  6. Method for identifying subsurface fluid migration and drainage pathways in and among oil and gas reservoirs using 3-D and 4-D seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R.N.; Boulanger, A.; Bagdonas, E.P.; Xu, L.; He, W.

    1996-12-17

    The invention utilizes 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys as a means of deriving information useful in petroleum exploration and reservoir management. The methods use both single seismic surveys (3-D) and multiple seismic surveys separated in time (4-D) of a region of interest to determine large scale migration pathways within sedimentary basins, and fine scale drainage structure and oil-water-gas regions within individual petroleum producing reservoirs. Such structure is identified using pattern recognition tools which define the regions of interest. The 4-D seismic data sets may be used for data completion for large scale structure where time intervals between surveys do not allow for dynamic evolution. The 4-D seismic data sets also may be used to find variations over time of small scale structure within individual reservoirs which may be used to identify petroleum drainage pathways, oil-water-gas regions and, hence, attractive drilling targets. After spatial orientation, and amplitude and frequency matching of the multiple seismic data sets, High Amplitude Event (HAE) regions consistent with the presence of petroleum are identified using seismic attribute analysis. High Amplitude Regions are grown and interconnected to establish plumbing networks on the large scale and reservoir structure on the small scale. Small scale variations over time between seismic surveys within individual reservoirs are identified and used to identify drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum to be recovered. The location of such drainage patterns and bypassed petroleum may be used to site wells. 22 figs.

  7. Study of the effects of a transverse magnetic field on radio frequency argon discharges by two-dimensional particle-in-cell-Monte-Carlo collision simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Stirner, Thomas [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Applied Sciences Deggendorf, Edlmairstr. 6-8, D-94469 Deggendorf (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The influence of an applied magnetic field on plasma-related devices has a wide range of applications. Its effects on a plasma have been studied for years; however, there are still many issues that are not understood well. This paper reports a detailed kinetic study with the two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collision method on the role of EB drift in a capacitive argon discharge, similar to the experiment of You et al.[Thin Solid Films 519, 6981 (2011)]. The parameters chosen in the present study for the external magnetic field are in a range common to many applications. Two basic configurations of the magnetic field are analyzed in detail: the magnetic field direction parallel to the electrode with or without a gradient. With an extensive parametric study, we give detailed influences of the drift on the collective behaviors of the plasma along a two-dimensional domain, which cannot be represented by a 1 spatial and 3 velocity dimensions model. By analyzing the results of the simulations, the occurring collisionless heating mechanism is explained well.

  8. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Characterization of heavy masses of two-dimensional conduction subband in InGaAs/InAlAs MQW structures by pulsed cyclotron resonance technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotera, N.; Tanaka, K. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan); Arimoto, H.; Miura, N. [Univ. of Tokyo, Roppongi, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Solid State Physics; Jones, E.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mishima, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Kokubunji, Tokyo (Japan). Central Research Lab.; Washima, M. [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Research Center

    1998-05-01

    Conduction-band effective masses in a direction parallel to the quantum well plane were investigated in n-type-modulation-doped InGaAs/InAlAs multiquantum well system. Thicknesses of well and barrier were 5 and 10 nm. Three highly-doped specimens having about 1 {times} 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}2} per one quantum well were prepared by MBE. Double-crystal X-ray diffraction was used to check the crystal quality. Heavy electron effective masses, almost 50% bigger than the band edge mass of 0.041m{sub 0}, were measured by far-infrared and infrared cyclotron resonances under pulse high magnetic fields up to 100 T. Nonparabolicity of this subband was less than 12% by comparing the two cyclotron resonances. Observed two-dimensional subband structure was quite different from conduction-band effective mass in a direction perpendicular to the same quantum well and from GaAs/GaAlAs quantum well system.

  10. Quasi-optical theory of relativistic surface-wave oscillators with one-dimensional and two-dimensional periodic planar structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 ; Malkin, A. M.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2013-11-15

    Within the framework of a quasi-optical approach, we develop 2D and 3D self-consistent theory of relativistic surface-wave oscillators. Presenting the radiation field as a sum of two counter-propagating wavebeams coupled on a shallow corrugated surface, we describe formation of an evanescent slow wave. Dispersion characteristics of the evanescent wave following from this method are in good compliance with those found from the direct cst simulations. Considering excitation of the slow wave by a sheet electron beam, we simulate linear and nonlinear stages of interaction, which allows us to determine oscillation threshold conditions, electron efficiency, and output coupling. The transition from the model of surface-wave oscillator operating in the ?-mode regime to the canonical model of relativistic backward wave oscillator is considered. We also described a modified scheme of planar relativistic surface-wave oscillators exploiting two-dimensional periodic gratings. Additional transverse propagating waves emerging on these gratings synchronize the emission from a wide sheet rectilinear electron beam allowing realization of a Cherenkov millimeter-wave oscillators with subgigawatt output power level.

  11. Quasi-two dimensional spin and phonon excitations in La1.965Ba0.035CuO4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagman, J.; Parshall, D.; Stone, Matthew B; Savici, Andrei T; Zhao, Yang; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    We present time-of-fight inelastic neutron scattering measurements of La1:965Ba0:035CuO4 (LBCO), a lightly doped member of the high temperature superconducting La-based cuprate family. By using time-of-flight neutron instrumentation coupled with single crystal sample rotation we obtain a four-dimensional data set (three Q and one energy) that is both comprehensive and spans a large region of reciprocal space. Our measurements identify rich structure in the energy dependence of the highly dispersive spin excitations, which are centered at equivalent ( 1/2 ; 1/2 ;L) wave-vectors. These structures correlate strongly with several crossings of the spin excitations with the lightly dispersive phonons found in this system. These eects are signicant and account for on the order of 25% of the total inelastic scattering for energies between 5 and 40meV at low jQj. Interestingly, this scattering also presents little or no L-dependence. As the phonons and dispersive spin excitations centred at equivalent ( 1/2 ; 1/2 ;L) wave-vectors are common to all members of La-based 214 copper oxides, we conclude such strong quasi-two dimensional scattering enhancements are likely to occur in all such 214 families of materials, including those concentrations corresponding to superconducting ground states. Such a phenomenon appears to be a fundamental characteristic of these materials and is potentially related to superconducting pairing.

  12. Couplings between hierarchical conformational dynamics from multi-time correlation functions and two-dimensional lifetime spectra: Application to adenylate kinase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Junichi; Takada, Shoji; Saito, Shinji

    2015-06-07

    An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Frster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.

  13. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Richard G. (Las Cruces, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  14. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Richard G. (Las Cruces, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  15. Frequent-Interval Seismic CPTu

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Frequent-Interval Seismic CPTu D. Bruce Nothdurft, MSCE, PE, PG SRS Geotechnical Engineering Department Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Alec V. McGillivray, PhD, PE Geotechnical Consultant Brent J. Gutierrez, PhD, PE NPH Engineering Manager, DOE-SR Motivation  The seismic piezocone penetration test (SCPTu) utilized at SRS because it provides rapid and thorough site characterization.  Evaluation of non-linear soil behavior...  detailed stratigraphy  small-strain velocity measurements

  16. Analysis Procedures to Estimate Seismic Demands of Structures...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Estimate Seismic Demands of Structures Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. PDF icon Analysis Procedures to Estimate Seismic Demands of...

  17. Category:Borehole Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    out of 2 total. S Single-Well And Cross-Well Seismic Imaging 1 pages V Vertical Seismic Profiling 1 pages Pages in category "Borehole Seismic...

  18. Seismic Analysis of Facilities and Evaluation of Risk | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seismic Analysis of Facilities and Evaluation of Risk Seismic Analysis of Facilities and Evaluation of Risk Seismic Analysis of Facilities and Evaluation of Risk Michael Salmon,...

  19. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region (Redirected from Central Nevada Seismic Zone) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

  20. MEASUREMENT OF COMPRESSIONAL-WAVE SEISMIC VELOCITIES IN 29 WELLS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PETERSON SW

    2010-10-08

    Check shot seismic velocity surveys were collected in 100 B/C, 200 East, 200-PO-1 Operational Unit (OU), and the Gable Gap areas in order to provide time-depth correlation information to aid the interpretation of existing seismic reflection data acquired at the Hanford Site (Figure 1). This report details results from 5 wells surveyed in fiscal year (FY) 2008, 7 wells in FY 2009, and 17 wells in FY 2010 and provides summary compressional-wave seismic velocity information to help guide future seismic survey design as well as improve current interpretations of the seismic data (SSC 1979/1980; SGW-39675; SGW-43746). Augmenting the check shot database are four surveys acquired in 2007 in support of the Bechtel National, Inc. Waste Treatment Plant construction design (PNNL-16559, PNNL-16652), and check shot surveys in three wells to support seismic testing in the 200 West Area (Waddell et al., 1999). Additional sonic logging was conducted during the late 1970s and early 1980s as part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) (SSC 1979/1980) and check shot/sonic surveys as part of the safety report for the Skagit/Hanford Nuclear project (RDH/10-AMCP-0164). Check shot surveys are used to obtain an in situ measure of compressional-wave seismic velocity for sediment and rock in the vicinity of the well point, and provide the seismic-wave travel time to geologic horizons of interest. The check shot method deploys a downhole seismic receiver (geophone) to record the arrival of seismic waves generated by a source at the ground surface. The travel time of the first arriving seismic-wave is determined and used to create a time-depth function to correlate encountered geologic intervals with the seismic data. This critical tie with the underlying geology improves the interpretation of seismic reflection profile information. Fieldwork for this investigation was conducted by in house staff during the weeks of September 22, 2008 for 5 wells in the 200 East Area (Figure 2); June 1, 2009 for 7 wells in the 200-PO-1 OU and Gable Gap regions (see Figure 3 and Figure 4); and March 22, 2010 and April 19, 2010 for 17 wells in the 200 East, The initial scope of survey work was planned for Wells 299-EI8-1, 699-2-E14, 699-12-18, 699-16-51, 699-42-30, 699-53-55B, 699-54-18D, and 699-84-34B. Well 299-E18-1 could not be entered due to bent casing (prevented removal of the pump), wells 699-12-18 and 699-42-30 could not be safely reached by the logging truck, Well 699-16-51 was decommissioned prior to survey start, Well 699-53-55B did not have its pump pulled, and Wells 699-2-EI4, 699-54-18D, and 699-84-34B are artesian and capped with an igloo structure. Table 1 provides a list of wells that were surveyed and Figure 1 through Figure 5 show the well locations relative to the Hanford Site.

  1. {sup 207}Pb-{sup 1}H two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy: A useful new tool for probing lead(II) coordination chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio, E.S.; Horst, M.A. ter; Forde, C.E.; Stern, C.L.; Zart, M.K.; Godwin, H.A.

    2000-04-03

    Despite the fact that lead poisoning is the most common disease of environmental origin in the US, the spectroscopic properties of aqueous Pb(II) coordination compounds have not been extensively investigated. Spectroscopic techniques that can be used to probe the fundamental coordination chemistry of Pb(II) will aid in both the development of water-soluble ligands that bind lead both tightly and selectively and the characterization of potential biological targets. Here, the authors report the preparation and characterization of a series of Pb(II) complexes of amido derivatives of EDTA. The {sup 207}Pb chemical shift observed in these complexes (2441, 2189, and 1764 ppm for [Pb(EDTA)]{sup 2{minus}}, Pb(EDTA-N{sub 2}), and [Pb(EDTA-N{sub 4})]{sup 2+}, respectively) provides an extremely sensitive measure of the local environment and the charge on each complex. These shifts help to map out the lead chemical shift range that can be expected for biologically relevant sites. In addition, the authors report the first two-dimensional {sup 207}Pb-{sup 1}H heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and demonstrate that this experiment can provide useful information about the lead coordination environment in aqueous Pb(II) complexes. Because this technique allows {sup 207}Pb-{sup 1}H couplings through three bonds to be identified readily, {sup 207}Pb-{sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy should prove useful for the investigation of Pb(II) in more complex systems (e.g., biological and environmental samples).

  2. Impurity Profiling of a Chemical Weapon Precursor for Possible Forensic Signatures by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoggard, Jamin C.; Wahl, Jon H.; Synovec, Robert E.; Mong, Gary M.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2010-01-15

    In this work we present the feasibility of using analytical chemical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the organic impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound for a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometric detection (GC GC-TOFMS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC-TOFMS data were analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlap GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization proved that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into 5 distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported that the other five DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. In addition, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were found in some of the DMMP samples.

  3. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

    1995-12-31

    A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

  4. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Committee (SSHAC) Level 1 Seismic Hazard Analysis | Department of Energy The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 1 Seismic Hazard Analysis The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 1 Seismic Hazard Analysis Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. PDF icon Seismic Hazard Definition: SSHAC Level 1 PSHA at MFC More Documents & Publications The INL Seismic Risk

  5. Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meetings | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lessons-Learned Panel Meetings Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meetings The Chief of Nuclear Security (CNS) maintains a panel of experts known as the Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel, which meets periodically to discuss seismic issues impacting DOE facilities. September 2008 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel Meeting March 2009 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel Meeting October 2009 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel Meeting May 2010 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel Meeting November 2012 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel

  6. Characterization of a two-dimensional liquid-filled ion chamber detector array used for verification of the treatments in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markovic, Miljenko Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Jurkovic, Ines-Ana; Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) liquid-filled ion chamber detector array, which is used for the verification of radiotherapy treatment plans that use small field sizes of up to 10 10 cm. Methods: The device used in this study was Octavius 1000 SRS model (PTW, Freiburg, Germany). Its 2D array of detectors consists of 977 liquid-filled ion chambers arranged over an area of 11 11 cm. The size of the detectors is 2.3 2.3 0.5 mm (volume of 0.003 cm{sup 3}) and their spacing in the inner area of 5.5 5.5 cm is 2.5 mm center-to-center, whereas in the outer area it is 5 mm center-to-center. The detector reproducibility, dose linearity, and sensitivity to positional changes of the collimator were tested. Also, the output factors of field sizes ranging from 0.5 0.5 to 10 10 cm{sup 2} both for open and wedged fields have been measured and compared against those measured by a pin-point ionization chamber, liquid filled microchamber, SRS diode, and EDR2 film. Results: Its short-term reproducibility was within 0.2% and its medium and long-term reproducibility was within 0.5% (verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements), which is an excellent result taking into account the daily fluctuation of the linear accelerator and the errors in the device setup reproducibility. The dose linearity and dose rate dependence were measured in the range of 0.585 Gy and 0.510 Gy?min{sup ?1}, respectively, and were verified with air ionization chamber absolute dose measurements was within 3%. The measurements of the sensitivity showed that the 2D Array could detect millimetric collimator positional changes. The measured output factors showed an agreement of better than 0.3% with the pinpoint chamber and microliquid filled chamber for the field sizes between 3 3 and 10 10 cm{sup 2}. For field sizes down to 1 1 cm{sup 2}, the agreement with SRS diode and microliquid filled chamber is better than 2%. The measurements of open and wedge-modulated field profiles were compared to the film and ionization chamber in water measurements. Conclusions: The Octavius Detector 1000 SRS is an accurate, precise, and reliable detector, very useful for the daily performance of the patient specific quality assurance of radiotherapy treatment plans.

  7. Development of a HT Seismic Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The program objective is to design; fabricate and field test two high temperature (HT) seismic tools in an EGS application.

  8. Vertical Seismic Profiling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Borehole Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  9. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Map geothermal...

  10. Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  11. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... http:www.opentopography.org) - Yakima Ridge, ... Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis ... Rev. 0, Bechtel Hanford, Richland, Washington. ...

  12. Seismic Imaging Processing and Migration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-26

    Salvo is a 3D, finite difference, prestack, depth migration code for parallel computers. It is also capable of processing 2D and poststack data. The code requires as input a seismic dataset, a velocity model and a file of parameters that allows the user to select various options. The code uses this information to produce a seismic image. Some of the options available to the user include the application of various filters and imaging conditions. Themore » code also incorporates phase encoding (patent applied for) to process multiple shots simultaneously.« less

  13. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H. ); Mostaghel, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  14. Non-linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction Method for Developing Nonlinear Seismic SSI

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Justin Coleman, P.E. October 25th, 2011 E102003020BDS Presentation Outline  Purpose of Presentation  Linear versus Non-Linear Seismic SSI  Non-Linear seismic Soil Structure Interaction (NLSSI) Studies  The NLSSI Introduction  Non-Linearity in Seismic SSI Analysis  Commercial Software Elements  Commercial Software Non-Linear Constitutive Models  Non-Linear

  15. Seismic and magneto-telluric imaging for geothermal exploration at Jemez pueblo in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie; Albrecht, Michael

    2011-01-25

    A shallow geothermal reservoir in the Pueblo of Jemez in New Mexico may indicate a commercial-scale geothermal energy potential in the area. To explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, seismic surveys are conducted along three lines for the purpose of imaging complex subsurface structures near the Indian Springs fault zone. A 3-D magneto-telluric (MT) survey is also carried out in the same area. Seismic and MT imaging can provide complementary information to reveal detailed geologic formation properties around the fault zones. The high-resolution seismic images will be used together with MT images, geologic mapping, and hydrogeochemistry, to explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, and to determine whether a conunercial-scale geothermal resource exists for power generation or direct use applications after drilling and well testing.

  16. Identifying High Potential Well Targets with 3D Seismic and Mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellors, R. J.

    2015-10-30

    Seismic reflection the primary tool used in petroleum exploration and production, but use in geothermal exploration is less standard, in part due to cost but also due to the challenges in identifying the highly-permeable zones essential for economic hydrothermal systems [e.g. Louie et al., 2011; Majer, 2003]. Newer technology, such as wireless sensors and low-cost high performance computing, has helped reduce the cost and effort needed to conduct 3D surveys. The second difficulty, identifying permeable zones, has been less tractable so far. Here we report on the use of seismic attributes from a 3D seismic survey to identify and map permeable zones in a hydrothermal area.

  17. Frequent-Interval Seismic CPTu

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Frequent-Interval Seismic CPTu D. Bruce Nothdurft, MSCE, PE, PG SRS Geotechnical Engineering Department Savannah River Nuclear Solutions Alec V. McGillivray, PhD, PE Geotechnical Consultant Brent J. Gutierrez, PhD, PE NPH Engineering Manager, DOE-SR

  18. An active seismic reconnaissance survey of the Mount Princeton...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area, Chaffee County, ColoradoThesisDissertation Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author J.S. Crompton Organization Colorado School of Mines Published Publisher Not Provided, 1976...

  19. 2D Seismic Reflection Survey Crump Geyser Geothermal Prospect...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Additional Info Field Value Author Nevada Geothermal Power Company Maintainer Nicole Smith bureaucode 019:20 Catalog DOE harvestobjectid 80f3a9f1-e224-4a02-951b-229cd8e273fd...

  20. Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown References Geoffrey Blewittl, Mark F. Coolbaugh, Don Sawatzky, William Holt, James Davis, Richard A. Bennett (2003) Targeting Of Potential Geothermal Resources In The...

  1. Refraction Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown References Michelle Heimgartner, James B. Scott, Weston Thelen, Christopher R. Lopez, John N. Louie (2005) Variable Crustal...

  2. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoreticalcomputer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range...

  3. Seismic Velocity Measurements at Expanded Seismic Network Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolery, Edward W; Wang, Zhenming

    2005-01-01

    Structures at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), as well as at other locations in the northern Jackson Purchase of western Kentucky may be subjected to large far-field earthquake ground motions from the New Madrid seismic zone, as well as those from small and moderate-sized local events. The resultant ground motion a particular structure is exposed from such event will be a consequence of the earthquake magnitude, the structures' proximity to the event, and the dynamic and geometrical characteristics of the thick soils upon which they are, of necessity, constructed. This investigation evaluated the latter. Downhole and surface (i.e., refraction and reflection) seismic velocity data were collected at the Kentucky Seismic and Strong-Motion Network expansion sites in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to define the dynamic properties of the deep sediment overburden that can produce modifying effects on earthquake waves. These effects are manifested as modifications of the earthquake waves' amplitude, frequency, and duration. Each of these three ground motion manifestations is also fundamental to the assessment of secondary earthquake engineering hazards such as liquefaction.

  4. Two-dimensional weak anti-localization in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film grown on Si(111)-(7 Multiplication-Sign 7) surface by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Anupam; Guchhait, Samaresh; Sonde, Sushant; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Rai, Amritesh; Movva, Hema C. P.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Colombo, Luigi [Texas Instruments, 12500 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75266 (United States)] [Texas Instruments, 12500 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75266 (United States)

    2013-04-22

    We report on low temperature transport studies of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films grown on Si(111)-(7 Multiplication-Sign 7) surface by molecular beam epitaxy. A sharp increase in the magnetoresistance with magnetic field at low temperature indicates the existence of weak anti-localization. The measured weak anti-localization effect agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model, and the extracted phase coherence length shows a power-law dependence with temperature indicating the existence of a two-dimensional system. An insulating ground state has also been observed at low temperature showing a logarithmic divergence of the resistance that appears to be the influence of electron-electron interaction in a two-dimensional system.

  5. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  6. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Glenn J. (Lynchburg, VA)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  7. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Bakulin, Andrey

    2009-10-13

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  8. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  9. Reflection Survey At Oceanic-Marine Systems (Singh, Et Al., 1999...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References S. C. Singh, J. S. Collier, A. J. Harding, G. M. Kent, J. A. Orcutt (1999) Seismic Evidence For A...

  10. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Seismic Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Initiative Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Seismic Initiative Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. PDF icon INL Seismic Initiative More Documents & Publications Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Workshop

  11. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, %22weight-drop%22 source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  12. TGLO - Seismic Permitting webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: TGLO - Seismic Permitting webpage Abstract This is the Texas General Land...

  13. Active Seismic Methods | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methods Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Active Seismic Methods Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration...

  14. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the uniform moment magnitude catalogs of crustal and subduction earthquakes, and the databases of earthquakes that were assembled as part of the Hanford Probabilistic Seismic...

  15. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations and Quality Assurance of Hazard Calculations ... 10.5 10.2 Seismic Hazard Results and Sensitivity at Priority Sites ......

  16. Opportunities for improving regulations governing the seismic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Support DOE NPH Design AN APPLICATION OF THE SSHAC LEVEL 3 PROCESS TO THE PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES AT THE HANFORD SITE, EASTERN WASHINGTON, USA...

  17. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D - Final Hazard Input Documents Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis 2014 D.1 Appendix D Final Hazard Input Documents Appendixes D.1 and D.2, respectively,...

  18. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis - Hanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Documents Documents Hanford Site Cleanup Completion Framework Tri-Party Agreement Freedom of Information and Privacy Act Hanford Site...

  19. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G - SSC Data Summary Tables Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis 2014 G.1 Appendix G SSC Data Summary Tables This appendix presents the data summary tables that...

  20. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... with a thesis that applied linear system theory to the estimation of seismic site ... loss studies, and securitization risk analyses for the insurance and financial industries. ...

  1. Monument Survey

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photographs from the WIPP Permanent Marker Monument Survey [John Hart & Associates, 2000] Photograph of the Gnome Marker located about 10 miles SW of the WIPP site For more photographs and information about the survey, read the report

  2. 3-D Seismic Exploration Project, Ute Indian Tribe, Uintah and Ouray Reservation, Uintah County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, Marc T.

    2002-09-09

    The objectives of this North Hill Creek 3-D seismic survey were to: (1) cover as large an area as possible with available budget; (2) obtain high quality data throughout the depth range of the prospective geologic formations of 2,000' to 12,000' to image both gross structures and more subtle structural and stratigraphic elements; (3) overcome the challenges posed by a hard, reflective sandstone that cropped out or was buried just a few feet below the surface under most of the survey area; and (4) run a safe survey.

  3. Comparison of lower-frequency (<1000 Hz) downhole seismic sources for use at environmental sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbring, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    In conjunction with crosswell seismic surveying being done at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, four different downhole seismic sources have been tested between the same set of boreholes. The four sources evaluated were the Bolt airgun, the OYO-Conoco orbital vibrator, and two Sandia-developed vertical vibrators, one pneumatically-driven, and the other based on a magnetostrictive actuator. The sources generate seismic energy in the lower frequency range of less than 1000 Hz and have different frequency characteristics, radiation patterns, energy levels, and operational considerations. Collection of identical data sets with all four sources allows the direct comparison of these characteristics and an evaluation of the suitability of each source for a given site and target.

  4. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  5. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems This...

  6. Hostile wells: the borehole seismic challenge | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Web Site: Hostile wells: the borehole seismic challenge Author William Wills Published Oil and Gas Engineer - Subsea & Seismic, 2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability:...

  7. On the validation of seismic imaging methods: Finite frequency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the validation of seismic imaging methods: Finite frequency or ray theory? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the validation of seismic imaging methods: Finite ...

  8. DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 DOE New Madrid Seismic Zone Electric Utility Workshop Summary Report - August 2010 The DOE New Madrid...

  9. Joint inversion of electrical and seismic data for Fracture char...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joint inversion of electrical and seismic data for Fracture char. and Imaging of Fluid Flow in Geothermal Systems Joint inversion of electrical and seismic data for Fracture char. ...

  10. Category:Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Active Seismic Techniques page? For detailed information...

  11. Category:Passive Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Passive Seismic Techniques page? For detailed...

  12. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear...

  13. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characteristics of seismic waves from...

  14. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems...

  15. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At New River Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At New...

  16. Seismic Monitoring a Critical Step in EGS Development | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismic Monitoring a Critical Step in EGS Development Seismic Monitoring a Critical Step in EGS Development December 3, 2013 - 1:33pm Addthis The Energy Department's Sandia ...

  17. Application of Random Vibration Theory Methodology for Seismic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Application of Random Vibration Theory Methodology for Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis Application of Random Vibration Theory Methodology for Seismic Soil-Structure...

  18. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS FOR NUCLEAR FACILITIES AT THE HANFORD SITE, EASTERN WASHINGTON, USA A Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Update Review for Two DOE Sites and NGA-East...

  19. Application of the Computer Program SASSI for Seismic SSI Analysis...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Computer Program SASSI for Seismic SSI Analysis of WTP Facilities Application of the Computer Program SASSI for Seismic SSI Analysis of WTP Facilities Application of the...

  20. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Kilauea Summit Area (Chouet...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Kilauea Summit Area (Chouet & Aki, 1981) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic...

  1. Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Details Areas (3) Power...

  2. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye Patch Area (DOE GTP, 2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Vertical Seismic Profiling At Rye...

  3. Vertical Seismic Profiling At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vertical Seismic Profiling At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Vertical Seismic Profiling At...

  4. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2011...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date 2011 - 2012 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Map hydraulic structure within the field from seismic data Notes 2011: 16 years of seismicity were...

  5. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  6. Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surveying Specialists Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Digital Surveying Directional Surveying Specialists Author Directional Surveying...

  7. Hanford Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 Seismic Source Characterization .................................................................................................. 8.1 8.1 Building the SSC Model: Overview and Approach ............................................................ 8.1 8.1.1 Criteria for Defining Seismic Sources ....................................................................... 8.1 8.1.2 Data Evaluation Process ............................................................................................ 8.3

  8. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  9. Seismic hazard analysis at Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, R.K.

    1993-10-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is being conducted for the DOE Rocky Flats Plant, Jefferson County, Colorado. This is part of the overall review of the seismic exposure to facilities being conducted by DOE. The study has four major elements. (1) The historical seismicity in Colorado is being reviewed and synthesized to estimate historical rates of earthquake activity in the region of the site. (2) The geologic and tectonic evidence in Colorado and along the Front Range is being reviewed to determine appropriate seismic zones, potentially active faults, and constraints on fault slip rates. (3) Earthquake ground motion equations are being derived based on seismological knowledge of the earth`s crust. Site specific soil amplification factors are also being developed using on-site shear wave velocity measurements. (4) The probability of exceedence of various seismic ground motion levels is being calculated based on the inputs developed on tectonic sources, faults, ground motion, and soil amplification. Deterministic ground motion estimates are also being made. This study is a state-of-the-art analysis of seismic hazard. It incorporates uncertainties in the major aspects governing seismic hazard, and has a documented basis founded on solid data interpretations for the ranges of inputs used. The results will be a valid basis on which to evaluate plant structures, equipment, and components for seismic effects.

  10. Seismic Characterization of Basalt Topography at Two Candidate Sites for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Sondrup; Gail Heath; Trent Armstrong; Annette Shafer; Jesse Bennett; Clark Scott

    2011-04-01

    This report presents the seismic refraction results from the depth to bed rock surveys for two areas being considered for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH-LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The first area (Site 5) surveyed is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the second (Site 34) is located west of Lincoln Boulevard near the southwest corner of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). At Site 5, large area and smaller-scale detailed surveys were performed. At Site 34, a large area survey was performed. The purpose of the surveys was to define the topography of the interface between the surficial alluvium and underlying basalt. Seismic data were first collected and processed using seismic refraction tomographic inversion. Three-dimensional images for both sites were rendered from the data to image the depth and velocities of the subsurface layers. Based on the interpreted top of basalt data at Site 5, a more detailed survey was conducted to refine depth to basalt. This report briefly covers relevant issues in the collection, processing and inversion of the seismic refraction data and in the imaging process. Included are the parameters for inversion and result rendering and visualization such as the inclusion of physical features. Results from the processing effort presented in this report include fence diagrams of the earth model, for the large area surveys and iso-velocity surfaces and cross sections from the detailed survey.

  11. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Justin Coleman, P.E. October 25th, 2011

  12. Variable dimensionality in the uranium fluoride/2-methyl-piperazine system: Synthesis and structures of UFO-5, -6, and -7; Zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials with unprecedented topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, R.J.; Halasyamani, P.S.; Bee, J.S.; O'Hare, D.

    1999-02-24

    Recently, low temperature (T < 300 C) hydrothermal reactions of inorganic precursors in the presence of organic cations have proven highly productive for the synthesis of novel solid-state materials. Interest in these materials is driven by the astonishingly diverse range of structures produced, as well as by their many potential materials chemistry applications. This report describes the high yield, phase pure hydrothermal syntheses of three new uranium fluoride phases with unprecedented structure types. Through the systematic control of the synthesis conditions the authors have successfully controlled the architecture and dimensionality of the phase formed and selectively synthesized novel zero-, one-, and two-dimensional materials.

  13. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-07-08

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area.

  14. Elastic-Waveform Inversion with Compressive Sensing for Sparse Seismic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Youzuo; Huang, Lianjie

    2015-01-26

    Accurate velocity models of compressional- and shear-waves are essential for geothermal reservoir characterization and microseismic imaging. Elastic-waveform inversion of multi-component seismic data can provide high-resolution inversion results of subsurface geophysical properties. However, the method requires seismic data acquired using dense source and receiver arrays. In practice, seismic sources and/or geophones are often sparsely distributed on the surface and/or in a borehole, such as 3D vertical seismic profiling (VSP) surveys. We develop a novel elastic-waveform inversion method with compressive sensing for inversion of sparse seismic data. We employ an alternating-minimization algorithm to solve the optimization problem of our new waveform inversion method. We validate our new method using synthetic VSP data for a geophysical model built using geologic features found at the Raft River enhanced-geothermal-system (EGS) field. We apply our method to synthetic VSP data with a sparse source array and compare the results with those obtained with a dense source array. Our numerical results demonstrate that the velocity mode ls produced with our new method using a sparse source array are almost as accurate as those obtained using a dense source array.

  15. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400 level receiver array can be used to obtain 3D 9C data. These 9C borehole seismic data provide both compressional wave and shear wave information that can be used for quantitative prediction of rock and pore fluid types. The 400-level borehole receiver array has been deployed successfully in a number of oil and gas wells during the course of this project, and each survey has resulted in marked improvements in imaging of geologic features that are critical for oil or gas production but were previously considered to be below the limits of seismic resolution. This added level of reservoir detail has resulted in improved well placement in the oil and gas fields that have been drilled using the Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} images. In the future, the 400-level downhole seismic receiver array is expected to continue to improve reservoir characterization and drilling success in deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs.

  16. Survey Statisticians

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Survey Statisticians The U.S.Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the Survey Statistician, who measures the amounts of energy produced and consumed in the United States. Responsibilities: Survey Statisticians perform or participate in one or more of the following important

  17. Survey Consumption

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    purchase diaries from a subset of respondents composing a Household Transportation Panel and is reported separately. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Consumption and...

  18. radiological. survey

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    7%2A en NNSA to Conduct Aerial Radiological Surveys Over San Francisco, Pacifica, Berkeley, And Oakland, CA Areas http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasesamsca

  19. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  20. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  1. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forwardmore » travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.« less

  2. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection, where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.

  3. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 hasmore » been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.« less

  4. Seismic waveform viewer, processor and calculator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-02-15

    SWIFT is a computer code that is designed to do research level signal analysis on seismic waveforms, including visualization, filtering and measurement. LLNL is using this code, amplitude and global tomography efforts.

  5. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  6. MINUTES FROM SEISMIC LESSONS-LEARNED PANEL

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    MAY 11, 2010 Background The Chief of Nuclear Safety (CNS) hosted the sixth meeting of the seismic lessons- learned panel at the DOE Forrestal Building on May 11, 2010. This panel was commissioned by CNS in August 2007, and it meets approximately twice per year. These workshops are intended for experts involved in seismic hazard assessments and resulting facility designs across the DOE complex to share experience from their work. Participants John Ake, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  7. Two-dimensional position sensitive radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, John T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear reaction detectors capable of position sensitivity with submillimeter resolution in two dimensions are each provided by placing arrays of scintillation or wave length shifting optical fibers formed of a plurality of such optical fibers in a side-by-side relationship in X and Y directions with a layer of nuclear reactive material operatively associated with surface regions of the optical fiber arrays. Each nuclear reaction occurring in the layer of nuclear reactive material produces energetic particles for simultaneously providing a light pulse in a single optical fiber in the X oriented array and in a single optical fiber in the Y oriented array. These pulses of light are transmitted to a signal producing circuit for providing signals indicative of the X-Y coordinates of each nuclear event.

  8. Two-dimensional position sensitive radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1994-02-22

    Nuclear reaction detectors capable of position sensitivity with submillimeter resolution in two dimensions are each provided by placing arrays of scintillation or wavelength shifting optical fibers formed of a plurality of such optical fibers in a side-by-side relationship in X and Y directions with a layer of nuclear reactive material operatively associated with surface regions of the optical fiber arrays. Each nuclear reaction occurring in the layer of nuclear reactive material produces energetic particles for simultaneously providing a light pulse in a single optical fiber in the X oriented array and in a single optical fiber in the Y oriented array. These pulses of light are transmitted to a signal producing circuit for providing signals indicative of the X-Y coordinates of each nuclear event. 6 figures.

  9. Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

    2005-10-04

    A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

  10. A Two-Dimensional Radiation Hydrodynamics Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-03-10

    Calculation of compressible and high energetic hydrodynamic fields including photon transport and heat conduction in two—dimensional curvilinear geometry.

  11. Final Report: Seismic Hazard Assessment at the PGDP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhinmeng

    2007-06-01

    Selecting a level of seismic hazard at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant for policy considerations and engineering design is not an easy task because it not only depends on seismic hazard, but also on seismic risk and other related environmental, social, and economic issues. Seismic hazard is the main focus. There is no question that there are seismic hazards at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant because of its proximity to several known seismic zones, particularly the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The issues in estimating seismic hazard are (1) the methods being used and (2) difficulty in characterizing the uncertainties of seismic sources, earthquake occurrence frequencies, and ground-motion attenuation relationships. This report summarizes how input data were derived, which methodologies were used, and what the hazard estimates at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant are.

  12. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Location of seismic lines carried out under DOE funded project Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project).

  13. Seismic Line Location Map Hot Pot Project, Humboldt County, Nevada 2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Location of seismic lines carried out under DOE funded project Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project).

  14. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This simulation predicted that the CO{sub 2} injected into the reef would remain in the northern portion of the field. Two new wells, the State Charlton 4-30 and the Larsen 3-31, were drilled into the field in 2006 and 2008 respectively and supported this assessment. A second (or 'Monitor') 3D seismic survey was acquired during September 2007 over most of the field and duplicated the first (Base) survey, as much as possible. However, as the simulation and new well data available at that time indicated that the CO{sub 2} was concentrated in the northern portion of the field, the second seismic survey was not acquired over the extreme southern end of the area covered by the original (or Base) 3D survey. Basic processing was performed on the second 3D seismic survey and, finally, 4D processing methods were applied to both the Base and the Monitor surveys. In addition to this 3D data, a shear wave seismic data set was obtained at the same time. Interpretation of the 4D seismic data indicated that a significant amplitude change, not attributable to differences in acquisition or processing, existed at the locations within the reef predicted by the reservoir simulation. The reservoir simulation was based on the porosity distribution obtained from seismic attributes from the Base 3D survey. Using this validated reservoir simulation the location of oil within the reef at the time the Monitor survey was obtained and recommendations made for the drilling of additional EOR wells. The economic impact of this project has been estimated in terms of both enhanced oil recovery and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential. In the northern Michigan Basin alone, the Niagaran reef play is comprised of over 700 Niagaran reefs with reservoirs already depleted by primary production. Potentially there is over 1 billion bbls of oil (original oil in place minus primary recovery) remains in the reefs in Michigan, much of which could be more efficiently mobilized utilizing techniques similar to those employed in this study.

  15. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4 illustrates seismicity from January of 1969 to June of 1977 (Rapolla and Keller, 1984). During this span, most of the seismicity occurred in the region of the Geysers...

  16. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-10-24

    RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

  17. Microsoft Word - Minutes from Sept 2008 seismic LL panel 10...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    MINUTES FROM SEISMIC LESSONS-LEARNED PANEL SEPTEMBER 23-24, 2008 Background The Chief of Nuclear Safety (CNS) hosted the third meeting of the seismic lessons-learned panel at the...

  18. A Study of SSI Effects Incorporating Seismic Wave Incoherence...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A Study of SSI Effects Incorporating Seismic Wave Incoherence within the DOE Complex A Study of SSI Effects Incorporating Seismic Wave Incoherence within the DOE Complex A Study of...

  19. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beal, A Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  20. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection,more » where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.« less

  1. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  2. Method for processing seismic data to identify anomalous absorption zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taner, M. Turhan

    2006-01-03

    A method is disclosed for identifying zones anomalously absorptive of seismic energy. The method includes jointly time-frequency decomposing seismic traces, low frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine a general trend of mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces, and high frequency bandpass filtering the decomposed traces to determine local variations in the mean frequency and bandwidth of the seismic traces. Anomalous zones are determined where there is difference between the general trend and the local variations.

  3. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuum through Discontinuum Representations: Capturing Reservoir Stimulation, Evolution and Induced Seismicity Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization

  4. StatesFirst Releases Induced Seismicity Primer | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    StatesFirst Releases Induced Seismicity Primer On September 28, the StatesFirst Induced Seismicity Working Group (ISWG) released a primer entitled "Potential Injection-Induced Seismicity Associated with Oil & Gas Development: A Primer on Technical and Regulatory Considerations Informing Risk Management and Mitigation." The report provides guidance in mitigating seismic risks associated with waste water disposal wells, not hydraulic fracturing. The primer is intended to be

  5. Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Modeling-Computer Simulations At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration...

  6. Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Project objectives: To develop a combination of techniques to evaluate the relationship between EGS operations and the induced stress changes throughout the reservoir and the surrounding country rock. PDF icon seismicity_gritto_induced_seismicity.pdf More Documents & Publications Towards the Understanding of Induced Seismicity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS)

  7. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Yellowstone Region (Chatterjee...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Yellowstone Region (Chatterjee, Et Al., 1985) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (PF-4) Seismic Safety |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Laboratory Plutonium Facility (PF-4) Seismic Safety Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (PF-4) Seismic Safety Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (PF-4) Seismic Safety PDF icon Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (PF-4) Seismic Safety More Documents & Publications EIS-0236-SA-06: Draft Supplement Analysis FPD's Perspective Photos - Los Alamos National Labratory - NISA EIS-0236-SA-06: Final Supplement Analysis

  9. Minutes from the Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting November 14, 2012 Background The Chief of Nuclear Safety (CNS) hosted the seventh meeting of the Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel (SLLP) at the DOE Forrestal Building on November 14, 2012. This panel was commissioned by CNS in August 2007, and it meets as requested by CNS. These meetings are intended for experts involved in seismic hazard assessments and facility seismic design across the DOE complex to share experience from their work. DOE site office staff

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF NONLINEAR SEISMIC SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION AND APPLICABILITY TO NEW SYSTEM FRAGILITY CURVES SEISMIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, Justin

    2014-09-01

    Risk calculations should focus on providing best estimate results, and associated insights, for evaluation and decision-making. Specifically, seismic probabilistic risk assessments (SPRAs) are intended to provide best estimates of the various combinations of structural and equipment failures that can lead to a seismic induced core damage event. However, in general this approach has been conservative, and potentially masks other important events (for instance, it wasnt the seismic motions that caused the Fukushima core melt events, but the tsunami ingress into the facility).

  11. Down-hole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, H.C.; Hills, R.G.; Striker, R.P.

    1982-10-28

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system is disclosed for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  12. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  13. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engler, Bruce P. (Sandoval County, NM); Sleefe, Gerard E. (Bernalillo County, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Bernalillo County, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  14. Nonlinear Seismic Response Of Single Piles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairo, R.; Conte, E.; Dente, G.

    2008-07-08

    In this paper, a method is proposed to analyse the seismic response of single piles under nonlinear soil condition. It is based on the Winkler foundation model formulated in the time domain, which makes use of p-y curves described by the Ramberg-Osgood relationship. The analyses are performed referring to a pile embedded in two-layer soil profiles with different sharp stiffness contrast. Italian seismic records are used as input motion. The calculated bending moments in the pile are compared to those obtained using other theoretical solutions.

  15. Advanced Seismic Data Analysis Program (The Hot Pot Project), DOE Award: DE-EE0002839, Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oski Energy, LLC,

    2013-03-28

    A five-line (23 mile) reflection- seismic survey was conducted at the Hot Pot geothermal prospect area in north-central Nevada under the USDOE (United States Department of Energy) Geothermal Technologies Program. The project objective was to utilize innovative seismic data processing, integrated with existing geological, geophysical and geochemical information, to identify high-potential drilling targets and to reduce drilling risk. Data acquisition and interpretation took place between October 2010 and April 2011. The first round of data processing resulted in large areas of relatively poor data, and obvious reflectors known from existing subsurface information either did not appear on the seismic profiles or appeared at the wrong depth. To resolve these issues, the velocity model was adjusted to include geologic input, and the lines were reprocessed. The resulting products were significantly improved, and additional detail was recovered within the high-velocity and in part acoustically isotropic basement. Features visible on the improved seismic images include interpreted low angle thrust faults within the Paleozoic Valmy Formation, which potentially are reactivated in the current stress field. Intermediate-depth wells are currently targeted to test these features. The seismic images also suggest the existence of Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks which potentially may function as a near- surface reservoir, charged by deeper structures in Paleozoic rocks.

  16. 4-D High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Monitoring of Miscible CO2 Injected into a Carbonate Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Miller; Abdelmoneam E. Raef; Alan P. Byrnes; William E. Harrison

    2007-06-30

    The objective of this research project was to acquire, process, and interpret multiple high-resolution 3-D compressional wave and 2-D, 2-C shear wave seismic data in the hopes of observing changes in fluid characteristics in an oil field before, during, and after the miscible carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood that began around December 1, 2003, as part of the DOE-sponsored Class Revisit Project (DOE No.DE-AC26-00BC15124). Unique and key to this imaging activity is the high-resolution nature of the seismic data, minimal deployment design, and the temporal sampling throughout the flood. The 900-m-deep test reservoir is located in central Kansas oomoldic limestones of the Lansing-Kansas City Group, deposited on a shallow marine shelf in Pennsylvanian time. After 30 months of seismic monitoring, one baseline and eight monitor surveys clearly detected changes that appear consistent with movement of CO{sub 2} as modeled with fluid simulators and observed in production data. Attribute analysis was a very useful tool in enhancing changes in seismic character present, but difficult to interpret on time amplitude slices. Lessons learned from and tools/techniques developed during this project will allow high-resolution seismic imaging to be routinely applied to many CO{sub 2} injection programs in a large percentage of shallow carbonate oil fields in the midcontinent.

  17. Impact of induced seismic events on seal integrity, Texas Gulf Coast

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Meckel, Timothy A.; Carr, David A.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2014-12-31

    Recent publications have suggested that large-scale CO2 injection could trigger earthquakes and that even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes may threaten the seal integrity of the injection zone, and potentially damage buildings and other surface structures. In this study, we compared seal thickness to estimated fault displacement due to a single hypothetical seismic event in a selected area of the Texas Gulf Coast comprising an offshore strip of state waters along two Texas counties. To evaluate the slip generated by a single seismic event, we compiled well log information on shale/sand sequences and seismic information on fault geometric characteristics of amore » section of Lower Miocene age. The section is thousands of feet thick and is overlain and underlain by marine shales (Amph. B and Anahuac, respectively) that are relatively easy to correlate between wells. The Amph. B. shale is the secondary and ultimate seal for all injection intervals in the Lower Miocene. Given its thickness, no realistic seismic event or small series of seismic events will offset it significantly. However, this may not be true of smaller local primary seals. An analysis of geophysical logs of a total of 71 wells yielded a total of 2,871 sand / shale binary intervals. An analysis of the dedicated 3D seismic survey counted 723 fault traces at five roughly horizontal horizons within the Lower Miocene Fault displacement estimated using the product of the fault length times an uncertain multiplier coefficient assumed to follow a triangular distribution with a 10-3 to 10-5 range and a mode of 8 × 10-5. We then compared estimated single-event fault displacements to seal thicknesses by means of a Monte-Carlo analysis. Only 1.8% of thickness/displacement pairs display a displacement greater than 20% of the seal thickness. Only 0.26% of the pairs result in a displacement of half the seal thickness and only 0.05% of thickness/displacement pairs result in a clear seal rupture. The next step was to compare the magnitude of the event generated by such a displacement to documented magnitudes of “large” earthquakes generated by waterflooding and fluid disposal. Based on this analysis, we conclude that seismicity that may arise from CO2 injection appears not to be a serious complication for CO2 storage integrity, at least in the Gulf Coast area.« less

  18. Impact of induced seismic events on seal integrity, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Meckel, Timothy A.; Carr, David A.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2014-12-31

    Recent publications have suggested that large-scale CO2 injection could trigger earthquakes and that even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes may threaten the seal integrity of the injection zone, and potentially damage buildings and other surface structures. In this study, we compared seal thickness to estimated fault displacement due to a single hypothetical seismic event in a selected area of the Texas Gulf Coast comprising an offshore strip of state waters along two Texas counties. To evaluate the slip generated by a single seismic event, we compiled well log information on shale/sand sequences and seismic information on fault geometric characteristics of a section of Lower Miocene age. The section is thousands of feet thick and is overlain and underlain by marine shales (Amph. B and Anahuac, respectively) that are relatively easy to correlate between wells. The Amph. B. shale is the secondary and ultimate seal for all injection intervals in the Lower Miocene. Given its thickness, no realistic seismic event or small series of seismic events will offset it significantly. However, this may not be true of smaller local primary seals. An analysis of geophysical logs of a total of 71 wells yielded a total of 2,871 sand / shale binary intervals. An analysis of the dedicated 3D seismic survey counted 723 fault traces at five roughly horizontal horizons within the Lower Miocene Fault displacement estimated using the product of the fault length times an uncertain multiplier coefficient assumed to follow a triangular distribution with a 10-3 to 10-5 range and a mode of 8 10-5. We then compared estimated single-event fault displacements to seal thicknesses by means of a Monte-Carlo analysis. Only 1.8% of thickness/displacement pairs display a displacement greater than 20% of the seal thickness. Only 0.26% of the pairs result in a displacement of half the seal thickness and only 0.05% of thickness/displacement pairs result in a clear seal rupture. The next step was to compare the magnitude of the event generated by such a displacement to documented magnitudes of large earthquakes generated by waterflooding and fluid disposal. Based on this analysis, we conclude that seismicity that may arise from CO2 injection appears not to be a serious complication for CO2 storage integrity, at least in the Gulf Coast area.

  19. Recommissioning the K-1600 Seismic Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wynn, C.C. ); Brewer, D.W. )

    1991-10-01

    The Center of Natural Phenomena Engineering (CNPE) was established under the technical direction of Dr. James E. Beavers with a mandate to assess, by analyses and testing, the seismic capacity of building structures that house sensitive processes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This mandate resulted in a need to recommission the K-1600 Seismic Test Facility (STF) at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, which had been shutdown for 6 years. This paper documents the history of the facility and fives some salient construction, operation, and performance details of its 8-ton, 20-foot center of gravity payload bi-axial seismic simulator. A log of activities involved in the restart of this valuable resource is included as Table 1. Some of problems and solutions associated with recommissioning the facility under a relatively limited budget are included. The unique attributes of the shake table are discussed. The original mission and performance requirements are compared to current expanded mission and performance capabilities. Potential upgrades to further improve the capabilities of the test facility as an adjunct to the CNPE are considered. Additional uses for the facility are proposed, including seismic qualification testing of devices unique to enrichment technologies and associated hazardous waste treatment and disposal processes. In summary, the STF restart in conjunction with CNPE has added a vital, and unique facility to the list of current national resources utilized for earthquake engineering research and development. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Modeling and Field Results from Seismic Stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.; Pride, S.; Lo, W.; Daley, T.; Nakagawa, Seiji; Sposito, Garrison; Roberts, P.

    2006-05-30

    Modeling the effect of seismic stimulation employing Maxwell-Boltzmann theory shows that the important component of stimulation is mechanical rather than fluid pressure effects. Modeling using Biot theory (two phases) shows that the pressure effects diffuse too quickly to be of practical significance. Field data from actual stimulation will be shown to compare to theory.

  1. CALIBRATION OF SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington; Horacio Acevedo; Aaron Green; Joshua Haataja; Shawn Len; Anastasia Minaeva; Deyi Xie

    2002-10-01

    The project, ''Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Calibration,'' is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, including several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on ''Reservoir Geophysics'' for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along ''phantom'' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  2. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne D. Pennington

    2002-09-29

    The project, "Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization," is now complete. Our original proposed scope of work included detailed analysis of seismic and other data from two to three hydrocarbon fields; we have analyzed data from four fields at this level of detail, two additional fields with less detail, and one other 2D seismic line used for experimentation. We also included time-lapse seismic data with ocean-bottom cable recordings in addition to the originally proposed static field data. A large number of publications and presentations have resulted from this work, inlcuding several that are in final stages of preparation or printing; one of these is a chapter on "Reservoir Geophysics" for the new Petroleum Engineering Handbook from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Major results from this project include a new approach to evaluating seismic attributes in time-lapse monitoring studies, evaluation of pitfalls in the use of point-based measurements and facies classifications, novel applications of inversion results, improved methods of tying seismic data to the wellbore, and a comparison of methods used to detect pressure compartments. Some of the data sets used are in the public domain, allowing other investigators to test our techniques or to improve upon them using the same data. From the public-domain Stratton data set we have demonstrated that an apparent correlation between attributes derived along 'phantom' horizons are artifacts of isopach changes; only if the interpreter understands that the interpretation is based on this correlation with bed thickening or thinning, can reliable interpretations of channel horizons and facies be made. From the public-domain Boonsville data set we developed techniques to use conventional seismic attributes, including seismic facies generated under various neural network procedures, to subdivide regional facies determined from logs into productive and non-productive subfacies, and we developed a method involving cross-correlation of seismic waveforms to provide a reliable map of the various facies present in the area. The Wamsutter data set led to the use of unconventional attributes including lateral incoherence and horizon-dependent impedance variations to indicate regions of former sand bars and current high pressure, respectively, and to evaluation of various upscaling routines. The Teal South data set has provided a surprising set of results, leading us to develop a pressure-dependent velocity relationship and to conclude that nearby reservoirs are undergoing a pressure drop in response to the production of the main reservoir, implying that oil is being lost through their spill points, never to be produced. Additional results were found using the public-domain Waha and Woresham-Bayer data set, and some tests of technologies were made using 2D seismic lines from Michigan and the western Pacific ocean.

  3. Induced seismicity associated with enhanced geothermal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, Ernest; Majer, Ernest L.; Baria, Roy; Stark, Mitch; Oates, Stephen; Bommer, Julian; Smith, Bill; Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2006-09-26

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) offer the potential to significantly add to the world energy inventory. As with any development of new technology, some aspects of the technology has been accepted by the general public, but some have not yet been accepted and await further clarification before such acceptance is possible. One of the issues associated with EGS is the role of microseismicity during the creation of the underground reservoir and the subsequent extraction of the energy. The primary objectives of this white paper are to present an up-to-date review of the state of knowledge about induced seismicity during the creation and operation of enhanced geothermal systems, and to point out the gaps in knowledge that if addressed will allow an improved understanding of the mechanisms generating the events as well as serve as a basis to develop successful protocols for monitoring and addressing community issues associated with such induced seismicity. The information was collected though literature searches as well as convening three workshops to gather information from a wide audience. Although microseismicity has been associated with the development of production and injection operations in a variety of geothermal regions, there have been no or few adverse physical effects on the operations or on surrounding communities. Still, there is public concern over the possible amount and magnitude of the seismicity associated with current and future EGS operations. It is pointed out that microseismicity has been successfully dealt with in a variety of non-geothermal as well as geothermal environments. Several case histories are also presented to illustrate a variety of technical and public acceptance issues. It is concluded that EGS Induced seismicity need not pose any threat to the development of geothermal resources if community issues are properly handled. In fact, induced seismicity provides benefits because it can be used as a monitoring tool to understand the effectiveness of the EGS operations and shed light on the mechanics of the reservoir.

  4. Two dimensional electron transport in modulation-doped In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/AlAs{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 0.44} ultrathin quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Cheng-Ying Law, Jeremy J. M.; Rodwell, Mark J. W.; Lu, Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-03-28

    We have investigated the growth and electron transport in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/AlAs{sub 0.56}Sb{sub 0.44} two dimensional electron gases (2DEG) and compared their properties with In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As 2DEGs. For 10?nm thick InGaAs wells, the electron mobility of InGaAs/AlAsSb 2DEGs is comparable to that of InGaAs/InAlAs 2DEGs. Upon thinning the wells to 3?nm, the 2DEG mobility is degraded quickly and stronger interface roughness scattering is observed for InGaAs/AlAsSb heterointerfaces than for InGaAs/InAlAs heterointerfaces. Changing the group-V exposure between As and Sb during growth interruptions at the InGaAs/AlAsSb interfaces did not significantly change the 2DEG mobility. With the insertion of a two monolayer InAlAs at the InGaAs/AlAsSb interfaces, the interface roughness scattering is reduced and the mobility greatly increased. The room temperature 2DEG mobility shows 66% improvement from 1.63??10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/Vs to 2.71??10{sup 3}?cm{sup 2}/Vs for a 3?nm InGaAs well.

  5. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (15 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  6. Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis | Department of Energy Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis Develpment of a low Cost Method to Estimate the Seismic Signiture of a Geothemal Field from Ambient Seismic Noise Analysis presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting

  7. May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting Agenda | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting Agenda May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting Agenda Agenda for the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting held at the Idaho National Laboratory on May 27, 2015. PDF icon Agenda More Documents & Publications The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 1 Seismic Hazard Analysis November 2012 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel Meeting Risk-Informed Design of Seismic Isolation

  8. Initial results from seismic monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 storage site, Saskatchewan, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D. J.; Roach, L. A.N.; Roberts, B.; Daley, T. M.

    2014-12-31

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is one of the first integrated commercial-scale CO2 storage projects in the world that is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. Starting in 2014, CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be transported via pipeline to the storage site and to nearby oil fields for enhanced oil recovery. At the Aquistore site, the CO2 will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3200 m depth using the deepest well in Saskatchewan. The suitability of the geological formations that will host the injected CO2 has been predetermined through 3D characterization using high-resolution 3D seismic images and deep well information. These data show that 1) there are no significant faults in the immediate area of the storage site, 2) the regional sealing formation is continuous in the area, and 3) the reservoir is not adversely affected by knolls on the surface of the underlying Precambrian basement. Furthermore, the Aquistore site is located within an intracratonic region characterized by extremely low levels of seismicity. This is in spite of oil-field related water injection in the nearby Weyburn-Midale field where a total of 656 million m3 of water have been injected since the 1960`s with no demonstrable related induced seismicity. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a permanent areal seismic monitoring array was deployed in 2012, comprising 630 vertical-component geophones installed at 20 m depth on a 2.5x2.5 km regular grid. This permanent array is designed to provide improved 3D time-lapse seismic imaging for monitoring subsurface CO2. Prior to the onset of CO2 injection, calibration 3D surveys were acquired in May and November of 2013. Comparison of the data from these surveys relative to the baseline 3D survey data from 2012 shows excellent repeatability (NRMS less than 10%) which will provide enhanced monitoring sensitivity to smaller amounts of CO2. The permanent array also provides continuous passive monitoring for injection-related microseismicity. Passive monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 in order to establish levels of background seismicity before CO2 injection starts in 2014. Microseismic monitoring was augmented in 2013 by the installation of 3 broadband seismograph stations surrounding the Aquistore site. These surface installations should provide a detection capability of seismic events with magnitudes as low as ~0. Downhole seismic methods are also being utilized for CO2 monitoring at the Aquistore site. Baseline crosswell tomographic images depict details (meters-scale) of the reservoir in the 150-m interval between the observation and injection wells. This level of resolution is designed to track the CO2 migration between the wells during the initial injection period. A baseline 3D vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired in the fall of 2013 to provide seismic images with resolution on a scale between that provided by the surface seismic array and the downhole tomography. The 3D VSP was recorded simultaneously using both a conventional array of downhole geophones (60-levels) and an optical fibre system. The latter utilized an optical fiber cable deployed on the outside of the monitor well casing and cemented in place. A direct comparison of these two methodologies will determine the suitability of using the fiber cable for ongoing time-lapse VSP monitoring.

  9. Seismic Waves, 4th order accurate

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-08-16

    SW4 is a program for simulating seismic wave propagation on parallel computers. SW4 colves the seismic wave equations in Cartesian corrdinates. It is therefore appropriate for regional simulations, where the curvature of the earth can be neglected. SW4 implements a free surface boundary condition on a realistic topography, absorbing super-grid conditions on the far-field boundaries, and a kinematic source model consisting of point force and/or point moment tensor source terms. SW4 supports a fully 3-Dmore » heterogeneous material model that can be specified in several formats. SW4 can output synthetic seismograms in an ASCII test format, or in the SAC finary format. It can also present simulation information as GMT scripts, whixh can be used to create annotated maps. Furthermore, SW4 can output the solution as well as the material model along 2-D grid planes.« less

  10. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  11. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, Philip E. (Oakley, CA); Rodgers, Peter W. (Santa Barbara, CA); Ewert, Daniel W. (Patterson, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  12. Feasibility study of the seismic reflection method in Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brocher, T.M.; Hart, P.E.; Carle, S.F.

    1990-11-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) working under an Interagency agreement with the Department of Energy is engaged in a broad geoscience program to assess and identify a potential repository for high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. The USGS program, referred to as the Yucca Mountain Project, or YMP, consists of integrated geologic, hydrologic and geophysical studies which range in nature from site specific to regional. This report is an evaluation of different acquisition methods for future regional seismic reflection studies to be conducted in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, located in the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In January 1988, field studies were conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the common-depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to map subsurface geological horizons within the Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada. The goal of the field study was to investigate which seismic reflection method(s) should be used for mapping shallow to lower-crustal horizons. Therefore, a wide-variety of field acquisition parameters were tested, included point versus linear receiver group arrays; Vibroseis (service and trademark of Conoco, Inc.) versus explosive sources; Vibroseis array patterns; and Vibroseis sweep and frequency range. 31 refs., 33 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. LLNL-TR-400563 Seismic Data

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    TR-400563 Seismic Data for Evaluation of Ground Motion Hazards in Las Vegas in Support of Test Site Readiness Ground Motion A. Rodgers January 18, 2008 Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, nor any of their employees makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy,

  14. Regional seismic discrimination research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W.R.; Mayeda, K.M.; Goldstein, P.; Patton, H.J.; Jarpe, S.; Glenn, L.

    1995-10-01

    The ability to verify a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends in part on the ability to seismically detect and discriminate between potential clandestine underground nuclear tests and other seismic sources, including earthquakes and mining activities. Regional techniques are necessary to push detection and discrimination levels down to small magnitudes, but existing methods of event discrimination are mainly empirical and show much variability from region to region. The goals of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) regional discriminant research are to evaluate the most promising discriminants, improve the understanding of their physical basis and use this information to develop new and more effective discriminants that can be transported to new regions of high monitoring interest. In this report the authors discuss preliminary efforts to geophysically characterize the Middle East and North Africa. They show that the remarkable stability of coda allows one to develop physically based, stable single station magnitude scales in new regions. They then discuss progress to date on evaluating and improving physical understanding and ability to model regional discriminants, focusing on the comprehensive NTS dataset. The authors apply this modeling ability to develop improved discriminants including slopes of P to S ratios. They find combining disparate discriminant techniques is particularly effective in identifying consistent outliers such as shallow earthquakes and mine seismicity. Finally they discuss development and use of new coda and waveform modeling tools to investigate special events.

  15. High vertical resolution crosswell seismic imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lazaratos, Spyridon K. (Houston, TX)

    1999-12-07

    A method for producing high vertical resolution seismic images from crosswell data is disclosed. In accordance with one aspect of the disclosure, a set of vertically spaced, generally horizontally extending continuous layers and associated nodes are defined within a region between two boreholes. The specific number of nodes is selected such that the value of a particular characteristic of the subterranean region at each of the nodes is one which can be determined from the seismic data. Once values are established at the nodes, values of the particular characteristic are assigned to positions between the node points of each layer based on the values at node within that layer and without regard to the values at node points within any other layer. A seismic map is produced using the node values and the assigned values therebetween. In accordance with another aspect of the disclosure, an approximate model of the region is established using direct arrival traveltime data. Thereafter, the approximate model is adjusted using reflected arrival data. In accordance with still another aspect of the disclosure, correction is provided for well deviation. An associated technique which provides improvements in ray tracing is also disclosed.

  16. Seismic response of offshore guyed towers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, A.K.; Bisht, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Seismic stresses in the offshore Guyed Tower assumes importance because of its flexural modes having smaller periods (in the range of 1 to 3 sec), which may attract considerable seismic forces. Since the displacement of the offshore Guyed Tower is generally guided by the rigid body mode corresponding to the fundamental period which lies between 20 to 40 sec., seismic excitation is relatively unimportant in relation to the towers` overall displacement behavior. The response of offshore Guyed Tower to ransom ground motion (E1 Centro earthquake, 1940) is investigated. The guyed tower is modeled as a uniform shear beam with a rotational spring at the base of the tower. The guylines are represented by a linearized spring whose force-excursion relationship is derived from a separate static analysis of the guylines. The dynamic equation of motion duly takes into account the pressure-drag effect produced due to fluid-structure interaction. The response is obtained in tim- domain using Newmark`s {beta} Time Integration Scheme.

  17. 2012 NERSC User Survey Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012 User Survey Text 2010/2011 User Survey Results 2009/2010 User Survey Results 2008/2009 User Survey Results 2007/2008 User Survey Results 2006 User Survey Results 2005 User Survey Results 2004 User Survey Results 2003 User Survey Results 2002 User Survey Results 2001 User Survey Results 2000 User Survey Results 1999 User Survey Results 1998 User Survey Results HPC Requirements for Science HPC Workshop Reports NERSC Staff Publications & Presentations Journal Cover Stories Galleries

  18. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume developed from this injection was observed migrating due to gravity to the apexes of the double anticline in the Crow Mountain reservoir of the Teapot dome. Four models were generated from the reservoir simulation task of the project which included three saturation models representing snapshots at different times during and after simulated CO{sub 2} injection and a fully saturated CO{sub 2} fluid substitution model. The saturation models were used along with a Gassmann fluid substitution model for CO{sub 2} to perform fluid volumetric substitution in the Crow Mountain formation. The fluid substitution resulted in a velocity and density model for the 3D volume at each saturation condition that was used to generate a synthetic seismic survey. FPTI's (Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc.) proprietary SeisModelPRO{trademark} full acoustic wave equation software was used to simulate acquisition of a 3D seismic survey on the four models over a subset of the field area. The simulated acquisition area included the injection wells and the majority of the simulated plume area.

  19. OSI Passive Seismic Experiment at the Former Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, J J; Harben, P

    2010-11-11

    On-site inspection (OSI) is one of the four verification provisions of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Under the provisions of the CTBT, once the Treaty has entered into force, any signatory party can request an on-site inspection, which can then be carried out after approval (by majority voting) of the Executive Council. Once an OSI is approved, a team of 40 inspectors will be assembled to carry out an inspection to ''clarify whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of Article I''. One challenging aspect of carrying out an on-site inspection (OSI) in the case of a purported underground nuclear explosion is to detect and locate the underground effects of an explosion, which may include an explosion cavity, a zone of damaged rock, and/or a rubble zone associated with an underground collapsed cavity. The CTBT (Protocol, Section II part D, paragraph 69) prescribes several types of geophysical investigations that can be carried out for this purpose. One of the methods allowed by the CTBT for geophysical investigation is referred to in the Treaty Protocol as ''resonance seismometry''. This method, which was proposed and strongly promoted by Russia during the Treaty negotiations, is not described in the Treaty. Some clarification about the nature of the resonance method can be gained from OSI workshop presentations by Russian experts in the late 1990s. Our understanding is that resonance seismometry is a passive method that relies on seismic reverberations set up in an underground cavity by the passage of waves from regional and teleseismic sources. Only a few examples of the use of this method for detection of underground cavities have been presented, and those were done in cases where the existence and precise location of an underground cavity was known. As is the case with many of the geophysical methods allowed during an OSI under the Treaty, how resonance seismology really works and its effectiveness for OSI purposes has yet to be determined. For this experiment, we took a broad approach to the definition of ''resonance seismometry''; stretching it to include any means that employs passive seismic methods to infer the character of underground materials. In recent years there have been a number of advances in the use of correlation and noise analysis methods in seismology to obtain information about the subsurface. Our objective in this experiment was to use noise analysis and correlation analysis to evaluate these techniques for detecting and characterizing the underground damage zone from a nuclear explosion. The site that was chosen for the experiment was the Mackerel test in Area 4 of the former Nevada Test Site (now named the Nevada National Security Site, or NNSS). Mackerel was an underground nuclear test of less than 20 kT conducted in February of 1964 (DOENV-209-REV 15). The reason we chose this site is because there was a known apical cavity occurring at about 50 m depth above a rubble zone, and that the site had been investigated by the US Geological Survey with active seismic methods in 1965 (Watkins et al., 1967). Note that the time delay between detonation of the explosion (1964) and the time of the present survey (2010) is nearly 46 years - this would not be typical of an expected OSI under the CTBT.

  20. Joint environmental assessment for Chevron USA, Inc. and Santa Fe Energy Resources, Inc.: Midway Valley 3D seismic project, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The proposed Midway Valley 3D Geophysical Exploration Project covers approximately 31,444 aces of private lands, 6,880 acres of Department of Energy (DOE) Lands within Naval Petroleum Reserve 2 (NPR2) and 3,840 acres of lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in western Kern County, California. This environmental assessment (EA) presents an overview of the affected environment within the project area using results of a literature review of biological field surveys previously conducted within or adjacent to a proposed 3D seismic project. The purpose is to provide background information to identify potential and known locations of sensitive wildlife and special status plant species within the proposed seismic project area. Biological field surveys, following agency approved survey protocols, will be conducted during October through November 1996 to acquire current resources data to provide avoidance as the project is being implemented in the field.

  1. Probabilistic seismic risk of the territory of Bishkek city, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamchybekov, Murataly Pakirovich

    2008-07-08

    For seismic risk analysis were gathered information about district's seismicity, tectonics, topography, and engineering--geotechnical conditions, which present in apartments, infrastructures and demographies. All of these informations are joined within the limits of GIS for father probabilistic evaluations from different losses levels from earthquake, and also definitions of effective arrangements by reaction. There were given analysis of obtained results with the purpose to take into the consideration and falling of seismic risk's levels.

  2. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Systems (EGS) | Department of Energy Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) This document is intended to assist industry and regulators identify important issues and parameters that may be necessary for the evaluation and mitigation of adverse effects of induced seismicity. PDF icon egs-is-protocol-final-draft-20110531.pdf More

  3. Hanford Site-Wide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J Digital Seismic Hazard Products J.1 Appendix J Digital Seismic Hazard Products This appendix contains the digital data associated with the seismic hazard results presented in Chapter 10 for use in subsequent development of soil hazard curves for various facilities. These results include mean and fractile baserock hazard curves, mean and fractile baserock uniform hazard response spectra (UHRS), magnitude and distance deaggregation of the mean rock hazard, and deaggregation earthquake (DE)

  4. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (Conference) | SciTech Connect 1st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban

  5. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring: Innovation and Integration (Conference) | SciTech Connect 4th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach,

  6. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base (Conference) | SciTech Connect 5th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson,

  7. March 2009 Seismic Lessons-Learned panel Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Enclosed is a summary of discussions at the fourth seismic lessons-learned workshop held in Washington, DC in the last week of March 2009. These workshops, held semiannually, provide an opportunity for experts involved with seismic hazard assessments and design efforts across the DOE complex to share their knowledge and experience. The goal is to improve the Department's performance in assessing seismic hazards and designing faciities to mitigate them.

  8. State of Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration and Assessment - Summary E.L Majer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Introduction A wide variety of seismic methods covering the spectrum from DC to kilohertz have been employed at one time or the other in geothermal environments. The reasons have varied from exploration for a heat source to attempting to find individual fractures producing hot fluids. For the purposes here we will assume that overall objective of seismic imaging is for

  9. Design of the IPIRG-2 simulated seismic forcing function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R.; Scott, P.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-02-01

    A series of pipe system experiments was conducted in IPIRG-2 that used a realistic seismic forcing function. Because the seismic forcing function was more complex than the single-frequency increasing-amplitude sinusoidal forcing function used in the IPIRG-1 pipe system experiments, considerable effort went into designing the function. This report documents the design process for the seismic forcing function used in the IPIRG-2 pipe system experiments.

  10. Opportunities for improving regulations governing the seismic safety of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    large nuclear installations | Department of Energy Opportunities for improving regulations governing the seismic safety of large nuclear installations Opportunities for improving regulations governing the seismic safety of large nuclear installations Opportunities for Improving Regulations Governing the Seismic Safety of Large Nuclear Installations Robert J. Budnitz, Ph.D. LBNL University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Andrew S. Whittaker, Ph.D., S.E. MCEER University at Buffalo, Buffalo,

  11. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems;

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review PDF icon seismic_022_queen.pdf More Documents & Publications Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture

  12. DOE Releases Updated Induced Seismicity Protocol | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Releases Updated Induced Seismicity Protocol DOE Releases Updated Induced Seismicity Protocol January 30, 2012 - 3:45pm Addthis At the 37th Stanford Geothermal Workshop in Stanford, California, the Geothermal Technologies Program at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released an updated Induced Seismicity Protocol. This document supplements the existing International Energy Agency (IEA) protocol of 2009, and is intended to be a living document kept up-to-date with state-of-the-art knowledge and

  13. Seismic hazard methodology for the central and Eastern United States:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Volume 1, Part 1: Theory: Final report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect central and Eastern United States: Volume 1, Part 1: Theory: Final report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Seismic hazard methodology for the central and Eastern United States: Volume 1, Part 1: Theory: Final report The NRC staff concludes that SOG/EPRI Seismic Hazard Methodology, as documented in the topical report and associated submittals, is an acceptable methodology for use in calculating seismic

  14. Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Systems | Department of Energy Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems Protocol for Addressing Induced Seismicity Associated with Enhanced Geothermal Systems This Protocol is a living guidance document for geothermal developers, public officials, regulators and the general public that provides a set of general guidelines detailing useful steps to evaluate and manage the effects of induced seismicity related to EGS projects. PDF icon

  15. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Seismic Risk Assessment Project:

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Implementation of Proposed Methodology at INL and Associated Risk Studies | Department of Energy Risk Assessment Project: Implementation of Proposed Methodology at INL and Associated Risk Studies Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Seismic Risk Assessment Project: Implementation of Proposed Methodology at INL and Associated Risk Studies Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. PDF icon INL Seismic Risk Assessment Project: Implementation of Proposed Methodology at INL

  16. Assessing Beyond Design Basis Seismic Events and Implications...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Topics Covered: Department of Energy Approach to Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design (Seismic) Design Basis and Beyond Design...

  17. Evaluation of the SRS Seismic Hazard Considering the EPRI 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of the SRS Seismic Hazard Considering the EPRI 2013 Ground Motion Model Rucker J. Williams, PE - Geotechnical Engineering Lead Shawn Carey, PhD, PE - Structural ...

  18. SEISMIC CAPACITY OF THREADED, BRAZED AND GROOVED PIPE JOINTS | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy SEISMIC CAPACITY OF THREADED, BRAZED AND GROOVED PIPE JOINTS SEISMIC CAPACITY OF THREADED, BRAZED AND GROOVED PIPE JOINTS Seismic Capacity of Threaded, Brazed and Grooved Pipe Joints Brent Gutierrez, PhD, PE George Antaki, PE, F.ASME DOE NPH Conference October 25-26, 2011 PDF icon Seismic Capacity of Threaded, Brazed and Grooved Pipe Joints More Documents & Publications FY2015 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of High-Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Rods from Pressurized Water Reactor and

  19. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation 1995. PVP-Volume 319...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the application of isolation for seismic protection of civil structures, industrial facilities, and nuclear power plants. As an indication of the increasing acceptance...

  20. Progress and issues in single well seismic imaging | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paper: Progress and issues in single well seismic imaging Authors Thomas M. Daley, Ernest L. Majer, Roland Gritto and Jerry M. Harris Conference 70th Annual International Meeting...

  1. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Compound and Elemental Analysis Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geochemical...

  2. Isotopic Analysis At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Isotopic Analysis- Fluid Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes...

  3. Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Field Mapping At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt Et Al, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  4. Development Of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology For Geothermal Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Development Of Active...

  5. Minutes from the Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Beyond-Design-Basis Post-Fukushima Seismic Activities at NRC - George Antaki Mr. Antaki ... holders. The three initiatives are: the Fukushima Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) ...

  6. Time-Dependent Seismic Tomography of the Coso Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Time-Dependent Seismic Tomography of the Coso Geothermal Area, 1996-2004 Abstract...

  7. Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Time-dependent seismic tomography of the Coso geothermal area, 1996-2004 Abstract...

  8. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    over a longer period of time Notes The permanent 18-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the seismically active Coso geothermal area, California, provides...

  9. Relations Between Seismicity and Deformation During Unrest in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Relations Between Seismicity and Deformation During Unrest in Long Valley Caldera, California, from 1995 Through 1999 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  10. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring (Foulger, 1982) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes General review of passive seismic methods applied to geothermal exploration. References G. Foulger (1982) Geothermal...

  11. The INL Seismic Risk Assessment Project: Requirements for Addressing DOE

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Order 420.1C & A Proposed Generic Methodology | Department of Energy The INL Seismic Risk Assessment Project: Requirements for Addressing DOE Order 420.1C & A Proposed Generic Methodology The INL Seismic Risk Assessment Project: Requirements for Addressing DOE Order 420.1C & A Proposed Generic Methodology Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. PDF icon The INL Seismic Risk Assessment Project: Requirements for Addressing DOE Order 420.1C & A

  12. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Geysers Area (Zucca, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References J. J. Zucca, L. J. Hutchings, P. W. Kasameyer (1994) Seismic Velocity And Attenuation...

  13. Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Water Sampling At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity...

  14. Seismic Methods For Resource Exploration In Enhanced Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methods For Resource Exploration In Enhanced Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Seismic Methods For Resource Exploration In...

  15. Summation by Parts Finite Difference Approximations for Seismic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Summation by Parts Finite Difference Approximations for Seismic and Seismo-Acoustic Computations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summation by Parts Finite...

  16. Injection monitoring with seismic arrays and adaptive noise cancellation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harben, P.E.; Harris, D.B.; Jarpe, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Although the application of seismic methods, active and passive, to monitor in-situ reservoir stimulation processes is not new, seismic arrays and array processing technology coupled with a new noise cancellation method has not been attempted. Successful application of seismic arrays to passively monitor in-situ reservoir stimulation processes depends on being able to sufficiently cancel the expected large amplitude background seismic noise typical of an oil or geothermal production environment so that small amplitude seismic signals occurring at depth can be detected and located. This report describes the results of a short field experiment conducted to test both the application of seismic arrays for in-situ reservoir stimulation monitoring and the active noise cancellation technique in a real reservoir production environment. Although successful application of these techniques to in-situ reservoir stimulation monitoring would have the greatest payoff in the oil industry, the proof-of-concept field experiment site was chosen to be the Geysers geothermal field in northern California. This site was chosen because of known high seismicity rates, a relatively shallow production depth, cooperation and some cost sharing the UNOCAL Oil Corporation, and the close proximity of the site to LLNL. The body of this report describes the Geysers field experimental configuration and then discusses the results of the seismic array processing and the results of the seismic noise cancellation followed by a brief conclusion. 2 refs., 11 figs.

  17. 3-D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of fractures on seismic wave propagation are now being applied to image fractures in gas and oil environments. It now may be appropriate to apply these methods, with...

  18. MICRO-SEISMICITY, FAULT STRUCTURE AND HYDRAULIC COMPARTMENTALIZATION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system geometry, fluid conduits and fluid compartmentalization critical to geothermal reservoir management. We analyze 16 years of seismicity to improve hypocentral locations...

  19. Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    failure of seismic reflection data to image thesubsurface demonstrates the robust reliability of aconceptual model approach to geothermal exploration thatemphasizes the...

  20. Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 2) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Data Acquisition-Manipulation At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Coolbaugh, Et Al., 2005...