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1

Inverse Transformation Optics and Reflection Analysis for Two-Dimensional Finite Embedded Coordinate Transformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inverse transformation optics is introduced, and used to calculate the boundary reflection of a two-dimensional (2D) finite embedded coordinate transformation which is discontinuous at the boundary. For an electromagnetic excitation of particular polarization, many pairs of original medium (in a virtual space) and transformation function can give exactly the same anisotropic medium through a conventional procedure of transformation optics. Non-uniqueness of these pairs is then exploited for the analysis and calculation of the boundary reflection. The reflection at the boundary of the anisotropic transformation medium (associated with vacuum in the virtual space) is converted to the simple reflection between two isotropic media in a virtual space by a new transformation continuous at the boundary. A necessary condition for reflectionless boundary of finite embedded coordinate transformation is found as a special case. The theory is verified numerically with the finite element method.

Zhang, Pu; He, Sailing

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Abstract --An exact two-dimensional (2-D) analytical model (AM) of slotless permanent magnet (PM) machines in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

machines, one always tries to minimize the magnet thickness, in order to minimize the cost of the motor andAbstract -- An exact two-dimensional (2-D) analytical model (AM) of slotless permanent magnet (PM at no-load operation. The authors show that, for a radial magnetization, there is an optimal magnet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

3

Resitivity modeling for arbitrarily shaped two dimensional structures. Part II. User's guide to the FORTRAN algorithm RESIS2D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of a numerical solution technique is described to obtain the potential distribution in three-dimensional space due to a point source of charge injection in or on the surface of a half space containing any arbitrary two-dimensional conductivity distribution. Finite difference approximations are made to discretize the governing Poisson's equation with appropriate boundary conditions. The discretization of Poisson's equation by elemental area brought about a numerical formulation for a more effective matrix technique to be utilized to solve for the potential distribution at each node of a discretized half-space. A FORTRAN algorithm named RESIS2D was written to implement the generalized solution method. A brief description of the FORTRAN program in terms of its construction is given. The formal input and output parameters for the relevant subroutines are discussed. The program is designed to be implemented on a CDC 7600 machine. The language of the algorithm is FORTRAN IV; certain programming norms for the CDC 7600 machine and the RUN76 compiler are routinely used. Some variables are stored in the LCM (Large Core Memory) of this machine, and their calling sequence and usage apply to the CDC7600 alone. The resulting solution of the potential distribution can be obtained for a current source or sink located on the surface or at any arbitrary surface location. Any arbitrary configuration of transmitter or receiver electrode arrays, therefore, could be simulated to obtain the resistivity response over arbitrarily shaped two-dimensional geologic bodies. For brevity, in the source deck provided in this report, only two electrode arrays commonly used in geothermal reservoir delineation are illustrated. (JGB)

Dey, A.

1976-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Coherent transmission and reflection of a two-dimensional planar photonic crystal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for modeling the radial distribution function for particles of a two-dimensional planar photonic crystal in the form of a monolayer of spatially ordered monodisperse spherical particles is proposed. The coherent transmission and reflection coefficients for layers under normal illumination are calculated in the quasi-crystalline approximation of the multiple wave scattering theory. The dependence of the coherent transmission and reflection of the layer on the degree of ordering of the spherical particles is investigated. The influence of the long-range order on the coherent transmission and reflection coefficients for layers with triangular, square, and hexagonal lattices is estimated. Monolayers of weakly absorbing dielectric and strongly absorbing metallic particles are considered.

Miskevich, A. A.; Loiko, V. A., E-mail: loiko@dragon.bas-net.by [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

5

Evolution of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Squall Lines. Part I: Kinematic and Reflectivity Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Doppler radar observations that establish common patterns in the evolution of the reflectivity and flow structures of squall lines are described. A number of squall lines have been analyzed with unprecedented time resolution in order to identity ...

Erik N. Rasmussen; Steven A. Rutledge

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

The Development of Two Dimensional Materials for Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The interest in graphene for electrochemical energy storage applications is encouraging the re-examination of two-dimensional (2D) layered

7

Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the process parameters of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals. The nickel mould with 2-D photonic crystal patterns covering the area up to 20mm² is ...

Chen, A.

8

Helical rays in two-dimensional resonant wave conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2] D.G. Swanson, Theory of Mode Conversion and Tunneling inin two-dimensional resonant wave conversion Allan N. KaufmanThe process of resonant wave conversion (often called linear

Kaufman, Allan N.; Tracy, Eugene R.; Brizard, Alain J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Two-Dimensional Continuous Wavelet Analysis and Its Application to Meteorological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (2D CWT) has become an important tool to examine and diagnose nonstationary datasets on the plane. Compared with traditional spectral analysis methods, the 2D CWT provides localized spectral ...

Ning Wang; Chungu Lu

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Methodology to Derive Radar Reflectivity–Liquid Equivalent Snow Rate Relations Using C-Band Radar and a 2D Video Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to derive equivalent radar reflectivity factor–liquid equivalent snow rate (Ze–SR) power-law relations for snowfall using the C-band King City operational weather radar and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD). The 2DVD ...

Gwo-Jong Huang; V. N. Bringi; Robert Cifelli; David Hudak; W. A. Petersen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Topology design of two-dimensional continuum structures using isolines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the algorithm for the topological design of two-dimensional structures using isolines called isolines topology design (ITD). The topology and the shape of the design depend on an iterative algorithm, which continually adds and removes ... Keywords: 2D continuum, Evolutionary algorithm, Fixed grid, Isolines, Topology design, Topology optimisation

Mariano Victoria; Pascual Martí; Osvaldo M. Querin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

13

A new inversion method for (T2, D) 2D NMR logging and fluid typing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D NMR) logging technology has some significant limitations in fluid typing. However, not only can two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) provide some accurate porosity parameters, but it can also ... Keywords: Diffusion coefficient (D), Fluid typing, Transverse relaxation time (T2), Two-dimensional NMR (2D NMR) logging

Maojin Tan; Youlong Zou; Cancan Zhou

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

The two dimensional Cerenkov radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive the power spectrum of photons generated by charged particle moving in parallel direction to the graphene-like structure with index of refraction n. While the graphene sheet is conductive, some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, and it means that it enables the experimental realization of the Cerenkov radiation. We calculate it from the viewpoint of the Schwinger theory of sources.

Miroslav Pardy

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

15

Evidence for two-dimensional nucleation of superconductivity in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

According to the crystal structure of MgB2 and band structure calculations quasi-two-dimensional (2D) boron planes are responsible for the superconductivity. We report on critical fields and resistance measurements of 30 nm thick MgB2 films grown on MgO single crystalline substrate. A linear temperature dependence of the parallel and perpendicular upper critical fields indicate a 3D-like penetration of magnetic field into the sample. Resistivity measurements, in contrast, yield a temperature dependence of fluctuation conductivity above Tc which agrees with the Aslamazov-Larkin theory of fluctuations in 2D superconductors. We consider this finding as an experimental evidence of two-dimensional nucleation of superconductivity in MgB2.

A. S. Sidorenko; L. R. Tagirov; A. N. Rossolenko; V. V. Ryazanov; R. Tidecks

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Volumetric reconstruction of tissue structure from two-dimensional microscopy images  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell morphology of tissue is naturally three-dimensional. Most current methods for tissue analysis use two dimensional histological images of the tissue samples, restricting the analysis to 2D. Existing approaches do not ...

Cruz, Francisco (Francisco Ui)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Multi-mode two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of peptides and proteins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a methodology for understanding structural stability of proteins through multi-mode two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is developed. The experimental framework for generation of broadband infrared ...

DeFlores, Lauren P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A two-dimensional volatility basis set – Part 2: Diagnostics of organic-aerosol evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the use of a two-dimensional volatility-oxidation space (2-D-VBS) to describe organic-aerosol chemical evolution. The space is built around two coordinates, volatility and the degree of oxidation, both of which ...

Donahue, N. M.

19

Acoustic analogs of two-dimensional black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a general method for constructing acoustic analogs of the black hole solutions of two-dimensional (2D) dilaton gravity. Because by dimensional reduction every spherically symmetric, four-dimensional (4D) black hole admits a 2D description, the method can be also used to construct analogue models of 4D black holes. We also show that after fixing the gauge degrees of freedom the 2D gravitational dynamics is equivalent to an one-dimensional fluid dynamics. This enables us to find a natural definition of mass $M$, temperature $T$ and entropy $S$ of the acoustic black hole. In particular the first principle of thermodynamics $dM=TdS$ becomes a consequence of the fluid dynamics equations. We also discuss the general solutions of the fluid dynamics and two particular cases, the 2D Anti-de sitter black hole and the 4D Schwarzschild black hole.

Mariano Cadoni

2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

20

Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Two-dimensional description of D-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive two-dimensional (2D) solutions of a generic dilaton gravity model coupled with matter, which describe D-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources. The equality between the mass M of the D-dimensional gravitational solution and the mass m of the source can be preserved also at the level of the 2D gravity model.

Mariano Cadoni; Salvatore Mignemi

2005-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

22

Crosscheck of different techniques for two dimensional power spectral density measurements of x-ray optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

23

Instability of Two-Dimensional Themohaline Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two different two-dimensional models of the thermohaline circulation of the ocean have been used to study the loss of stability of a thermally dominated symmetrical two-cell circulation. Although the models differ in their momentum budget, their ...

Michael Vellinga

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer: A Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the design and operation of a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD) for in situ measurements of precipitation drop size distribution. The instrument records orthogonal image projections of raindrops as they cross its ...

Anton Kruger; Witold F. Krajewski

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Structural transitions in laterally compressed two-dimensional Coulomb clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We model structural transitions of small-size Wigner crystals in laterally compressed two-dimensional traps. Ground and metastable configurations are calculated and their transformations are linked to conspicuous changes in the heat capacity of the system. We show that various types of structural transitions are reflected by characteristic features in the behavior of the heat capacity. For deeper understanding, results produced by the Monte Carlo numerical calculations are compared to predictions of simple one-dimensional models.

Rancova, O.; Anisimovas, E.; Varanavicius, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Summary Report of two-Dimensional Analysis of Radiochemical Assay Samples  

SciTech Connect

The ''Summary Report of Two-Dimensional Analysis of Radiochemical Assay Samples'' report provides a summary of the analyses comparing calculated isotopics generated by a point-depletion code that uses one-dimensional (1-D) neutron transport theory weighted cross-sections (SAS2H Control Module of the SCALE Modular Code System) and a two-dimensional (2-D) depletion code (GRCASMO3) with that of radiochemical assay (RCA) results.

C. Connell; J.M. Scaglione

2001-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

27

Two-dimensional Fermi liquid with fixed chemical potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

de Haas-van Alphen measurements made on the organic metal {beta}{sup ''}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} reveal the existence of an ideal two-dimensional (2D) Fermi surface, but rather than having the conventional sawtooth wave form that is normally observed in all other 2D electron gases, instead, an ''inverse sawtooth'' wave form is observed, which is to be expected when the chemical potential is pinned at a constant value. While this proves the existence of the theoretically predicted quasi-one-dimensional band, it further implies that this band has an exceptionally large density of states. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

Wosnitza, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Wanka, S. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Hagel, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Balthes, E. [Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory, MPI and C.N.R.S., 38042 Grenoble, (France); Harrison, N. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, LANL Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Schlueter, J. A.; Kini, A.M.; Geiser, U. [Chemistry and Materials Science Divisions, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ilinois 60439 (United States); Mohtasham, J.; Winter, R. W. [Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207 (United States)] (and others)

2000-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Black Holes, q-Deformed 2d Yang-Mills, and Non-perturbative Topological Strings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-dimensional Yang-Mills, black holes and topologicalfor the two- dimensional black hole,” Nucl. Phys. B 622 (LBNL- 56688 Black Holes, q-Deformed 2d Yang-Mills, and Non-

Aganagic, Mina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities Title Two-Dimensional Computational...

30

Statistical Mechanics of Two-dimensional Foams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The methods of statistical mechanics are applied to two-dimensional foams under macroscopic agitation. A new variable -- the total cell curvature -- is introduced, which plays the role of energy in conventional statistical thermodynamics. The probability distribution of the number of sides for a cell of given area is derived. This expression allows to correlate the distribution of sides ("topological disorder") to the distribution of sizes ("geometrical disorder") in a foam. The model predictions agree well with available experimental data.

Marc Durand

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the prediction of fully localized two-dimensional embedded solitons. These solitons are obtained in a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide array which is periodic along one spatial direction and localized along the orthogonal direction. Under appropriate nonlinearity, these solitons are found to exist inside the Bloch bands (continuous spectrum) of the waveguide and thus are embedded solitons. These embedded solitons are fully localized along both spatial directions. In addition, they are fully stable under perturbations.

Yang Jianke [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Cost of Two-dimensional Rearrangement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Consider a two dimensional torus T2 = R2 /Z2, with coordinates x = (x1, x2) ? [0, 1) × [0, 1). Let A = {(x1, x2) | 0 ? x2 < 1/2} ? T2 be a subset, an diffeomorphism ?: T2 ? T2 is called a rearrangment of A. Figure 1 We say that ? mixes the set A up to scale ? if the following holds: there is a fixed

Hailun Zhou

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

NCNR Quantum Impurities in the 2 D Spin One-Half ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The hope for insight into the physics of high temperature superconductors has generated enormous interest in the case of the two-dimensional (2 D ...

34

Two-dimensional stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy of molecules with broadband x-ray pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expressions for the two-dimensional stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (2D-SXRS) signal obtained using attosecond x-ray pulses are derived. The 1D- and 2D-SXRS signals are calculated for trans-N-methyl acetamide (NMA) with broad bandwidth (181 as, 14.2 eV FWHM) pulses tuned to the oxygen and nitrogen K-edges. Crosspeaks in 2D signals reveal electronic Franck-Condon overlaps between valence orbitals and relaxed orbitals in the presence of the core-hole.

Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang Yu; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Two-Dimensional Stimulated Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Molecules with Broadband X-ray Pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expressions for the two-dimensional Stimulated x-ray Raman Spectroscopy (2D-SXRS) signal obtained using attosecond x-ray pulses are derived. The 1D- and 2D-SXRS signals are calculated for trans-N-methyl acetamide (NMA) with broad bandwidth (FWHM ~14.2eV, 181 as) pulses tuned to the oxygen and nitrogen K-edges. Crosspeaks in 2D signals reveal electronic Franck-Condon overlaps between valence orbitals and relaxed orbitals in the presence of the core hole.

Jason D. Biggs; Yu Zhang; Daniel Healion; Shaul Mukamel

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cross-check of different techniques for two-dimensional powerspectral density measurements of X-ray optics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The consistency of different instruments and methods for measuring two-dimensional (2D) power spectral density (PSD) distributions are investigated. The instruments are an interferometric microscope, an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the X-ray Reflectivity and Scattering experimental facility, all available at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The measurements were performed with a gold-coated mirror with a highly polished stainless steel substrate. It was shown that these three techniques provide essentially consistent results. For the stainless steel mirror, an envelope over all measured PSD distributions can be described with an inverse power-law PSD function. It is also shown that the measurements can be corrected for the specific spatial frequency dependent systematic errors of the instruments. The AFM and the X-ray scattering measurements were used to determine the modulation transfer function of the interferometric microscope. The corresponding correction procedure is discussed in detail. Lower frequency investigation of the 2D PSD distribution was also performed with a long trace profiler and a ZYGO GPI interferometer. These measurements are in some contradiction, suggesting that the reliability of the measurements has to be confirmed with additional investigation. Based on the crosscheck of the performance of all used methods, we discuss the ways for improving the 2D PSD characterization of X-ray optics.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Irick, Steve C.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony

2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

37

CHEM2D. 2-D, 3-Phase Chemical Flood Simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CHEM2D is a two-dimensional, three-phase, nine component, finite difference chemical flood simulator. It can model primary depletion, waterfloods, polymer floods, and micellar/polymer floods using heterogeneous one or two-dimensional (areal or cross-sectional) reservoir descriptions. This includes the ability to model primary depletion and waterflooding of an undersaturated oil reservoir and a polymer flood in which gels are injected with polymer or cross-linking chemicals are injected. One injection well and up to four production wells are available. The user may specify well performance as either rate or pressure constrained, and both a constant time-step size and a variable time-step size based on extrapolation of concentration changes are available as options. The major physical phenomena modeled in CHEM2D are: adsorption, capillary pressure, capillary trapping, cation exchange, dilution, dispersion, interfacial tension, binary and ternary phase behavior, relative permeability, specific densities, and polymer properties (inaccessible pore volume, non-Newtonian viscosity and shear thinning, and permeability reduction). Components include water, oil, surfactant, polymer, total nonsorbing anions, calcium, alcohol, calcium-surfactant complex, and sodium. Components may partition amongst the aqueous, oleic, and microemulsion phases. An auxiliary program, PHASE, is included to provide the CHEM2D user with a tool for looking directly at the phase behavior of a system. PHASE is the phase behavior calculation of CHEM2D coupled with a driving program for generating ternary phase behavior input data and for writing out tabular results. It can be used to compute phase concentrations and saturations as a function of effective salinity and total component concentrations and phase saturations (relative volumes) as a function of effective salinity for a fixed set of total component concentrations.

Burtch, F.W. [USDOE Bartlesville Energy Technology Center, OK (United States)

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem.

Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Generalized Integrability and two-dimensional Gravitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the construction of generalized integrable hierarchies of partial differential equations, associated to affine Kac-Moody algebras, that include those considered by Drinfel'd and Sokolov. These hierarchies can be used to construct new models of 2D quantum or topological gravity, as well as new $\\cal W$-algebras.

T. Hollowood; J. L. Miramontes; J. Sanchez Guillen

1992-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

40

Observations of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Turbulence in Tidal Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational evidence for the existence of quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in tidal currents is derived from the auto- and cross-correlation spectra of vertically separated current meters. The observed quasi- two-dimensional turbulence seems to ...

C. Veth; J. T. F. Zimmerman

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Pseudomomentum Diagnostics for Two-Dimensional Stratified Compressible Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expressions are derived for the local pseudomomentum density in two-dimensional compressible stratified flow and are compared with the expressions for pseudomomentum in two-dimensional Boussinesq and anelastic flow derived by Shepherd and by ...

Dale R. Durran

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Striped phases in two dimensional dipole systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that a system of discrete 2D in-plane dipoles with four possible orientations, interacting via a 3D dipole-dipole interaction plus a nearest neighbor ferromagnetic term, has periodic striped ground states. As the strength of the ferromagnetic term is increased, the size of the stripes in the ground state increases, becoming infinite, i.e., giving a ferromagentic ground state, when the ferromagentic interaction exceeds a certain critical value. We also give a rigorous proof of the reorientation transition in the ground state of a 2D system of discrete dipoles with six possible orientations, interacting via a 3D dipole-dipole interaction plus a nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic term. As the strength of the antiferromagnetic term is increased the ground state flips from being striped and in-plane to being staggered and out-of-plane. An example of a rotator model with a sinusoidal ground state is also discussed.

Alessandro Giuliani; Joel L. Lebowitz; Elliott H. Lieb

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

43

Two-dimensional Ricci flow as a stochastic process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that, for a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold, the Ricci flow is obtained by a Wiener process.

Marco Frasca

2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

Dynamics of two-dimensional dipole systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a combined analytical/molecular dynamics approach, we study the current fluctuation spectra and longitudinal and transverse collective mode dispersions of the classical two-dimensional (point) dipole system (2DDS) characterized by the {phi}{sub D}(r)={mu}{sup 2}/r{sup 3} repulsive interaction potential; {mu} is the electric dipole strength. The interest in the 2DDS is twofold. First, the quasi-long-range 1/r{sup 3} interaction makes the system a unique classical many-body system, with a remarkable collective mode behavior. Second, the system may be a good model for a closely spaced semiconductor electron-hole bilayer, a system that is in the forefront of current experimental interest. The longitudinal collective excitations, which are of primary interest for the liquid phase, are acoustic at long wavelengths. At higher wave numbers and for sufficiently high coupling strength, we observe the formation of a deep minimum in the dispersion curve preceded by a sharp maximum; this is identical to what has been observed in the dispersion of the zero-temperature bosonic dipole system, which in turn emulates so-called roton-maxon excitation spectrum of the superfluid {sup 4}He. The analysis we present gives an insight into the emergence of this apparently universal structure, governed by strong correlations. We study both the liquid and the crystalline solid state. We also observe the excitation of combination frequencies, resembling the roton-roton, roton-maxon, etc. structures in {sup 4}He.

Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Hartmann, Peter; Donko, Zoltan [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Department of Physics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest, Hungary and Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Estimating Seasonal Changes in Volumetric Soil Water Content at Landscape Scales in a Savanna Ecosystem Using Two-Dimensional Resistivity Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water distributed in deep soil reservoirs is an important factor determining the ecosystem structure of water-limited environments, such as the seasonal tropical savannas of South America. In this study a two-dimensional (2D) geoelectrical ...

Diana C. Garcia-Montiel; Michael T. Coe; Meyr P. Cruz; Joice N. Ferreira; Euzebio M. da Silva; Eric A. Davidson

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Wave Ducting in a Stratified Shear Flow over a Two-Dimensional Mountain. Part I: General Linear Criteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear theory for wave ducting is developed by solving a three-layer, steady-state nonrotating flow over a two-dimensional mountain analytically. The reflection coefficient (Ref), transmission coefficient, and the strongest horizontal wind ...

Ting-An Wang; Yuh-Lang Lin

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

A Two-Dimensional MagnetoHydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation-hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALE). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of $div(\\bB)$ by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multi-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.

Eli Livne; Luc Dessart; Adam Burrows; Casey A. Meakin

2007-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

48

Two-dimensional polymer synthesis : towards a two-dimensional replicating system for nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The general concept of a replicating monolayer system is introduced as a new method of nanostructure synthesis. One possible implementation of a 2-D replicating system is pursued which uses a diacetylene moiety for ...

Mosley, David W

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Nanoindentation Analysis as a Two-Dimensional Tool for Mapping ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Stacking Fault Probability And ? Martensite on Damping Capacity of ... Nanoindentation Analysis as a Two-Dimensional Tool for Mapping the ...

50

Photophysics of Two-dimensional Semiconductor Nanoparticle/Liquid Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These studies have investigated the optical properties of two very different types of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoclusters and superlattices of these nanoclusters.

Kelley, David F.

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

Short communication: A GIS-based decision support system for integrated flood management under uncertainty with two dimensional numerical simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new decision support system has been developed for integrated flood management within the framework of ArcGIS based on realistic two dimensional flood simulations. This system has the ability to interact with and use classified Remote Sensing (RS) ... Keywords: 2D simulation, ArcGIS, Census block, Decision support system, Integrated flood management, Remote sensing

Honghai Qi; M. S. Altinakar

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Impact of Asymmetric Dynamical Processes on the Structure and Intensity Change of Two-Dimensional Hurricane-Like Annular Vortices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a simple two-dimensional (2D) unforced barotropic model is used to study the asymmetric dynamics of the hurricane inner-core region and to assess their impact on the structure and intensity change. Two sets of experiments are ...

Konstantinos Menelaou; M. K. Yau; Yosvany Martinez

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Some Effects of Surface Heating and Topography on the Regional Severe Storm Environment. Part II: Two-Dimensional Idealized Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of two-dimensional (2-D) numerical experiments has been conducted to examine the effects of differential surface heating on flow over a dry, 2000 km-wide plateau. Two effects, found by Benjamin and Carlson in three-dimensional ...

Stanley G. Benjamin

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Two-Dimensional Theory of Fracture Propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A basic theory of two-dimensional (2D) fracture propagation has been developed with a Lagrangian formulation combined with a virtual work analysis. Fluid leakoff is included by the assumption that an incompressible filtrate produces a piston-like displacement of a compressible reservoir fluid with a moving boundary between the two. Poiseuille flow is assumed in the fracture. We consider both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids with and without wall building. For non-Newtonian fluids, we assume the usual power-law relation between shear stress and shear rate. The Lagrangian formulation yields a pair of nonlinear equations in Lf and bf, the fracture length and half-width. By introducing a virtual work analysis, we obtain a single equation that can be solved numerically. For non-wall-building fluids, it predicts much higher leakoff rates than existing methods. The Lagrangian method also allows nonelastic phenomena, such as plasticity, to be included. A practical computer program developed from this theory has been used for more than 10 years to design fracturing treatments in oil and gas reservoirs in Canada, California, the midcontinent and Rocky Mountain areas, the U.S. gulf coast, the North Sea, and in northern Germany. In most of these applications, it has predicted fracture dimensions that have been in line with production experience. Optimization methods based on this program led to very large fracturing treatments in low-permeability gas sands that were forerunners of ’ massive fracturing treatments in tight gas sands. Specific examples in which this method was used to design fracturing programs in large gas fields in Kansas and Texas are discussed.

M. A. Biot; L. Massé; W. L. Medlin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Double Barrier Resonant Tunneling Transistor with a Fully Two Dimensional Emitter  

SciTech Connect

A novel planar resonant tunneling transistor is demonstrated. The growth structure is similar to that of a double-barrier resonant tunneling diode (RTD), except for a fully two-dimensional (2D) emitter formed by a quantum well. Current is fed laterally into the emitter, and the 2D--2D resonant tunneling current is controlled by a surface gate. This unique device structure achieves figures-of-merit, i.e. peak current densities and peak voltages, approaching that of state-of-the-art RTDs. Most importantly, sensitive control of the peak current and voltage is achieved by gating of the emitter quantum well subband energy. This quantum tunneling transistor shows exceptional promise for ultra-high speed and multifunctional operation at room temperature.

MOON,J.S.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.; BACA,WES E.; BLOUNT,MARK A.; HIETALA,VINCENT M.; JONES,ERIC D.

2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

56

A Genetic Approach for Two Dimensional Packing with Constraints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new genetic algorithm based method is proposed for packing rectangular cargos of different sizes into a given loading area in a two dimensional framework. A novel penalty function method is proposed for checking the solution strings ... Keywords: genetic algorithm, penalty function, sentry point, two dimensional packing

Wee Sng Khoo; P. Saratchandran; N. Sundararajan

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Palladium chloride to palladium metal two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The reduction of a monolayer of surface-bound Pd(II) to Pd(0) on a palladium substrate reveals two-dimensional nucleation and growth phenomena. Using well-known 2D nucleation-growth theories, this reduction is shown to proceed by an instantaneous nucleation and growth mechanism. However, when a submonolayer of Pd(II) is present, this mechanism fails to account for the experimentally observed high cathodic currents seen at zero time. A model incorporating preexisting Pd(0) cylindrical sites on the partially oxidized Pd(0) surface has been successfully applied to account for the discrepancy between the experimental results and current 2D theories. Using this modified 2D model, values for the mathematical product of cylindrical growth rate and the square root of the nucleation site densities have been determined, and the overpotential dependence of the growth rate has been confirmed and quantified. These 2D nucleation-growth phenomena have practical consequences on the performance of the Pd(II)/Pd(0) system as a faradaic supercapacitor, and probably on the performance of other 2D faradaic supercapacitor systems. In addition, because many electrodes undergo monolayer surface oxidation-reduction reactions in other solvent systems, especially aqueous electrolytes, these 2D nucleation-growth phenomena may play a role in these important surface-modifying redox systems as well.

Long, H.C. de; Carlin, R.T. [Air Force Academy, CO (United States). Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effective field theory and integrability in two-dimensional Mott transition  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Mott transition in 2d lattice fermion model. > 3D integrability out of 2D. > Effective field theory for Mott transition in 2d. > Double Chern-Simons. > d-Density waves. - Abstract: We study the Mott transition in a two-dimensional lattice spinless fermion model with nearest neighbors density-density interactions. By means of a two-dimensional Jordan-Wigner transformation, the model is mapped onto the lattice XXZ spin model, which is shown to possess a quantum group symmetry as a consequence of a recently found solution of the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation. A projection (from three to two space-time dimensions) property of the solution is used to identify the symmetry of the model at the Mott critical point as U{sub q}(sl(2)-circumflex)xU{sub q}(sl(2)-circumflex), with deformation parameter q = -1. Based on this result, the low-energy effective field theory for the model is obtained and shown to be a lattice double Chern-Simons theory with coupling constant k = 1 (with the standard normalization). By further employing the effective filed theory methods, we show that the Mott transition that arises is of topological nature, with vortices in an antiferromagnetic array and matter currents characterized by a d-density wave order parameter. We also analyze the behavior of the system upon weak coupling, and conclude that it undergoes a quantum gas-liquid transition which belongs to the Ising universality class.

Bottesi, Federico L. [Facultad de Ingenieria Pontificia Universidad Catolica Argentina, Av. Alicia Moreau de Justo 1500, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Department, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zemba, Guillermo R., E-mail: zemba@tander.cnea.gov.ar [Facultad de Ingenieria Pontificia Universidad Catolica Argentina, Av. Alicia Moreau de Justo 1500, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Physics Department, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Libertador 8250, 1429 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

On two-dimensional pattern matching by finite automata  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a general concept of two-dimensional pattern matching using conventional (one-dimensional) finite automata. Then two particular models and methods, implementations of the general principle, are presented. The first of these two models ...

Jan Žd'árek; Bo?ivoj Melichar

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Single particle spectrum of the two dimensional electron gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate spectroscopy has driven advances in chemistry, materials science, and physics. However, despite their importance in the study of highly correlated systems, two-dimensional systems (2DES) have proven difficult to ...

Dial, Oliver Eugene, III

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Plasmon Dispersion in Two-dimensional Charge-Sheets.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dispersion of sheet plasmons in two-dimensional electron systems was investigated in an in-situ ultra high vacuum environment by angle-resolved high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). In… (more)

Liu, Yu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Further Aspects of Transitions in Two-Dimensional Thermal Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present the results of numerical investigation of a two-dimensional nonlinear set of Boussinesq equations governing Bénard–Rayleigh convection using spectral representation in the horizontal direction and finite-difference ...

Marina Zivkovi?; Ernest M. Agee

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Moist Baroclinic Instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study of baroclinic instability in the presence of moisture is performed with a primitive equation nonhydrostatic two-dimensional numerical model. A new assumption regarding the meridional structure of the perturbation mixing ratio is discussed ...

Maurizio Fantini

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Entropy of 2D black holes from counting microstates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a microscopical derivation of the entropy of the black hole solutions of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We show that the asymptotic symmetry of two-dimensional (2D) Anti-de Sitter space is generated by a central extension of the Virasoro algebra. Using a canonical realization of this symmetry and Cardy's formula we calculate the statistical entropy of 2D black holes, which turns out to agree, up to a factor $\\sqrt 2$, with the thermodynamical result.

Mariano Cadoni; Salvatore Mignemi

1998-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

66

Temperature-jump 2D IR spectroscopy to study protein conformational dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature-jump (T-jump) two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) is developed, characterized, and applied to the study of protein folding and association. In solution, protein conformational changes span a wide range ...

Jones, Kevin C. (Kevin Chapman)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

A novel 2-D model approach for the prediction of hourly solar radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a two-dimensional (2-D) representation of the hourly solar radiation data is proposed. The model enables accurate forecasting using image prediction methods. One year solar radiation data that is acquired and collected between August 1, ...

F. Onur Hocaoglu; Ö Nezih Gerek; Mehmet Kurban

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Two-dimensional fluid model simulation of bell jar top inductively coupled plasma  

SciTech Connect

In the present paper, argon (Ar) plasmas in a bell jar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source are systematically studied over pressures from 5 to 20 mtorr and power inputs from 0.2 to 0.5 kW. In this study, both a two-dimensional (2-D) fluid model simulation and global model calculation are compared. The 2-D fluid model simulation with a self-consistent power deposition is developed to describe the Ar plasma behavior as well as predict the plasma parameter distributions. Finally, a quantitative comparison between the global model and the fluid model is made to test their validity. Low-pressure ICP has been employed for etching processing for the last few years.

Wu, H.M.; Yu, B.W. [CFD Research Corp., Huntsville, AL (United States); Li, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Yang, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Three-Dimensionality in Quasi-Two Dimensional Flows: the Barrel Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A scenario is put forward for the appearance of three-dimensionality both in quasi-2D rotating flows and quasi-2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. We distinguish two forms of threedimensionalities, establish how both are ignited by the presence of walls, and how they relate to each other. One form involves velocities or currents along the rotation direction or the magnetic field, while the other leads to quadratic variations of these quantities along this direction. It is shown that the common tendency of these flows to two-dimensionality and the mechanisms of the first form of three-dimensionality can be explained through a single formal analogy between rotating flows, MHD flows and a wider class of flows, whereas the second form involves a distinct mechanism. Because of this trans-disciplinary character, these phenomena are active in such diverse flows as those in atmospheres, oceans and the cooling blankets of nuclear fusion reactors.

Pothérat, Alban

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Two-dimensional magnetic quantum oscillations observed in an organic metal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal of the organic superconductor {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} shows an inverse-sawtooth wave form which proves the existence of an ideal two-dimensional (2D) Fermi surface. The dHvA wave shape can almost perfectly be described by a 2D theory assuming a constant chemical potential. This either implies the existence of the predicted quasi-one-dimensional band with an exceptionally large density of states or the chemical potential may be pinned due to localized states near the Fermi energy.

Hagel, J.; Wanka, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Balthes, E.; Schlueter, J. A.; Kini, A. M.; Geiser, U.; Mohtasham, J.; Winter, R. W.; Gard, G. L.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

71

Investigation of organometallic reaction mechanisms with one and two dimensional vibrational spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One and two dimensional time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy has been used to investigate the elementary reactions of several prototypical organometallic complexes in room temperature solution. The electron transfer and ligand substitution reactions of photogenerated 17-electron organometallic radicals CpW(CO){sub 3} and CpFe(CO){sub 2} have been examined with one dimensional spectroscopy on the picosecond through microsecond time-scales, revealing the importance of caging effects and odd-electron intermediates in these reactions. Similarly, an investigation of the photophysics of the simple Fischer carbene complex Cr(CO){sub 5}[CMe(OMe)] showed that this class of molecule undergoes an unusual molecular rearrangement on the picosecond time-scale, briefly forming a metal-ketene complex. Although time-resolved spectroscopy has long been used for these types of photoinitiated reactions, the advent of two dimensional vibrational spectroscopy (2D-IR) opens the possibility to examine the ultrafast dynamics of molecules under thermal equilibrium conditions. Using this method, the picosecond fluxional rearrangements of the model metal carbonyl Fe(CO){sub 5} have been examined, revealing the mechanism, time-scale, and transition state of the fluxional reaction. The success of this experiment demonstrates that 2D-IR is a powerful technique to examine the thermally-driven, ultrafast rearrangements of organometallic molecules in solution.

Cahoon, James Francis

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Two-Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory as applied to a two-dimensional finite trapped Bose gas at low temperatures and find that, in the Hartree-Fock approximation, the system can be described either with or without the presence of a condensate; this is true in the thermodynamic limit as well. We are unable to find condensate solutions when we consider a scheme that predicts the presence of phonons; moreover, the uncondensed solution, which is still valid when phonons are allowed, has a lower free energy at all temperatures. This seems to indicate that low-energy phonons destabilize the two-dimensional condensate. I.

Juan Pablo Fernández; William J. Mullin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the formation of waves in polarized two-dimensional systems of charged and neutral particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I. [Department of General Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dpartment of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Analysis of Two-Dimensional Non-Rigid Shapes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of deformable two-dimensional shapes is an important problem, encountered in numerous pattern recognition, computer vision and computer graphics applications. In this paper, we address three major problems in the analysis of non-rigid shapes: ... Keywords: GMDS, Gromov-Hausdorff distance, Intrinsic geometry, Multidimensional scaling, Non-rigid shapes, Pareto optimum, Partial similarity

Alexander M. Bronstein; Michael M. Bronstein; Alfred M. Bruckstein; Ron Kimmel

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Haas, Roger A. (Pleasanton, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Higgs algebraic symmetry in the two-dimensional Dirac equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamical symmetry algebra of the two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian with equal scalar and vector Smorodinsky-Winternitz potentials is constructed. It is the Higgs algebra, a cubic polynomial generalization of SU(2). With the help of the Casimir operators, the energy levels are derived algebraically.

Fu-Lin Zhang; Bo Fu; Jing-Ling Chen

2009-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

77

Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

1982-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

78

Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation ... Keywords: Riemann solvers, finite methods, radiative transfer, spherical harmonics, time dependent transport

Thomas A. Brunner; James Paul Holloway

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Locality and stability of the cascades of two-dimensional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

chemical combustion Stabilize plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor Propagation of laser through turbulence;Outline Why study turbulence? Brief overview of K41 theory (3D turbulence) Frisch reformulation of K41 theory. KLB theory (2D turbulence). My reformulation of Frisch to address 2D turbulence Locality

Gkioulekas, Eleftherios - Department of Mathematics, University of Texas

80

THERM: Two-Dimensional Building Heat-Transfer Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 THERM: Two-Dimensional Building Heat-Transfer Modeling For more information and to download THERM, please visit our website: http://windows.lbl.gov/software/therm The Windows and Daylighting Group's two-year-old computer program THERM 1.0 is a state-of-the-art tool for modeling two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components. The thermal property information THERM provides is important for the design and application of building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs and doors. This Microsoft Windows-based program has great potential to users such as building component manufacturers, educators, students, architects, engineers and others who are interested in assessing the heat-transfer properties of single products, product interactions, or integrated systems. THERM

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solitonic Bloch oscillations in two-dimensional optical lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical description for nonlinear beam propagation in a two-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of a refractive-index gradient has been developed. This problem is associated with nonlinear Bloch oscillations; it has been reduced to a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a varying dispersion coefficient. It is shown that, if the periodicity of longitudinal modulation coincides with the transverse gradient of the refractive index, a stationary oscillatory picture emerges in the nonlinear regime.

Khomeriki, Ramaz [Physics Department, Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze 3, 0128 Tbilisi (Georgia) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Two-dimensional color-code quantum computation  

SciTech Connect

We describe in detail how to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation on a two-dimensional color code, making use of only nearest neighbor interactions. Three defects (holes) in the code are used to represent logical qubits. Triple-defect logical qubits are deformed into isolated triangular sections of color code to enable transversal implementation of all single logical qubit Clifford group gates. Controlled-NOT (CNOT) is implemented between pairs of triple-defect logical qubits via braiding.

Fowler, Austin G. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

83

Development of a Two-Dimensional Zonally Averaged Statistical-Dynamical Model. Part I The Parameterization of Moist Convection and its Role in the General Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moist convection parameterization used in the GISS 3-D GCM is adapted for use in a two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged statisticai-dynamical model. Experiments with different versions of the parameterization show that its impact on the ...

Mao-Sung Yao; Peter H. Stone

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Validation for 2D/3D registration I: A new gold standard data set  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: In this article, the authors propose a new gold standard data set for the validation of two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) and 3D/3D image registration algorithms. Methods: A gold standard data set was produced using a fresh cadaver pig head with attached fiducial markers. The authors used several imaging modalities common in diagnostic imaging or radiotherapy, which include 64-slice computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging using Tl, T2, and proton density sequences, and cone beam CT imaging data. Radiographic data were acquired using kilovoltage and megavoltage imaging techniques. The image information reflects both anatomy and reliable fiducial marker information and improves over existing data sets by the level of anatomical detail, image data quality, and soft-tissue content. The markers on the 3D and 2D image data were segmented using ANALYZE 10.0 (AnalyzeDirect, Inc., Kansas City, KN) and an in-house software. Results: The projection distance errors and the expected target registration errors over all the image data sets were found to be less than 2.71 and 1.88 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The gold standard data set, obtained with state-of-the-art imaging technology, has the potential to improve the validation of 2D/3D and 3D/3D registration algorithms for image guided therapy.

Pawiro, S. A.; Markelj, P.; Pernus, F.; Gendrin, C.; Figl, M.; Weber, C.; Kainberger, F.; Noebauer-Huhmann, I.; Bergmeister, H.; Stock, M.; Georg, D.; Bergmann, H.; Birkfellner, W. [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Laboratory of Imaging Technologies, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska Cesta 25, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovenia); Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); University Clinic of Radiology, Division of Osteoradiology, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Department of Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); University Clinic of Radiotherapy, Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, AKH, Vienna A-1090 (Austria); Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, AKH-4L, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, Vienna A-1090 (Austria)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Realization of discrete quantum billiards in a two-dimensional optical lattice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a method for optical visualization of the Bose-Hubbard model with two interacting bosons in the form of two-dimensional (2D) optical lattices consisting of optical waveguides, where the waveguides at the diagonal are characterized by different refractive indices than others elsewhere, modeling the boson-boson interaction. We study the light intensity distribution function averaged over the direction of propagation for both ordered and disordered cases, exploring the sensitivity of the averaged picture with respect to the beam injection position. For our finite systems, the resulting patterns are reminiscent the ones set in billiards, and therefore we introduce a definition of discrete quantum billiards and discuss the possible relevance to its well-established continuous counterpart.

Krimer, Dmitry O. [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Khomeriki, Ramaz [Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Tbilisi State University, Chavchavadze 3, 0128 Tbilisi (Georgia)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Two dimensional lattice-free cuts and asymmetric disjunctions for ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we study the relationship between 2D lattice-free cuts, the family of cuts ... maximal lattice-free sets in R2, and various types of disjunctions.

87

Kinetic analysis of two dimensional metallic grating Cerenkov maser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dispersion relation of two dimensional metallic grating Cerenkov maser has been given by using kinetic analysis, in which the influence of electron movement is directly considered without using an equivalent dielectric medium assumption. The effects of structural parameters and beam state on the interaction gain and synchronous frequency have also been investigated in detail by numerical calculations. To an illustrative case, the quantitative relations produced from varying the gap distance between electron beam and metallic grating, beam current, electron transverse to axial velocity ratio, and electron axial velocity spread have been obtained. The developed method can be used to predict the real interaction system performances.

Zhao Ding [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Dynamic Multiscaling in Two-dimensional Fluid Turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We obtain, by extensive direct numerical simulations, time-dependent and equal-time structure functions for the vorticity, in both quasi-Lagrangian and Eulerian frames, for the direct-cascade regime in two-dimensional fluid turbulence with air-drag-induced friction. We show that different ways of extracting time scales from these time-dependent structure functions lead to different dynamic-multiscaling exponents, which are related to equal-time multiscaling exponents by different classes of bridge relations; for a representative value of the friction we verify that, given our error bars, these bridge relations hold.

Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Perlekar, Prasad; Pandit, Rahul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Optical and electronic properties of two dimensional graphitic silicon carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical and electronic properties of two dimensional few layers graphitic silicon carbide (GSiC), in particular monolayer and bilayer, are investigated by density functional theory and found different from that of graphene and silicene. Monolayer GSiC has direct bandgap while few layers exhibit indirect bandgap. The bandgap of monolayer GSiC can be tuned by an in-plane strain. Properties of bilayer GSiC are extremely sensitive to the interlayer distance. These predictions promise that monolayer GSiC could be a remarkable candidate for novel type of light-emitting diodes utilizing its unique optical properties distinct from graphene, silicene and few layers GSiC.

Lin, Xiao; Lin, Shisheng; Hakro, Ayaz Ali; Cao, Te; Chen, Hongsheng; Zhang, Baile

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCP) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This information can directly be used for the reconstruction of vertex positions as well as for an input for numerical simulations of the reaction zone. The spatial resolution of the images are dominated by the granularity of the complete MCP device and was found to be in the order of \\sigma~100 \\mu m.

Alfons Khoukaz; Daniel Bonaventura; Silke Grieser; Ann-Katrin Hergemöller; Esperanza Köhler; Alexander Täschner

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

91

Optimization of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells by two-dimensional numerical simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, two-dimensional (2D) simulation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells is presented using Sentaurus Device, a software package of Synopsys TCAD. A model is established incorporating a distribution of trap states of amorphous-silicon material and thermionic emission across the amorphous-silicon / crystalline-silicon heterointerface. The 2D nature of IBC-SHJ device is evaluated and current density-voltage (J-V) curves are generated. Optimization of IBC-SHJ solar cells is then discussed through simulation. It is shown that the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC) of IBC-SHJ solar cells increase with decreasing front surface recombination velocity. The JSC improves further with the increase of relative coverage of p-type emitter contacts, which is explained by the simulated and measured position dependent laser beam induced current (LBIC) line scan. The S-shaped J-V curves with low fill factor (FF) observed in experiments are also simulated, and three methods to improve FF by modifying the intrinsic a-Si buffer layer are suggested: (i) decreased thickness, (ii) increased conductivity, and (iii) reduced band gap. With all these optimizations, an efficiency of 26% for IBC-SHJ solar cells is potentially achievable.

Lu, Meijun; Das, Ujjwal; Bowden, Stuart; Hegedus, Steven; Birmire, Robert

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

92

Shock waves in capillary collapse of colloids: a model system for two--dimensional screened Newtonian gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using Brownian dynamics simulations, density functional theory, and analytical perturbation theory we study the collapse of a patch of interfacially trapped, micrometer-sized colloidal particles, driven by long-ranged capillary attraction. This attraction {is formally analogous} to two--dimensional (2D) screened Newtonian gravity with the capillary length \\hat{\\lambda} as the screening length. Whereas the limit \\hat{\\lambda} \\to \\infty corresponds to the global collapse of a self--gravitating fluid, for finite \\hat{\\lambda} we predict theoretically and observe in simulations a ringlike density peak at the outer rim of a disclike patch, moving as an inbound shock wave. Possible experimental realizations are discussed.

J. Bleibel; S. Dietrich; A. Dominguez; M. Oettel

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Microphase morphology in two dimensional fluids under lateral confinement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effects of confinement between two parallel walls on a two dimensional fluid with competing interactions which lead to the formation of particle micro-domains at the thermodynamic equilibrium (microphases or microseparation). The possibility to induce structural changes of the morphology of the micro-domains is explored, under different confinement conditions and temperatures. In presence of neutral walls, a switch from stripes of particles to circular clusters (droplets) occurs as the temperature decreases, which does not happen in bulk. While the passage from droplets to stripes, as the density increases, is a well known phenomenon, the change of the stripes into droplets as an effect of temperature is rather unexpected. Depending on the wall separation and on the wall-fluid interaction parameters, the stripes can switch from parallel to perpendicular to the walls and also a mixed morphology can be stable.

A. Imperio; L. Reatto

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

95

A high-resolution two-dimensional imaging velocimeter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Velocity interferometers are typically used to measure velocities of surfaces at a single point or along an imaged line as a function of time. We describe an optical arrangement that enables high-resolution measurements of the two-dimensional velocity field across a shock front or shocked interface. The technique is employed to measure microscopic fluctuations in shock fronts that have passed through materials being considered as ablators for indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion. With picosecond time resolution the instrument captures velocity modes with wavelengths as short as 2.5 {mu}m at a resolution of {approx}10 m/s rms on velocity fields averaging many km/s over an 800 {mu}m field of view.

Celliers, P. M.; Erskine, D. J.; Sorce, C. M.; Braun, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.

Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Reconnection events in two-dimensional Hall magnetohydrodynamic turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The statistical study of magnetic reconnection events in two-dimensional turbulence has been performed by comparing numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and Hall magnetohydrodynamics (HMHD). The analysis reveals that the Hall term plays an important role in turbulence, in which magnetic islands simultaneously reconnect in a complex way. In particular, an increase of the Hall parameter, the ratio of ion skin depth to system size, broadens the distribution of reconnection rates relative to the MHD case. Moreover, in HMHD the local geometry of the reconnection region changes, manifesting bifurcated current sheets and quadrupolar magnetic field structures in analogy to laminar studies, leading locally to faster reconnection processes in this case of reconnection embedded in turbulence. This study supports the idea that the global rate of energy dissipation is controlled by the large scale turbulence, but suggests that the distribution of the reconnection rates within the turbulent system is sensitive to the microphysics at the reconnection sites.

Donato, S.; Servidio, S.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Fisica de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Shay, M. A.; Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cassak, P. A. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

A lattice study of the two-dimensional Wess  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from a numerical simulation of the two-dimensional Euclidean Wess-Zumino model. In the continuum the theory possesses N = 1 supersymmetry. The lattice model we employ was analyzed by Golterman and Petcher in [1] where a perturbative proof was given that the continuum supersymmetric Ward identities are recovered without finite tuning in the limit of vanishing lattice spacing. Our simulations demonstrate the existence of important non-perturbative effects in finite volumes which modify these conclusions. It appears that in certain regions of parameter space the vacuum state can contain solitons corresponding to field configurations which interpolate between different classical vacua. In the background of these solitons supersymmetry is partially broken and a light fermion mode is observed. At fixed coupling the critical mass separating phases of broken and unbroken supersymmetry appears to be volume dependent. We discuss the implications of our results for continuum supersymmetry breaking. 0

Zumino Model; Simon Catterall; Sergey Karamov

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Incoherent control and entanglement for two-dimensional coupled systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate accessibility and controllability of a quantum system S coupled to a quantum probe P, both described by two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, under the hypothesis that the external control affects only P. In this context accessibility and controllability properties describe to what extent it is possible to drive the state of the system S by acting on P and using the interaction between the two systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for these properties and we discuss the relation with the entangling capability of the interaction between S and P. In particular, we show that controllability can be expressed in terms of the SWAP operator, acting on the composite system, and its square root.

R. Romano; D. D'Alessandro

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

100

Search for conformal invariance in compressible two-dimensional turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a search for conformal invariance in vorticity isolines of two-dimensional compressible turbulence. The vorticity is measured by tracking the motion of particles that float at the surface of a turbulent tank of water. The three-dimensional turbulence in the tank has a Taylor microscale $Re_\\lambda \\simeq 160$. The conformal invariance theory being tested here is related to the behavior of equilibrium systems near a critical point. This theory is associated with the work of L\\"owner, Schramm and others and is usually referred to as Schramm-L\\"owner Evolution (SLE). The system was exposed to several tests of SLE. The results of these tests suggest that zero-vorticity isolines exhibit noticeable departures from this type of conformal invariance.

S. Stefanus; J. Larkin; W. I. Goldburg

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Optically trapped quasi-two-dimensional Bose gases in a random environment: Quantum fluctuations and superfluid density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate a dilute Bose gas confined in a tight one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice plus a superimposed random potential at zero temperature. Accordingly, the ground-state energy, quantum depletion, and superfluid density are calculated. The presence of the lattice introduces a crossover to the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) regime, where we analyze asymptotically the 2D behavior of the system, particularly the effects of disorder. We thereby offer an analytical expression for the ground-state energy of a purely 2D Bose gas in a random potential. The obtained disorder-induced normal fluid density n{sub n} and quantum depletion n{sub d} both exhibit a characteristic 1/ln(1/n{sub 2D}a{sub 2D}{sup 2}) dependence. Their ratio n{sub n}/n{sub d} increases to 2 compared to the familiar 4/3 in lattice-free three-dimensional (3D) geometry, signifying a more pronounced contrast between superfluidity and Bose-Einstein condensation in low dimensions. The conditions for possible experimental realization of our scenario are also proposed.

Zhou Kezhao; Liang Zhaoxin; Zhang Zhidong [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, and International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hu Ying [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems (Hong Kong), Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Evaluation of two-dimensional displacement components of symmetrical deformation by phase-shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the isolation of two-dimensional (2D) displacement components by using one phase map obtained by phase-shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI)is presented. When the typical ESPI is used for displacement measurement, a mixed phase distribution of deformation is measured. If the deformation of the object is symmetrical, two components of deformation can be separated from each other by using the mixed phase distribution. We turn over the mixed phase map first to obtain the second phase map, and then overlap them. Two displacement components can be separated from each other by boundary alignment and algebraic calculation between the two phase maps. This method has been proved feasible by a typical three-point bending experiment. Some experimental results are offered and compared with the results obtained by a dual-beam symmetrical illuminations experiment. This technique presented provides an alternative approach to 2D deformation measurement.

Sun Ping

2007-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

103

Transient Upwelling Generated by Two-Dimensional Atmospheric Forcing and Variability in the Coastline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper deals with two-dimensional transient upwelling in a two-layer ocean of constant depth. Motions generated by several two-dimensional atmospheric forcings are investigated. Using asymptotic expansions in time, it is shown that the ...

Michel Crépon; Claude Richez

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Two-dimensional ion trap lattice on a microchip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microfabricated ion traps are a major advancement towards scalable quantum computing with trapped ions. The development of more flexible ion trap designs, in which tailored arrays of ions are positioned in two dimensions above a microfabricated surface, would lead to applications in fields as varied as quantum simulation, metrology and atom-ion interactions. Current surface ion traps often have low trap depths and high heating rates, due to the size of the voltages that can be applied to them, limiting the fidelity of quantum gates. In this article we report on a fabrication process that allows for the application of very high voltages to microfabricated devices in general and we apply this advance to fabricate a 2D ion trap lattice on a microchip. Our scalable microfabricated architecture allows for reliable trapping of 2D ion lattices, long ion lifetimes due to the deep trapping potential, rudimentary shuttling between lattice sites and the ability to deterministically introduce defects into the ion lattice.

R. C. Sterling; H. Rattanasonti; S. Weidt; K. Lake; P. Srinivasan; S. C. Webster; M. Kraft; W. K. Hensinger

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Method and apparatus for two-dimensional spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Preferred embodiments of the invention provide for methods and systems of 2D spectroscopy using ultrafast, first light and second light beams and a CCD array detector. A cylindrically-focused second light beam interrogates a target that is optically interactive with a frequency-dispersed excitation (first light) pulse, whereupon the second light beam is frequency-dispersed at right angle orientation to its line of focus, so that the horizontal dimension encodes the spatial location of the second light pulse and the first light frequency, while the vertical dimension encodes the second light frequency. Differential spectra of the first and second light pulses result in a 2D frequency-frequency surface equivalent to double-resonance spectroscopy. Because the first light frequency is spatially encoded in the sample, an entire surface can be acquired in a single interaction of the first and second light pulses.

DeCamp, Matthew F. (Swarthmore, PA); Tokmakoff, Andrei (Lexington, MA)

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

106

Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.

Stavroula Foteinopoulou

2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

107

A hybrid genetic algorithm for a variant of two-dimensional packing problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variant of two-dimensional packing problem was given in the GECCO'2008 competition. This paper describes the genetic algorithm that produced the best result and thus won the No. 1 prize. As the problem is naturally represented by a two-dimensional ... Keywords: breadth-first search, geographic crossover, hybrid genetic algorithm, local search, packing, two-dimensional

Jin Kim; Byung-Ro Moon

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

ACCRETION DISKS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL HOYLE-LYTTLETON FLOW  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the flip-flop instability observed in two-dimensional planar hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion in the case of an accreting object with a radius much smaller than the nominal accretion radius, as one would expect in astrophysically relevant situations. Contrary to previous results with larger accretors, accretion from a homogenous medium onto a small accretor is characterized by a robust, quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. For gas with a ratio of specific heats of 5/3, such a disk remains locked in one direction for a uniform ambient medium. The accretion flow is more variable for gas with a ratio of specific heats of 4/3, with more dynamical interaction of the disk flow with the bow shock leading to occasional flips in the direction of rotation of the accretion disk. In both cases the accretion of angular momentum is determined by the flow pattern behind the accretion shock rather than by the parameters of the upstream flow.

Blondin, John M., E-mail: John_Blondin@ncsu.edu [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States)

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

109

Number of degrees of freedom of two-dimensional turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive upper bounds for the number of degrees of freedom of two-dimensional Navier--Stokes turbulence freely decaying from a smooth initial vorticity field $\\omega(x,y,0)=\\omega_0$. This number, denoted by $N$, is defined as the minimum dimension such that for $n\\ge N$, arbitrary $n$-dimensional balls in phase space centred on the solution trajectory $\\omega(x,y,t)$, for $t>0$, contract under the dynamics of the system linearized about $\\omega(x,y,t)$. In other words, $N$ is the minimum number of greatest Lyapunov exponents whose sum becomes negative. It is found that $N\\le C_1R_e$ when the phase space is endowed with the energy norm, and $N\\le C_2R_e(1+\\ln R_e)^{1/3}$ when the phase space is endowed with the enstrophy norm. Here $C_1$ and $C_2$ are constant and $R_e$ is the Reynolds number defined in terms of $\\omega_0$, the system length scale, and the viscosity $\

Chuong V. Tran; Luke Blackbourn

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Acoustic dispersion in a two-dimensional dipole system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We calculate the full density response function and from it the long-wavelength acoustic dispersion for a two-dimensional system of strongly coupled point dipoles interacting through a 1/r{sup 3} potential at arbitrary degeneracy. Such a system has no random-phase-approximation (RPA) limit and the calculation has to include correlations from the outset. We follow the quasilocalized charge (QLC) approach, accompanied by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Similarly to what has been recently reported for the closely spaced classical electron-hole bilayer [G. J. Kalman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 236801 (2007)] and in marked contrast to the RPA, we report a long-wavelength acoustic phase velocity that is wholly maintained by particle correlations and varies linearly with the dipole moment p. The oscillation frequency, calculated both in an extended QLC approximation and in the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation [Phys. Rev. 176, 589 (1968)], is invariant in form over the entire classical to quantum domains all the way down to zero temperature. Based on our classical MD-generated pair distribution function data and on ground-state energy data generated by recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a bosonic dipole system [G. E. Astrakharchik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060405 (2007)], there is a good agreement between the QLC approximation kinetic sound speeds and the standard thermodynamic sound speeds in both the classical and quantum domains.

Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401-1455 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Observation of a Two-Dimensional Fermi Gas of Atoms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have prepared a degenerate gas of fermionic atoms which move in two dimensions while the motion in the third dimension is 'frozen' by tight confinement and low temperature. In situ imaging provides direct measurement of the density profile and temperature. The gas is confined in a defect-free optical potential, and the interactions are widely tunable by means of a Fano-Feshbach resonance. This system can be a starting point for exploration of 2D Fermi physics and critical phenomena in a pure, controllable environment.

Martiyanov, Kirill; Makhalov, Vasiliy; Turlapov, Andrey [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Ulyanova 46, Nizhniy Novgorod, 603000 (Russian Federation)

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

112

GELBANK : A database of annotated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of biological systems with completed genomes.  

SciTech Connect

GELBANK is a publicly available database of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) gel patterns of proteomes from organisms with known genome information (available at and ftp://bioinformatics.anl.gov/gelbank/). Currently it includes 131 completed, mostly microbial proteomes available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. A web interface allows the upload of 2D gel patterns and their annotation for registered users. The images are organized by species, tissue type, separation method, sample type and staining method. The database can be queried based on protein or 2DE-pattern attributes. A web interface allows registered users to assign molecular weight and pH gradient profiles to their own 2D gel patterns as well as to link protein identifications to a given spot on the pattern. The website presents all of the submitted 2D gel patterns where the end-user can dynamically display the images or parts of images along with molecular weight, pH profile information and linked protein identification. A collection of images can be selected for the creation of animations from which the user can select sub-regions of interest and unlimited 2D gel patterns for visualization. The website currently presents 233 identifications for 81 gel patterns for Homo sapiens, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyro coccus furiosus, Shewanella oneidensis, Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans.

Babnigg, G.; Giometti, C. S.; Biosciences Division

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROJECTED SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. I. METHOD AND APPLICATION TO NGC 4261  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a new method for the determination of the two-dimensional (2D) projected spatial distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in external galaxies. This method is based on the K-Nearest Neighbor density estimator of Dressler, complemented by Monte-Carlo simulations to establish the statistical significance of the results. We apply this method to NGC 4261, a ''test galaxy'' where significant 2D anisotropy in the GC distribution has been reported. We confirm that the 2D distribution of GC is not azimuthally isotropic. Moreover, we demonstrate that the 2D distribution departures from the average GC radial distribution results in highly significant spiral-like or broken shell features. Overall, the same perturbations are found in ''red'' and ''blue'' GCs, but with some differences. In particular, we observe a central feature, roughly aligned with the minor axis of NGC 4261, composed of red and most luminous GCs. Blue and fainter GCs are more frequent at large radial distances and follow the spiral-like features of the overall density structure. These results suggest a complex merging history for NGC 4261.

D'Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Zezas, A.; Mineo, S.; Fragos, T.; Kim, D.-W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Strader, J. [Department of Astronomy, Michigan State University, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Bonfini, P. [Physics Department and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); King, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Two-dimensional defect modes in optically induced photonic lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, localized linear defect modes due to band gap guidance in two-dimensional photonic lattices with localized or nonlocalized defects are investigated theoretically. First, when the defect is localized and weak, eigenvalues of defect modes bifurcated from edges of Bloch bands are derived analytically. It is shown that in an attractive (repulsive) defect, defect modes bifurcate out from Bloch-band edges with normal (anomalous) diffraction coefficients. Furthermore, distances between defect-mode eigenvalues and Bloch-band edges decrease exponentially with the defect strength, which is very different from the one-dimensional case where such distances decrease quadratically with the defect strength. It is also found that some defect-mode branches bifurcate not from Bloch-band edges, but from quasiedge points within Bloch bands, which is very unusual. Second, when the defect is localized but strong, defect modes are determined numerically. It is shown that both the repulsive and attractive defects can support various types of defect modes such as fundamental, dipole, quadrupole, and vortex modes. These modes reside in various band gaps of the photonic lattice. As the defect strength increases, defect modes move from lower band gaps to higher ones when the defect is repulsive, but remain within each band gap when the defect is attractive, similar to the one-dimensional case. The same phenomena are observed when the defect is held fixed while the applied dc field (which controls the lattice potential) increases. Lastly, if the defect is nonlocalized (i.e., it persists at large distances in the lattice), it is shown that defect modes can be embedded inside the continuous spectrum, and they can bifurcate out from edges of the continuous spectrum algebraically rather than exponentially.

Wang Jiandong; Yang Jianke; Chen Zhigang [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132 (United States)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF BARRED GALAXIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Barred galaxies are known to possess magnetic fields that may affect the properties of bar substructures such as dust lanes and nuclear rings. We use two-dimensional high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the formation and evolution of such substructures, as well as on the mass inflow rates to the galaxy center. The gaseous medium is assumed to be infinitesimally thin, isothermal, non-self-gravitating, and threaded by initially uniform, azimuthal magnetic fields. We find that there exists an outermost x{sub 1}-orbit relative to which gaseous responses to an imposed stellar bar potential are completely different between inside and outside. Inside this orbit, gas is shocked into dust lanes and infalls to form a nuclear ring. Magnetic fields are compressed in dust lanes, reducing their peak density. Magnetic stress removes further angular momentum of the gas at the shocks, temporarily causing the dust lanes to bend into an 'L' shape and eventually leading to a smaller and more centrally distributed ring than in unmagnetized models. The mass inflow rates in magnetized models correspondingly become larger, by more than two orders of magnitude when the initial fields have an equipartition value with thermal energy, than in the unmagnetized counterparts. Outside the outermost x{sub 1}-orbit, on the other hand, an MHD dynamo due to the combined action of the bar potential and background shear operates near the corotation and bar-end regions, efficiently amplifying magnetic fields. The amplified fields shape into trailing magnetic arms with strong fields and low density. The base of the magnetic arms has a thin layer in which magnetic fields with opposite polarity reconnect via a tearing-mode instability. This produces numerous magnetic islands with large density that propagate along the arms to turn the outer disk into a highly chaotic state.

Kim, Woong-Tae [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Stone, James M., E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Connected Components for a Fast and Robust 2D Lidar Data Segmentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a novel segmentation approach applied to a two-dimensional point-cloud extracted by a LIDAR device. The most common approaches perform well in outdoor environments where usually furniture and other objects are rather big and are composed ... Keywords: 2D Lidar Segmentation, Connected Component, Intelligent Vehicles, Point-cloud analysis, Unmanned Ground Vehicle

Daniel Oñoro Rubio, Artem Lenskiy, Jee-Hwan Ryu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Exact solutions for the 2d one component plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The 2d one component gas of pointlike charges in a uniform neutralizing background interacting with a logarithmic potential is a common model for plasmas. In its classical equilibrium statistics at fixed temperature (canonical ensemble) it is formally related to certain types of random matrices with Gaussian distribution and complex eigenvalues. In this paper, I present an exact integration of this ensemble for $N$ such particles (or alternatively $N\\times N$ matrices) for all even non-negative temperatures, a significant open problem in statistical physics for several decades. I achieve this exact integration via an exact integration of a related ensemble, the two-dimensional Selberg integral.

Timothy D. Andersen

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

118

Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

Mario Agio

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

119

Two dimensional compound parabolic concentrating collectors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Seven different compound parabolic concentrating (CPC) collector designs were tested by the ray trace method. The comparison of the collector was performed by simulating sunlight striking the designs at various angles of the sun during the course of the day. All of the CPC solar collector designs used the same type of reflective material, Kinglux reflective aluminum, which is a highly reflective surface used in solar applications. The CPC solar collector designs were subjected to a light source consisting of one helium-neon laser. The laser, to represent the effect of sunlight on the stationary CPC solar collector, was slowly moved across the aperture opening. This is explained in detail. Mathematic equations were used to develop the different CPC solar collector designs. The different shapes for each collector design, were acquired by varying the size of the absorber tube, and also by varying the acceptance angle of the collector. The seven CPC solar collector designs were tested, and the optimal design was selected for experimental testing.

Henry, J.P.; Gamble, N.T.; Cassidy, S.A.

1983-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

A Variational Transport Theory Method for Two-Dimensional Reactor Core Calculations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A Variational Transport Theory Method for Two-Dimensional Reactor Core Calculations Scott W. Mosher 110 Pages Directed by Dr. Farzad Rahnema It seems very likely that… (more)

Mosher, Scott William

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

KIVA: a comprehensive model for 2D and 3D engine simulations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper summarizes a comprehensive numerical model that represents the spray dynamics, fluid flow, species transport, mixing, chemical reactions, and accompanying heat release that occur inside the cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The model is embodied in the KIVA computer code. The code calculates both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) situations. It is an outgrowth of the earlier 2D CONCHAS-SPRAY computer program. Sample numerical calculations are presented to indicate the level of detail that is available from these simulations. These calculations are for a direct injection stratified charge engine with swirl. Both a 2D and a 3D example are shown.

Amsden, A.A.; Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Ramshaw, J.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Thin films flowing down inverted substrates: two dimensional flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider free surface instabilities of films flowing on inverted substrates within the framework of lubrication approximation. We allow for the presence of fronts and related contact lines, and explore the role which they play in instability development. It is found that a contact line, modeled by a commonly used precursor film model, leads to free surface instabilities of convective type without any additional natural or excited perturbations. A single parameter D=(3Ca)^{1/3}cot\\alpha, where Ca is the capillary number and \\alpha is the inclination angle, is identified as a governing parameter in the problem. This parameter may be interpreted to reflect the combined effect of inclination angle, film thickness, Reynolds number and the fluid flux. Variation of D leads to change of the wave-like properties of the instabilities, allowing to observe traveling wave behavior, mixed waves, and the waves resembling solitary ones.

Lin, Te-sheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Symmetric and asymmetric solitons and vortices in linearly coupled two-dimensional waveguides with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is well known that the two-dimensional (2D) nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLSE) with the cubic-quintic (CQ) nonlinearity supports a family of stable fundamental solitons, as well as solitary vortices (alias vortex rings), which are stable for sufficiently large values of the norm. We study stationary localized modes in a symmetric linearly coupled system of two such equations, focusing on asymmetric states. The model may describe "optical bullets" in dual-core nonlinear optical waveguides (including spatiotemporal vortices that were not discussed before), or a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a "dual-pancake" trap. Each family of solutions in the single-component model has two different counterparts in the coupled system, one symmetric and one asymmetric. Similarly to the earlier studied coupled 1D system with the CQ nonlinearity, the present model features bifurcation loops, for fundamental and vortex solitons alike: with the increase of the total energy (norm), the symmetric solitons become...

Dror, Nir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Fully Two-Dimensional, Nonoscillatory Advection Scheme for Momentum and Scalar Transport Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advection scheme developed in this study is a fully two-dimensional and nonoscillatory extension of the one-dimensional Crowley-type mass-conserving schemes. The fully two-dimensional scheme includes new cell-to-cell fluxes directed along the ...

Elías Valur Hólm

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Autonomous sub-image matching for two-dimensional electrophoresis gels using MaxRST algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Matching two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel images typically generates a bottleneck in the automated protein analysis, and image distortion and experimental variation, which reduce the matching accuracy. However, conventional matching schemes ... Keywords: Features extraction, Gabriel graph, Gaussian similarity measure, Maximum relation spanning tree, Relative neighborhood graph, Sub-image matching, Two-dimensional electrophoresis

Daw-Tung Lin

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

MMSE channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional hadamard transform for OFDM systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) channel estimation algorithm for OFDM systems is proposed. The algorithm adopts two-dimensional Hadamard transform (TDHT) instead of the conventional Fourier transform, and more noise interference ... Keywords: MMSE, OFDM, channel estimation, two-dimensional hadamard transform

Qihong Ge; Liuguo Yin; Huazhong Yang

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

An approximate two-dimensional Riemann solver for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional Riemann solver is proposed for the solution of hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in two dimensions of space. The solver approximates the solution of a so-called angular two-dimensional Riemann problem as the weighted sum of the ... Keywords: Conservation laws, Godunov-type schemes, Riemann solver, Shallow-water equations, Shock waves, Source term discretization

Vincent Guinot

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Argonne CNM Highlight: Self-Assembly Kinetics of Two-Dimensional  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self-Assembly Kinetics of Two-Dimensional Nanocrystal Superlattices Self-Assembly Kinetics of Two-Dimensional Nanocrystal Superlattices Two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices Two-dimensional assembly of gold nanocrystals at a toluene-air interface during colloidal droplet evaporation process: in situ optical microscopy (top panel, inset is a TEM image of the array after drying) and time-resolved GISAXS (bottom panel a-b). Self-assembly of a crystalline phase with quasi-long-range positional order for two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattice (NSC) domains at the liquid-air interface during droplet evaporation has been observed. The NSCs were formed by depositing a colloidal suspension of highly monodisperse dodecanethiol-ligated gold nanocrystals. The kinetics of the self-assembly were immediately captured by in situ time-resolved grazing-incidence

129

TRIPLET: a two-dimensional, multigroup, triangular mesh, planar geometry, explicit transport code  

SciTech Connect

TRIPLET solves the two-dimensional multigroup transport equation in planar geometries by using a regular triangular mesh. Regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (K/sub eff/ and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, or source boundary conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering ia allowed, and anisotropic distributed sources are permitted. The discrete ordinates approximation is used for the angular variables. A finite element method in which the angular flux is assumed to be given by a low-order polynomial in each triangle is used to solve the discrete ordinates equations. Angular fluxes are allowed to be discontinuous across triangle boundaries. A six-group, S/sub 2/, 1700-triangle, k/sub eff/ calculation of an EBR-II core requires about 4.4 minutes of CDC-7600 time; running times vary almost linearly with the total number of unknowns. Sources, fluxes, S/sub n/ constants, and cross sections may be read from standard interface files; flexible edit options are provided. Six scratch units and two system I/O units are required. A large bulk memory is necessary if core storage is inadequate. This program is operational on the CDC-7600, CDC-6600, and IBM- 360/195 computers. (13 figures, 13 tables) (RWR)

Reed, W.H.; Hill, T.R.; Brinkley, F.W.; Lathrop, K.D.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

ARM - Datastreams - sonicwind2d  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Datastreamssonicwind2d Datastreamssonicwind2d Documentation Data Quality Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Datastream : SONICWIND2D Horizontal wind speed and direction from ultrasonic wind sensor (Vaisala WS425), 2m above ground on Barrow MET tower Active Dates 2003.10.31 - 2008.09.16 Measurement Categories Atmospheric State Originating Instrument ultrasonic wind sensor (SONICWIND) Measurements Only measurements considered scientifically relevant are shown below by default. Show all measurements Measurement Units Variable Horizontal wind Wind direction vector mean deg SonicWD_DU_WVT ( time ) Wind direction vector mean standard deviation deg SonicWD_SDU_WVT ( time ) Horizontal wind Wind speed arithmetic mean m/s SonicWS_S_WVT ( time )

131

TOPAZ2D heat transfer code users manual and thermal property data base  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TOPAZ2D is a two dimensional implicit finite element computer code for heat transfer analysis. This user's manual provides information on the structure of a TOPAZ2D input file. Also included is a material thermal property data base. This manual is supplemented with The TOPAZ2D Theoretical Manual and the TOPAZ2D Verification Manual. TOPAZ2D has been implemented on the CRAY, SUN, and VAX computers. TOPAZ2D can be used to solve for the steady state or transient temperature field on two dimensional planar or axisymmetric geometries. Material properties may be temperature dependent and either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions can be specified including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation. Time or temperature dependent internal heat generation can be defined locally be element or globally by material. TOPAZ2D can solve problems of diffuse and specular band radiation in an enclosure coupled with conduction in material surrounding the enclosure. Additional features include thermally controlled reactive chemical mixtures, thermal contact resistance across an interface, bulk fluid flow, phase change, and energy balances. Thermal stresses can be calculated using the solid mechanics code NIKE2D which reads the temperature state data calculated by TOPAZ2D. A three dimensional version of the code, TOPAZ3D is available. The material thermal property data base, Chapter 4, included in this manual was originally published in 1969 by Art Edwards for use with his TRUMP finite difference heat transfer code. The format of the data has been altered to be compatible with TOPAZ2D. Bob Bailey is responsible for adding the high explosive thermal property data.

Shapiro, A.B.; Edwards, A.L.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Capturing the crystalline phase of two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices in action.  

SciTech Connect

Critical photonic, electronic, and magnetic applications of two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices often require nanostructures in perfect single-crystal phases with long-range order and limited defects. Here we discovered a crystalline phase with quasi-long-range positional order for two-dimensional nanocrystal superlattice domains self-assembled at the liquid-air interface during droplet evaporation, using in situ time-resolved X-ray scattering along with rigorous theories on two dimensional crystal structures. Surprisingly, it was observed that drying these superlattice domains preserved only an orientational order but not a long-range positional order, also supported by quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscopy images.

Jiang, Z.; Lin, X.-M.; Sprung, M.; Narayanan, S.; Wang, J.; X-Ray Science Division

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Sputter deposition of multilayer thermoelectric films: An approach to the fabrication of two-dimensional quantum wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The relative efficiency of a thermoelectric material is measured in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. Though all known thermoelectric materials are believed to have ZT{le}1, recent theoretical results predict that thermoelectric devices fabricated as two-dimensional quantum wells (2D QWs) or onedimensional (1D) quantum wires could have ZT{ge}3. Multilayers with the dimensions of 2D QWs have been synthesized by alternately sputtering Bi{sub 0.9}Sb{sub 0.1} and PbTe{sub 0.8}Se{sub 0.2} onto a moving single-crystal sapphire substrate from dual magnetrons. These materials have been used to test the thermoelectric quantum-well concept and gain insight into relevant transport mechanisms. If successful, this research could lead to thermoelectric devices that have efficiencies close to that of an ideal Carnot engine. Ultimately, such devices could be used to replace conventional heat engines and mechanical refrigeration systems.

Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Chapline, G.C. Jr.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S.; Hicks, L.D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Quantifying one and two dimensional lateral heterogeneities in fluvio-deltaic reservoirs using 3-D seismic data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We document scale-invariant statistics and strong anisotropy in rock properties from well log and 3-D seismic data in fluvial/deltaic reservoirs in the El 330 Field, Gulf of Mexico. The scarcity of well log data in the lateral direction necessitates the use of lower resolution seismic data to quantify lateral heterogeneity. Spectral analysis of two dimensional seismic horizon slices and one dimensional traces extracted form the 3-D data cube reveal scale invariant behavior with a characteristic correlation parameter ([beta]) in both dimensions. This parameter captures the degree of correlation in profiles or surfaces ([beta]=0) for white noise. Two dimensional analysis of the horizon slice indicates a ([beta]) value of approximately 2.0 while analysis of one dimensional profiles from the same slice reveal an anisotropy along depositional strike and dip with ([beta]) values of 1.6 and 2.1, respectively. The higher correlation observed in the direction of stratigraphic dip may reflect the stratigraphic fabric associated with channel systems. This one dimensional lateral variability in seismic data also matches the variability in higher resolution horizontal well log data suggesting a scale invariant behavior over approximately 3 orders of magnitude (1-1000 feet). Different depositional environments within specific systems tracts may have characteristic correlation parameters that provide insight into one and two dimensional lateral variations of reservoir heterogeneity. Correlation parameters obtained in these environments may then be used to quantify rock fabric and provide constraints in the simulation of rock property fields in the inter-well region.

Deutsch, H.A.; Douglass, R. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Hamilton, D.E. (Subsurface Computer Modeling, Inc., Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Two-Dimensional Model of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation of Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal wind, temperature and column ozone has been successfully modeled in a two-dimensional dynamical/chemical model by the introduction of a parameterization scheme to model the transfer of ...

L. J. Gray; J. A. Pyle

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A Detailed Microphysical Model Within a Two-Dimensional Dynamic Framework: Model Description and Preliminary Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional anelastic cloud model which incorporates detailed treatments of the water and ice phase is presented. The liquid phase processes considered include condensation, quasi-stochastic coalescence, fallout and breakup, while the ice ...

William D. Hall

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Feature Extraction and Selection for Pattern Recognition of Two-Dimensional Hydrometeor Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New feature extraction techniques are developed for two-dimensional binary images of ice particles and raindrops. These features are employed in the statistical classification of these patterns into one of seven basic hydrometeor shapes. These ...

Mizanur M. Rahman; Edmund A. Quincy; Raymond G. Jacquot; Michael J. Magee

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Constraints on Solutions of Long's Equation for Steady, Two-Dimensional, Hydrostatic Flow over a Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional, stratified shear flow over a ridge is considered. The finite-amplitude disturbances are steady and hydrostatic, and solutions are derived from the Boussinesq from the Long's equation. Two limiting solutions are examined; viz., 1) ...

William Blumen

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Two-Dimensional Semi-Lagrangian Transport with Shape-Preserving Interpolation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The more attractive one dimensional, shape-preserving interpolation schemes as determined from a companion study are applied to two-dimensional semi-Lagrangian advection in plane and spherical geometry. Hermite cubic and a rational cubic are ...

David L. Williamson; Philip J. Rasch

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A Two-Dimensional Diabatic Isopycnal Model—Simulating the Coastal Upwelling Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional diabatic isopycnal model is designed to study coastal upwelling. The diabatic effect is represented by vertical mixing of the density field. Vertical eddy coefficients are determined by either a Richardson-number-dependent ...

E-Chien Foo

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Convective Building of a Pycnocline: A Two-Dimensional Nonhydrostatic Numerical Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The convective building of a pycnocline is examined using a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic numerical model forced by a balanced salinity dipole (source and sink). Although the forcing fields are steady, the model develops oscillations that renew ...

David W. Pierce; Peter B. Rhines

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

A Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis Method for NSCAT Ambiguity Removal: Methodology, Sensitivity, and Tuning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a two-dimensional variational analysis method (2DVAR) is applied to select a wind solution from NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) ambiguous winds. A 2DVAR method determines a “best” gridded surface wind analysis by minimizing a cost ...

R. N. Hoffman; S. M. Leidner; J. M. Henderson; R. Atlas; J. V. Ardizzone; S. C. Bloom

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Mechanisms of Cell Regeneration, Development, and Propagation within a Two-Dimensional Multicell Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, mechanisms of cell regeneration, development, and propagation within a two-dimensional multicell storm are investigated using a numerical cloud model. The cell regeneration is explained by the advection mechanism. The following ...

Yuh-Lang Lin; Roy L. Deal; Mark S. Kulie

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Chemical Source Inversion Using Assimilated Constituent Observations in an Idealized Two-Dimensional System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A source inversion technique for chemical constituents is presented that uses assimilated constituent observations rather than directly using the observations. The method is tested with a simple model problem, which is a two-dimensional Fourier–...

Andrew Tangborn; Robert Cooper; Steven Pawson; Zhibin Sun

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

An Objective Method for Determining the Generalized Transport Tensor for Two-Dimensional Eulerian Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An objective method for deriving the components of a generalized transport tensor for a two-dimensional model is presented. The method uses representative meridional and vertical velocities and thermodynamic scalars at a uniform grid to reduce ...

Edwin F. Danielsen

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The Sensitivity of Two-Dimensional Simulations of Tropical Squall Lines to Environmental Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two dimensional experiments are carried out to determine the effect of various wind and thermodynamic structure on squall line characteristics. Two ideas concerning the effect of shear are found useful in explaining many of the outcomes of the ...

Melville E. Nicholls; Richard H. Johnson; William R. Cotton

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

A Two-Dimensional Simulation of the Iberian Summer Thermal Low  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forcing mechanisms of the diurnal thermal depression formed over the Iberian Peninsula in the summer and the typical air circulation induced over the Northern Plateau are analyzed by a two-dimensional hydrostatic, high-resolution, primitive ...

Miguel A. Gaertner; Casimiro Fernández; Manuel Castro

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Green's matrices of second order elliptic systems with measurable coefficients in two dimensional domains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study Green's matrices for divergence form, second order strongly elliptic systems with bounded measurable coefficients in two dimensional domains. We establish existence, uniqueness, and pointwise estimates of the Green's matrices.

Dong, Hongjie

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Low-Resolution Numerical Simulation of Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of two-dimensional turbulence show that O(??1) and O(??4) energy spectra—described by Fox and Orszag (1973a) as enstrophy-equipartitioning and strongly dissipating turbulence, respectively—occur independently of the type of ...

Andrew F. Bennett; Dale B. Haidvogel

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Dry and Moist Idealized Experiments with a Two-Dimensional Spectral Element Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nonhydrostatic, fully compressible spectral element (SE) model is evaluated in a series of two-dimensional idealized simulations. A dry formulation of the model is evaluated for a linear hydrostatic mountain-wave case, and a version with ...

Saša Gaberšek; Francis X. Giraldo; James D. Doyle

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Terahertz waveguide spectroscopy of two-dimensional plasmons in GaAs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrical characteristics of high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems, such as GaAs quantum wells, have been well-studied at low frequencies and in extreme conditions of high magnetic fields and ...

Harris, C. Thomas (Charles Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

What's in a Rule: Two-Dimensional Rule Use in Category Learning.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current theories of rules in category learning define rules as one-dimensional boundaries. However, recent evidence suggests that rules may also be two-dimensional boundaries. Four experiments… (more)

LaShell, Patrick J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Two-Dimensional Simulations of Mountain Waves Observed during the PYREX Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional numerical simulations of mountain waves observed during the Pyrenees Experiment have been performed. Two intensive observing periods (IOP) have been simulated, IOP 3, which lasted less than one day, and IOP 9, which lasted two and ...

Ahmed Elkhalfi; Marc Georgelin; Evelyne Richard

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Two-Dimensional Turbulence Generated by Energy Sources at Two Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational results and theories suggest that the atmospheric energy spectrum is at least partly produced by quasi-two-dimensional turbulence generated by energy sources at both large and small scales. This hypothesis is investigated further ...

Douglas K. Lilly

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Report on DOE Proposal ''Electronic Transport in Disordered Two Dimensional Electron Systems''  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the support of the DOE grant, studied the electronic transport properties in an interacting two-dimensional electron system and the magneto-transport properties, such as giant magneto-resistance (GMR) or colossal magneto-resistance (CMR).

None

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Internal Frontogenesis: A Two-Dimensional Model in Isentropic, Semi-Geostrophic Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional semi-geostrophic model in isentropic coordinates is applied to the study of internal frontogenesis induced by a geostrophic deformation field. A continuous potential vorticity distribution is considered and the upper and lower ...

Andrea Buzzi; Anna Trevisan; Giovanna Salustri

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

An Evaluation of the Role of Eddy Diffusion in Stratospheric Interactive Two-Dimensional Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of eddy diffusion in an interactive two-dimensional model of the stratosphere is reexamined. The model consists of a primitive equation dynamics module, a simplified HOx ozone model and a full radiative transfer scheme. The diabatic/...

Hans R. Schneider; Malcolm K. W. Ko; Nien Dak Sze; Guang-Yu Shi; Wei-Chyung Wang

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A Two-Dimensional Primitive Equation Model of Frontogenesis Forced by Confluence and Horizontal Shear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional primitive equation model of frontogenesis forced by a combination of confluence and horizontal shear is formulated for dry, nearly adiabatic and inviscid conditions. The frontogenetical forcing mechanisms are included by ...

Daniel Keyser; Michael J. Pecnick

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Two-Dimensional Model of Inertial Oscillations Generated by a Propagating Wind Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear, two-dimensional, continuously stratified, viscous model has been developed to study the inertial oscillations generated by a propagating wind field. The model, an extension of that of Kundu and Thomson, includes the presence of a coast ...

Pijush K. Kundu

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Breakdown of Vertically Propagating Two-Dimensional Gravity Waves Forced by Orography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The propagation of orographic gravity waves into an atmosphere with exponentially decreasing density is simulated with a two-dimensional, nonlinear, time-dependent numerical model. After the stationary wave is established over the mountain, the ...

Julio T. Bacmeister; Mark R. Schoeberl

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A Two-Dimensional Radiation-Turbulence Climate Model. I: Sensitivity to Cirrus Radiative Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the thermodynamic energy balance between radiation and vertical plus horizontal dynamic transports, a two-dimensional radiation-turbulence climate model is developed. This model consists of a broadband solar and IR radiation transfer ...

Szu-Cheng S. Ou; Kuo-Nan Liou

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Classification of two-dimensional quantum systems with Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries  

SciTech Connect

In this article, I have derived the general conditions on two-dimensional quantum systems possess Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries and calculated the solutions of two special cases of such systems.

Pouladsaz, D. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Two-Dimensional Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres: The Spherical Harmonic Spatial Grid Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new two-dimensional monochromatic method that computes the transfer of solar or thermal radiation through atmospheres with arbitrary optical properties is described. The model discretizes the radiative transfer equation by expanding the angular ...

K. Franklin Evans

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Topography in Fluid of Infinite Depth: A Laboratory Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes some laboratory experiments with two-dimensional stratified flow over isolated topography, in which a novel configuration simulating a radiating upper boundary condition is employed. Several experimental tests show that the ...

Peter G. Baines; Klaus P. Hoinka

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Two-Dimensional Response of a Stably Stratified Shear Flow to Diabatic Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, linearized problem in a stratified shell flow with either isolated heating or differential heating is investigated. In response to isolated heating with the heating top below the wind reversal height, the low-level vertical ...

Yuh-Lang Lin

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Statistical Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Inviscid Flow on a Sphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We derive the statistical mechanical equilibrium properties of two-dimensional flow on a sphere, described by the truncated inviscid nondivergent barotrapic model. It is found that probability distribution functions and expectation values are ...

J. S. Frederiksen; B. L. Sawford

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Flow Regimes and Transient Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Stratified Flow over an Isolated Mountain Ridge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four regimes are identified for two-dimensional, unstructured, nonrotating, continuously stratified, hydrostatic, uniform Boussinesq flow over an isolated mountain ridge: (I) flow with neither wave breaking aloft nor upstream blocking (F?1.12, ...

Yuh-Lang Lin; Ting-An Wang

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Two-dimensional transient analysis of a collector-up ECL inverter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For very small-geometry devices, two-dimensional parasitic effects can be complicated and models with extracted parameters may not be sufficient for accurately analyzing circuit performance. Using a device-level simulator, PISCES-2B, with appropriate ...

J. B. Kuo; T. S. Yang; R. W. Dutton; B. A. Wooley

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Nonlinear Wave-Activity Conservation Laws and Hamiltonian Structure for the Two-Dimensional Anelastic Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exact, finite-amplitude, local wave-activity conservation laws are derived for disturbances to steady flows in the context of the two-dimensional anelastic equations. The conservation laws are expressed entirely in terms of Eulerian quantities, ...

J. F. Scinocca; T. G. Shepherd

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A Pseudoenergy Conservation Law for the Two-Dimensional Primitive Equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unbalanced frontogenesis studies frequently employ a mathematical model known as the two-dimensional primitive equations, a reduction of the full three-dimensional primitive equations made by ignoring variations in the meridional direction. Such ...

Murray D. MacKay

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analytic solution of a two-dimensional hydrogen atom. I. Nonrelativistic theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two-dimensional hydrogen problem is solved analytically. In the nonrelativistic case, exact formulas for energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions for both the discrete and continuous parts of the spectrum, dipole matrix elements, dc Stark effect, single- and two-photon transition rates, and fine and hyperfine structures are obtained. Comparison is made between the two- and the three-dimensional cases. Some interesting aspects of the solution unique to the two-dimensional case are discussed.

Yang, X.L.; Guo, S.H.; Chan, F.T. (Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (US)); Wong, K.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (USA)); Ching, W.Y. (Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, Missouri 64110 (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A fully microfabricated two-dimensional electrospray array with applications to space propulsion; Fully microfabricated 2D electrospray array with applications to space propulsion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents the design, fabrication and testing of a fully-integrated planar electrospray thruster array, which could lead to more efficient and precise thrusters for… (more)

Gassend, Blaise L. P. (Blaise Laurent Patrick), 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Estimation of the two-dimensional presampled modulation transfer function of digital radiography devices using one-dimensional test objects  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The modulation transfer function (MTF) of medical imaging devices is commonly reported in the form of orthogonal one-dimensional (1D) measurements made near the vertical and horizontal axes with a slit or edge test device. A more complete description is found by measuring the two-dimensional (2D) MTF. Some 2D test devices have been proposed, but there are some issues associated with their use: (1) they are not generally available; (2) they may require many images; (3) the results may have diminished accuracy; and (4) their implementation may be particularly cumbersome. This current work proposes the application of commonly available 1D test devices for practical and accurate estimation of the 2D presampled MTF of digital imaging systems. Methods: Theory was developed and applied to ensure adequate fine sampling of the system line spread function for 1D test devices at orientations other than approximately vertical and horizontal. Methods were also derived and tested for slit nonuniformity correction at arbitrary angle. Techniques were validated with experimental measurements at ten angles using an edge test object and three angles using a slit test device on an indirect-detection flat-panel system [GE Revolution XQ/i (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI)]. The 2D MTF was estimated through a simple surface fit with interpolation based on Delaunay triangulation of the 1D edge-based MTF measurements. Validation by synthesis was also performed with simulated images from a hypothetical direct-detection flat-panel device. Results: The 2D MTF derived from physical measurements yielded an average relative precision error of 0.26% for frequencies below the cutoff (2.5 mm{sup -1}) and approximate circular symmetry at frequencies below 4 mm{sup -1}. While slit analysis generally agreed with the results of edge analysis, the two showed subtle differences at frequencies above 4 mm{sup -1}. Slit measurement near 45 Degree-Sign revealed radial asymmetry in the MTF resulting from the square pixel aperture (0.2 mm Multiplication-Sign 0.2 mm), a characteristic which was not necessarily appreciated with the orthogonal 1D MTF measurements. In simulation experiments, both slit- and edge-based measurements resolved the radial asymmetries in the 2D MTF. The average absolute relative accuracy error in the 2D MTF between the DC and cutoff (2.5 mm{sup -1}) frequencies was 0.13% with average relative precision error of 0.11%. Other simulation results were similar to those derived from physical data. Conclusions: Overall, the general availability, acceptance, accuracy, and ease of implementation of 1D test devices for MTF assessment make this a valuable technique for 2D MTF estimation.

Wells, Jered R.; Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Two-dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and wells. (SINDA-3G program) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Two-dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and wells. (SINDA-3G program) Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Computer models describing both the transient reservoir pressure behavior and the time dependent temperature response of the wells at the Raft River, Idaho, Geothermal Resource were developed. A horizontal, two-dimensional, finite-difference model for calculating pressure effects was constructed to simulate reservoir performance. Vertical, two-dimensional, finite-difference, axisymmetric models for each of the three existing wells at Raft River were also constructed to describe the

175

Hydrogenated Bilayer Wurtzite SiC Nanofilms: A Two-Dimensional Bipolar Magnetic Semiconductor Material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, a new kind of spintronics materials, bipolar magnetic semiconductor (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate, or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

Yuan, Long; Yang, Jinlong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

177

TACK: a program coupling chemical kinetics with a two-dimensional transport model in geochemical systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Transport And Chemical Kinetics (TACK) program has been designed to make predictions of the chemistry in the vicinity of a planned repository for nuclear waste, i.e. SFL 3-5, where SFL is the Swedish abbreviation for "Swedish repository for long-lived ... Keywords: coupled, diffusion, dispersion, reaction, transport, two-dimensional

Göran Källvenius; Christian Ekberg

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Transformation Property of the Caputo Fractional Differential Operator in Two Dimensional Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transformation property of the Caputo fractional derivative operator of a scalar function under rotation in two dimensional space is derived. The study of the transformation property is essential for the formulation of fractional calculus in multi-dimensional space. The inclusion of fractional calculus in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics relies on such transformation. An illustrative example is given.

Ehab Malkawi

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

179

A new exact method for the two-dimensional bin-packing problem with fixed orientation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new exact method for the well-known two-dimensional bin-packing problem. It is based on an iterative decomposition of the set of items into two disjoint subsets. We tested the efficiency of our method against benchmarks of the literature. ... Keywords: Branch-and-bound, Cutting and packing, Dual-feasible functions, Lower bounds

FrançOis Clautiaux; Jacques Carlier; Aziz Moukrim

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Detection of point sources on two-dimensional images based on peaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper considers the detection of point sources in two-dimensional astronomical images. The detection scheme we propose is based on peak statistics. We discuss the example of the detection of far galaxies in cosmic microwave background experiments ... Keywords: analytical methods, data analysis methods, image processing techniques

M. López-Caniego; D. Herranz; J. L. Sanz; R. B. Barreiro

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Models for the two-dimensional two-stage cutting stock problem with multiple stock size  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider a Two-Dimensional Cutting Stock Problem (2DCSP) where stock of different sizes is available, and a set of rectangular items has to be obtained through two-stage guillotine cuts. We propose and computationally compare three Mixed-Integer Programming ... Keywords: Computational experiments, Cutting stock problem, Mixed-integer programming models

Fabio Furini, Enrico Malaguti

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Effect of Vorticity-Profile Shape on the Instability of a Two-Dimensional Vortex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple linear numerical model is used to study the effect of the shape of the vertical vorticity profile on the stability characteristics of a two-dimensional vortex. In all cases, the basic-state vorticity is confined to an annulus. It is ...

Jerry L. Steffens

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Electric Field Sensor Array for Node Localization on Two-Dimensional Signal Transmission Sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric Field Sensor Array for Node Localization on Two-Dimensional Signal Transmission Sheet Kei). In the method, the sensor node determines its own position by reading the electric field patterns above scanning. In this paper, firstly we introduce the method. Then we describe the structure of an electric

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

184

Development of a Two-Dimensional Finite-Element PBL Model and Two Preliminary Model Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a two-dimensional finite-element model for simulating atmospheric flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) of the earth. The finite-element method provides a useful alternative to the conventional finite-difference method in ...

L. P. Chang; E. S. Takle; R. L. Sani

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Fourth-order alternating direction implicit compact finite difference schemes for two-dimensional Schrödinger equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, alternating direction implicit compact finite difference schemes are devised for the numerical solution of two-dimensional Schrodinger equations. The convergence rates of the present schemes are of order O(h^4+@t^2). Numerical experiments ... Keywords: ADI compact difference scheme, Conservation law, Error estimate, Schrödinger equation

Zhen Gao; Shusen Xie

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Moutard transformation and two-dimensional multi-point delta-type potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the Moutard transformation formalism we find multi-point delta-type potentials of two-dimensional Schrodinger operators and their isospectral deformations on the zero energy level. In particular, these potentials are "reflectionless" in the sense of the Faddeev generalized "scattering" data.

R. G. Novikov; I. A. Taimanov

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

187

A fast direct method for solving the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation, with Robbins boundary conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a fast direct method for solving the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation: ?2?/?x2+?2?/?y2+?? = f(x,y), on a rectangular grid [0,a1] ... Keywords: Helmholtz, Neumann boundary conditions, Robbins boundary conditions, displacement rank

Jef Hendrickx; Raf Vandebril; Marc Van Barel

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Radiative-Convective Equilibrium with Explicit Two-Dimensional Moist Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative-convective statistical equilibria are obtained using a two-dimensional model in which radiative transfer is interactive with the predicted moisture and cloud fields. The domain is periodic in x, with a width of 640 km, and extends from ...

Isaac M. Held; Richard S. Hemler; V. Ramaswamy

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Dynamics of the orientation of active and passive scalars in two-dimensional turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamics of the orientation of active and passive scalars in two-dimensional turbulence G. Lapeyre orientations obtained in the adiabatic approximation by Lapeyre et al. Phys. Fluids 11, 3729 1999 and Klein et with the equilibrium orientation than the vorticity gradient does, while the opposite is true in effective

Lapeyre, Guillaume

190

Influence of the Coriolis Force on Two-Dimensional Model Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional model simulations were made to gage the effect of the Coriolis force on model squall lines. The case chosen for intensive study had low-to-moderate wind shear confined to low levels. With this wind shear, two Coriolis simulations ...

Robert G. Fovell

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Recognition of two-dimensional representation of urban environment for autonomous flying agents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the problem of a vision system implementation for autonomous flying agents is considered in the context of industrial inspection tasks performed by unmanned aerial vehicles. A syntactic algorithm of a two-dimensional object vectorization ... Keywords: Autonomous flying agents, Object recognition, Syntactic languages, Vectorization

Andrzej Bielecki; Tomasz Buratowski; Piotr Migielski

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Multiple Cerenkov second-harmonic waves in a two-dimensional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple Cerenkov second-harmonic waves in a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic structure Wenjie fundamental beams. We show that this phenomenon is caused by the nonlinear Cerenkov radiation emitted due verify the effects of reciprocal vectors on the Cerenkov-type second-harmonic generation in nonlinear

Arie, Ady

193

Conservative Shape-Preserving Two-Dimensional Transport on a Spherical Reduced Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new discretization of the transport equation for two-dimensional transport is introduced. The scheme is two time level, shape preserving, and solves the transport equation in flux form. It uses an upwind-biased stencil of points. To ameliorate ...

Philip J. Rasch

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

A Study of Two-Dimensional Dry Convective Plume Modes with Variable Critical Level Height  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the impact of wind speed and critical level height on dry convection above a prescribed heat source. This is done using the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model in its two-dimensional form with an imposed 400-K ...

Michael T. Kiefer; Yuh-Lang Lin; Joseph J. Charney

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Numerical simulation of melting in two-dimensional cavity using adaptive grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a numerical simulation of melting of chemically pure material in two-dimensional square cavity. A single-domain model is used which does not require interface tracking and allows the use of a fixed grid in order to solve governing ... Keywords: adaptive moving grid, grid generation, melting

Jure Mencinger

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems  

SciTech Connect

Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.

Rezayi, Edward

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

197

Dryline Bulge Evolution in a Two-Dimensional Mixed-Layer Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the diurnal response of a mixed-layer model of the dryline system to localized anomalies of surface heat flux, topography, mixed-layer depth, and inversion strength. The two-dimensional, mixed-layer model is used to simulate ...

Glenn M. Auslander; Peter R. Bannon

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Finite volume local evolution Galerkin method for two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper proposes a second-order accurate finite volume local evolution Galerkin (FVLEG) method for two-dimensional special relativistic hydrodynamical (RHD) equations. Instead of using the dimensional splitting method or solving one-dimensional local ... Keywords: Evolution operator, Finite volume local evolution Galerkin method, Genuinely multi-dimensional method, Relativistic hydrodynamics

Kailiang Wu, Huazhong Tang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Equilibrium in a two dimensional queueing game: When inspecting the queue is costly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Equilibrium in a two dimensional queueing game: When inspecting the queue is costly Refael Hassin parameters such as waiting time and cost, inspection cost, service quality, etc. An appropriate model are established in supermodular and submodu- lar games (Topicks (1979), Yao (1995)). Supermodular (submodular

Hassin, Refael

200

Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the two-dimensional heat transfer through building products.Gustavsen, A. 2001. Heat transfer in window frames withand CFD Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window

Gustavsen, Arlid

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Two-dimensional finite element multigroup diffusion theory for neutral atom transport in plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solution of the energy dependent diffusion equation in two dimensions is formulated by multigroup approximation of the energy variable and general triangular mesh, finite element discretization of the spatial domain. Finite element formulation is done by Galerkin's method. Based on this formulation, a two-dimensional multigroup finite element diffusion theory code, FENAT, has been developed for the transport of neutral atoms in fusion plasmas. FENAT solves the multigroup diffusion equation in X-Y cartesian and R-Z cylindrical/toroidal geometries. Use of the finite element method allows solution of problems in which the plasma cross-section has an arbitrary shape. The accuracy of FENAT has been verified by comparing results to those obtained using the two-dimensional discrete ordinate transport theory code, DOT-4.3. Results of application of FENAT to the transport of limiter-originated neutral atoms in a tokamak fusion machine are presented.

Hasan, M.Z.; Conn, R.W.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Two-Dimensional Classical Wave Localization in a Third Sound System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Patterned calcium fluoride deposited on glass creates an effective two-dimensional scatterer of third sound propagating on a thin 4He film. We have utilized a substrate with a periodic arrangement of scatterers and a substrate with a random arrangement of scatterers to investigate classical wave propagation and localization using third sound. We observe pass bands on the periodic substrate while only low frequency modes are observed in the disordered case. The presence of high frequency modes on the ordered substrate and the absence of high frequency modes on the disordered substrate indicates we are observing localization on the disordered substrate. We compare the disordered data to the two-dimensional localization theory of Cohen and Machta and find reasonable agreement.

Luhman, D. R.; Herrmann, J. C.; Hallock, R. B. [Laboratory of Low Temperature Physics, Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, MA 01003 (United States)

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Two-dimensional simulation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir and wells. [SINDA-3G program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer models describing both the transient reservoir pressure behavior and the time dependent temperature response of the wells at the Raft River, Idaho, Geothermal Resource were developed. A horizontal, two-dimensional, finite-difference model for calculating pressure effects was constructed to simulate reservoir performance. Vertical, two-dimensional, finite-difference, axisymmetric models for each of the three existing wells at Raft River were also constructed to describe the transient temperature and hydraulic behavior in the vicinity of the wells. All modeling was done with the use of the thermal hydraulics computer program SINDA-3G. The models are solved simultaneously with one input deck so that reservoir-well interaction may occur. The model predicted results agree favorably with the test data.

Kettenacker, W.C.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Theory of [ital p]-wave pairing in a two-dimensional Fermi gas  

SciTech Connect

The specific heat and susceptibility data for [sup 3]He on Grafoil are analyzed in the framework of the Landau Fermi-liquid theory. The data suggest that the dominant interaction between [sup 3]He quasiparticles is an attraction in the [ital p]-wave channel. We have calculated explicitly the superfluid transition temperature in a two-dimensional Fermi gas and found that the prefactor in [ital T][sub [ital c

Chubukov, A.V. (Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511-8167 (United States) P. L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Sokol, A. (Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801-3080 (United States) L. D. Landau Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Photon correlations in two-dimensional waveguide arrays and their classical estimate  

SciTech Connect

Interference effects of photon pairs propagating through two-dimensional lattices of evanescently coupled waveguides are theoretically analyzed for input states of independent and path-entangled photons. Their correlation unveils characteristic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferences as well as more complex phenomena unique to these structures. Furthermore, purely classical states of light are used to simulate these quantum interferences in intensity correlation experiments. The results suggest that waveguide arrays can be employed as convenient devices for manipulating quantum states of light.

Keil, Robert; Dreisow, Felix; Heinrich, Matthias [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Szameit, Alexander [Department of Physics and Solid State Institute, Technion, Haifa Il-32000 (Israel); Nolte, Stefan; Tuennermann, Andreas [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 7, D-07745 Jena (Germany)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

Two-dimensional fluid droplet arrays generated using a single nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Amplitudes of drive pulses received by a horizontally-placed dropper determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to an ejection aperture of the dropper. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

Lee, Eric R. (Redwood City, CA); Perl, Martin L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1999-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

207

Effects of stratospheric aerosol surface processes on the LLNL two-dimensional zonally averaged model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the effects of incorporating representations of heterogeneous chemical processes associated with stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosol into the LLNL two-dimensional, zonally averaged, model of the troposphere and stratosphere. Using distributions of aerosol surface area and volume density derived from SAGE 11 satellite observations, we were primarily interested in changes in partitioning within the Cl- and N- families in the lower stratosphere, compared to a model including only gas phase photochemical reactions.

Connell, P.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burley, J.D.; Johnston, H.S. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1992-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

208

Conservative numerical simulation of multi-component transport in two-dimensional unsteady shallow water flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An explicit finite volume model to simulate two-dimensional shallow water flow with multi-component transport is presented. The governing system of coupled conservation laws demands numerical techniques to avoid unrealistic values of the transported ... Keywords: ?-? model, 35L65, 65M06, 65M12, 76M12, 76M20, Coupled system, Multi-component transport, Reactive source terms, Shallow flow, Solute constraints, Turbulence, Variable domain, Well-balanced approach

J. Murillo; P. García-Navarro; J. Burguete

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Two-Dimensional Conformal Models of Space-Time and Their Compactification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study geometry of two-dimensional models of conformal space-time based on the group of Moebius transformation. The natural geometric invariants, called cycles, are used to linearise Moebius action. Conformal completion of the space-time is achieved through an addition of a zero-radius cycle at infinity. We pay an attention to the natural condition of non-reversibility of time arrow in order to get a correct compactification in the hyperbolic case.

Vladimir V. Kisil

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

210

The 2D-S (Stereo) Probe: Design and Preliminary Tests of a New Airborne, High-Speed, High-Resolution Particle Imaging Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design, laboratory calibrations, and flight tests of a new optical imaging instrument, the two-dimensional stereo (2D-S) probe, are presented. Two orthogonal laser beams cross in the middle of the sample volume. Custom, high-speed, 128-...

R. Paul Lawson; Darren O’Connor; Patrick Zmarzly; Kim Weaver; Brad Baker; Qixu Mo; Haflidi Jonsson

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Redshift Surveys with 2dF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the 2dF Galaxy and QSO Redshift Surveys now in progress with the Two Degree Field facility at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. We describe the 2dF instrumentation, outline the scientific aims of the surveys and their current status, and present some initial results.

Matthew Colless; Brian Boyle

1997-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

212

A Blow-up Criterion for Two Dimensional Compressible Viscous Heat-Conductive Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We establish a blow-up criterion in terms of the upper bound of the density and temperature for the strong solution to 2D compressible viscous heat-conductive flows. The initial vacuum is allowed.

Fang, Daoyuan; Zhang, Ting

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Adaptive Grid Refinement for Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Nonhydrostatic Atmospheric Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although atmospheric phenomena tend to be localized in both time and space, numerical models generally employ only uniform discretizations or fixed nested grids. An adaptive grid technique implemented in 2D and 3D nonhydrostatic elastic ...

William C. Skamarock; Joseph B. Klemp

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

One- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation using experimentally generated reversing flow turbuulence models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year`s funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge.

Goldberg, L.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

A spatial multigrid iterative method for two-dimensional discrete-ordinates transport problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iterative solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation are computationally intensive. Spatial multigrid methods have led to efficient iterative algorithms for solving a variety of partial differential equations; thus, it is natural to explore their application to transport equations. Manteuffel et al. conducted such an exploration in one spatial dimension, using two-cell inversions as the relaxation or smoothing operation, and reported excellent results. In this dissertation we extensively test Manteuffel??s one-dimensional method and our modified versions thereof. We demonstrate that the performance of such spatial multigrid methods can degrade significantly given strong heterogeneities. We also extend Manteuffel??s basic approach to two-dimensional problems, employing four-cell inversions for the relaxation operation. We find that for uniform homogeneous problems the two-dimensional multigrid method is not as rapidly convergent as the one-dimensional method. For strongly heterogeneous problems the performance of the two-dimensional method is much like that of the one-dimensional method, which means it can be slow to converge. We conclude that this approach to spatial multigrid produces a method that converges rapidly for many problems but not for others. That is, this spatial multigrid method is not unconditionally rapidly convergent. However, our analysis of the distribution of eigenvalues of the iteration operators indicates that this spatial multigrid method may work very well as a preconditioner within a Krylov iteration algorithm, because its eigenvalues tend to be relatively well clustered. Further exploration of this promising result appears to be a fruitful area of further research.

Lansrud, Brian David

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electron gas  

SciTech Connect

We describe measurements of spin dynamics in the two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells. Optical techniques, including transient spin-grating spectroscopy, are used to probe the relaxation rates of spin polarization waves in the wavevector range from zero to 6 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}. We find that the spin polarization lifetime is maximal at nonzero wavevector, in contrast with expectation based on ordinary spin diffusion, but in quantitative agreement with recent theories that treat diffusion in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.

Weber, C.P.

2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

The Energy Eigenvalues of the Two Dimensional Hydrogen Atom in a Magnetic Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, the energy eigenvalues of the two dimensional hydrogen atom are presented for the arbitrary Larmor frequencies by using the asymptotic iteration method. We first show the energy eigenvalues for the no magnetic field case analytically, and then we obtain the energy eigenvalues for the strong and weak magnetic field cases within an iterative approach for $n=2-10$ and $m=0-1$ states for several different arbitrary Larmor frequencies. The effect of the magnetic field on the energy eigenvalues is determined precisely. The results are in excellent agreement with the findings of the other methods and our method works for the cases where the others fail.

A. Soylu; O. Bayrak; I. Boztosun

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

218

Thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional nonideal structures with isotropic pair potential  

SciTech Connect

An approximation is proposed for energy density in two-dimensional nonideal systems for a wide class of isotropic repulsive pair interparticle potentials. The approximation allows one to determine the main thermodynamic functions and characteristics of the system by using well-known thermodynamic formulas. The results obtained with the help of this approximation are compared with the data of numerical simulations of thermodynamic properties of the structures under study. The simulations were performed in a wide range of parameters typical of laboratory dusty plasmas. Main attention was paid to the screened Coulomb potential.

Vaulina, O. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

219

Two-Dimensional Space-Time Dependent Multi-group Diffusion Equation with SLOR Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research of two-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with SLOR (Successive-Line Over Relaxation) has been done. SLOR method is chosen because this method is one of iterative methods that does not required to defined whole element matrix. The research is divided in two cases, homogeneous case and heterogeneous case. Homogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity. Heterogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity and ramp reactivity. In general, the results of simulations are agreement, even in some points there are differences.

Yulianti, Y. [Physics Department, University of Lampung (UNILA), Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1 Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Su'ud, Z.; Waris, A.; Khotimah, S. N. [Physics Department, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

220

One- and two-dimensional heating analyses of fusion synfuel blankets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Comparisons between one- and two-dimensional neutronics and heating analyses were performed on a Brookhaven designed fusion reactor blanket featuring synthetic fuel production. In this two temperature region blanket design, the structural shell is stainless steel. The interior of the module is a packed ball of high temperature ceramic material. The low temperature shell and the high temperature ceramic interior are separately cooled. Process steam (approx. 1500/sup 0/C) is then produced in the ceramic core for the producion of H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/-based synthetic fuels by a high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process.

Tsang, J.S.K.; Lazareth, O.W.; Powell, J.R.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nonlinear Magnetoresistance Oscillations in Intensely Irradiated Two-Dimensional Electron Systems Induced by Multiphoton Processes.  

SciTech Connect

We report on magneto-oscillations in differential resistivity of a two-dimensional electron system subject to intense microwave radiation. The period of these oscillations is determined not only by microwave frequency but also by its intensity. A theoretical model based on quantum kinetics at high microwave power captures all important characteristics of this phenomenon which is strongly nonlinear in microwave intensity. Our results demonstrate a crucial role of the multiphoton processes near the cyclotron resonance and its harmonics in the presence of strong dc electric field and offer a unique way to reliably determine the intensity of microwaves acting on electrons.

Khodas, M.; Chiang, H.-S.; Hatke, A.T.; Zudov, M.A.; Vavilov, M.G.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

Two-dimensional Lasnex ray-trace calculations of thermal whole beam self-focusing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal self-focusing of laser light may be significant when a plasma is irradiated with short-wavelength laser light. Self-focusing magnifies the light intensity which can increase absorption by plasma waves (producing hot electrons which may cause preheat), could increase scattering, and could be a perturbation source for the Rayleigh--Taylor instability. We use two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations to characterize thermal self-focusing for parameters of interest to laser fusion applications, and present a simple model. A diverging beam is shown to reduce the self-focusing.

Estabrook, K.; Kruer, W.L.; Bailey, D.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy for the quantum-optics enthusiast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent interest in the role of quantum mechanics in the primary events of photosynthetic energy transfer has led to a convergence of nonlinear optical spectroscopy and quantum optics on the topic of energy-transfer dynamics in pigment-protein complexes. The convergence of these two communities has unveiled a mismatch between the background and terminology of the respective fields. To make connections, we provide a pedagogical guide to understanding the basics of two-dimensional electronic spectra aimed at researchers with a background in quantum optics.

Branczyk, Agata M; Scholes, Gregory D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy for the quantum-optics enthusiast  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent interest in the role of quantum mechanics in the primary events of photosynthetic energy transfer has led to a convergence of nonlinear optical spectroscopy and quantum optics on the topic of energy-transfer dynamics in pigment-protein complexes. The convergence of these two communities has unveiled a mismatch between the background and terminology of the respective fields. To make connections, we provide a pedagogical guide to understanding the basics of two-dimensional electronic spectra aimed at researchers with a background in quantum optics.

Agata M. Branczyk; Daniel B. Turner; Gregory D. Scholes

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

225

Resonant Andreev transmission in two-dimensional array of SNS junctions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an experimental study of transport properties of a large two-dimensional array of superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor (SNS) junctions comprised of the nanopatterned superconducting film, ensuring that NS interfaces of our SNS junctions are highly transparent. We find the anomalously high charge transmission at certain applied voltages commensurate with the magnitude of the gap in superconducting islands. This indicates the nonlocal nature of the charge transfer in multiply connected SNS systems. We propose the mechanism of the correlated transmission of Cooper pairs in large arrays of SNS junctions based on the combined action of the proximity effect and the simultaneous Andreev conversion processes at many NS-interfaces.

Baturina, T. I.; Mironov, A. Yu.; Vinokur, V. M.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Glatz, A.; Nasimov, D. A.; Latyshev, A. V.; Materials Science Division; Inst. Semiconductor Physics; Russian Academy of Science; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Phases of a two-dimensional large-N gauge theory on a torus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider two-dimensional large N gauge theory with D adjoint scalars on a torus, which is obtained from a D+2-dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory on T{sup D+2} with D small radii. The two-dimensional model has various phases characterized by the holonomy of the gauge field around noncontractible cycles of the 2-torus. We determine the phase boundaries and derive the order of the phase transitions using a method developed in an earlier work (hep-th/0910.4526), which is nonperturbative in the 't Hooft coupling and uses a 1/D expansion. We embed our phase diagram in the more extensive phase structure of the D+2-dimensional Yang-Mills theory and match with the picture of a cascade of phase transitions found earlier in lattice calculations. We also propose a dual gravity system based on a Scherk-Schwarz compactification of a D2 brane wrapped on a 3-torus and find a phase structure which is similar to the phase diagram found in the gauge theory calculation.

Mandal, Gautam [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Morita, Takeshi [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics Department of Physics University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Particle dynamics in two-dimensional random energy landscapes - experiments and simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dynamics of individual colloidal particles in random potential energy landscapes were investigated experimentally and by Monte Carlo simulations. The value of the potential at each point in the two-dimensional energy landscape follows a Gaussian distribution. The width of the distribution, and hence the degree of roughness of the energy landscape, was varied and its effect on the particle dynamics studied. This situation represents an example of Brownian dynamics in the presence of disorder. In the experiments, the energy landscapes were generated optically using a holographic set-up with a spatial light modulator, and the particle trajectories were followed by video microscopy. The dynamics are characterized using, e.g., the time-dependent diffusion coefficient, the mean squared displacement, the van Hove function and the non-Gaussian parameter. In both, experiments and simulations, the dynamics are initially diffusive, show an extended sub-diffusive regime at intermediate times before diffusive motion is recovered at very long times. The dependence of the long-time diffusion coefficient on the width of the Gaussian distribution agrees with theoretical predictions. Compared to the dynamics in a one-dimensional potential energy landscape, the localization at intermediate times is weaker and the diffusive regime at long times reached earlier, which is due to the possibility to avoid local maxima in two-dimensional energy landscapes.

Florian Evers; Christoph Zunke; Richard D. L. Hanes; Joerg Bewerunge; Imad Ladadwa; Andreas Heuer; Stefan U. Egelhaaf

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

228

A two dimensional thermal network model for a photovoltaic solar wall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two dimensional thermal network model is proposed to predict the temperature distribution for a section of photovoltaic solar wall installed in an outdoor room laboratory in Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. The photovoltaic solar wall is constructed with a pair of glass coated photovoltaic modules and a polystyrene filled plywood board as back panel. The active solar ventilation through a photovoltaic solar wall is achieved with an exhaust fan fixed in the outdoor room laboratory. The steady state thermal network nodal equations are developed for conjugate heat exchange and heat transport for a section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The matrix solution procedure is adopted for formulation of conductance and heat source matrices for obtaining numerical solution of one dimensional heat conduction and heat transport equations by performing two dimensional thermal network analyses. The temperature distribution is predicted by the model with measurement data obtained from the section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The effect of conduction heat flow and multi-node radiation heat exchange between composite surfaces is useful for predicting a ventilation rate through a solar ventilation system. (author)

Dehra, Himanshu [1-140 Avenue Windsor, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

229

Conductance characteristics between a normal metal and a two-dimensional Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superconductor: The Fulde-Ferrell state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state has received renewed interest recently due to the experimental indication of its presence in CeCoIn5, a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) d-wave superconductor. However direct evidence of the spatial variation of the superconducting order parameter, which is the hallmark of the FFLO state, does not yet exist. In this work we explore the possibility of detecting the phase structure of the order parameter directly using conductance spectroscopy through microconstrictions, which probes the phase sensitive surface Andreev bound states of d-wave superconductors. We employ the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism to calculate the conductance characteristics between a normal metal (N) and a 2D s- or d(x)(2)-y(2)-wave superconductor in the Fulde-Ferrell state, for all barrier parameter z from the point contact limit (z=0) to the tunneling limit (z > 1). We find that the zero-bias conductance peak due to these surface Andreev bound states observed in the uniform d-wave superconductor is split and shifted in the Fulde-Ferrell state. We also clarify what weighted bulk density of states is measured by the conductance in the limit of large z.

Cui, Qinghong; Hu, Chia-Ren; Wei, J. Y. T.; Yang, Kun.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Application of the static fluctuation approximation to the computation of the thermodynamic properties of an interacting trapped two-dimensional hard-sphere Bose gas  

SciTech Connect

The static fluctuation approximation (SFA) is applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of a trapped two-dimensional (2D) interacting hard-sphere (HS) Bose gas in the weakly and strongly interacting regime. A mean-field approach involving a variational wave function is used to compute the mean-field energy as a function of temperature for each harmonic oscillator (HO) state plugged into the SFA technique. In the variational approach, a parameter {alpha} is introduced into the harmonic oscillator wave function in order to take into account the changes in the width when the repulsive interactions between the bosons are increased. In the weakly interacting regime, below the critical temperature, the total energy of all HO states (evaluated by our model) matches the noninteracting result very well. However, beyond the critical temperature, we 'fit' our energies to the classical limit for 2D bosons in a trap by using a suitably proposed weighting function. We compare our results to earlier results of mean-field theory. Further, we evaluate the density matrix arising from correlations between the HO orbitals.

Sakhel, Asaad R. [Al-Balqa Applied University, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Amman 11134 (Jordan); Qashou, Saleem I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, Zarqa Private University, Zarqa 13132 (Jordan); Sakhel, Roger R. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Information Technology, Al-Isra University, Amman 11622 (Jordan); Ghassib, Humam B. [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

AOCS Official Method Ca 2d-25  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moisture and Volatile Matter Vacuum Oven Method AOCS Official Method Ca 2d-25 Methods Methods and Analyses Analytical Chemistry Methods Downloads Methods Downloads DEFINITION This method determines the moisture

232

Finite Heat conduction in 2D Lattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a 2D hamonic lattices model with missing bond defects, when the capacity ratio of defects is enough large, the temperature gradient can be formed and the finite heat conduction is found in the model. The defects in the 2D harmonic lattices impede the energy carriers free propagation, by another words, the mean free paths of the energy carrier are relatively short. The microscopic dynamics leads to the finite conduction in the model.

Lei Yang; Yang Kongqing

2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effects of Diurnal Variations on Tropical Equilibrium States: A Two-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of diurnal variations on tropical heat and water vapor equilibrium states are investigated based on hourly data from two-dimensional cloud-resolving simulations. The model is integrated for 40 days and the simulations reach equilibrium ...

Shouting Gao; Yushu Zhou; Xiaofan Li

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Theory of a Continuous Stripe Melting Transition in a Two-Dimensional Metal: A Possible Application to Cuprate Superconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a theory of continuous stripe melting quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional metals and the associated Fermi surface reconstruction. Such phase transitions are strongly coupled but yet theoretically ...

Mross, David Fabian

235

A Comparison of Lidar Data and Two-Dimensional Simulation of Dust Transport from the Eruption of El Chichón  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional model has been integrated for two years to study the evolution of the El Chichón aerosol cloud in the stratosphere, starting about three months after the eruption. Initial conditions for the backscattering ratios are taken from ...

Guido Visconti; Marco Verdecchia; Giovanni Pitari

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

An Implicit Nonlinearly Consistent Method for the Two-Dimensional Shallow-Water Equations with Coriolis Force  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An implicit and nonlinearly consistent (INC) solution technique is presented for the two-dimensional shallow-water equations. Since the method is implicit, and therefore unconditionally stable, time steps may be used that result in both gravity ...

V. A. Mousseau; D. A. Knoll; J. M. Reisner

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Microphysical and Radiative Effects of Ice Clouds on Tropical Equilibrium States: A Two-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Modeling Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical and radiative effects of ice clouds on tropical equilibrium states are investigated based on three two-dimensional cloud-resolving simulations imposed by zero vertical velocity and time-invariant zonal wind and sea surface ...

Fan Ping; Zhexian Luo; Xiaofan Li

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

A Two-Dimensional Numerical Investigation of the interaction between Sea Breezes and Deep Convection over the Florida Peninsula  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep convection initiated by sea breezes over the Florida peninsula is simulated using a two-dimensional nonhydrostatic model. Reasonable agreement is obtained between model results and observations for the three types of undisturbed days ...

Melville E. Nicholls; Roger A. Pielke; William R. Cotton

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

A Further Study of the Mechanisms of Cell Regeneration, Propagation, and Development within Two-Dimensional Multicell Storms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms of cell regeneration, development, and propagation within a two-dimensional multicell storm proposed by Lin, Deal, and Kulie (hereafter LDK) were further investigated by conducting a series of sensitivity tests. LDK's advection ...

Yuh-Lang Lin; Lara E. Joyce

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

On the Use of Two-Dimensional Incompressible Flow to Study Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies have offered hypotheses for the mechanisms that lead to secondary eyewall formation in tropical cyclones by using two-dimensional incompressible flow. Those studies represented the convection-induced vorticity field as either ...

Yumin Moon; David S. Nolan; Mohamed Iskandarani

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Multiscale Convective Wave Disturbances in the Tropics: Insights from a Two-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiscale convective wave disturbances with structures broadly resembling observed tropical waves are found to emerge spontaneously in a nonrotating, two-dimensional cloud model forced by uniform cooling. To articulate the dynamics of these ...

Stefan N. Tulich; Brian E. Mapes

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

User-Oriented Two-Dimensional Measure of Effectiveness for the Evaluation of Transport and Dispersion Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional measure of effectiveness for comparing hazardous material transport and dispersion model predictions and field observations has been developed. This measure is used for comparing predictions and observations paired in space and ...

Steve Warner; Nathan Platt; James F. Heagy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Impact of Isopycnal Diffusion on Heat Fluxes and the Transient Response of a Two-Dimensional Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional (latitude–depth) ocean–climate model is used to assess the impact of calculating diffusive heat and salinity fluxes along and across isopycnal surfaces rather than in a vertical–horizontal coordinate system. Differences between ...

L. D. Danny Harvey

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Large-Eddy Simulation of Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles: High Drag States and Mixing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES) model was used to examine how stratified flow interacts with bottom obstacles in the coastal ocean. Bottom terrain representing a 2D ridge was modeled using a finite-volume approach with ridge ...

Eric D. Skyllingstad; Hemantha W. Wijesekera

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Generalized Two-Dimensional Perturbation Correlation Infrared Spectroscopy reveals Mechanisms for the Development of Surface Charge and Recalcitrance in Plant-derived Biochars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamental knowledge of how biochars develop surface-charge and resistance to environmental degradation (or recalcitrance) is crucial to their production for customized applications or, understanding their functions in the environment. Two-dimensional perturbation-based correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-PCIS) was used to study the biochar formation process in three taxonomically-different plant biomass, under oxygen-limited conditions along a heat-treatment-temperature gradient (HTT; 200-650 oC). Results from 2D-PCIS pointed to the systematic, HTT-induced defragmenting of lignocellulose H-bonding network, and demethylenation/demethylation, oxidation or dehydroxylation/dehydrogenation of lignocellulose fragments as the primary reactions controlling biochar properties along the HTT gradient. The cleavage of OH O-type H-bonds, oxidation of free primary hydroxyls (HTT?500 oC), and their subsequent dehydrogenation/dehydroxylation (HTT>500 oC) controlled surface charge on the biochars; while the dehydrogenation of methylene groups, which yielded increasingly condensed structures (R-CH2-R ?R=CH-R ?R=C=R), controlled biochar recalcitrance. Variations in biochar properties across plant biomass type were attributable to taxa-specific transformations. For example, apparent inefficiencies in the cleavage of wood-specific H-bonds, and their subsequent oxidation to carboxyls, lead to lower surface charge in wood biochars (compared to grass biochars). Both non-taxa and taxa-specific transformations highlighted by 2D-PCIS could have significant implications for biochar functioning in fire-impacted or biochar-amended systems.

Harvey, Omar R.; Herbert, Bruce; Kuo, Li-Jung; Louchouarn, Patrick

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

MOCUM: A two-dimensional method of characteristics code based on unstructured meshing for general geometries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transport theory code MOCUM based on the Method of Characteristics (MOC) as the flux solver with an advanced general geometry processor is developed for two-dimensional lattice and full core neutronics modeling. The core structure is represented by Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) that uses Boolean operations to build complex geometries from simple polygons. Arbitrary-precision arithmetic is also used in the process of building CSG objects to eliminate the round-off error from the commonly used double precision numbers. Then, the constructed core frame will be decomposed and refined into a conforming Delaunay triangulation to ensure the quality of the meshes. The MOC solver kernel is fully paralleled using OpenMP and the developed numerical code is validated by several benchmarks representing various core geometries. For the cases modeled, the maximum percentage error for multiplication factor and the pin power compared to reference values are 0.1% and 0.7% respectively. (authors)

Yang, X.; Satvat, N. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue Univ., 400 Central Dr, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Supersolid phase of cold fermionic polar molecules in two-dimensional optical lattices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study a system of ultracold fermionic polar molecules in a two-dimensional square lattice interacting via both the long-range dipole-dipole interaction and a short-range on-site attractive interaction. Singlet-superfluid, change density wave, and supersolid phases are found to exist in the system. We map out the zero-temperature phase diagram and find that the supersolid phase is considerably stabilized by the dipole-dipole interaction and thus can exist over a large region of filling factors. We study the melting of the supersolid phase with increasing temperature, map out a finite-temperature phase diagram of the system at fixed filling, and determine the parameter region where the supersolid phase can possibly be observed in experiments.

He Liang; Hofstetter, Walter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Charge localization and stripes in a two-dimensional three-band Peierls-Hubbard model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a two-dimensional three-band Peierls-Hubbard model appropriate to layered transition-metal oxides, and in an inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock approximation, we show that several kinds of charge-localized mesoscopic patterns (stripes) may exist: vertical site stripes, vertical zig-zag stripes, diagonal site stripes, and oxygen-centered stripes. A random-phase-approximation analysis reveals new phonon modes and intense low-energy spin excitations in these stripes. A softened phonon mode with momentum ({pi},0) in the oxygen-centered stripe may explain the anomalous phonons observed by neutron-scattering experiments in several cuprate superconductors. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Yu, Z.G.; Zang, J.; Gammel, J.T.; Bishop, A.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Microbunching Instability in a Chicane: Two-Dimensional Mean Field Treatment  

SciTech Connect

We study the microbunching instability in a bunch compressor by a parallel code with some improved numerical algorithms. The two-dimensional charge/current distribution is represented by a Fourier series, with coefficients determined through Monte Carlo sampling over an ensemble of tracked points. This gives a globally smooth distribution with low noise. The field equations are solved accurately in the lab frame using retarded potentials and a novel choice of integration variables that eliminates singularities. We apply the scheme with parameters for the first bunch compressor system of FERMI{at}Elettra, with emphasis on the amplification of a perturbation at a particular wavelength. Gain curves agree with those of the linearized Vlasov model at long wavelengths, but show some deviation at the smallest wavelengths treated.

Bassi, G.; Ellison, James A.; Heinemann, Klaus; Warnock, Robert; /Liverpool U. /Cockroft Inst. /New Mexico U. /SLAC /LBL, Berkeley

2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

250

Phase transitions in the two-dimensional ferro- and antiferromagnetic potts models on a triangular lattice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase transitions in the two-dimensional ferro- and antiferromagnetic Potts models with q = 3 states of spin on a triangular lattice are studied using cluster algorithms and the classical Monte Carlo method. Systems with linear sizes L = 20-120 are considered. The method of fourth-order Binder cumulants and histogram analysis are used to discover that a second-order phase transition occurs in the ferromagnetic Potts model and a first-order phase transition takes place in the antiferromagnetic Potts model. The static critical indices of heat capacity ({alpha}), magnetic susceptibility ({gamma}), magnetization ({beta}), and correlation radius index ({nu}) are calculated for the ferromagnetic Potts model using the finite-size scaling theory.

Murtazaev, A. K.; Babaev, A. B., E-mail: b_albert78@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been further confirmed by measuring its electrical properties. The effect of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed and its unique features have been utilized to study the properties of 2DEG formed by the AlGaN/GaN heterointerface. Sharp electronic transitions from the first to the second subbands in the 2DEG channel have been observed by monitoring the 2DEG carrier mobility as a function of carrier concentration through the use of PPC. These results are expected to have significant implications on field-effect transistor and high electron mobility transistor applications based on the GaN system. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

Li, J.Z.; Lin, J.Y.; Jiang, H.X. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States); Khan, M.A.; Chen, Q. [APA Optics, Inc., Blaine, Minnesota 55449 (United States)] [APA Optics, Inc., Blaine, Minnesota 55449 (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Critical Behavior of the Two-Dimensional Randomly Driven Lattice Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the critical behavior of the two-dimensional randomly driven lattice gas, in which particles are driven along one of the lattice axes by an infinite external field with randomly changing sign. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis provides novel evidences that this model is not in the same universality class as the driven lattice gas with a constant drive (DLG), contrarily to what has been recently reported in the literature. Indeed, the FSS functions of transverse observables (i.e., related to order-parameter fluctuations with wave vector perpendicular to the direction of the field) differ from the mean-field behavior predicted and observed within the DLG universality class. At variance with the DLG case, FSS is attained on lattices with fixed aspect ratio and anisotropy exponent equal to 1 and the transverse Binder cumulant does not vanish at the critical point.

Sergio Caracciolo; Andrea Gambassi; Massimiliano Gubinelli; Andrea Pelissetto

2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

253

Two-dimensional modeling of high plasma density inductively coupled sources for materials processing  

SciTech Connect

Inductively coupled plasma sources are being developed to address the need for high plasma density (10[sup 11]--10[sup 12] cm[sup [minus]3]), low pressure (a few to 10--20 mTorr) etching of semiconductor materials. One such device uses a flat spiral coil of rectangular cross section to generate radio-frequency (rf) electric fields in a cylindrical plasma chamber, and capacitive rf biasing on the substrate to independently control ion energies incident on the wafer. To investigate these devices we have developed a two-dimensional hybrid model consisting of electromagnetic, electron Monte Carlo, and hydrodynamic modules; and an off line plasma chemistry Monte Carlo simulation. The results from the model for plasma densities, plasma potentials, and ion fluxes for Ar, O[sub 2], Ar/CF[sub 4]/O[sub 2] gas mixtures will be presented.

Ventzek, P.L.G.; Hoekstra, R.J.; Kushner, M.J. (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Universal equation of state and pseudogap in the two dimensional Fermi gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the thermodynamic properties and the spectral function for a homogeneous two-dimensional Fermi gas in the normal state using the Luttinger-Ward, or self-consistent T-matrix, approach. The equation of state for the article density deviates strongly from that of the ideal Fermi gas even for moderate interactions, and there is a pronounced pseudogap regime above the superfluid transition temperature. The spectral function shows a Bogoliubov-like dispersion with back-bending, and the density of states is significantly suppressed near the chemical potential. We compute the superfluid transition temperature for a finite system in the crossover from weak to strong coupling. The contact density at low temperature increases with interaction and compares favourably both with experiment and zero-temperature quantum Monte Carlo results.

Marianne Bauer; Meera M. Parish; Tilman Enss

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

Vondy, D.R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate  

SciTech Connect

We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given.

Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Entanglement entropy of two-dimensional Anti-de Sitter black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we derive a formula for the entanglement entropy of the anti-de Sitter black hole in two spacetime dimensions. The leading term in the large black hole mass expansion of our formula reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S_{BH}, whereas the subleading term behaves as ln S_{BH}. This subleading term has the universal form typical for the entanglement entropy of physical systems described by effective conformal fields theories (e.g. one-dimensional statistical models at the critical point). The well-known form of the entanglement entropy for a two-dimensional conformal field theory is obtained as analytic continuation of our result and is related with the entanglement entropy of a black hole with negative mass.

Mariano Cadoni

2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

258

Differential Equation Approach for One- and Two- Dimensional Lattice Green's Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first order differential equation of Green's Function, at the origin G(0), for the one- dimensional lattice is derived by simple recurrence relation. Green's Function at site (m)is then calculated in terms of G(0). A simple recurrence relation connecting the lattice Green's Function at the site (m,n)and the first derivative of the lattice Green's Function at the site (m+_1,n)is presented for the two- dimensional lattice, a differential equation of the second order in G(0,0) is obtained. By making use of the letter recurrence relation, lattice Green's Function at an arbitrary site is obtained in closed form. Finally, the phase shift and scattering cross section are evaluated analytically and numerically for one- and two impurities.

J. H. Asad

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

259

A simple distribution method for two-dimensional temperature/humidity bin data  

SciTech Connect

A distribution model is developed for relative humidity, and additional relationships are presented that allow the distribution model to be used on an hourly basis with either monthly-average daily relative humidity or monthly-average daily dry-bulb temperature and clearness index as the only meteorological data input. A procedure is described that allows the estimation of two-dimensional dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data from the distribution models for dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. Comparisons of measured and estimated dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data are presented. A design method for the cooling load on a residential air conditioner is described, and air conditioning loads are calculated using both measured and estimated dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data.

Erbs, D.G.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Fast Transient And Spatially Non-Homogenous Accident Analysis Of Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Nuclear Reactor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research about fast transient and spatially non-homogenous nuclear reactor accident analysis of two-dimensional nuclear reactor has been done. This research is about prediction of reactor behavior is during accident. In the present study, space-time diffusion equation is solved by using direct methods which consider spatial factor in detail during nuclear reactor accident simulation. Set of equations that obtained from full implicit finite-difference discretization method is solved by using iterative methods ADI (Alternating Direct Implicit). The indication of accident is decreasing macroscopic absorption cross-section that results large external reactivity. The power reactor has a peak value before reactor has new balance condition. Changing of temperature reactor produce a negative Doppler feedback reactivity. The reactivity will reduce excess positive reactivity. Temperature reactor during accident is still in below fuel melting point which is in secure condition.

Yulianti, Yanti [Dept. of Physics, Universitas Lampung (UNILA), Jl. Sumantri Brojonegor No.1 Bandar Lampung (Indonesia); Dept. of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khotimah, S. N. [Dept. of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Shafii, M. Ali [Dept. of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Dept. of Physics, Universitas Andalas (UNAND), Kampus Limau Manis, Padang, Sumatera Barat (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Bose-Einstein condensation and heat capacity of two-dimensional spin-polarized atomic hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The static fluctuation approximation (SFA) is used to study the condensate fraction and the specific heat capacity of finite two-dimensional spin-polarized atomic hydrogen. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in this system. The transition temperature at different densities decreases as the number of particles of the system increases. At low density, a sharp peak in the specific heat capacity is observed at the transition temperature. On the other hand, as the density of the system increases, the transition temperature becomes no longer well-defined, and a hump is observed in the specific heat capacity around the transition temperature. A qualitative comparison of our results to published results for finite Bose systems shows good agreement.

Al-Sugheir, M. K. [Department of Physics, Hashemite University, Zarqa (Jordan); Ghassib, H. B. [Department of Physics, University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Awawdeh, M. [Department of Physics, Yarmouk University, Irbid (Jordan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

A two-dimensional model study of past trends in global ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions and atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases important to atmospheric chemistry are known to have increased substantially over recent decades. Solar flux variations and the atmospheric nuclear test series are also likely to have affected stratospheric ozone. In this study, the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere has been applied to an analysis of the effects that these natural and anthropogenic influences may have had on global ozone concentrations over the last three decades. In general, model determined species distributions and the derived ozone trends agree well with published analyses of land-based and satellite-based observations. Also, the total ozone and ozone distribution trends derived from CFC and other trace gas effects have a different response with latitude than the derived trends from solar flux variations, thus providing a ''signature'' for anthropogenic effects on ozone. 24 refs., 5 figs.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A numerical method for reducing the random noise in a two-dimensional waveform  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method for reducing random noise in a two-dimensional waveform having an irregular curvature includes the steps of selecting a plurality of points initially positioned at preselected locations on the waveform. For each point selected, the straight line is found which connects it to the midpoint between its neighboring points. A new location for the point is calculated to lie on the straight line a fraction of the distance between the initial location of the point and the midpoint. This process is repeated for each point positioned on the waveform. After a single iteration of the method is completed, the entire process is repeated a predetermined number of times to identify final calculated locations for the plurality of points selected. The final calculated locations of the points are then connected to form a relatively random noise-free waveform having a substantially smooth curvature.

Levy, A.J.

1991-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

264

Two dimensional, two fluid model for sodium boiling in LMFBR fuel assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two dimensional numerical model for the simulation of sodium boiling transient was developed using the two fluid set of conservation equations. A semiimplicit numerical differencing scheme capable of handling the problems associated with the ill-posedness implied by the complex characteristic roots of the two fluid problems was used, which took advantage of the dumping effect of the exchange terms. Of particular interest in the development of the model was the identification of the numerical problems caused by the strong disparity between the axial and radial dimensions of fuel assemblies. A solution to this problem was found which uses the particular geometry of fuel assemblies to accelerate the convergence of the iterative technique used in the model. Three sodium boiling experiments were simulated with the model, with good agreement between the experimental results and the model predictions.

Granziera, M.R.; Kazimi, M.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Anisotropic shear melting and recrystallization of a two-dimensional complex (dusty) plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two-dimensional plasma crystal was melted by suddenly applying localized shear stress. A stripe of particles in the crystal was pushed by the radiation pressure force of a laser beam. We found that the response of the plasma crystal to stress and the eventual shear melting depended strongly on the crystal's angular orientation relative to the laser beam. Shear stress and strain rate were measured, from which the spatially resolved shear viscosity was calculated. The latter was shown to have minima in the regions with high velocity shear, thus demonstrating shear thinning. Shear-induced reordering was observed in the steady-state flow, where particles formed strings aligned in the flow direction.

V. Nosenko; A. V. Ivlev; G. E. Morfill

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

266

Piecewise parabolic negative magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron gas with triangular antidot lattice  

SciTech Connect

Extraordinary piecewise parabolic behavior of the magnetoresistance has been experimentally detected in the two-dimensional electron gas with a dense triangular lattice of antidots, where commensurability magnetoresistance oscillations are suppressed. The magnetic field range of 0-0.6 T can be divided into three wide regions, in each of which the magnetoresistance is described by parabolic dependences with high accuracy (comparable to the experimental accuracy) and the transition regions between adjacent regions are much narrower than the regions themselves. In the region corresponding to the weakest magnetic fields, the parabolic behavior becomes almost linear. The observed behavior is reproducible as the electron gas density changes, which results in a change in the resistance by more than an order of magnitude. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior, including so-called 'memory effects,' are discussed.

Budantsev, M. V., E-mail: budants@isp.nsc.ru; Lavrov, R. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Pokhabov, D. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

Laboratory setup and results of experiments on two-dimensional multiphase flow in porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the event of an accidental release into earth's subsurface of an immiscible organic liquid, such as a petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated organic solvent, the spatial and temporal distribution of the organic liquid is of great interest when considering efforts to prevent groundwater contamination or restore contaminated groundwater. An accurate prediction of immiscible organic liquid migration requires the incorporation of relevant physical principles in models of multiphase flow in porous media; these physical principles must be determined from physical experiments. This report presents a series of such experiments performed during the 1970s at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. The experiments were designed to study the transient, two-dimensional displacement of three immiscible fluids in a porous medium. This experimental study appears to be the most detailed published to date. The data obtained from these experiments are suitable for the validation and test calibration of multiphase flow codes. 73 refs., 140 figs.

McBride, J.F. (ed.) (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Graham, D.N. (ed.); Schiegg, H.O. (SIMULTEC Ltd., Meilen/Zurich (Switzerland))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Device for two-dimensional gas-phase separation and characterization of ion mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a device for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions. The device incorporates an ion source, a field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer, an ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) drift tube, and an ion detector. In one aspect of the invention, FAIMS operating voltages are electrically floated on top of the IMS drift voltage. In the other aspect, the FAIMS/IMS interface is implemented employing an electrodynamic ion funnel, including in particular an hourglass ion funnel. The present invention improves the efficiency (peak capacity) and sensitivity of gas-phase separations; the online FAIMS/IMS coupling creates a fundamentally novel two-dimensional gas-phase separation technology with high peak capacity, specificity, and exceptional throughput.

Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Shvartsburg, Alexandre A. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

269

Spectral-domain phase microscopy with improved sensitivity using two-dimensional detector arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we demonstrate the use of two-dimensional detectors to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity in spectral-domain phase microscopy for subnanometer accuracy measurements. We show that an increase in SNR can be obtained, from 82 dB to 105 dB, using 150 pixel lines of a low-cost CCD camera as compared to a single line, to compute an averaged axial scan. In optimal mechanical conditions, phase stability as small as 92 {mu}rad, corresponding to 6 pm displacement accuracy, could be obtained. We also experimentally demonstrate the benefit of spatial-averaging in terms of the reduction of signal fading due to an axially moving sample. The applications of the improved system are illustrated by imaging live cells in culture.

Singh, K.; Dion, C.; Ozaki, T. [Centre de Recherche, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Energie, Materiaux et Telecommunications, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Lesk, M. R. [Centre de Recherche, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Departement d'Ophtalmologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Costantino, S. [Centre de Recherche, Hopital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Departement d'Ophtalmologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut de Genie Biomedical, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Yearly distributed insolation model and optimum design of a two dimensional compound parabolic concentrator  

SciTech Connect

Optimum acceptance angle of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is studied by the use of an insolation model proposed in this paper. The insolation consists of two components: diffuse and direct. The direct radiation is supposed to be distributed in the field within {+-}23.5{degree} of declination on the celestial hemisphere and the diffuse radiation is assumed to have uniform irradiance. This yearly insolation model suggests that the optimum half-acceptance angle at the two-dimensional CPC becomes 26{degree} irrespective of the change of the diffuse radiation fraction. This result leads us to the conclusion that, almost all over the world, a common CPC could be used as an optimum concentration for many solar radiation collecting systems. 11 refs., 8 figs.

Suzuki, Akio; Kobayashi, Shigeo [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Heat capacity measurements of two-dimensional self-assembled hexadecanethiol monolayers on polycrystalline gold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coverage dependence. The large difference between 2D and 3D SAMs has also been shown by simulations30 by molecular dynamics simulations30 where Hm3D for C12 SAMs on Au140 and Au1289 clusters are found to be 20 k. Microelectromech. Syst. 12, 355 (2003). 18 M. Yu. Efremov, E. A. Olson, M. Zhang, and L. H. Allen, Thermochim. Acta

Braun, Paul

273

Coexistence of Magnetic Order and Two-dimensional Superconductivity at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two dimensional electronic system forms at the interface between the band insulators LaAlO[subscript 3]

Li, Lu

274

Connecting the Sun and the Solar Wind: The First Two-Dimensional Self-consistent MHD Simulation under the Alfv\\'en Wave Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of the first two-dimensional self-consistent simulations directly covering from the photosphere to the interplanetary space. We carefully set up grid points with spherical coordinate to treat Alfv\\'enic waves in the atmosphere with the huge density contrast, and successfully simulate hot coronal wind streaming out as a result of surface convective motion. Footpoint motion excites upwardly propagating Alfv\\'enic waves along an open magnetic flux tube. These waves, traveling in non-uniform medium, suffer reflection, nonlinear mode conversion to compressive modes, and turbulent cascade. Combination of these mechanisms, the Alfv\\'enic waves eventually dissipate to accelerate the solar wind. While the shock heating by the dissipation of the compressive wave plays a primary role in the coronal heating, both turbulent cascade and shock heating contribute to drive the solar wind.

Matsumoto, Takuma

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Momentum-resolved tunneling between a Luttinger liquid and a two-dimensional electron gas S. A. Grigera and A. J. Schofield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Momentum-resolved tunneling between a Luttinger liquid and a two-dimensional electron gas S. A consider momentum resolved tunneling between a Luttinger liquid and a two-dimensional electron gas on both the Luttinger liquid and the two-dimensional electron gas. We show that there are six dispersing

Grigera, Santiago

276

Simulation of a two-dimensional model for colloids in a uniaxial electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified two-dimensional model for colloidal hard spheres in an external uniaxial AC electric field. Experimentally, the external field induces dipole moments in the colloidal particles, which in turn form chains. We therefore approximate the system as composed of well formed chains of dipolar hard spheres of a uniform length. The dipolar interaction between colloidal spheres gives rise to an effective interaction between the chains, which we treat as disks in a plane, that includes a short range attraction and long range repulsion. Hence, the system favors finite clustering over bulk phase separation and indeed we observe at low temperature and density that the system does form a cluster phase. As density increases, percolation is accompanied by a pressure anomaly. The percolated phase, despite being composed of connected, locally crystalline domains, does not bear the typical signatures of a hexatic phase. At very low densities, we find no indication of a "void phase" with a cellular structure seen recently in experiments.

Ahmad M. Almudallal; Ivan Saika-Voivod

2011-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

277

Striped periodic minimizers of a two-dimensional model for martensitic phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we consider a simplified two-dimensional scalar model for the formation of mesoscopic domain patterns in martensitic shape-memory alloys at the interface between a region occupied by the parent (austenite) phase and a region occupied by the product (martensite) phase, which can occur in two variants (twins). The model, first proposed by Kohn and Mueller, is defined by the following functional: $${\\cal E}(u)=\\beta||u(0,\\cdot)||^2_{H^{1/2}([0,h])}+ \\int_{0}^{L} dx \\int_0^h dy \\big(|u_x|^2 + \\epsilon |u_{yy}| \\big)$$ where $u:[0,L]\\times[0,h]\\to R$ is periodic in $y$ and $u_y=\\pm 1$ almost everywhere. Conti proved that if $\\beta\\gtrsim\\epsilon L/h^2$ then the minimal specific energy scales like $\\sim \\min\\{(\\epsilon\\beta/L)^{1/2}, (\\epsilon/L)^{2/3}\\}$, as $(\\epsilon/L)\\to 0$. In the regime $(\\epsilon\\beta/L)^{1/2}\\ll (\\epsilon/L)^{2/3}$, we improve Conti's results, by computing exactly the minimal energy and by proving that minimizers are periodic one-dimensional sawtooth functions.

Alessandro Giuliani; Stefan Mueller

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

278

Low-energy properties of two-dimensional magnetic nanostructures: interparticle interactions and disorder effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The low-energy properties of two-dimensional ensembles of dipole-coupled magnetic nanoparticles are studied as function of structural disorder and particle coverage. Already small deviations from a square particle arrangement lift the degeneracies of the microvortex magnetic configuration, and result in a strongly noncollinear magnetic order of the particle ensemble. The energy distribution of metastable states is determined. For a low degree of disorder a strongly asymmetric shape with a pronounced peak of the ground state energy results. In contrast, for a strong disorder a Gaussian-like distribution is obtained. The average dipole coupling energy $\\bar E_\\mathrm{dip}$ decreases with increasing structural disorder. The role of vacancies has been studied for a square particle array by determining the angular distribution of the preferred microvortex angle as function of the vacancy concentration. Indications for a preferred angular direction along the axial as well as along the diagonal directions of the square array are revealed. A corresponding investigation for disturbed square arrays results in a different angular distribution. The effect of dipole-quadrupole corrections resulting from the finite size of the particles is quantified.

P. J. Jensen; G. M. Pastor

2003-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

279

A comparison of one and two dimensional models of transonic accretion discs around collapsed objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct models of the inner part of a transonic adiabatic accretion disc assuming constant specific angular momentum taking the vertical structure fully into account.\\\\ For comparison purposes, we construct the corresponding one dimensional viscous disc models derived under vertical averaging assumptions. The conditions under which a unique location for the critical/sonic point is obtained, given an appropriate set of exterior boundary conditions for these models, is also discussed. This is not unique if the standard '$\\alpha $' prescription with viscous stress proportional to the angular velocity gradient is used.\\\\ We use a simple model to discuss the possible limitations on the form of the viscous stress arising from the requirement that viscous information must travel at a finite speed. Contrary to results in the existing literature, the viscous stress tends to be {\\it increased} rather than reduced for the type of flows we consider in which the angular momentum and angular velocity gradients have opposite signs. However, finite propagation effects may result in a unique location for the sonic point.\\\\ We found good agreement between the radial flow and specific angular momentum profiles in the inner regions of the one dimensional models and those in the equatorial plane for corresponding two dimensional models which may be matched for a range of $\\alpha $ between 0.1 and 10$^{-4}$.

J. C. B. Papaloizou; E. Szuszkiewicz

1994-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

280

On trajectories of vortices in the compressible fluid on a two-dimensional manifold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the model of a compressible barotropic fluid on a two dimensional rotating Riemmanian manifold we discuss a special class of smooth solutions having a form of a steady non-singular vortex moving with a bearing field. The model can be obtained from the system of primitive equations governing the motion of air over the Earth surface after averaging over the height and therefore the solution obtained can be interpreted as a tropical cyclone which is known as a long time existing stable vortex. We consider approximations of $l$- plane and $\\beta$ - plane used in geophysics for modeling of middle scale processes and equations on the whole sphere as well. We show that the solutions of the mentioned form satisfy the equations of the model either exactly or with a discrepancy which is small in a neighborhood of the trajectory of the center of vortex. We perform a numeric study of the change of the shape of the vortex affected by the neglecting the discrepancy term.

Rozanova, Olga S; Hu, Chin-Kun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

On trajectories of vortices in the compressible fluid on a two-dimensional manifold  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the model of a compressible barotropic fluid on a two dimensional rotating Riemmanian manifold we discuss a special class of smooth solutions having a form of a steady non-singular vortex moving with a bearing field. The model can be obtained from the system of primitive equations governing the motion of air over the Earth surface after averaging over the height and therefore the solution obtained can be interpreted as a tropical cyclone which is known as a long time existing stable vortex. We consider approximations of $l$- plane and $\\beta$ - plane used in geophysics for modeling of middle scale processes and equations on the whole sphere as well. We show that the solutions of the mentioned form satisfy the equations of the model either exactly or with a discrepancy which is small in a neighborhood of the trajectory of the center of vortex. We perform a numeric study of the change of the shape of the vortex affected by the neglecting the discrepancy term.

Olga S. Rozanova; Jui-Ling Yu; Chin-Kun Hu

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Thermalisation of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a 'white-wall' photon box  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered - corresponding to a vanishing chemical potential. Here we report on evidence for a thermalised two-dimensional photon gas with freely adjustable chemical potential. Our experiment is based on a dye filled optical microresonator, acting as a 'white-wall' box for photons. Thermalisation is achieved in a photon number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye-molecules, and the cavity mirrors both provide an effective photon mass and a confining potential - key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. As a striking example for the unusual system properties, we demonstrate a yet unobserved light concentration effect into the centre of the confining potential, an effect with prospects for increasing the efficiency of diffuse solar light collection.

Jan Klaers; Frank Vewinger; Martin Weitz

2010-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

283

Apparatus for reading two-dimensional electrophoretograms containing. beta. -ray-emitting labeled compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for electronically reading planar two-dimensional ..beta..-ray emitter-labeled gel electrophoretograms. A single, flat rectangular multiwire proportional chamber is placed in close proximity to the gel and the assembly placed in an intense uniform magnetic field disposed in a perpendicular manner to the rectangular face of the proportional chamber. Beta rays emitted in the direction of the proportional chamber are caused to execute helical motions which substantially preserve knowledge the coordinates of their origin in the gel. Perpendicularly oriented, parallel wire, parallel plane cathodes electronically sense the location of the ..beta..-rays from ionization generated thereby in a detection gas coupled with an electron avalanche effect resulting from the action of a parallel wire anode located therebetween. A scintillator permits the present apparatus to be rendered insensitive when signals are generated from cosmic rays incident on the proportional chamber. Resolution for concentrations of radioactive compounds in the gel exceeds 700-..mu..m. The apparatus and method of the present invention represent a significant improvement over conventional autoradiographic techniques in dynamic range, linearity and sensitivity of data collection. A concentration and position map for gel electrophoretograms having significant concentrations of labeled compounds and/or highly radioactive labeling nuclides can generally be obtained in less than one hour.

Anderson, H.L.; Kinnison, W.W.; Lillberg, J.W.

1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Apparatus and method for reading two-dimensional electrophoretograms containing .beta.-ray-emitting labeled compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for electronically reading planar two dimensional .beta.-ray emitter-labeled gel electrophoretograms. A single, flat rectangular multiwire proportional chamber is placed in close proximity to the gel and the assembly placed in an intense uniform magnetic field disposed in a perpendicular manner to the rectangular face of the proportional chamber. Beta rays emitted in the direction of the proportional chamber are caused to execute helical motions which substantially preserve knowledge of the coordinates of their origin in the gel. Perpendicularly oriented, parallel wire, parallel plane cathodes electronically sense the location of the .beta.-rays from ionization generated thereby in a detection gas coupled with an electron avalanche effect resulting from the action of a parallel wire anode located therebetween. A scintillator permits the present apparatus to be rendered insensitive when signals are generated from cosmic rays incident on the proportional chamber. Resolution for concentrations of radioactive compounds in the gel exceeds 700 .mu.m. The apparatus and method of the present invention represent a significant improvement over conventional autoradiographic techniques in dynamic range, linearity and sensitivity of data collection. A concentration and position map for gel electrophoretograms having significant concentrations of labeled compounds and/or highly radioactive labeling nuclides can generally be obtained in less than one hour.

Anderson, Herbert L. (Santa Fe, NM); Kinnison, W. Wayne (Los Alamos, NM); Lillberg, John W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

TWO-DIMENSIONAL BLAST-WAVE-DRIVEN RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITY: EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper shows results from experiments diagnosing the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with two-dimensional initial conditions at an embedded, decelerating interface. Experiments are performed at the Omega Laser and use {approx}5 kJ of energy to create a planar blast wave in a dense, plastic layer that is followed by a lower density foam layer. The single-mode interface has a wavelength of 50 {mu}m and amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m. Some targets are supplemented with additional modes. The interface is shocked then decelerated by the foam layer. This initially produces the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability followed and then dominated by Rayleigh-Taylor growth that quickly evolves into the nonlinear regime. The experimental conditions are scaled to be hydrodynamically similar to SN1987A in order to study the instabilities that are believed to occur at the He/H interface during the blast-wave-driven explosion phase of the star. Simulations of the experiment were performed using the FLASH hydrodynamics code.

Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Harding, E. C.; Grosskopf, M. J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Edwards, M. J.; Miles, A. R.; Perry, T. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 5508, L-487, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Blue, B. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Plewa, T. [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Dirac Science Library Tallahassee, FL 32306-4120 (United States); Hearn, N. C. [ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, University of Chicago, IL (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory of Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Arnett, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Leibrandt, D. R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-disk fan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-disk Tesla type fan has been designed, tested and analyzed two-dimensionally using the conservation of angular momentum principle. Experimental results showed that such multiple-disk fans exhibited exceptionally low performance characteristics, which could be attributed to the low viscosity, tangential nature of the flow, and large mechanical energy losses at both suction and discharge sections that are comparable to the total input power. By means of theoretical analysis, local and overall shearing stresses on the disk surfaces have been determined based on tangential and radial velocity distributions of the air flow of different volume flow rates at prescribed disk spaces and rotational speeds. Then the total power transmitted by rotating disks to air flow, and the power acquired by the air flow in the gap due to transfer of angular momentum have been obtained by numerically integrating shearing stresses over the disk surfaces. Using the measured shaft and hydraulic powers, these quantities were utilized to evaluate mechanical energy losses associated with the suction and discharge sections of the fan. (author)

Engin, Tahsin; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cesmeci, Sevki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sakarya, Esentepe Campus, 54187 Sakarya (Turkey)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Observation of Spin Coulomb Drag in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas  

SciTech Connect

An electron propagating through a solid carries spin angular momentum in addition to its mass and charge. Of late there has been considerable interest in developing electronic devices based on the transport of spin, which offer potential advantages in dissipation, size, and speed over charge-based devices. However, these advantages bring with them additional complexity. Because each electron carries a single, fixed value (-e) of charge, the electrical current carried by a gas of electrons is simply proportional to its total momentum. A fundamental consequence is that the charge current is not affected by interactions that conserve total momentum, notably collisions among the electrons themselves. In contrast, the electron's spin along a given spatial direction can take on two values, {+-} {h_bar}/2 (conventionally {up_arrow}, {down_arrow}), so that the spin current and momentum need not be proportional. Although the transport of spin polarization is not protected by momentum conservation, it has been widely assumed that, like the charge current, spin current is unaffected by electron-electron (e-e) interactions. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only that this assumption is invalid, but that over a broad range of temperature and electron density, the flow of spin polarization in a two-dimensional gas of electrons is controlled by the rate of e-e collisions.

Weber, C.P.

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

Method for laser-based two-dimensional navigation system in a structured environment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low power, narrow laser beam, generated by a laser carried by a mobile vehicle, is rotated about a vertical reference axis as the vehicle navigates within a structured environment. At least three stationary retroreflector elements are located at known positions, preferably at the periphery of the structured environment, with one of the elements having a distinctive retroflection. The projected rotating beam transverses each retroflector in succession, and the corresponding retroreflections are received at the vehicle and focussed on a photoelectric cell to generate corresponding electrical signals. The signal caused by the distinctive retroreflection serves as an angle-measurement datum. An angle encoder coupled to the apparatus rotating the projected laser beam provides the angular separation from this datum of the lines connecting the mobile reference axis to successive retroreflectors. This real-time angular data is utilized with the known locations of the retroreflectors to trigonometrically compute the exact real-time location of the mobile reference axis (hence the navigating vehicle) vis-a-vis the structure environment, e.g., in terms of two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates associated with the environment.

Boultinghouse K.D.; Schoeneman, J.L.; Bertice, L.T.

1986-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

289

Method for laser-based two-dimensional navigation system in a structured environment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low power, narrow laser beam, generated by a laser carried by a mobile vehicle, is rotated about a vertical reference axis as the vehicle navigates within a structured environment. At least three stationary retroreflector elements are located at known positions, preferably at the periphery of the structured environment, with one of the elements having a distinctive retroreflection. The projected rotating beam traverses each retroreflector in succession, and the corresponding retroreflections are received at the vehicle and focussed on a photoelectric cell to generate corresponding electrical signals. The signal caused by the distinctive retroreflection serves as an angle-measurement datum. An angle encoder coupled to the apparatus rotating the projected laser beam provides the angular separation from this datum of the lines connecting the mobile reference axis to successive retroreflectors. This real-time angular data is utilized with the known locations of the retroreflectors to trigonometrically compute using three point resection, the exact real-time location of the mobile reference axis (hence the navigating vehicle) vis-a-vis the structured environment, e.g., in terms of two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates associated with the environment.

Boultinghouse, Karlan D. (Sandia Park, NM); Schoeneman, J. Lee (Albuquerque, NM); Tise, Bertice L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Universal Conductivity in a Two-dimensional Superfluid-to-Insulator Quantum Critical System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute the universal conductivity of the (2+1)-dimensional XY universality class, which is realized for a superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition at constant density. Based on large-scale Monte Carlo simulations of the classical (2+1)-dimensional $J$-current model and the two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, we can precisely determine the conductivity on the quantum critical plateau, $\\sigma(\\infty)=0.359(4)\\sigma_Q$ with $\\sigma_Q$ the conductivity quantum. The universal conductivity is the schoolbook example of where the AdS/CFT correspondence from string theory can be tested and made to use. The shape of our $\\sigma(i\\omega_n)- \\sigma(\\infty)$ function in the Matsubara representation is accurate enough for a conclusive comparison and establishes the particle-like nature of charge transport. We find that the holographic gauge/gravity duality theory for transport properties can be made compatible with the data if temperature of the horizon of the black brane is different from the temperature of the conformal field theory. The requirements for measuring the universal conductivity in a cold gas experiment are also determined by our calculation.

Kun Chen; Longxiang Liu; Youjin Deng; Lode Pollet; Nikolay Prokof'ev

2013-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

291

An implementation of a dexterous manipulator for a two-dimensional, low-friction environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dexterous manipulation can be defined as the set of motions necessary to stably grasp an object in a robot hand and change its position and/or orientation through a series of coordinated motions. This thesis describes the design and implementation of a two-dimensional (planar) robot hand which can perform dexterous manipulation in low friction environments. In order for the hand to be able to perform a successful manipulation, it is necessary to have a coordinated set of joint torques and joint position set points. These can then be fed to the digital control system for each joint. Planning (to produce these trajectories) is done off-line under the assumption that the environment is frictionless. This assumption reduces the computational complexity of the problem, because motion is reversible in the frictionless domain. Also, planning in the frictionless case results in all contacts between objects being sliding contacts and no rolling occurs. While executing such "frictionless" plans in low friction environments, it is necessary to recognize that rolling contacts can occur and steps should be taken to prevent this from happening. The analysis and design of the control systems for each of the joints as well as their implementation are discussed. Experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical results. It is shown that it is possible to execute "frictionless' plans in low-friction environments.

Ram, Ranganathan Charath

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Numerical simulation of thermal properties in two-dimensional Yukawa systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New results obtained for thermal conduction in 2D Yukawa systems. The results of numerical study of heat transfer processes for quasi equilibrium systems with parameters close to conditions in laboratory experiments with dusty plasma are presented. The Green-Kubo relations are used to calculate thermal conductivity and diffusivity coefficients. For the first time the influence of dissipation (friction) on the heat transfer in non-ideal systems is studied. New approximation is suggested for thermal diffusivity. The comparison with the existing experimental and numerical results is shown.

Khrustalyov, Yu V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Si deposition rates in a two-dimensional CVD (chemical vapor deposition) reactor and comparisons with model calculations  

SciTech Connect

Deposition rates are presented for silicon from silane in a helium carrier gas using a tubular CVD reactor with a two-dimensional flow geometry. Measured surface-temperature profiles, inlet gas velocities, total pressures, and silane/helium concentrations are reported, providing exact boundary conditions that can be used in a two-dimensional numerical CVD model. Comparisons are made between this data and two variations of a model by Coltrin, Kee, and Miller in which different empirical expressions for the silane and disilane reactive sticking coefficient are used.

Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

On Global Regularity of 2D Generalized Magnetohydrodynamic Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this article we study the global regularity of 2D generalized magnetohydrodynamic equations (2D GMHD), in which the dissipation terms are $- \

Tran, Chuong V; Zhai, Zhichun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

LOCAL TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS OF THE COLLISIONLESS MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a crucial mechanism of angular momentum transport in a variety of astrophysical accretion disks. In systems accreting at well below the Eddington rate, such as the central black hole in the Milky Way (Sgr A*), the plasma in the disk is essentially collisionless. We present a nonlinear study of the collisionless MRI using first-principles particle-in-cell plasma simulations. We focus on local two-dimensional (axisymmetric) simulations, deferring more realistic three-dimensional simulations to future work. For simulations with net vertical magnetic flux, the MRI continuously amplifies the magnetic field, B, until the Alfven velocity, v{sub A} , is comparable to the speed of light, c (independent of the initial value of v{sub A} /c). This is consistent with the lack of saturation of MRI channel modes in analogous axisymmetric MHD simulations. The amplification of the magnetic field by the MRI generates a significant pressure anisotropy in the plasma (with the pressure perpendicular to B being larger than the parallel pressure). We find that this pressure anisotropy in turn excites mirror modes and that the volume-averaged pressure anisotropy remains near the threshold for mirror mode excitation. Particle energization is due to both reconnection and viscous heating associated with the pressure anisotropy. Reconnection produces a distinctive power-law component in the energy distribution function of the particles, indicating the likelihood of non-thermal ion and electron acceleration in collisionless accretion disks. This has important implications for interpreting the observed emission-from the radio to the gamma-rays-of systems such as Sgr A*.

Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sharma, Prateek [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Banglore 560012 (India); Spitkovsky, Anatoly, E-mail: marh@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: eliot@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: prateek@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

Two dimensional point of use fuel cell : a final LDRD project report.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Proliferation Assessment (program area - Things Thin) within the Defense Systems and Assessment Investment Area desires high energy density and long-lived power sources with moderate currents (mA) that can be used as building blocks in platforms for the continuous monitoring of chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Fuel cells can be an optimum choice for a power source because of the high energy densities that are possible with liquid fuels. Additionally, power generation and fuel storage can be decoupled in a fuel cell for independent control of energy and power density for customized, application-driven power solutions. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are explored as a possible concept to develop into ultrathin or two-dimensional power sources. New developments in nanotechnology, advanced fabrication techniques, and materials science are exploited to create a planar DMFC that could be co-located with electronics in a chip format. Carbon nanotubes and pyrolyzed polymers are used as building block electrodes - porous, mechanically compliant current collectors. Directed assembly methods including surface functionalization and layer-by-layer deposition with polyelectrolytes are used to pattern, build, and add functionality to these electrodes. These same techniques are used to incorporate nanoscale selective electrocatalyst into the carbon electrodes to provide a high density of active electron transfer sites for the methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting electrodes are characterized in terms of their physical properties, electrocatalytic function, and selectivity to better understand how processing impacts their performance attributes. The basic function of a membrane electrode assembly is demonstrated for several prototype devices.

Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Hickner, Michael A. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Gross, Matthew L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DELAYED DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS  

SciTech Connect

For the explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), different scenarios have been suggested. In these, the propagation of the burning front through the exploding white dwarf (WD) star proceeds in different modes, and consequently imprints of the explosion model on the nucleosynthetic yields can be expected. The nucleosynthetic characteristics of various explosion mechanisms are explored based on three two-dimensional explosion simulations representing extreme cases: a pure turbulent deflagration, a delayed detonation following an approximately spherical ignition of the initial deflagration, and a delayed detonation arising from a highly asymmetric deflagration ignition. Apart from this initial condition, the deflagration stage is treated in a parameter-free approach. The detonation is initiated when the turbulent burning enters the distributed burning regime. This occurs at densities around 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}-relatively low as compared to existing nucleosynthesis studies for one-dimensional spherically symmetric models. The burning in these multidimensional models is different from that in one-dimensional simulations as the detonation wave propagates both into unburned material in the high-density region near the center of a WD and into the low-density region near the surface. Thus, the resulting yield is a mixture of different explosive burning products, from carbon-burning products at low densities to complete silicon-burning products at the highest densities, as well as electron-capture products synthesized at the deflagration stage. Detailed calculations of the nucleosynthesis in all three models are presented. In contrast to the deflagration model, the delayed detonations produce a characteristic layered structure and the yields largely satisfy constraints from Galactic chemical evolution. In the asymmetric delayed detonation model, the region filled with electron capture species (e.g., {sup 58}Ni, {sup 54}Fe) is within a shell, showing a large off-set, above the bulk of {sup 56}Ni distribution, while species produced by the detonation are distributed more spherically.

Maeda, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Roepke, F.K.; Fink, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Travaglio, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Thielemann, F.-K., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.j [Department Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

298

Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-OlsonPhotosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-DimensionalElectronic Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequencesto separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago; Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry, Washington University; Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.

2008-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

299

An improved perturbation approach to the 2D Edwards polymer - corrections to scaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the results of a new perturbation calculation in polymer statistics which starts from a ground state that already correctly predicts the long chain length behaviour of the mean square end--to--end distance hR 2 N i , namely the solution to the two dimensional (2D) Edwards model. The hR 2 N i thus calculated is shown to be convergent in N , the number of steps in the chain, in contrast to previous methods which start from the free random walk solution. This allows us to calculate a new value for the leading correction--to--scaling exponent \\Delta. Writing hR 2 N i = AN 2 (1 +BN \\Gamma\\Delta +CN \\Gamma1 + :::), where = 3=4 in 2D, our result shows that \\Delta = 1=2. This value is also supported by an analysis of 2D self--avoiding walks on the continuum. 36.20.Ey, 64.60.Fr Typeset using REVT E X I. INTRODUCTION The central quantity of interest in polymer statistics is the mean square end--to--end distance hR 2 N i for a chain of N links. The excluded volume ef...

S. R. Shannon; T. C. Choy; R. J. Fleming; I An

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

A New two-dimensional Second Order Non-oscillatory Central Scheme Applied to multiphase flows in heterogeneous porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare the Kurganov-Tadmor (KT) two-dimensional second order semi-discrete central scheme in dimension by dimension formulation with a new two-dimensional approach introduced here and applied in numerical simulations for two-phase, two-dimensional flows in heterogeneous formations. This semi-discrete central scheme is based on the ideas of Rusanov's method using a more precise information about the local speeds of wave propagation computed at each Riemann Problem in two-space dimensions. We find the KT dimension by dimension has a much simpler mathematical description than the genuinely two-dimensional one with a little more numerical diffusion, particularly in the presence of viscous fingers. Unfortunately, as one can see, the KT with the dimension by dimension approach might produce incorrect boundary behavior in a typical geometry used in the study of porous media flows: the quarter of a five spot. This problem has been corrected by the authors with the new semi-discrete scheme proposed here. We conclu...

Furtado, F; Ribeiro, S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The Use of a Two-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Cloud Model to Predict Convective and Stratiform Clouds and Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, time-dependent cloud model has been used in two field projects to forecast the convective development during the day from the morning sounding. In effect, the cloud model gives a dynamic analysis of the sounding as affected by ...

Fred J. Kopp; Harold D. Orville

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Wave–Mean Flow Interaction in the Storm-Time Thermosphere: A Two-Dimensional Model Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional pole-to-pole numerical model with background solstitial winds has been used to study the global dynamical response of the thermosphere to high-latitude energy inputs associated with a model geomagnetic storm. This model storm ...

D. G. Brinkman; S. V. Venkateswaran; R. L. Walterscheid; A. D. Richmond

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency enhancement in a light-emitting diode with a two-dimensional surface grating photonic 21 November 2003 We demonstrate a light-emitting diode exhibiting 1.7­2.7-fold enhancement in light light emitting diode LED , the ef- ficiency is limited to several percents by a low light extrac- tion

Baba, Toshihiko

304

Effects of WENO flux reconstruction order and spatial resolution on reshocked two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) simulations of the reshocked two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability using third-, fifth- and ninth-order spatial flux reconstruction and uniform grid resolutions corresponding to 128, 256 ... Keywords: Mixing properties, Numerical dissipation, Reshock, Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) method

Marco Latini; Oleg Schilling; Wai Sun Don

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Electromagnetic wave interactions with 2D arrays of single-wall carbon nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report, for the first time, the scattering, absorption, and reflection characteristics of 2D arrays of finite-length, armchair, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the visible frequency regime. The analysis is based on the Finite-Element-Method ...

Taha A. Elwi; Hussain M. Al-Rizzo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

2D Joint Inversion Of Dc And Scalar Audio-Magnetotelluric Data In The  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Joint Inversion Of Dc And Scalar Audio-Magnetotelluric Data In The Joint Inversion Of Dc And Scalar Audio-Magnetotelluric Data In The Evaluation Of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Fields Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: 2D Joint Inversion Of DC And Scalar Audio-Magnetotelluric Data In The Evaluation Of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Fields Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: Audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and resistivity (dc) surveys are often used in environmental, hydrological and geothermal evaluation. The separate interpretation of those geophysical data sets assuming two-dimensional models frequently produces ambiguous results. The joint inversion of AMT and dc data is advocated by several authors as an efficient method for reducing the ambiguity inherent to each of those

307

Simulations of 2D magnetic electron drift vortex mode turbulence in plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations are performed to investigate turbulent properties of nonlinearly interacting two-dimensional (2D) magnetic electron drift vortex (MEDV) modes in a nonuniform unmagnetized plasma. The relevant nonlinear equations governing the dynamics of the MEDV modes are the wave magnetic field and electron temperature perturbations in the presence of the equilibrium density and temperature gradients. The important nonlinearities come from the advection of the electron fluid velocity perturbation and the electron temperature, as well as from the nonlinear electron Lorentz force. Computer simulations of the governing equations for the nonlinear MEDV modes reveal the generation of streamer-like electron flows, such that the corresponding gradients in the direction of the inhomogeneities tend to flatten out. By contrast, the gradients in an orthogonal direction vary rapidly. Consequently, the inertial range energy spectrum in decaying MEDV mode turbulence exhibits a much steeper anisotropic spectral index. The magn...

Shaikh, Dastgeer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A 2D human body model dressed in eigen clothing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detection, tracking, segmentation and pose estimation of people in monocular images are widely studied. Two-dimensional models of the human body are extensively used, however, they are typically fairly crude, representing the body either as a rough outline ...

Peng Guan; Oren Freifeld; Michael J. Black

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

The actuated Workbench : 2D actuation in tabletop tangible interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Actuated Workbench is a new actuation mechanism that uses magnetic forces to control the two-dimensional movement of physical objects on flat surfaces. This mechanism is intended for use with existing tabletop Tangible ...

Pangaro, Gian Antonio, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

NONRELATIVISTIC COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN WEAKLY MAGNETIZED ELECTRON-ION PLASMAS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATION OF PERPENDICULAR SHOCK  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation is performed to investigate weakly magnetized perpendicular shocks with a magnetization parameter of {sigma} = 6 x 10{sup -5}, which is equivalent to a high Alfven Mach number M{sub A} of {approx}130. It is shown that current filaments form in the foot region of the shock due to the ion-beam-Weibel instability (or the ion filamentation instability) and that they generate a strong magnetic field there. In the downstream region, these current filaments also generate a tangled magnetic field that is typically 15 times stronger than the upstream magnetic field. The thermal energies of electrons and ions in the downstream region are not in equipartition and their temperature ratio is T{sub e}/T{sub i} {approx} 0.3-0.4. Efficient electron acceleration was not observed in our simulation, although a fraction of the ions are accelerated slightly on reflection at the shock. The simulation results agree very well with the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. It is also shown that electrons and ions are heated in the foot region by the Buneman instability (for electrons) and the ion-acoustic instability (for both electrons and ions). However, the growth rate of the Buneman instability is significantly reduced due to the relatively high temperature of the reflected ions. For the same reason, ion-ion streaming instability does not grow in the foot region.

Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki, E-mail: kato-t@ile.osaka-u.ac.j [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

311

Finite Heat conduction in 2D Lattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper gives a 2D hamonic lattices model with missing bond defects, when the capacity ratio of defects is enough large, the temperature gradient can be formed and the finite heat conduction is found in the model. The defects in the 2D harmonic lattices impede the energy carriers free propagation, by another words, the mean free paths of the energy carrier are relatively short. The microscopic dynamics leads to the finite conduction in the model. PACS numbers: 44.10. +I, 05.45.Jn, 05.60.-k, 05.70.Ln The study of heat conduction in models of insulating solids is a rather old and debated problem, and the more general problem is one of understanding the nonequilibrium energy current carrying state of a many body system. The most of the work on heat conduction investigated the process of heat transport in 1D lattices. The different models have been studied for obtaining Fourier’s law, several kinds of factors have been taken into account in the models, such as the nonlinearity, on-site potentials, mass disorder and etc. Then the typical 1D lattices Hamiltonian is

Lei Yang; Yang Kongqing

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

On physical interpretation of two dimensional time-correlations regarding time delay velocities and eddy shaping  

SciTech Connect

Time delay estimation (TDE) techniques are frequently used to estimate the flow velocity from fluctuating measurements. Tilted structures carried by the flow lead to misinterpretation of the time delays in terms of velocity direction and amplitude. It affects TDE measurements from probes, and is also intrinsically important for beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging measurements. Local eddy shapes estimated from 2D fluctuating field are necessary to gain a more accurate flow estimate from TDE, as illustrated by Langmuir probe array measurements. A least square regression approach is proposed to estimate both flow field and shaping parameters. The technique is applied to a test case built from numerical simulation of interchange fluctuations. The local eddy shape does not only provide corrections for the velocity field but also quantitative information about the statistical interaction mechanisms between local eddies and E Multiplication-Sign B flow shear. The technique is then tested on gaz puff imaging data collected at the edge of EAST tokamak plasmas. It is shown that poloidal asymmetries of the fluctuation fields-velocity and eddy shape-are consistent at least qualitatively with a ballooning type of turbulence immersed in a radially sheared equilibrium flow.

Fedorczak, N. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Manz, P. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut feur Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom-IPP, 85748Garching (Germany); Thakur, S. C.; Xu, M.; Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Xu, G. S.; Liu, S. C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

313

A two dimensional modeling study of the sensitivity of ozone to radiative flux uncertainties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative processes strongly effect equilibrium trace gas concentrations both directly, through photolysis reactions, and indirectly through temperature and transport processes. We have used the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model to investigate the net sensitivity of equilibrium ozone concentrations to several changes in radiative forcing. Doubling CO/sub 2/ from 300 ppmv to 600 ppmv resulted in a temperature decrease of 5 K to 8 K in the middle stratosphere along with an 8% to 16% increase in ozone in the same region. Replacing our usual shortwave scattering algorithms with a simplified Rayleigh algorithm led to a 1% to 2% increase in ozone in the lower stratosphere. Finally, modifying our normal CO/sub 2/ cooling rates by corrections derived from line-by-line calculations resulted in several regions of heating and cooling. We observed temperature changes on the order of 1 K to 1.5 K with corresponding changes of 0.5% to 1.5% in O/sub 3/. Our results for doubled CO/sub 2/ compare favorably with those by other authors. Results for our two perturbation scenarios stress the need for accurately modeling radiative processes while confirming the general validity of current models. 15 refs., 5 figs.

Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Wavenumber Spectrum of Very Short Wind Waves: An Application of Two-Dimensional Slepian Windows to Spectral Estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multitaper 2D spectral estimation method is developed for increasing the degree of freedom of the estimation. The core of this method is 2D Slepian eigen windows that are optimum in the sense of minimizing the spectral leakage. Wavenumber ...

Xin Zhang

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Pauli matrices and 2D electron gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the present paper it will be argued that transport in a 2D electron gas can be implemented as 'local hidden instrument based' variables. With this concept of instrumentalism it is possible to explain the quantum correlation, the particle-wave duality and Wheeler's 'backward causation of a particle'. In the case of quantum correlation the spin measuring variant of the Einstein Podolsky and Rosen paradox is studied. In the case of particle-wave duality the system studied is single photon Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometry with a phase shift size $\\delta$. The idea that the instruments more or less neutrally may show us the way to the particle will be replaced by the concept of laboratory equipment contributing in an unexpected way to the measurement.

J. F. Geurdes

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

316

Capriccio after Davison: translating two-dimensional still imagery into an artistic, dynamic three-dimensional space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-dimensional fine art can serve as a source of inspiration for new works in the relatively young medium of three-dimensional computer animation. Artists are just beginning to discover the potential that digital technology has for realizing their visions not only within the third dimension of depth space, but also within the fourth dimension of time. The purpose of this research is to develop a process for translating the visual forms and atmosphere of an artist's two-dimensional drawings into a three-dimensional, computer-animated interpretation. While this process will be able to serve, in a general sense, as a repeatable guide for comparable work, it is not meant to be a strict didactic approach.

Thomason, Paul Kevin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

CHARACTERIZATION BY SEM OF THE PYROCARBON FIBER COATING IN 2D-SIC/CVI-SIC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The previous report examined electrical conductivity (EC) data from RT to 800°C for several forms of two-dimensional silicon carbide composite made with a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) matrix (2D-SiC/CVI-SiC), an important quantity needed for the design of an FCI. We found that both in-plane and transverse EC-values for 2D-SiC/CVI-SiC strongly depended on the total thickness of the highly conductive pyrocarbon (PyC) fiber coating and the alignment of the carbon coating network. Furthermore, the transverse EC depended on the degree of interconnectivity of this network. For our EC-modeling efforts we used either “nominal” coating thickness values provided by the composite fabricator or we made thickness estimates based on a limited number of fiber cross-section examinations using SEM. Because of the importance of using a truly representative coating thickness value in our analysis, we examined numerous new SEM cross-sectional views to reassess the reliability of our limited number of original coating thickness measurements as well as to obtain an estimate of the variation in thickness values for different composite configurations.

Youngblood, Gerald E.

2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

318

A nominally second-order accurate finite volume cell-centered scheme for anisotropic diffusion on two-dimensional unstructured grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we describe a second-order accurate cell-centered finite volume method for solving anisotropic diffusion on two-dimensional unstructured grids. The resulting numerical scheme, named CCLAD (Cell-Centered LAgrangian Diffusion), is characterized ... Keywords: Anisotropic diffusion, Cell-centered scheme, Cylindrical geometry, Isotropic diffusion, Second-order accurate finite volume method, Two-dimensional unstructured grid

Pierre-Henri Maire; Jérôme Breil

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A Two-Dimensional Time-Dependent Model of a Wind-Driven Coastal Polynya: Application to the St. Lawrence Island Polynya  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional time-dependent model of a wind-driven coastal polynya is presented. The model combines and extends previous one-dimensional time-dependent and two-dimensional steady-state flux formulations. Given the coastline geometry, and the ...

M. A. Morales Maqueda; A. J. Willmott

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Master equation for the probability distribution functions of overlaps between particles in two dimensional granular packings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

How does the force chain network in a random granular material react to hydrostatic compression? We show that not only contacts, but also their opening and closing as well as interparticle gaps, i.e. virtual contacts, must be included for a comprehensive description of the system response involving the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the extended force network. Considering overlaps/forces as stochastic variables, their conditional probability distributions (CPDs) are (numerically) determined and allow to formulate a Master equation for the PDFs. The insight one gets from the CPDs is striking: The mean change of contacts reflects non-affinity, while their fluctuations obey uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. In contrast, virtual contacts are mostly affine to isotropic (de)compression in average, but show multi-scale correlations with considerable probability of large "jumps" according to a stable distribution (cf. Levy distribution), that allows for a generalized central limit theorem. Noting that all changes of the network during compression are similarly scaled by the distance from the jamming density, the evolution of the system is fully described by the Master equation.

Kuniyasu Saitoh; Vanessa Magnanimo; Stefan Luding

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Electrification of Stratiform Regions in Mesoscale Convective Systems. Part II: Two-Dimensional Numerical Model Simulations of a Symmetric MCS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Model simulations of a symmetric mesoscale convective system (MCS; observations discussed in Part I) were conducted using a 2D, time-dependent numerical model with bulk microphysics. A number of charging mechanisms were considered based on ...

Terry J. Schuur; Steven A. Rutledge

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

A Fast Algorithm for Eye Detection Using Two-Dimensional CSP Akiko SUZUKI Tetsuya TAKIGUCHI Yasuo ARIKI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CSP A Fast Algorithm for Eye Detection Using Two-Dimensional CSP Akiko SUZUKI Tetsuya TAKIGUCHI Yasuo ARIKI 1. , CSP Crosspower-Spectrum Phase 2 [1] [2][3] CSP 2. W Ã? H I(x, y) w Ã? h T(i, j) R(x, y) R(x, y) (4) 3. CSP 1 CSP I(x, y) T(i, j) I(1, 2) = x,y I(x, y)e-j1x e-j2y (5) T(1, 2) = i,j T(i, j)e-j1

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

323

At-wavelength characterization of refractive x-ray lenses using a two-dimensional grating interferometer  

SciTech Connect

We report on the application of a two-dimensional hard x-ray grating interferometer to x-ray optics metrology. The interferometer is sensitive to refraction angles in two perpendicular directions with a precision of 10 nrad. It is used to observe the wavefront changes induced by a single parabolic beryllium focusing lens of large radius of curvature. The lens shape is reconstructed and its residual aberrations are analyzed. Its profile differs from an ideal parabolic shape by less than 2 {mu}m or {lambda}/50 at {lambda} = 0.54 A wavelength.

Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zanette, Irene [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weitkamp, Timm [Synchrotron Soleil, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Donath, Tilman [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Dectris Ltd., 5400 Baden (Switzerland)

2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

324

Experimental observation of plasmons in a graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate graphene-plasmon polariton excitation in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The subwavelength silicon grating is fabricated by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self-assembled nanosphere array as a template. Measured transmission spectra illustrate the excitation of graphene-plasmon polaritons, which is further supported by numerical simulations and theoretical prediction of plasmonband diagrams. Our grating-assisted coupling to graphene-plasmon polaritons forms an important platform for graphene-based opto-electronics applications.

Zhu, Xiaolong; Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Hansen, Ole; Mortensen, N Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

One- and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopic studies of solution-phase homogeneous catalysis and spin-forbidden reactions  

SciTech Connect

Understanding chemical reactions requires the knowledge of the elementary steps of breaking and making bonds, and often a variety of experimental techniques are needed to achieve this goal. The initial steps occur on the femto- through picosecond time-scales, requiring the use of ultrafast spectroscopic methods, while the rate-limiting steps often occur more slowly, requiring alternative techniques. Ultrafast one and two-dimensional infrared and step-scan FTIR spectroscopies are used to investigate the photochemical reactions of four organometallic complexes. The analysis leads to a detailed understanding of mechanisms that are general in nature and may be applicable to a variety of reactions.

Sawyer, Karma Rae

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Development and applications of a two-dimensional tip-tilting stage system with nanoradian-level positioning resolution  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

Shu, Deming [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Wah-Keat [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Shvyd'ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Development and Applications of a Two-dimensional Tip-Tilting Stage System with Nanoradian-Level Positioning Resolution  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, designs of a novel rotary weak-link stage for a vertical rotation axis and a two-dimensional tip-tilting system are presented. Applications of these new stage systems include: an advanced X-ray stereo imaging instrument for particle tracking velocimetry, an alignment stage system for hard X-ray nano-focusing Montel mirror optics, and an ultra-precision crystal manipulator for cryo-cooling optical cavities of an X-ray free-electron-laser oscillator (XFELO).

Shu, Deming [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Wah-Keat [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Wenjun [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Shvyd'ko, Yuri [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Kim, Kwang-Je [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Gecko: A continuous 2d world for ecological modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An individual-based simulation system, named Gecko, is presented for modeling multiple species at multiple trophic levels, on a spatially explicit, continuous two-dimensional landscape. Biologically motivated rules are specified at an individual level, ... Keywords: Echo, Gecko, Swarm, allometry, ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem modeling, individual-based model, spatial competition

Ginger Booth

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The Seasonal and Latitudinal Behavior of Trace Gases and O3 as Simulated by a Two-Dimensional Model of the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional zonal-mean model with parameterized dynamics and an advanced photochemical scheme is used to simulate the stratospheric distributions of atmospheric trace gases including ozone. The model calculates the distributions of 37 ...

Malcolm K. W. Ko; Nien Dak Sze; Mikhail Livshits; Michael B. McElroy; John A. Pyle

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Application of Fast Fourier Transforms to the Direct Solution of a Class of Two-Dimensional Separable Elliptic Equations on the Sphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An efficient, direct, second-order solver for the discrete solution of a class of two-dimensional separable elliptic equations on the sphere (which generally arise in implicit and semi-implicit atmospheric models) is presented. The method ...

Shrinivas Moorthi; R. Wayne Higgins

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Development of a Two-Dimensional Zonally Averaged Statistical-Dynamical Model.Part II: The Role of Eddy Momentum Fluxes in the General Circulation and their Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of eddy momentum fluxes on the general circulation is investigated with the aid of perpetual January simulations with a two-dimensional, zonally averaged model. Sensitivity experiments with this model show that the vertical eddy flux ...

Peter H. Stone; Mao-Sung Yao

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Dynamics of the Cloud-Environment Interface and Entrainment in Small Cumuli: Two-Dimensional Simulations in the Absence of Ambient Shear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We employ a two-dimensional numerical model with interacting nested domains to simulate the evolution of a small nonprecipitating cumulus cloud in the absence of shear. Grid nesting permits the use of a realistic boundary layer forcing to ...

Gary P. Klaassen; Terry L. Clark

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals in AlGaInP/GaInP Membranes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fabrication process of two-dimensional photonic crystals in an AlGaInP/GaInP multi-quantum-well membrane structure is developed. The process includes high resolution electron-beam lithography, pattern transfer into ...

Chen, A.

334

Long-Term Behavior of Cloud Systems in TOGA COARE and Their Interactions with Radiative and Surface Processes. Part I: Two-Dimensional Modeling Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional cloud-resolving modeling of tropical cloud systems was performed for a 39-day period (5 December 1992 through 12 January 1993) during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE)...

Xiaoqing Wu; Wojciech W. Grabowski; Mitchell W. Moncrieff

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

2-D Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Induced Plasma Dynamics in the Near-Core Region of a Galaxy Cluster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results from numerical simulations of the cooling-core cluster A2199 produced by the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code MACH2. In our simulations we explore the effect of anisotropic thermal conduction on the energy balance of the system. The results from idealized cases in 2-D axisymmetric geometry underscore the importance of the initial plasma density in ICM simulations, especially the near-core values since the radiation cooling rate is proportional to ${n_e}^2$. Heat conduction is found to be non-effective in preventing catastrophic cooling in this cluster. In addition we performed 2-D planar MHD simulations starting from initial conditions deliberately violating both thermal balance and hydrostatic equilibrium in the ICM, to assess contributions of the convective terms in the energy balance of the system against anisotropic thermal conduction. We find that in this case work done by the pressure on the plasma can dominate the early evolution of the internal energy ...

Mikellides, Ioannis G; Yorke, Harold W

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Explicit reconstruction of line-currents and their positions in a two-dimensional parallel conductor structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The magnetic inverse source problem of reconstructing the positions and currents of very long parallel conductors is considered in a two-dimensional situation, with applications to power line measurements. The input data is the magnetic field on a contour surrounding the conductors to be reconstructed. Using a scalar-vector Green identity, an explicit reconstruction algorithm is derived. The numerical implementation of the algorithm is described and simulation results are presented, demonstrating the influences from numerical errors and uncertainties in measurement data. The algorithm can handle an arbitrary number of conductors, but stability problems associated with the illposedness accelerate with increasing number of conductors. Mathematically, the Green identity approach removes the influence of external disturbances and thus have potential usefulness in current reconstruction for determining optimal sensor positions and how to process measurement data.

Martin Norgren

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

337

Solid-State NMR Studies of Fossil Fuels using One- and Two-Dimensional Methods at High Magnetic Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the opportunities offered by advancements in solid-state NMR (SSNMR) methods, which increasingly rely on the use of high magnetic fields and fast magic angle spinning (MAS), in the studies of coals and other carbonaceous materials. The sensitivity of one- and two-dimensional experiments tested on several Argonne Premium coal samples is only slightly lower than that of traditional experiments performed at low magnetic fields in large MAS rotors, since higher receptivity per spin and the use of 1H detection of low-gamma nuclei can make up for most of the signal loss due to the small rotor size. The advantages of modern SSNMR methodology in these studies include improved resolution, simplicity of pulse sequences, and the possibility of using J-coupling during mixing.

Althaus, Stacey M.; Mao, Kanmi; Kennedy, Gordon J.; Pruski, Marek

2012-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

338

Evidence for coupling between collective state and phonons in two-dimensional charge-density-wave systems  

SciTech Connect

We report on a Raman scattering investigation of the charge-density-wave (CDW), quasi two-dimensional rare-earth tri-tellurides RTe{sub 3} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy) at ambient pressure, and of LaTe{sub 3} and CeTe{sub 3} under externally applied pressure. The observed phonon peaks can be ascribed to the Raman active modes for both the undistorted as well as the distorted lattice in the CDW state by means of a first principles calculation. The latter also predicts the Kohn anomaly in the phonon dispersion, driving the CDW transition. The integrated intensity of the two most prominent modes scales as a characteristic power of the CDW-gap amplitude upon compressing the lattice, which provides clear evidence for the tight coupling between the CDW condensate and the vibrational modes.

Lavagnini, M.; /Zurich, ETH; Baldini, M.; /INFN, Rome; Sacchetti, A.; /Zurich, ETH; Castro, D.Di; /Zurich, ETH; Delley, B.; /PSI, Villigen; Monnier, R.; /Zurich, ETH; Chu, J.-H.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Postorino, P.; /INFN, Rome; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Phonon Dispersion and Elastic Moduli of Two-Dimensional Disordered Colloidal Packings of Soft-Particles with Frictional Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle tracking and displacement covariance matrix techniques are employed to investigate the phonon dispersion relations of two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of soft, thermoresponsive microgel particles whose temperature-sensitive size permits in situ variation of particle packing fraction. Bulk modulus, B, and shear modulus, G, of the colloidal glasses are extracted from the dispersion relations as a function of packing fraction. The ratio G/B is found to agree quantitatively with predictions for jammed packings of frictional soft particles with only one parameter required for the fit - the packing fraction for the onset of jamming in the limit of infinite friction. In addition, G and B individually agree with numerical predictions for frictional particles. This remarkable level of agreement enabled us to extract the inter-particle friction coefficient and an energy scale for the inter-particle interaction from the individual elastic constants.

Tim Still; Carl P. Goodrich; Ke Chen; Peter J. Yunker; Samuel Schoenholz; Andrea J. Liu; A. G. Yodh

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

340

Analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength  

SciTech Connect

The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)] [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Phonon Dispersion and Elastic Moduli of Two-Dimensional Disordered Colloidal Packings of Soft Particles with Frictional Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle tracking and displacement covariance matrix techniques are employed to investigate the phonon dispersion relations of two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of soft, thermoresponsive microgel particles whose temperature-sensitive size permits \\textit{in situ} variation of particle packing fraction. Bulk, $B$, and shear, $G$, moduli of the colloidal glasses are extracted from the dispersion relations as a function of packing fraction, and variation of the ratio $G/B$ with packing fraction is found to agree quantitatively with predictions for jammed packings of frictional soft particles. In addition, $G$ and $B$ individually agree with numerical predictions for frictional particles. This remarkable level of agreement enabled us to extract an energy scale for the inter-particle interaction from the individual elastic constants and to derive an approximate estimate for the inter-particle friction coefficient.

Tim Still; Carl P. Goodrich; Ke Chen; Peter J. Yunker; Samuel Schoenholz; Andrea J. Liu; A. G. Yodh

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

342

High mobility two-dimensional electron gases in nitride heterostructures with high Al composition AlGaN alloy barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report high-electron mobility nitride heterostructures with >70% Al composition AlGaN alloy barriers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Direct growth of such AlGaN layers on GaN resulted in hexagonal trenches and a low mobility polarization-induced charge. By applying growth interruption at the heterojunction, the surface morphology improved dramatically and the room temperature two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility increased by an order of magnitude, exceeding 1300 cm{sup 2}/V s. The 2DEG density was tunable at 0.4-3.7x10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} by varying the total barrier thickness (t). Surface barrier heights of the heterostructures were extracted and exhibited dependence on t.

Li Guowang; Cao Yu; Xing Huili Grace; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

343

AnisWave2D: User's Guide to the 2d Anisotropic Finite-DifferenceCode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes a parallel finite-difference code for modeling wave propagation in 2D, fully anisotropic materials. The code utilizes a mesh refinement scheme to improve computational efficiency. Mesh refinement allows the grid spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, so that fine grid spacing can be used in low velocity zones where the seismic wavelength is short, and coarse grid spacing can be used in zones with higher material velocities. Over-sampling of the seismic wavefield in high velocity zones is therefore avoided. The code has been implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and allows large-scale models and models with large velocity contrasts to be simulated with ease.

Toomey, Aoife

2005-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

344

Two-Dimensional Braiding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Applications of braided fabrics and composites...Glider airplanes Golf clubs Hang-glider frames Hockey and ice hockey sticks Jet engine ducts Jet engine spinner Lightweight bridge structures Lightweight submersibles Machine parts Military equipment Model aircraft Net shape rigid armor Personal armor Pressure vessels Racing canoes Racing cars...

345

Two Dimensional Nanomaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2011 ... The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is developing technologies for the next generation of higher-efficiency, lower emission ...

346

2D sigma model approach to 4D instantons  

SciTech Connect

4D self-dual theories are proposed to generalize 2D conformal field theory. The authors identify 4D self-dual gravity as well as self-dual Yang-Mills theory with 2D sigma models valued in infinite-dimensional gauge groups. It is shown that these models possess infinite-dimensional symmetries with associated algebras - CP{sup 1} extensions of respective gauge algebras of 2D sigma models - which generalize the Kac-Moody algebra as well as W{sub {infinity}}. This paper addresses various issues concerning 2D sigma models, twistors and sheaf cohomology. An attempt to connect 4D self-dual theories with 2D conformal field theory is made through sl({infinity}) Toda field theory.

Park, Q.H. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD (US))

1992-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

The 2D AKLT state on the honeycomb lattice is a universal resource for quantum computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Universal quantum computation can be achieved by simply performing single-qubit measurements on a highly entangled resource state. Resource states can arise from ground states of carefully designed two-body interacting Hamiltonians. This opens up an appealing possibility of creating them by cooling. The family of Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) states are the ground states of particularly simple Hamiltonians with high symmetry, and their potential use in quantum computation gives rise to a new research direction. Expanding on our prior work [T.-C. Wei, I. Affleck, and R. Raussendorf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 070501 (2011)], we give detailed analysis to explain why the spin-3/2 AKLT state on a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is a universal resource for measurement-based quantum computation. Along the way, we also provide an alternative proof that the 1D spin-1 AKLT state can be used to simulate arbitrary one-qubit unitary gates. Moreover, we connect the quantum computational universality of 2D random graph states to their percolation property and show that these states whose graphs are in the supercritical (i.e. percolated) phase are also universal resources for measurement-based quantum computation.

Tzu-Chieh Wei; Ian Affleck; Robert Raussendorf

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Hypercube performance for 2-D seismic finite-difference modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wave-equation seismic modeling in two space dimensions is computationally intensive, often requiring hours of supercomputer CPU time to run typical geological models with 500 × 500 grids and 100 sources. This paper analyzes the performance of ACOUS2D, ...

L. J. Baker

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

1 Beyond Graphene - Novel Nanosheets of 2D Crystalline Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

that graphene, a 2D nanosheet form of carbon, can exist as a stable material and exceptional properties that are not observed in 3D or 1D form of carbon are ...

350

Unified $(p,q; ?,?, l)$-deformation of oscillator algebra and two-dimensional conformal field theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The unified $ (p,q; \\alpha,\\gamma, l)$-deformation of a number of well-known deformed oscillator algebras is introduced.The deformation is constructed by imputing new free parameters into the structure functions and by generalizing the defining relations of these algebras. The generalized Jordan-Schwinger and Holstein-Primakoff realizations of the $U_{pq}^{\\alpha \\gamma l}(su(2))$ algebra by the generalized $ (p,q; \\alpha,\\gamma, l)$-deformed operators are found. The generalized $ (p,q; \\alpha,\\gamma, l)$-deformation of the two-dimensional conformal field theory is established. By introducing the $ (p,q; \\alpha,\\gamma, l)$-operator product expansion (OPE) between the energy momentum tensor and primary fields, we obtain the $ (p,q; \\alpha,\\gamma, l)$-deformed centerless Virasoro algebra. The two-point correlation function of the primary generalized $ (p,q; \\alpha,\\gamma, l)$-deformed fields is calculated.

I. M. Burban

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

351

Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps  

SciTech Connect

The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "?genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

352

Fast transport, atom sample splitting, and single-atom qubit supply in two-dimensional arrays of optical microtraps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-dimensional arrays of optical micro-traps created by microoptical elements present a versatile and scalable architecture for neutral atom quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum gases. In this article, we demonstrate advanced capabilities of this approach by introducing novel techniques and functionalities as well as the combined operation of previously separately implemented functions. We introduce piezo-actuator based transport of atom ensembles over distances of more than one trap separation, examine the capabilities of rapid atom transport provided by acousto-optical beam steering, and analyze the adiabaticity limit for atom transport in these configurations. We implement a spatial light modulator with 8-bit transmission control for the per-site adjustment of the trap depth and the number of atoms loaded. We combine single-site addressing, trap depth control, and atom transport in one configuration for demonstrating the splitting of atom ensembles with variable ratio at predefined register sites. Finally, we use controlled sub-poissonian preparation of single trapped atoms from such an ensemble to show that our approach allows for the implementation of a continuous supply of single-atom qubits with high fidelity. These novel implementations and their combined operation significantly extend available techniques for the dynamical and reconfigurable manipulation of ultracold atoms in dipole traps.

Malte Schlosser; Jens Kruse; Christian Gierl; Stephan Teichmann; Sascha Tichelmann; Gerhard Birkl

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

Cline, M.C.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated two-dimensional detector array using a single element detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO.sub.2 laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart.

Strauss, Charlie E. (Santa Fe, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Apparatus and method for heterodyne-generated two-dimensional detector array using a single element detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for heterodyne-generated, two-dimensional detector array using a single detector. Synthetic-array heterodyne detection, permits a single-element optical detector to behave as though it were divided into an array of separate heterodyne detector elements. A fifteen-element synthetic array has successfully been experimentally realized on a single-element detector, permitting all of the array elements to be read out continuously and in parallel from one electrical connection. A CO{sub 2} laser and a single-element HgCdTe photodiode are employed. A different heterodyne local oscillator frequency is incident upon the spatially resolvable regions of the detector surface. Thus, different regions are mapped to different heterodyne beat frequencies. One can determine where the photons were incident on the detector surface even though a single electrical connection to the detector is used. This also prevents the destructive interference that occurs when multiple speckles are imaged (similar to spatial diversity), In coherent LIDAR this permits a larger field of view. An acoustooptic modulator generates the local oscillator frequencies and can achieve adequate spatial separation of optical frequencies of the order of a megahertz apart. 4 figs.

Strauss, C.E.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

356

Inferring orientation distributions in anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites from a single two-dimensional WAXS image  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The wide-angle scattering of X-rays by anisotropic powders of nano-layered crystallites (nano-stacks) is addressed. Assuming that the orientation distribution probability function f of the nano-stacks only depends on the deviation of the crystallites' orientation from a fixed reference direction, we derive a relation providing f from the dependence of a given diffraction peak's amplitude on the azimuthal angle. The method is applied to two systems of Na-fluorohectorite (NaFH) clay particles, using synchrotron radiation and a WAXS setup with a two-dimensional detector. In the first system, which consists of dry-pressed NaFH samples, the orientation distribution probability function corresponds to a classical uniaxial nematic order. The second system is observed in bundles of polarized NaFH particles in silicon oil; in this case, the nanostacks have their directors on average in a plane normal to the reference direction, and f is a function of the angle between a nano-stack's director and that plane. In both cases, a suitable Maier-Saupe function is obtained for the distributions, and the reference direction is determined with respect to the laboratory frame. The method only requires one scattering image. Besides, consistency can be checked by determining the orientation distribution from several diffraction peaks independently.

Yves Meheust; Kenneth Dahl Knudsen; Jon Otto Fossum

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

USING THE LEVENBERG-MARQUARDT METHOD FOR SOLUTIONS OF INVERSE TRANSPORT PROBLEMS IN ONE- AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRIES  

SciTech Connect

Determining the components of a radioactive source/shield system using the system's radiation signature, a type of inverse transport problem, is one of great importance in homeland security, material safeguards, and waste management. Here, the Levenberg-Marquardt (or simply 'Marquardt') method, a standard gradient-based optimization technique, is applied to the inverse transport problems of interface location identification, shield material identification, source composition identification, and material mass density identification (both separately and combined) in multilayered radioactive source/shield systems. One-dimensional spherical problems using leakage measurements of neutron-induced gamma-ray lines and two-dimensional cylindrical problems using flux measurements of uncollided passive gamma-ray lines are considered. Gradients are calculated using an adjoint-based differentiation technique that is more efficient than difference formulas. The Marquardt method is iterative and directly estimates unknown interface locations, source isotope weight fractions, and material mass densities, while the unknown shield material is identified by estimating its macroscopic gamma-ray cross sections. Numerical test cases illustrate the utility of the Marquardt method using both simulated data that are perfectly consistent with the optimization process and realistic data simulated by Monte Carlo.

Aldemir, Tunc [Ohio State University

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Strain-rate and temperature-driven transition in the shear transformation zone for two-dimensional amorphous solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We couple the recently developed self-learning metabasin escape algorithm, which enables efficient exploration of the potential energy surface (PES), with shear deformation to elucidate strain-rate and temperature effects on the shear transformation zone (STZ) characteristics in two-dimensional amorphous solids. In doing so, we report a transition in the STZ characteristics that can be obtained through either increasing the temperature or decreasing the strain rate. The transition separates regions having two distinct STZ characteristics. Specifically, at high temperatures and high strain rates, we show that the STZs have characteristics identical to those that emerge from purely strain-driven, athermal quasistatic atomistic calculations. At lower temperatures and experimentally relevant strain rates, we use the newly coupled PES + shear deformation method to show that the STZs have characteristics identical to those that emerge from a purely thermally activated state. The specific changes in STZ characteristics that occur in moving from the strain-driven to thermally activated STZ regime include a 33% increase in STZ size, faster spatial decay of the displacement field, a change in the deformation mechanism inside the STZ from shear to tension, a reduction in the stress needed to nucleate the first STZ, and finally a notable loss in characteristic quadrupolar symmetry of the surrounding elastic matrix that has previously been seen in athermal, quasistatic shear studies of STZs.

Penghui Cao; Harold S. Park; Xi Lin

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

359

OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.  

SciTech Connect

Although extensive research has been conducted over the last several years in the areas of Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) and debris coolability, two important issues warrant further investigation. The first issue concerns the effectiveness of water in terminating a CCI by flooding the interacting masses from above, thereby quenching the molten core debris and rendering it permanently coolable. This safety issue was investigated in the EPRI-sponsored Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program. The approach was to conduct large scale, integral-type reactor materials experiments with core melt masses ranging up to two metric tons. These experiments provided unique, and for the most part repeatable, indications of heat transfer mechanism(s) that could provide long term debris cooling. However, the results did not demonstrate definitively that a melt would always be completely quenched. This was due to the fact that the crust anchored to the test section sidewalls in every test, which led to melt/crust separation, even at the largest test section lateral span of 1.20 m. This decoupling is not expected for a typical reactor cavity, which has a span of 5-6 m. Even though the crust may mechanically bond to the reactor cavity walls, the weight of the coolant and the crust itself is expected to periodically fracture the crust and restore contact with the melt. Although crust fracturing does not ensure that coolability will be achieved, it nonetheless provides a pathway for water to recontact the underlying melt, thereby allowing other debris cooling mechanisms to proceed. A related task of the current program, which is not addressed in this particular report, is to measure crust strength to check the hypothesis that a corium crust would not be strong enough to sustain melt/crust separation in a plant accident. The second important issue concerns long-term, two-dimensional concrete ablation by a prototypic core oxide melt. As discussed by Foit the existing reactor material database for dry cavity conditions is solely one-dimensional. Although the MACE Scoping Test was carried out with a two-dimensional concrete cavity, the interaction was flooded soon after ablation was initiated to investigate debris coolability. Moreover, due to the scoping nature of this test, the apparatus was minimally instrumented and therefore the results are of limited value from the code validation viewpoint. Aside from the MACE program, the COTELS test series also investigated 2-D CCI under flooded cavity conditions. However, the input power density for these tests was quite high relative to the prototypic case. Finally, the BETA test series provided valuable data on 2-D core concrete interaction under dry cavity conditions, but these tests focused on investigating the interaction of the metallic (steel) phase with concrete. Due to these limitations, there is significant uncertainty in the partition of energy dissipated for the ablation of concrete in the lateral and axial directions under dry cavity conditions for the case of a core oxide melt. Accurate knowledge of this 'power split' is important in the evaluation of the consequences of an ex-vessel severe accident; e.g., lateral erosion can undermine containment structures, while axial erosion can penetrate the basemat, leading to ground contamination and/or possible containment bypass. As a result of this uncertainty, there are still substantial differences among computer codes in the prediction of 2-D cavity erosion behavior under both wet and dry cavity conditions. In light of the above issues, the OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) program was initiated at Argonne National Laboratory. The project conducted reactor materials experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focused on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties relat

Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

360

Conformal equivalence of 2D dilaton gravity models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the behavior of generic, matter-coupled, 2D dilaton gravity theories under dilaton-dependent Weyl rescalings of the metric. We show that physical observables associated with 2D black holes, such as the mass, the temperature and the flux of Hawking radiation are invariant under the action of both Weyl transformations and dilaton reparametrizations. The field theoretical and geometrical meaning of these invariances is discussed.

Mariano Cadoni

1996-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Heat conduction in 2D strongly-coupled dusty plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform non-equilibrium simulations to study heat conduction in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasmas. Temperature gradients are established by heating one part of the otherwise equilibrium system to a higher temperature. Heat conductivity is measured directly from the stationary temperature profile and heat flux. Particular attention is paid to the influence of damping effect on the heat conduction. It is found that the heat conductivity increases with the decrease of the damping rate, while its magnitude confirms previous experimental measurement.

Hou, Lu-Jing

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Fast chemical reaction in a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow: Probability distribution in the initial regime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study an instantaneous bimolecular chemical reaction in a two-dimensional chaotic, incompressible and closed Navier-Stokes flow. Areas of well mixed reactants are initially separated by infinite gradients. We focus on the initial regime, characterized by a well-defined one-dimensional contact line between the reactants. The amount of reactant consumed is given by the diffusive flux along this line, and hence relates directly to its length and to the gradients along it. We show both theoretically and numerically that the probability distribution of the modulus of the gradient of the reactants along this contact line multiplied by {\\kappa} does not depend on the diffusion {\\kappa} and can be inferred, after a few turnover times, from the joint distribution of the finite time Lyapunov exponent {\\lambda} and the frequency 1/{\\tau} . The equivalent time {\\tau} measures the stretching time scale of a Lagrangian parcel in the recent past, while {\\lambda} measures it on the whole chaotic orbit. At smaller times, we predict the shape of this gradient distribution taking into account the initial random orientation between the contact line and the stretching direction. We also show that the probability distribution of the reactants is proportional to {\\kappa} and to the product of the ensemble mean contact line length with the ensemble mean of the inverse of the gradient along it. Besides contributing to the understanding of fast chemistry in chaotic flows, the present study based on a Lagrangian stretching theory approach provides results that pave the way to the development of accurate sub- grid parametrizations in models with insufficient resolution for capturing the length scales relevant to chemical processes, for example in Climate-Chemsitry Models.

Farid Ait-Chaalal; Michel S. Bourqui; Peter Bartello

2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

363

Two-dimensional Vlasov simulation of electron plasma wave trapping, wavefront bowing, self-focusing, and sideloss  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional Vlasov simulations of nonlinear electron plasma waves are presented, in which the interplay of linear and nonlinear kinetic effects is evident. The plasma wave is created with an external traveling wave potential with a transverse envelope of width {Delta}y such that thermal electrons transit the wave in a ''sideloss'' time, t{sub sl{approx}{Delta}}y/v{sub e}. Here, v{sub e} is the electron thermal velocity. The quasisteady distribution of trapped electrons and its self-consistent plasma wave are studied after the external field is turned off. In cases of particular interest, the bounce frequency, {omega}{sub be}=k{radical}(e{phi}/m{sub e}), satisfies the trapping condition {omega}{sub be}t{sub sl}>2{pi} such that the wave frequency is nonlinearly downshifted by an amount proportional to the number of trapped electrons. Here, k is the wavenumber of the plasma wave and {phi} is its electric potential. For sufficiently short times, the magnitude of the negative frequency shift is a local function of {phi}. Because the trapping frequency shift is negative, the phase of the wave on axis lags the off-axis phase if the trapping nonlinearity dominates linear wave diffraction. In this case, the phasefronts are curved in a focusing sense. In the opposite limit, the phasefronts are curved in a defocusing sense. Analysis and simulations in which the wave amplitude and transverse width are varied establish criteria for the development of each type of wavefront. The damping and trapped-electron-induced focusing of the finite-amplitude electron plasma wave are also simulated. The damping rate of the field energy of the wave is found to be about the sideloss rate, {nu}{sub e{approx}}t{sub sl}{sup -1}. For large wave amplitudes or widths {Delta}y, a trapping-induced self-focusing of the wave is demonstrated.

Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Hittinger, J. A. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brunner, S. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

MHL 2D Wind/Wave | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MHL 2D Wind/Wave MHL 2D Wind/Wave Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name MHL 2D Wind/Wave Overseeing Organization University of Michigan Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Tunnel Length(m) 35.1 Beam(m) 0.7 Depth(m) 1.2 Cost(per day) $2000 (+ Labor/Materials) Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities Yes Maximum Wave Height(m) 0.2 Wave Period Range(s) 0.0 Current Velocity Range(m/s) 0.0 Programmable Wavemaking Yes Wavemaking Description Regular and irregular wave spectrum Wave Direction Uni-Directional Simulated Beach Yes Description of Beach Removable beach Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating No Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities Yes Wind Velocity Range(m/s) 20.4

365

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, SmallerChapter 7 Recent Advances in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography for the Analysis of Natural Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme Chromatography: Faster, Hotter, Smaller Chapter 7 Recent Advances in Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography for the Analysis of Natural Products Methods and Analyses eChapters Methods - Analyses Books F7E3E452FCB43F6D

366

Idealized Two-Dimensional Modeling of a Coastal Buoyancy Front, or River Plume, under Downwelling-Favorable Wind Forcing with Application to the Alaska Coastal Current  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cross-shelf structure of a buoyancy-driven coastal current, such as produced by a river plume, is modeled in a two-dimensional cross-shelf slice as a “wide” geostrophically balanced buoyancy front. Downwelling-favorable wind stress applied to ...

William J. Williams; Thomas J. Weingartner; Albert J. Hermann

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Electrical Conductivity of 2D-SiCf/CVI-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Electrical conductivity (EC) data for several plate forms of two-dimensional, silicon carbide composite made with chemical vapor infiltration matrix and with Hi Nicalon{trademark} type S fibers (2D-SiCf/CVI-SiC) were acquired. The composite fibers were coated with pyrocarbon (PyC) of various thicknesses (50 to 310 nm) and an outer thin ({approx}60 {mu}m) SiC 'seal coat' was applied by CVD to the infiltrated plates. The EC was highly anisotropic in the transverse and in-plane directions. In-plane EC ranged from {approx}150 to 1600 S/m, increased slowly with increasing temperature, and depended primarily on the total PyC thickness. High in-plane EC-values occur because it is dominated by conduction along the numerous, continuous PyC fiber coating pathways. Transverse EC ranged from {approx}1 to 60 S/m, and increased strongly with increasing temperature up to 800 C. The transverse EC is controlled by conduction through the interconnections of the carboncoating network within and between fiber bundles, especially at moderate temperatures ({approx}300 to 700 C). Below {approx}300 C, the electrical resistance of the pure SiC seal coat becomes increasingly more important as temperatures are further lowered. Importantly, a '3-layer series' model predicts that transverse EC-values for a standard seal-coated 2DSiCf/ CVI-SiC with a monolayer PyC fiber coating of {approx}50-nm thickness will be <20 S/m for all temperatures up to 800 C, as desired for a flow channel insert in a fusion reactor blanket component.

Youngblood, Gerald E.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Shinavski, Robert J.

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

368

Self-interfering matter-wave patterns generated by a moving laser obstacle in a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate inside a power trap cut off by box potential boundaries  

SciTech Connect

We report the observation of highly energetic self-interfering matter-wave (SIMW) patterns generated by a moving obstacle in a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) inside a power trap cut off by hard-wall box potential boundaries. The obstacle initially excites circular dispersive waves radiating away from the center of the trap which are reflected from hard-wall box boundaries at the edges of the trap. The resulting interference between outgoing waves from the center of the trap and reflected waves from the box boundaries institutes, to the best of our knowledge, unprecedented SIMW patterns. For this purpose we simulated the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the split-step Crank-Nicolson method and the obstacle was modelled by a moving impenetrable Gaussian potential barrier. Various trapping geometries are considered in which the dynamics of the spatial and momentum density, as well as the energy, are considered. The momentum dynamics reveal an oscillatory behavior for the condensate fraction, indicative of excitations out of and de-excitations back into the condensate state. An oscillatory pattern for the energy dynamics reveals the presence of solitons in the system. Some vortex features are also obtained.

Sakhel, Roger R. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Information Technology, Isra University, Amman 11622 (Jordan); Sakhel, Asaad R. [Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman 11134 (Jordan); Ghassib, Humam B. [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with increasing RMS roughness. Again, the homogenization approximation is able to predict these results. The problem of surface scratches on 1D photonic crystals is also addressed. Although the reflectivity decreases are lower in this study, up to a 15% change in reflectivity is observed in certain scratched photonic crystal structures. However, this reflectivity change can be significantly decreased by adding a low index protective coating to the surface of the photonic crystal. Again, application of homogenization theory to these structures confirms its predictive power for this type of imperfection as well. Additionally, the problem of a circular pores in 2D photonic crystals is investigated, showing that almost a 50% change in reflectivity can occur for some structures. Furthermore, this study reveals trends that are consistent with the 1D simulations: parameter changes that increase the absolute reflectivity of the photonic crystal will also increase its tolerance to structural imperfections. Finally, experimental reflectance spectra from roughened 1D photonic crystals are compared to the results predicted computationally in this thesis. Both the computed and experimental spectra correlate favorably, validating the findings presented herein.

K.R. Maskaly

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Drop Axis Ratios from a 2D Video Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from an experiment to measure the drop shapes using a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) are reported. Under calm conditions, drops were generated from a hose located on a bridge 80 m above ground, this height being sufficient to allow drop ...

Merhala Thurai; V. N. Bringi

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

2D Markovian modeling for character recognition and segmentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing text components in multimedia contents remains a challenging issue for document indexing and retrieval. More specifically, handwritten characters processing is a very active field of pattern recognition. This paper describes an innovative ... Keywords: 2D dynamic programming, Markov random fields, handwriting recognition

Sylvain Chevalier; Edouard Geoffrois; Françoise Prêteux

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Real-time SPECT and 2D ultrasound image registration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present a technique for fully automatic, real-time 3D SPECT (Single Photon Emitting Computed Tomography) and 2D ultrasound image registration. We use this technique in the context of kidney lesion diagnosis. Our registration algorithm ...

Marek Bucki; Fabrice Chassat; Francisco Galdames; Takeshi Asahi; Daniel Pizarro; Gabriel Lobo

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Comparative Visual Analysis of 2D Function Ensembles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the development process of powertrain systems, 2D function ensembles frequently occur in the context of multi-run simulations. An analysis has many facets, including distributions of extracted features, comparisons between ensemble members and target ... Keywords: I.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation—Line and curve generation

H. Piringer; S. Pajer; W. Berger; H. Teichmann

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Development of a 2-D 2-group neutron noise simulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development of a 2-D 2-group neutron noise simulator C. Demazie` re* Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Reactor Physics, SE-412 96 Go¨teborg, Sweden Received 10 May 2003; accepted 27 August 2003 Abstract In this paper, the development of a so-called neutron noise simulator is reported

Demazière, Christophe

375

Interactive image search by 2D semantic map  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this demo, we present a novel interactive image search system, image search by 2D semantic map. This system enables users to indicate what semantic concepts are expected to appear and even how these concepts are spatially distributed in the ... Keywords: color map, concept map, interactive image search

Hao Xu; Jingdong Wang; Xian-Sheng Hua; Shipeng Li

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

On the conformal equivalence between 2D black holes and Rindler spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model related by a conformal transformation of the metric to the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger model. We find that most of the features and problems of the latter can be simply understood in terms of the classical and semiclassical dynamics of accelerated observers in two-dimensional Minkowski space.

Mariano Cadoni; Salvatore Mignemi

1995-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

377

Random Matrices in 2D, Laplacian Growth and Operator Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since it was first applied to the study of nuclear interactions by Wigner and Dyson, almost 60 years ago, Random Matrix Theory (RMT) has developed into a field of its own within applied mathematics, and is now essential to many parts of theoretical physics, from condensed matter to high energy. The fundamental results obtained so far rely mostly on the theory of random matrices in one dimension (the dimensionality of the spectrum, or equilibrium probability density). In the last few years, this theory has been extended to the case where the spectrum is two-dimensional, or even fractal, with dimensions between 1 and 2. In this article, we review these recent developments and indicate some physical problems where the theory can be applied.

Mark Mineev-Weinstein; Mihai Putinar; Razvan Teodorescu

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Microscopic entropy of nondilatonic branes: A 2D approach  

SciTech Connect

We investigate nondilatonic p-branes in the near-extremal, near-horizon regime. A two-dimensional gravity model, obtained from dimensional reduction, gives an effective description of the brane. We show that the AdS{sub p+2}/CFT{sub p+1} correspondence at finite temperature admits an effective description in terms of a AdS{sub 2}/CFT{sub 1} duality endowed with a scalar field, which breaks the conformal symmetry and generates a nonvanishing central charge. The entropy of the CFT{sub 1} is computed using Cardy formula. Fixing in a natural way a free, dimensionless, parameter introduced in the model by a renormalization procedure, we find exact agreement between the CFT{sub 1} entropy and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the brane.

Cadoni, Mariano; Serra, Nicola [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Cagliari, and INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria 09042 Monserrato (Italy)

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

379

Equilibrium spherically curved 2D Lennard-Jones systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N<800) equilibrium configurations are traced as a function of the curvature radius R. Sharp jumps for tiny changes in R between trajectories with major differences in topological structure correspond to avalanche-like transitions. For a typical case, N=25, equilibrium configurations fall on smooth trajectories in state space which can be traced in the E-R plane. The trajectories show-up with local energy minima, from which growth in N at steady curvature can develop.

J. M. Voogd; P. M. A. Sloot; R. van Dantzig

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

380

Beam emission imaging system for 2D plasma turbulence measurements  

SciTech Connect

A two-dimensional analog to the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic has been designed to acquire vorticity and plasma flow-field information by resolving the spatial and temporal intermittency of plasma turbulent structures. The beam emission imaging diagnostic measures collisionally induced neutral beam fluorescence to infer local plasma density variations. It consists of a high-throughput, interline-transfer CCD camera viewing, with narrow spectral bandwidth, a 10 cm high diagnostic neutral beam as it traverses the plasma. The camera is coupled to a gated image intensifier that provides for two images with exposure times up to a few ms to be separated by as little as 10 [mu]s. Sensitivity to density fluctuations of [ital [tilde n

Thorson, T.A.; Durst, R.D.; Fonck, R.J. (Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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381

Automatic recovery of missing amplitudes and phases in tilt-limited electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystals  

SciTech Connect

Electron crystallography of 2D protein crystals provides a powerful tool for the determination of membrane protein structure. In this method, data is acquired in the Fourier domain as randomly sampled, uncoupled, amplitudes and phases. Due to physical constraints on specimen tilting, those Fourier data show a vast un-sampled ''missing cone'' of information, producing resolution loss in the direction perpendicular to the membrane plane. Based on the flexible language of projection onto sets, we provide a full solution for these problems with a projective constraint optimization algorithm that, for sufficiently oversampled data, produces complete recovery of unmeasured data in the missing cone. We apply this method to an experimental data set of Bacteriorhodopsin and show that, in addition to producing superior results compared to traditional reconstruction methods, full, reproducible, recovery of the missing cone from noisy data is possible. Finally, we present an automatic implementation of the refinement routine as open source, freely distributed, software that will be included in our 2dx software package.

Gipson, Bryant R.; Stahlberg, Henning [Center for Cellular Imaging and Nano Analytics (C-CINA), Biozentrum, University Basel, WRO-1058 Mattenstrasse 26, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Masiel, Daniel J.; Browning, Nigel D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Sciences, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Spence, John [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Mitsuoka, Kaoru [Biomedicinal Information Research Center (BIRC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2-3-26, Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064 (Japan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

OECD 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test plan, Rev. 0 January 31, 2004.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. The first of these two tests, CCI-1, was conducted on December 19, 2003. This test investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % calcined siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional siliceous concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The second of these two planned tests, CCI-2, will be conducted with a nearly identical test facility and experiment boundary conditions, but with a Limestone/Common Sand (LCS) concrete test section to investigate the effect of concrete type on the two-dimensional core-concrete interaction and debris cooling behavior. The objective of this report is to provide the overall test plan for CCI-2 to enable pretest calculations to be carried out. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-2 test apparatus, followed by a description of the planned test operating procedure. Overall specifications for CCI-2 are provided in Table 1-1.

Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

383

Total Resonant Transmission and Reflection by Periodic Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resonant scattering of plane waves by a periodic slab under conditions close to those that support a guided mode is accompanied by sharp transmission anomalies. For two-dimensional structures, we establish sufficient conditions, involving structural symmetry, under which these anomalies are characterized by total transmission and total reflection at frequencies separated by an arbitrarily small amount. The loci of total reflection and total transmission are real-analytic curves in frequency-wavenumber space that intersect quadratically at a single point corresponding to the guided mode. A single anomaly or multiple anomalies can be excited by the interaction with a single guided mode.

Stephen P. Shipman; Hairui Tu

2011-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

384

An Idealized Two-Dimensional Framework to Study the West African Monsoon. Part II: Large-Scale Advection and the Diurnal Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The idealized 2D model developed in Part I of this study is used to study the West African monsoon sensitivity to large-scale forcing. Using ECWMF reanalyses, a large-scale forcing is introduced in the 2D model in terms of temperature and ...

Philippe Peyrillé; Jean-Philippe Lafore

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

2D LIDAR Aided INS for Vehicle Positioning in Urban Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

residual formation and EKF LIDAR aiding methods. Section VIintensity. Utilization of 2D LIDAR in localization has a2D LIDAR Aided INS for Vehicle Positioning in Urban

Zhao, Sheng; Farrell, Jay A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Instantons in the Quantum Framework of 2D Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the non--perturbative features of 2D quantum gravity defined by stochastic regularization of the unstable matrix model showing, first, that the WKB approximation of the well-defined quantum Fokker-Planck hamiltonian corresponds to the semiclassical eigenvalue density of the former. The double scaled potential exhibits an instanton--like behaviour, which is universal and scales, but whose interpretation in terms of pure gravity is still open.

J. Luis Miramontes; Joaquin Sanchez Guillen

1991-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

387

On the effective shear speed in 2D phononic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quasistatic limit of the antiplane shear-wave speed ('effective speed') $c$ in 2D periodic lattices is studied. Two new closed-form estimates of $c$ are derived by employing two different analytical approaches. The first proceeds from a standard background of the plane wave expansion (PWE). The second is a new approach, which resides in $\\mathbf{x}$-space and centers on the monodromy matrix (MM) introduced in the 2D case as the multiplicative integral, taken in one coordinate, of a matrix with components being the operators with respect to the other coordinate. On the numerical side, an efficient PWE-based scheme for computing $c$ is proposed and implemented. The analytical and numerical findings are applied to several examples of 2D square lattices with two and three high-contrast components, for which the new PWE and MM estimates are compared with the numerical data and with some known approximations. It is demonstrated that the PWE estimate is most efficient in the case of densely packed stiff inclusions, especially when they form a symmetric lattice, while in general it is the MM estimate that provides the best overall fitting accuracy.

A. A. Kutsenko; A. L. Shuvalov; A. N. Norris; O. Poncelet

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

388

Heat transfer analysis of an Owens Illinois absorber incorporated within a two-dimensional CPC Cusp concentrator  

SciTech Connect

A 2-dimensional Compound Parabolic Concentrator of the Cusp type (CPC-Cusp) was designed to function without the need of diurnal and seasonal orientation adjustments. These constraints required an acceptance half-angle of 60/sup 0/C for this concentrator (concentration ratio = 1.12). Troughs, 105.4 cm (41.5 inches) in length were fabricated using aluminized Mylar for the reflecting surface supported by a polystyrene foam structure. For the receiver, an Owens-Illinois absorber tube, provided with a selective surface and surrounded by evacuated glass jacket, was used. The design of this particular absorber forces the working fluid to flow countercurrently to itself, thus creating thermal short-circuiting typical of the bayonet type heat exchangers. For this mode of operation, a model was postulated to describe the temperature distribution within the annular space and the tube side of the receiver. Temperature-distribution measurements corroborated this model which postulates the existence of a maximum temperature at the end of the receiver, where reversal of flow occurs. This flow reversal causes an unavoidable thermal short circuiting which significantly increases the receiver temperature. Fortunately, because of the presence of the selective surface and the evacuated jacket surrounding the receiver, this temperature rise decreases the concentrator efficiency only but slightly.

Damrigan, N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Global Linear Stability of the Two-Dimensional Shallow-Water Equations: An Application of the Distributive Theorem of Roots for Polynomials on the Unit Circle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with the numerical stability of the linearized shallow-water dynamic and thermodynamic system using centered spatial differencing and leapfrog time differencing. The nonlinear version of the equations is commonly used in both 2D ...

Jia Wang

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Induced gravity and entanglement entropy of 2D black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using the fact that 2D Newton constant is wholly induced by a conformal field theory, we derive a formula for the entanglement entropy of the anti-de Sitter black hole in two spacetime dimensions. The leading term in the large black hole mass expansion of our formula reproduces exactly the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S_{BH}, whereas the subleading term behaves as ln S_{BH}. This subleading term has the universal form typical for the entanglement entropy of physical systems described by effective conformal fields theories (e.g. one-dimensional statistical models at the critical point).

Mariano Cadoni

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

391

Characterizing the Variability and Extremes of the Stratospheric Polar Vortices Using 2D Moment Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean state, variability, and extreme variability of the stratospheric polar vortices, with an emphasis on the Northern Hemisphere (NH) vortex, are examined using two-dimensional moment analysis and extreme value theory (EVT). The use of ...

Daniel M. Mitchell; Andrew J. Charlton-Perez; Lesley J. Gray

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

2D hyperbolic groups induce three-periodic euclidean reticulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Stephen Hyde Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences, The Australian]. The *246 hyperbolic group is generated by three reflections, R1, R2, and R3 whose mirror lines bound {R1, R2, R3} gives a unique image, there is a set of relations for the group generated

Hyde, Stephen

393

Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Effect of nonthermal electrons on the propagation characteristics and stability of two-dimensional nonlinear electrostatic coherent structures in relativistic electron positron ion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional propagation of nonlinear ion acoustic shock and solitary waves in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmannian positrons, and singly charged hot ions streaming with relativistic velocities are investigated. The system of fluid equations is reduced to Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equations in the limit of small amplitude perturbation. The dependence of the ion acoustic shock and solitary waves on various plasma parameters are explored in detail. Interestingly, it is observed that increasing the nonthermal electron population increases the wave dispersion which enervates the strength of the ion acoustic shock wave; however, the same effect leads to an enhancement of the soliton amplitude due to the absence of dissipation in the KP equation. The present investigation may be useful to understand the two-dimensional propagation characteristics of small but finite amplitude localized shock and solitary structures in planetary magnetospheres and auroral plasmas where nonthermal populations of electrons have been observed by several satellite missions.

Masood, W. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Rizvi, H. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

OECD MCCI project long-term 2-D molten core concrete interaction test design report, Rev. 0. September 30, 2002.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following two technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of the first program objective, the Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength (SSWICS) test series has been initiated to provide fundamental information on the ability of water to ingress into cracks and fissures that form in the debris during quench, thereby augmenting the otherwise conduction-limited heat transfer process. A test plan for Melt Eruption Separate Effects Tests (MESET) has also been developed to provide information on the extent of crust growth and melt eruptions as a function of gas sparging rate under well-controlled experiment conditions. In terms of the second program objective, the project Management Board (MB) has approved startup activities required to carry out experiments to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interaction. In particular, for both wet and dry cavity conditions, there is uncertainty insofar as evaluating the lateral vs. axial power split during a core-concrete interaction due to a lack of experiment data. As a result, there are differences in the 2-D cavity erosion predicted by codes such as MELCOR, WECHSL, and COSACO. The first step towards generating this data is to produce a test plan for review by the Project Review Group (PRG). The purpose of this document is to provide this plan.

Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschliman, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

396

Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration and Production Wells in a Basin and Range Geothermal System Humboldt House-Rye Patch Geothermal Area Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration and Production Wells in a Basin and Range Geothermal System Humboldt House-Rye Patch Geothermal Area Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies Project Description Phase I will consist of the acquisition, processing and interpretation of two 2-dimensional vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) at strategic positions crossing the range front fault system in the Humboldt House-Rye Patch (HH-RP) geothermal resource area. APEX-HiPoint Reservoir Imaging, Project team partner, will use its borehole seismic technology deploying up to 240 multicomponent phones on a fiber optic wireline system coupled to a high-volume data acquisition system. A vibroseis source will be recorded along the 2D profiles with offsets up to 10,000 feet on either side of the receiver wells, creating a wide horizontal aperture. Using dynamic borehole cooling, the APEX receivers will be deployed in an extended vertical array above and below the interface (and large velocity contrast) between Tertiary valley fill sediments and Triassic and older reservoir rocks, significantly increasing vertical aperture, multiplicity, frequency and signal quality. Optim, Project Team partner, will use its patented nonlinear optimization technique on both borehole and surface data to obtain high resolution velocity models down to target depths, also a "first". HiPoint's patented, time-domain processing techniques will be employed to provide accurate, high-resolution reflection images in a fraction of previous compute times.

397

Self-trapping dynamics in a 2D optical lattice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe theoretical models for the recent experimental observation of Macroscopic Quantum Self-Trapping (MQST) in the transverse dynamics of an ultracold bosonic gas in a 2D lattice. The pure mean-field model based on the solution of coupled nonlinear equations fails to reproduce the experimental observations. It greatly overestimates the initial expansion rates at short times and predicts a slower expansion rate of the cloud at longer times. It also predicts the formation of a hole surrounded by a steep square fort-like barrier which was not observed in the experiment. An improved theoretical description based on a simplified Truncated Wigner Approximation (TWA), which adds phase and number fluctuations in the initial conditions, pushes the theoretical results closer to the experimental observations but fails to quantitatively reproduce them. An explanation of the delayed expansion as a consequence of a new type of self-trapping mechanism, where quantum correlations suppress tunneling even when there are no density gradients, is discussed and supported by numerical time-dependent Density Matrix Renormalization Group (t-DMRG) calculations performed in a simplified two coupled tubes set-up.

Shuming Li; Salvatore R. Manmana; Ana Maria Rey; Rafael Hipolito; Aaron Reinhard; Jean-Félix Riou; Laura A. Zundel; David S. Weiss

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

398

2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

Zvonarev, P. S. [McMaster University, Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8 (Canada); Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E. [McMaster University, Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, Medical Physics, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 5C2 (Canada); Sur, R. K. [McMaster University, Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8 (Canada); Juravinski Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology, Hamilton, Ontario L8V 5C2 (Canada)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Simulating geomagnetic reversals through 2D Ising systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work 2D Ising systems were used to simulate the reversals of the Earth's magnetic field. Each spin was supposed to be a ring current in the Earth dynamo and the magnetization to be proportional to the field intensity. Given the relative success of some physical few-discs modeling of this system all the simulations were implemented in small systems. The temperature T was used as a tunning parameter. It plays the role of external perturbations. Power laws were obtained for the distribution of times between reversals. When the system size was increased the exponent of the power law asymptotically tended towards values very near -1.5, generally accepted as the right value for this phenomenon. Depending on the proximity of T and Tc the average duration of reversal period changes. In this way it is possible to establish a parallel between the model and more or less well defined periods of the reversal record. Some possible trends for future works are advanced.

Jorge O. O. Franco; Vitor H. A. Dias; Andres R. R. Papa

2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

400

Sedimentation of a two-dimensional colloidal mixture exhibiting liquid-liquid and gas-liquid phase separation: a dynamical density functional theory study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present dynamical density functional theory results for the time evolution of the density distribution of a sedimenting model two-dimensional binary mixture of colloids. The interplay between the bulk phase behaviour of the mixture, its interfacial properties at the confining walls, and the gravitational field gives rise to a rich variety of equilibrium and non-equilibrium morphologies. In the fluid state, the system exhibits both liquid-liquid and gas-liquid phase separation. As the system sediments, the phase separation significantly affects the dynamics and we explore situations where the final state is a coexistence of up to three different phases. Solving the dynamical equations in two-dimensions, we find that in certain situations the final density profiles of the two species have a symmetry that is different from that of the external potentials, which is perhaps surprising, given the statistical mechanics origin of the theory. The paper concludes with a discussion on this.

Alexandr Malijevsky; Andrew J. Archer

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Subband Structure of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Formed at the Polar Surface of the Strong Spin-Orbit Perovskite KTaO3  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the (100) surface of the 5d transition-metal oxide KTaO{sub 3}. From angle-resolved photoemission, we find that quantum confinement lifts the orbital degeneracy of the bulk band structure and leads to a 2DEG composed of ladders of subband states of both light and heavy carriers. Despite the strong spin-orbit coupling, we find no experimental signatures of a Rashba spin splitting, which has important implications for the interpretation of transport measurements in both KTaO{sub 3}- and SrTiO{sub 3}-based 2DEGs. The polar nature of the KTaO{sub 3}(100) surface appears to help mediate formation of the 2DEG as compared to non-polar SrTiO{sub 3}(100).

King, P.D.C.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Two-dimensional kinematics of SLACS lenses: I. Phase-space analysis of the early-type galaxy SDSS J2321-097 at z=0.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first results of a combined VLT VIMOS integral-field unit and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS study of the early-type lens galaxy SDSS J2321-097 at z=0.0819, extending kinematic studies to a look-back time of 1 Gyr. This system, discovered in the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS), has been observed as part of a VLT Large Programme with the goal of obtaining two-dimensional stellar kinematics of 17 early-type galaxies to z~0.35 and Keck spectroscopy of an additional dozen lens systems. Bayesian modelling of both the surface brightness distribution of the lensed source and the two-dimensional measurements of velocity and velocity dispersion has allowed us, under the only assumptions of axisymmetry and a two-integral stellar distribution function (DF) for the lens galaxy, to dissect this galaxy in three dimensions and break the classical mass--anisotropy, mass-sheet and inclination--oblateness degeneracies. Our main results are that the galaxy (i) has a total density profile well described by a single power-law rho propto r^{-gamma'} with gamma'=2.06^{+0.03}_{-0.06}; (ii) is a very slow rotator (specific stellar angular momentum parameter lambda_R = 0.075); (iii) shows only mild anisotropy (delta ~ 0.15); and (iv) has a dark matter contribution of ~30 per cent inside the effective radius. Our first results from this large combined imaging and spectroscopic effort with the VLT, Keck and HST show that the structure of massive early-type galaxies beyond the local Universe can now be studied in great detail using the combination of stellar kinematics and gravitational lensing. Extending these studies to look-back times where evolutionary effects become measurable holds great promise for the understanding of formation and evolution of early-type galaxies.

Oliver Czoske; Matteo Barnabe; Leon V. E. Koopmans; Tommaso Treu; Adam S. Bolton

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

403

Graphene Thickness Determination Using Reflection and Contrast Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have clearly discriminated the single-, bilayer-, and multiple-layer graphene (graphene sheet. We provide two easy-to-use methods to determine the number of graphene layers based on contrast spectra: a graphic method and an analytical method. We also show that the refractive index of graphene is different from that of graphite. The results are compared with those obtained using Raman spectroscopy. The recent success in extracting graphite sheets in multiple layers, and even monolayer graphene, from highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) using a technique called micromechanical cleavage 1,2 has stimulated great interest in both the fundamental physics study and the potential applications of graphene. 3 Graphene has a two-dimensional (2D) crystal structure, which is the basic building block for other sp 2

Z. H. Ni; H. M. Wang; J. Kasim; H. M. Fan; T. Yu; Y. H. Wu; Y. P. Feng; Z. X. Shen

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Trace anomaly and Hawking effect in generic 2D dilaton gravity theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black hole solutions in the context of a generic matter-coupled two-dimensional dilaton gravity theory are discussed both at the classical and semiclassical level. Starting from general assumptions, a criterion for the existence of black holes is given. The relationship between conformal anomaly and Hawking radiation is extended to a broad class of two-dimensional dilaton gravity models. A general and simple formula relating the magnitude of the Hawking effect to the dilaton potential evaluated on the horizon is derived.

Mariano Cadoni

1995-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

405

Test Problem: Tilted Rayleigh-Taylor for 2-D Mixing Studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 'tilted-rig' test problem originates from a series of experiments (Smeeton & Youngs, 1987, Youngs, 1989) performed at AWE in the late 1980's, that followed from the 'rocket-rig' experiments (Burrows et al., 1984; Read & Youngs, 1983), and exploratory experiments performed at Imperial College (Andrews, 1986; Andrews and Spalding, 1990). A schematic of the experiment is shown in Figure 1, and comprises a tank filled with light fluid above heavy, and then 'tilted' on one side of the apparatus, thus causing an 'angled interface' to the acceleration history due to rockets. Details of the configuration given in the next chapter include: fluids, dimensions, and other necessary details to simulate the experiment. Figure 2 shows results from two experiments, Case 110 (which is the source for this test problem) that has an Atwood number of 0.5, and Case 115 (a secondary source described in Appendix B), with Atwood of 0.9 Inspection of the photograph in Figure 2 (the main experimental diagnostic) for Case 110. reveals two main areas for mix development; 1) a large-scale overturning motion that produces a rising plume (spike) on the left, and falling plume (bubble) on the right, that are almost symmetric; and 2) a Rayleigh-Taylor driven mixing central mixing region that has a large-scale rotation associated with the rising and falling plumes, and also experiences lateral strain due to stretching of the interface by the plumes, and shear across the interface due to upper fluid moving downward and to the right, and lower fluid moving upward and to the left. Case 115 is similar but differs by a much larger Atwood of 0.9 that drives a strong asymmetry between a left side heavy spike penetration and a right side light bubble penetration. Case 110 is chosen as the source for the present test problem as the fluids have low surface tension (unlike Case 115) due the addition of a surfactant, the asymmetry small (no need to have fine grids for the spike), and there is extensive reasonable quality photographic data. The photographs in Figure 2 also reveal the appearance of a boundary layer at the left and right walls; this boundary layer has not been included in the test problem as preliminary calculations suggested it had a negligible effect on plume penetration and RT mixing. The significance of this test problem is that, unlike planar RT experiments such as the Rocket-Rig (Youngs, 1984), Linear Electric Motor - LEM (Dimonte, 1990), or the Water Tunnel (Andrews, 1992), the Tilted-Rig is a unique two-dimensional RT mixing experiment that has experimental data and now (in this TP) Direct Numerical Simulation data from Livescu and Wei. The availability of DNS data for the tilted-rig has made this TP viable as it provides detailed results for comparison purposes. The purpose of the test problem is to provide 3D simulation results, validated by comparison with experiment, which can be used for the development and validation of 2D RANS models. When such models are applied to 2D flows, various physics issues are raised such as double counting, combined buoyancy and shear, and 2-D strain, which have not yet been adequately addressed. The current objective of the test problem is to compare key results, which are needed for RANS model validation, obtained from high-Reynolds number DNS, high-resolution ILES or LES with explicit sub-grid-scale models. The experiment is incompressible and so is directly suitable for algorithms that are designed for incompressible flows (e.g. pressure correction algorithms with multi-grid); however, we have extended the TP so that compressible algorithms, run at low Mach number, may also be used if careful consideration is given to initial pressure fields. Thus, this TP serves as a useful tool for incompressible and compressible simulation codes, and mathematical models. In the remainder of this TP we provide a detailed specification; the next section provides the underlying assumptions for the TP, fluids, geometry details, boundary conditions (and alternative set-ups), initial conditions, and acceleration history (an

Andrews, Malcolm J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Youngs, David L. [AWE

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

406

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

Wood, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

2D simulation of fluid-structure interaction using finite element method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with pressure-based finite element analysis of fluid-structure systems considering the coupled fluid and structural dynamics. The present method uses two-dimensional fluid elements and structural line elements for the numerical simulation ... Keywords: Finite element, Galerkin weighted residual method, Newmark's predictor-corrector method, Pressure formulation, Sloshing

S. Mitra; K. P. Sinhamahapatra

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Data:Bef2d82a-31eb-4fde-8533-2d38bc6f7da3 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bef2d82a-31eb-4fde-8533-2d38bc6f7da3 Bef2d82a-31eb-4fde-8533-2d38bc6f7da3 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Crisp County Power Comm Effective date: 2012/06/01 End date if known: Rate name: Fuel Cost Recovery Schedule- Secondary Distribution Sector: Commercial Description: This schedule is applicable to and becomes a part of each retail rate schedule in which reference is mad to the Fuel Cost Recovery Schedule. This provision applies to both regular and minimum bills. Secondary Distribution Customers= Any customer not defined as a transmission or primary distribution customer.

410

Data:436bd023-2d2d-4202-b859-0b278bb80ef2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

bd023-2d2d-4202-b859-0b278bb80ef2 bd023-2d2d-4202-b859-0b278bb80ef2 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: City of Perry, Oklahoma (Utility Company) Effective date: End date if known: Rate name: Residential- All-Electric Sector: Residential Description: Source or reference: http://www.cityofperryok.com/Files/Codes/City_Code_101211.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

411

Extracting the Spectral Function of the Cuprates By a Full Two-Dimensional Analysis: Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectra of Bi(2)Sr(2)CuO(6)  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has revealed a dispersion anomaly at high binding energy near 0.3--0.5eV in various families of the high-temperature superconductors. For further studies of this anomaly, we present a new two-dimensional fitting scheme and apply it to high-statistics ARPES data of the strongly overdoped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} cuprate superconductor. The procedure allows us to extract the self-energy in an extended energy and momentum range. It is found that the spectral function of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} can be parametrized using a small set of tight-binding parameters and a weakly momentum-dependent self-energy up to 0.7eV in binding energy and over the entire first Brillouin zone. Moreover, the analysis gives an estimate of the momentum dependence of the matrix element, a quantity, which is often neglected in ARPES analyses.

Meevasana, W.; Baumberger, F.; Tanaka, K.; Schmitt, F.; Dunkel, W.R.; Lu, D.H.; Mo, S.-K.; Eisaki, H.; Shen, Z.-X.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

412

Extracting the spectral function of the cuprates by a full two-dimensional analysis: Angle-resolved photoemission spectra of Bi2Sr2CuO6  

SciTech Connect

Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has revealed a dispersion anomaly at high binding energy near 0.3-0.5 eV in various families of the high-temperature superconductors. For further studies of this anomaly we present a new two-dimensional fitting-scheme and apply it to high-statistics ARPES data of the strongly-overdoped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} cuprate superconductor. The procedure allows us to extract the self-energy in an extended energy and momentum range. It is found that the spectral function of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 6} can be parameterized using a small set of tight-binding parameters and a weakly-momentum-dependent self-energy up to 0.7 eV in binding energy and over the entire first Brillouin zone. Moreover the analysis gives an estimate of the momentum dependence of the matrix element, a quantity, which is often neglected in ARPES analyses.

Meevasana, W.

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF YOUNG STARS IN THE INNER 180 pc OF NGC 1068: CORRELATION WITH MOLECULAR GAS RING AND STELLAR KINEMATICS  

SciTech Connect

We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at Almost-Equal-To 100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H{sub 2} emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age {>=} 2 Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by blackbody components with temperatures in the range 700 K {<=} T {<=} 800 K which we attribute to the dusty torus. We also find some contribution from blackbody and power-law components beyond the nucleus which we attribute to dust emission and scattered light.

Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Vale, Tiberio Borges [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A.; Diniz, Marlon R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); McGregor, Peter J., E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

2D/3D Data Registration and Fusion - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This talk will introduce the concepts behind data fusion and current algorithms to register 2D/3D data sets obtained using various experimental imaging ...

415

Mesh Requirement Investigation for 2D and 3D Aerodynamic Simulation of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The accuracy of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to capture the complex flow around a small vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) on 2D and… (more)

Naghib Zadeh, Saman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Graphene-like 2D-layered Materials for Nanoelectronics & Sensing ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Recently, layered 2D crystals similar to graphene have been ... the best graphene transistors at room temperature, with comparable mobilities.

417

Tandem resonator reflectance modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Tandem resonator reflectance modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Reflective diffraction grating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

Lamartine, Bruce C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

420

NIST Terahertz Reflection Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... b) Superimposed Fourier Transform amplitude and power reflection map ... laser for broadband (0.2-2.5) THz GaAs antenna generation and detection ...

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) production in flowing He/O{sub 2} plasmas. II. Two-dimensional modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In conventional chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL) the 1.315 {mu}m transition in atomic iodine is pumped by a sequence of reactions of I{sub 2} and I with O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) which is generated using liquid chemistry. Ongoing studies are investigating means to produce the O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) precursor with an electric discharge (eCOIL) to enable a totally gas phase system. Due to the thermodynamic and power loading requirements, the plasma in eCOIL systems is sustained in a flow of a rare-gas diluent and the O{sub 2}. In previous investigations, the scaling of production of O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) was investigated using global-kinetics and one-dimensional (1D) models. It was found that the production of O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) scaled linearly with energy deposition for moderate loadings (a few eV/O{sub 2} molecule). In this paper, these previous investigations are extended to two-dimensions using a plasma hydrodynamics model. The goal of this investigation is to determine if multidimensional considerations affect energy scalings for production of O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}). We found that O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) production generally does scale linearly with energy loading, however, the saturation of O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) production occurs at lower-energy loadings than predicted with global and 1D models. This trend is a result of the more accurately depicted and more localized energy deposition afforded by the two-dimensional model, and emphasizes the need for volumetrically uniform power deposition to optimize O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}) production.

Arakoni, Ramesh; Stafford, D. Shane; Babaeva, Natalia Y.; Kushner, Mark J. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

NEW TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS BY THE NEUTRINO-HEATING MECHANISM: EVIDENCE FOR DIFFERENT INSTABILITY REGIMES IN COLLAPSING STELLAR CORES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The neutrino-driven explosion mechanism for core-collapse supernovae in its modern flavor relies on the additional support of hydrodynamical instabilities in achieving shock revival. Two possible candidates, convection and the so-called standing accretion shock instability (SASI), have been proposed for this role. In this paper, we discuss new successful simulations of supernova explosions that shed light on the relative importance of these two instabilities. While convection has so far been observed to grow first in self-consistent hydrodynamical models with multi-group neutrino transport, we here present the first such simulation in which the SASI grows faster while the development of convection is initially inhibited. We illustrate the features of this SASI-dominated regime using an explosion model of a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, which is contrasted with a convectively dominated model of an 8.1 M{sub Sun} progenitor with subsolar metallicity, whose early post-bounce behavior is more in line with previous 11.2 M{sub Sun} and 15 M{sub Sun} explosion models. We analyze the conditions discriminating between the two different regimes, showing that a high mass-accretion rate and a short advection timescale are conducive for strong SASI activity. We also briefly discuss some important factors for capturing the SASI-driven regime, such as general relativity, the progenitor structure, a nuclear equation of state leading to a compact proto-neutron star, and the neutrino treatment. Finally, we evaluate possible implications of our findings for two-dimensional and three-dimensional supernova simulations.

Mueller, Bernhard; Janka, Hans-Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heger, Alexander, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: alexander.heger@monash.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

424

Reflective Insulation Handbook.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When reflective-foil insulation manufacturers wanted the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to include their products in the Residential Weatherization Program, they lacked conclusive test data to prove that their products met program specifications. Reflective foils lacked widespread acceptance because of uncertainty about their insulation values. BPA discovered that the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was preparing a study to test how well reflective foils reduced horizontal heat flow. Because the insulation value of reflective foils depends upon the direction of heat flow, BPA provided additional funding to test their effectiveness in reducing upward and downward heat flow and to produce this Handbook. The objectives of this study were to develop acceptable test and evaluation methods, produce an initial data base of idealized reflective-foil insulation systems, extend this data base to a limited number of commercially available products to develop and test analytical models to predict thermal performance and develop a Reflective Insulation Handbook for homeowners and insulation contractors. This handbook describes how heat is transferred; the function of an insulation; what reflective insulation is; types of reflective insulation; where it can be used; installation procedures; thermal performance; and useful sources of information. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Desjarlais, Andre O.; Tye, Ronald P.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A comparison of line extraction algorithms using 2D range data for indoor mobile robotics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an experimental evaluation of different line extraction algorithms applied to 2D laser scans for indoor environments. Six popular algorithms in mobile robotics and computer vision are selected and tested. Real scan data collected ... Keywords: 2D range data, Line extraction algorithm, Mobile robotics

Viet Nguyen; Stefan Gächter; Agostino Martinelli; Nicola Tomatis; Roland Siegwart

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic Anemometers Wiel Wauben R&D Information and Observation Technology, KNMI September 17, 2007 #12;#12;Wind Tunnel and Field Test of Three 2D Sonic.....................................................................................................1 2. Wind sensors

Stoffelen, Ad

427

Trace anomaly and Hawking effect in 2D dilaton gravity theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the classical and semiclassical features of generic 2D, matter-coupled, dilaton gravity theories. In particular, we show that the mass, the temperature and the flux of Hawking radiation associated with 2D black holes are invariant under dilaton-dependent Weyl rescalings of the metric. The relationship between quantum anomalies and Hawking radiation is discussed.

Mariano Cadoni

1996-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

2D meets 3D: a human-centered interface for visual data exploration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is still a controversial debate on the usefulness of 3D user interfaces. Most of the time, 2D metaphors are force-fitted to establish a rich set of functionality. With the aim of shifting the 20-year-old 2D WIMP (windows, icons, menus, and pointing ... Keywords: human-computer interaction, virtual environments, visual data exploration

Sebastian Baumgärtner; Achim Ebert; Matthias Deller; Stefan Agne

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Assessment of GPU computational enhancement to a 2D flood model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of the computational enhancement of a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) enabled 2D flood model. The objectives are to demonstrate the significant speedup of a new GPU-enabled full dynamic wave flood model and to present the effect ... Keywords: 2D flood model, CUDA, Flood simulation, GPU programming

Alfred J. Kalyanapu; Siddharth Shankar; Eric R. Pardyjak; David R. Judi; Steven J. Burian

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

STUDY OF THE MTC ESTIMATION BY NOISE ANALYSIS IN 2-D HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and realistic data corresponding to a commercial reactor were axially condensed in 2-D. It was found is investigated. This investigation relies on 2-group diffusion theory, and all the calculations are performed propose here to perform a substantially more advanced study of the same problem in 2-D two-group diffusion

Demazière, Christophe

431

A visibility algorithm for converting 3D meshes into editable 2D vector graphics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artists often need to import and embellish 3D models coming from CAD-CAM into 2D vector graphics software to produce, e.g., brochures or manuals. Current automatic solutions tend to result, at best, in a 2D triangle soup and artists often have to trace ... Keywords: NPR, geometry processing, vector graphics, visibility

Elmar Eisemann; Sylvain Paris; Frédo Durand

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Real-Time 2D NMR Identification of Analytes Undergoing Continuous Chromatographic Separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Real-Time 2D NMR Identification of Analytes Undergoing Continuous Chromatographic Separation Boaz of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra within a single scan. A promising application opened up, with the real-time acquisition of a series of 2D 1 H NMR spectra arising from a mixture of compounds subject

Frydman, Lucio

433

A Theoretical Study of the Wet Removal of Atmospheric Pollutants. Part III: The Uptake, Redistribution, and Deposition of (NH4)2SO4 Particles by a Convective Cloud Using a Two-Dimensional Cloud Dynamics Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Our model for the scavenging of aerosol particles has been coupled with the two-dimensional form of the convective cloud model of Clark and Collaborators. The combined model was then used to simulate a convective warm cloud for the meteorological ...

A. I. Flossmann; H. R. Pruppacher

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

V-226: HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems Denial of Service Vulnerability |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

6: HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems Denial of Service 6: HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems Denial of Service Vulnerability V-226: HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems Denial of Service Vulnerability August 24, 2013 - 3:45am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability has been reported in HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems, which can be exploited by malicious people to cause a DoS (Denial of Service). PLATFORM: HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems 1.x, HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems 2.x ABSTRACT: The vulnerability is reported in versions 2.2.18 and prior and 1.2.18 and prior. REFERENCE LINKS: Secunia Advisory SA54598 CVE-2013-2353 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Moderate DISCUSSION: A vulnerability has been reported in HP StoreOnce D2D Backup Systems, which can be exploited by malicious people to cause a DoS (Denial of Service). The vulnerability is caused due to an unspecified error. No further

435

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9) 9) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes "The seismic reflection profiles of the range front structures are difficult to interpret because of he steep dips and 3-d fault zone geometry, in the-classical paper by Okaya and Thompson (1985) the range-bounding fault is not imaged as they proposed. The reflection seismic studies are the most useful of the geophysical techniques also the most expensive. The reflection data are two-dimensional making structural interpretation complicated for the three-dimensional geometry of the basin so that the other structural studied have been critical in correctly interpreting the seismic profiles. There are many

436

Data:130918b6-4287-43f2-b2d5-6b848b57a2d9 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

4287-43f2-b2d5-6b848b57a2d9 4287-43f2-b2d5-6b848b57a2d9 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Pontotoc Electric Power Assn Effective date: 2013/07/01 End date if known: Rate name: General Power Service GSA (51 kW -1000 kW) Multi-Phase Sector: Commercial Description: Source or reference: http://www.sitemason.com/files/fjDo1q/May%202012.pdf Source Parent: Comments Applicability Demand (kW) Minimum (kW): Maximum (kW): History (months): Energy (kWh) Minimum (kWh): Maximum (kWh): History (months): Service Voltage Minimum (V): Maximum (V): Character of Service Voltage Category: Phase Wiring: << Previous

437

Data:81a39522-c0da-49ee-8539-2d51e2d0df10 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9522-c0da-49ee-8539-2d51e2d0df10 9522-c0da-49ee-8539-2d51e2d0df10 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Northcentral Mississippi E P A Effective date: 2011/10/11 End date if known: Rate name: General Service GSA (50 kW - 1000 kW) Sector: Commercial Description: *This rate shall apply to the firm power requirements (where a customer's contract demand is 5,000 kW or less) for electric service to commercial, industrial, and governmental customers, and to institutional customers including, without limitation, churches, clubs, fraternities, orphanages, nursing homes, rooming or boarding houses, and like customers. This rate shall also apply to customers to whom service is not available under any other resale rate schedule.

438

Data:86080fd2-d7f0-470b-8485-ac01338b1d2d | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

0fd2-d7f0-470b-8485-ac01338b1d2d 0fd2-d7f0-470b-8485-ac01338b1d2d No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Piedmont Electric Member Corp Effective date: 2011/01/01 End date if known: Rate name: OUTDOOR LIGHTING SERVICE 175 Watt Mercury Vapor Lamp Sector: Lighting Description: 1. The Cooperative shall furnish and install a wooden pole if required for the outdoor light, within 150 feet of existing secondary circuits. If an additional wood pole is required, other than for mounting the lighting fixture, there will be a contribution-in-aid of construction of $125.00 per pole. The contribution-in-aid of construction for the decorative post top fixture on the decorative fluted fiberglass pole with a twelve (12) foot mounting height will be $1,125.00. 2.The charge for the purchased power related costs shall be 3.904¢ times the estimated average monthly kWh usage. 3. Consumer requested conversion of an existing, properly operating Security light fixture will require the following one time service charge(s): Conversion of fixture on same pole, same location: $ 36.00 Conversion of fixture requiring removal of a pole: $36.00

439

Data:693e6aec-7e2d-4a28-8b2d-8657bd6c2317 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

aec-7e2d-4a28-8b2d-8657bd6c2317 aec-7e2d-4a28-8b2d-8657bd6c2317 No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Long Island Power Authority Effective date: 2012/03/05 End date if known: Rate name: 281 (Large General Service Secondary) Sector: Commercial Description: For monthly-billed Customers, electric use during the last twelve (12) months has equaled or been greater than 2,000 KWH in each of two (2) consecutive monthly billing periods, or b) For bimonthly-billed Customers, electric use during the last twelve (12) months has equaled or been greater than 4,000 KWH in one (1) bimonthly billing period, or c) For Applicants, the Authority estimates their demands at 7 KW or more.

440

Data:E6c26b6e-354f-4fde-9d2d-aeab2d913c5c | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

c26b6e-354f-4fde-9d2d-aeab2d913c5c c26b6e-354f-4fde-9d2d-aeab2d913c5c No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Blue Ridge Elec Member Corp Effective date: 2010/03/03 End date if known: Rate name: Outdoor Lighting Service Sector: Lighting Description: Availability: Available for dusk to dawn outdoor lighting service to all members where the Cooperative's distribution facilities are located. Not available for part-time or seasonal operation of luminaires. Membership: Each consumer receiving service under this schedule shall be a member of the Cooperative and agrees to comply with the bylaws and abide by all service rules and regulations as adopted by the Cooperative's Board of Directors.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Data:909cb0ad-9159-40ad-a117-2d7740c2d61e | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cb0ad-9159-40ad-a117-2d7740c2d61e cb0ad-9159-40ad-a117-2d7740c2d61e No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Loading... 1. Basic Information 2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Nodak Electric Coop Inc Effective date: 2012/05/20 End date if known: Rate name: GS High Density-Single Phase Sector: Industrial Description: Additional Meters (Off-Peak Included) $ 3.60/Meter/Month Available for service to locations in a High Density area. A High Density area is defined as:  An enlargement (generally 160 acres) with 20 or more active locations, or  A cluster of 20 or more active locations, or  A cluster with 10 or more active locations that adjoins an enlargement with 20 or more active locations, or  An area adjacent to an incorporated town with 20 or more active locations. Renewable Energy Market Adjustment $0.003/KWH (Added to All Above Energy Rates) Controlled Water Heater Credit $.00736/KWH Applies to the first 1,000 KWHs each month (October-March)

442

Fast 2D non-LTE radiative modelling of prominences I. Numerical methods and benchmark results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of solar prominences require improved radiative modelling capabilities in order to take into account both multi-dimensional - at least 2D - geometry and complex atomic models. This makes necessary the use of very fast numerical schemes for the resolution of 2D non-LTE radiative transfer problems considering freestanding and illuminated slabs. The implementation of Gauss-Seidel and successive over-relaxation iterative schemes in 2D, together with a multi-grid algorithm, is thoroughly described in the frame of the short characteristics method for the computation of the formal solution of the radiative transfer equation in cartesian geometry. We propose a new test for multidimensional radiative transfer codes and we also provide original benchmark results for simple 2D multilevel atom cases which should be helpful for the further development of such radiative transfer codes, in general.

L. Leger; L. Chevallier; F. Paletou

2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

443

On O-X mode conversion in 2D inhomogeneous plasma with a sheared magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conversion of an ordinary wave to an extraordinary wave in a 2D inhomogeneous slab model of the plasma confined by a sheared magnetic field is studied analytically.

A Yu Popov

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

444

Application of 2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2D VSP Imaging Technology to the Targeting of Exploration and Production Wells in a Basin and Range Geothermal System Humboldt House-Rye Patch Geothermal Area Geothermal Project...

445

Simulations of a Boreal Grassland Hydrology at Valdai, Russia: PILPS Phase 2(d)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Project for the Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) aims to improve understanding and modeling of land surface processes. PILPS phase 2(d) uses a set of meteorological and hydrological data spanning 18 yr (1966–83)...

C. Adam Schlosser; Andrew G. Slater; Alan Robock; Andrew J. Pitman; Konstantin Ya. Vinnikov; Ann Henderson-Sellers; Nina A. Speranskaya; Ken Mitchell; The PILPS 2(D) Contributors

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

2-D Magnetotellurics At The Geothermal Site At Soultz-Sous-Forets...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

a 2-D magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been carried out on a 13 km long profile across the thermal anomaly in the area of the geothermal power plant of Soultz-sous-Forets in the...

447

Some Techniques and Uses of 2D-C Habit Classification Software for Snow Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique has been designed that uses observable properties of images from a 2D-C optical array probe (size, linearity, area, perimeter, and image density) to classify unsymmetrical ice particles into nine habit classes. Concentrations are ...

Edmond W. Holroyd III

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Ellipse-Fitting Techniques Applied to 2D-PMS Raindrop Images  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An ellipse-fitting technique is introduced in this paper to process the images of raindrops sampled by a 2D-PMS (Particle Measuring Systems, Inc.) probe. Algorithms to estimate size, shape, and orientation parameters of partial raindrop images ...

Rongrui Xiao; V. Chandrasekar; David Garbrick

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Computational study and analysis of structural imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic ...

Maskaly, Karlene Rosera

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Self-assembled Semiconductor 0D, 1D and 2D Quantum Structures ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, we present how bandgap modulation can be achieved by the introduction of self-assembled 0D, 1D and 2D quantum structures, quantum ...

451

Assessing the climatic effect of carbon dioxide and other trace gases using an interactive two-dimensional climate-chemistry model. Final report, December 1992--August 1996  

SciTech Connect

In the recent IPCC report, the role of tropospheric aerosols, stratospheric aerosols, and natural solar variability have also been identified as having sizable effects on climate, both by direct perturbation of the radiative balance and indirectly by changing ozone. Although the effect of changing CO{sub 2} is by far the dominant factor on a century time scale, the effects from the other identified factors are important on a decade time scale. It is important to understand the mechanisms that relate these changes to climatic responses. Developing appropriate numerical models with the capability to simulate these mechanisms will enable one to correctly interpret the observed climate changes that have occurred to data, as well as predict future changes in climate. It is presently impractical to run comprehensive 3-D general circulation model simulations of the interactions between atmospheric chemistry and the rest of the climate system on time scales of decades to centuries. Thus, 2-D models and other lower resolution models play an essential role in understanding the complex interactions of the integrated climate system.

Ko, M.K.W.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Shape optimization using reflection lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many common objects have highly reflective metallic or painted finishes. Their appearance is primarily defined by the distortion the curved shape of the surface introduces in the reflections of surrounding objects. Reflection lines are commonly used ...

E. Tosun; Y. I. Gingold; J. Reisman; D. Zorin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Two-dimensional weak anti-localization in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin film grown on Si(111)-(7 Multiplication-Sign 7) surface by molecular beam epitaxy  

SciTech Connect

We report on low temperature transport studies of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films grown on Si(111)-(7 Multiplication-Sign 7) surface by molecular beam epitaxy. A sharp increase in the magnetoresistance with magnetic field at low temperature indicates the existence of weak anti-localization. The measured weak anti-localization effect agrees well with the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model, and the extracted phase coherence length shows a power-law dependence with temperature indicating the existence of a two-dimensional system. An insulating ground state has also been observed at low temperature showing a logarithmic divergence of the resistance that appears to be the influence of electron-electron interaction in a two-dimensional system.

Roy, Anupam; Guchhait, Samaresh; Sonde, Sushant; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Rai, Amritesh; Movva, Hema C. P.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Colombo, Luigi [Texas Instruments, 12500 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75266 (United States)] [Texas Instruments, 12500 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75266 (United States)

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

OECD MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test data report-thermalhydraulic results, Rev. 0 October 15, 2004.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-2 experiment, which was conducted on August 24, 2004. Test specifications for CCI-2 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % Limestone/Common Sand (LCS) concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional LCS concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-2 test apparatus and operating procedures, followed by presentation of the thermal-hydraulic results. Detailed posttest debris examination results will be provided in a subsequent publication. Observations drawn within this report regarding the overall cavity erosion behavior may be subject to revision once the posttest examinations are completed, since these examinations will fully reveal the final cavity shape.

Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

455

OECD MMCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCCI-1 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev 0 January 31, 2004.  

SciTech Connect

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten coreconcrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-1 experiment, which was conducted on December 19, 2003. Test specifications for CCI-1 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % calcined siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional siliceous concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-1 test apparatus and operating procedures, followed by presentation of the thermal-hydraulic results. The posttest debris examination results will be provided in a subsequent publication. Observations drawn within this report regarding the overall cavity erosion behavior may be subject to revision once the posttest examinations are completed, since these examinations will fully reveal the final cavity shape.

Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

456

OECD MCCI project 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-3 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev. 0 October 15, 2005.  

SciTech Connect

The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of a third long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiment designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-3 experiment, which was conducted on September 22, 2005. Test specifications for CCI-3 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 375 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 15 wt% siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two-dimensional siliceous concrete test section with an initial cross-sectional area of 50 cm x 50 cm. The sand and aggregate constituents for this particular siliceous concrete were provided by CEA as an in-kind contribution to the program. The report begins by providing a summary description of the CCI-3 test apparatus and operating procedures, followed by presentation of the thermal-hydraulic results. Detailed posttest debris examination results will be provided in a subsequent publication. Observations drawn within this report regarding the overall cavity erosion behavior may be subject to revision once the posttest examinations are completed, since these examinations will fully reveal the final cavity shape.

Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

457

Study of Plasma Detachment in a Simplified 2D Geometry using UEDGE  

SciTech Connect

The location of the ionization front in a generic, detached plasma has been studied in a two-dimensional slab geometry by varying the core plasma density and input heating power. The ratio of the recombination to ionization current and the momentum losses in the computational domain have been used to quantify the degree of detachment. Contours of constant ratio of these parameter in the core plasma density--heating power parameter space show that at high input power higher momentum losses can be achieved even at low density. High fraction of recombination, however, require high core densities to sufficiently separate the plasma from the target plate.

Groth, M; Mahdavi, A M; Porter, G D; Rognlien, T D

2001-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

458

Thermal N = 4 SYM theory as a 2D Coulomb gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with SU(N) gauge group at large N and at finite temperature on a spatial S^3. We show that, at finite weak 't Hooft coupling, the theory is naturally described as a two dimensional Coulomb gas of complex eigenvalues of the Polyakov-Maldacena loop, valued on the cylinder. In the low temperature confined phase the eigenvalues condense onto a strip encircling the cylinder, while the high temperature deconfined phase is characterised by an ellipsoidal droplet of eigenvalues.

Sean A. Hartnoll; S. Prem Kumar

2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

459

Open strings, 2D gravity, and AdS/CFT correspondence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a detailed discussion of the duality between dilaton gravity on AdS{sub 2} and open strings. The correspondence between the two theories is established using their symmetries and field theoretical, thermodynamic, and statistical arguments. We use the dual conformal field theory to describe two-dimensional black holes. In particular, all the semiclassical features of the black holes, including the entropy, have a natural interpretation in terms of the dual microscopic conformal dynamics. The previous results are discussed in the general framework of the anti--de Sitter/conformal field theory dualities.

Cadoni, Mariano; Cavagli {grave a}, Marco

2001-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

460

Simulation of the Present-Day Atmospheric Ozone, Odd Nitrogen, Chlorine and Other Species Using a Coupled 2-D Model in Isentropic Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper documents our two-dimensional model which incorporates comprehensive radiative transfer and chemistry modules coupled with self-consistent dynamical transports.

H. Yang; E. Olaguer; K. K. Tung

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "two-dimensional 2d reflection" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Aspects of CFC relative ozone destruction efficiencies determined in the LLNL 2-D model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the efficiency of surface emission of several individual chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrogen-containing chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) for reducing the calculated steady state total ozone column in both one- and two-dimensional models, relative to the effects of CFC-11 (CFCl/sub 3/) emission. We find that CFC and HCFC relative efficiencies can vary over two orders of magnitude, mostly as a result of atmospheric lifetimes. For CFCs and HCFCs with long stratospheric lifetimes the calculated efficiency is also reduced by the effects of lower and mid stratospheric photochemistry. Ozone in this region changes according to the net effect of changing rates of oxygen photolysis, direct chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss and interference by active chlorine species in the nitrogen oxide-catalyzed ozone loss process. In these cases, the relative efficiencies show a marked latitudinal dependence, being larger at high latitudes and smaller at lower latitudes. Additionally in these cases, the one-dimensional model appears to overestimate the globally and annually averaged result that is obtained from the two-dimensional model. These considerations should be taken into account when quantities similar to the relative efficiency defined here are applied to CFC production and emission decisions. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Connell, P.; Grant, K.; Wuebbles, D.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Introduction NMR 2-D Ion Arrays Electronic Networking Conclusions An investigation of precision and scaling issues in  

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Raizen, Mark G.

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