Sample records for turbo direct injection

  1. Soot formation in direct injection spark ignition engines under cold-idle operating conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterer, Justin Edward

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct injection spark ignition engines are growing rapidly in popularity, largely due to the fuel efficiency improvements in the turbo-downsized engine configuration that are enabled by direct injection technology. ...

  2. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    100 bar injection pressure Simulated turbocharging based on hydrogen PFI turbo results Operation limited due to peak cylinder pressure Only early DI possible...

  3. Premixed direct injection disk

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  5. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  6. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  7. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Advancing The Technology" Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Corey E. Weaver Ford Research and Advanced Engineering 05132011 Project...

  8. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Advancing The Technology" Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Corey E. Weaver Ford Research and Advanced Engineering 05182012 Project...

  9. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Advancing The Technology" Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Corey E. Weaver Ford Research and Advanced Engineering 06192014 Project...

  10. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  11. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI...

  12. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary phase 1 report summarizes the background and the work on the ''Increased Flexibility of Turbo-Compressors in Natural Gas Transmission through Direct Surge Control'' project to date. The importance of centrifugal compressors for natural gas transmission is discussed, and the causes of surge and the consequences of current surge control approaches are explained. Previous technology development, including findings from early GMRC research, previous surge detection work, and selected publications, are presented. The project is divided into three Phases to accomplish the project objectives of verifying near surge sensing, developing a prototype surge control system (sensor and controller), and testing/demonstrating the benefits of direct surge control. Specification for the direct surge control sensor and controller developed with guidance from the industry Oversight Committee is presented in detail. Results of CFD modeling conducted to aid in interpreting the laboratory test results are shown and explained. An analysis of the system dynamics identified the data sampling and handling requirements for direct surge control. A detailed design process for surge detection probes has been developed and explained in this report and has been used to prepare drag probes for the laboratory compressor test and the first field test. The surge detection probes prepared for testing have been bench tested and flow tested to determine and calibrate their sensitivity to flow forces as shown in data presented in this report. The surge detection drag probes have been shown to perform as expected and as required to detect approaching surge. Laboratory test results of surge detection in the SwRI centrifugal compressor demonstrated functionality of the surge detection probes and a change in the impeller inlet flow pattern prior to surge. Although the recirculation cannot be detected because of the specific geometry of this compressor, there are changes that indicate the approach of surge that can be detected. Preparations for a field test had been completed at one point in the project. However, a failure of the surge probe wiring just inside the compressor case has caused a delay in the field testing. Repairs for the wiring in the compressor have been scheduled and the field test will take place shortly after the repairs.

  13. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engine friction Values derived from measurement on multi-cylinder engine Turbo-charger performance Derived from results of turbo-charged multi-cylinder hydrogen...

  14. Turbo-codes quantiques Mamdouh ABBARA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Turbo-codes quantiques Mamdouh ABBARA Th`ese r´ealis´ee `a INRIA, Sous la direction de Jean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.8 Performances de d´ecodage d'un code convolutif . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.9 Le turbo-encodage en parall`ele . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.10 Le turbo-encodage en s

  15. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upatnieks, Ansis (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  16. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    combined benefits of GDI and turbo charging for increasing power output from downsized engines. This is evident in the rapid rise of turbo- charged engines in the last four years...

  17. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  18. Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Turbo Compounding Technology Update Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update 15 August, 2007 Carl Vuk 15 August, 2007 Carl Vuk Electric Turbo Compounding Highlights Electric...

  19. Turbo Equalization With Irregular Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir D. Trajkovi?; Minyue Fu; Peter J. Schreier

    AbstractWe analyze a turbo equalization system that combines Maximum a Posteriori Probability (MAP) equalization with irregular turbo codes. Our goal is to approach the information capacity limit for severe Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) channels. To this end, we optimize the degree profile of irregular turbo codes by maximizing the minimum distance between the mutual information transfer functions for the MAP equalizer and decoder. We show that turbo equalizers employing such optimized irregular turbo codes can approach the information capacity limit of some severe ISI channels within 0.75 dB. I.

  20. INCREASED FLEXIBILITY OF TURBO-COMPRESSORS IN NATURAL GAS TRANSMISSION THROUGH DIRECT SURGE CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. McKee; Shane P. Siebenaler; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Direct Surge Control project was to develop a new internal method to avoid surge of pipeline compressors. This method will safely expand the range and flexibility of compressor operations, while minimizing wasteful recycle flow at the lower end of the operating envelope. The approach is to sense the onset of surge with a probe that directly measures re-circulation at the impeller inlet. The signals from the probe are used by a controller to allow operation at low flow conditions without resorting to a predictive method requiring excessive margin to activate a recycle valve. The sensor developed and demonstrated during this project was a simple, rugged, and sensitive drag probe. Experiments conducted in a laboratory compressor clearly showed the effectiveness of the technique. Subsequent field demonstrations indicated that the increase in range without the need to recycle flow was on the order of 19% to 25%. The cost benefit of applying the direct surge control technology appears to be as much as $120 per hour per compressor for operation without the current level of recycle flow. This could amount to approximately $85 million per year for the U.S. Natural Gas Transmission industry, if direct surge control systems are applied to most pipeline centrifugal compressors.

  1. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection ? A Fuel Economy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8 DEER Conference, August 5 th 2009 Showing The Potential Of Turbocharged SIDI AVL- Turbo SIDI Demonstrator GDI-Turbo Concept Car for low Fuel Consumption 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0...

  2. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. ace009wallner2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions H2...

  3. Advance Turbo Encoder and Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manjunatha K N; Kiran B; Prasanna Kumar. C

    Abstract- This paper presents the design and development of an efficient VLSI architecture for 3GPP advanced Turbo decoder by utilizing the convolutional interleaver. The high-throughput 3GPP Advance Turbo code requires turbo decoder architecture. Interleaver is known to be the main obstacle to the decoder implementation and introduces latency, due to the collisions it introduces in accesses to memory. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity Soft Input Soft Output (SISO) turbo decoder for memory architecture to enable the Turbo decoding that achieves minimum latency. Design trade-offs in terms of area and throughput efficiency are explored to find the optimal architecture. The proposed Turbo decoder has been modeled using Simulink; various test cases are used to estimate the performances. The results are analyzed and achieved 50 % reduction in computation time along with reduced BER (e-3). The hardware of the Turbo Encoder and Turbo Decoder has been modeled in Verilog, simulated in Modelsim, synthesized using TSMC 65 nm Synopsys Design compiler and physical implementation has been carried out using IC Compiler.

  4. Unequal Error Protection Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkel, Werner

    Unequal Error Protection Turbo Codes Diploma Thesis Neele von Deetzen Arbeitsbereich Nachrichtentechnik School of Engineering and Science Bremen, February 28th, 2005 #12;Unequal Error Protection Turbo Convolutional Codes / Turbo Codes 18 3.1 Structure

  5. Convergence and Complexity Analysis of Turbo Demodulation with Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    Convergence and Complexity Analysis of Turbo Demodulation with Turbo Decoding Salim Haddad, Amer (BICM) with different modulation orders and Turbo Codes with various code rates are frequently adopted-ID schemes was replaced by a turbo code, only a small gain of 0.1 dB was observed. This result makes BICM

  6. On the Convergence Speed of Turbo Demodulation with Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddad, Salim; Jezequel, Michel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iterative processing is widely adopted nowadays in modern wireless receivers for advanced channel codes like turbo and LDPC codes. Extension of this principle with an additional iterative feedback loop to the demapping function has proven to provide substantial error performance gain. However, the adoption of iterative demodulation with turbo decoding is constrained by the additional implied implementation complexity, heavily impacting latency and power consumption. In this paper, we analyze the convergence speed of these combined two iterative processes in order to determine the exact required number of iterations at each level. Extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) charts are used for a thorough analysis at different modulation orders and code rates. An original iteration scheduling is proposed reducing two demapping iterations with reasonable performance loss of less than 0.15 dB. Analyzing and normalizing the computational and memory access complexity, which directly impact latency and power consumption, ...

  7. Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications This...

  8. Treatment of Inadvertent Pericardial Placement of a Tunneled Dialysis Catheter by Direct Thrombin Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costantino, Mary Marcelle [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, L-340 (United States); Barton, Robert [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute L-605 (United States); Slater, Matthew [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, L-353 (United States); McAnulty, John H. [Legacy Clinic Northwest (United States); Keller, Frederick S. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, L-605 (United States)], E-mail: kellerf@ohsu.edu

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An inadvertent case of pericardial placement of a central venous catheter was successfully treated by direct thrombin injection.

  9. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  10. Assessing the hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct injection spark ignited engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovanovic, Michael S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of researching hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in a direct-injection spark ignited (DISI) engine, five experiments were performed. These experiments clarified the role of coolant temperature, injection pressure, ...

  11. Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasseris, Emmanuel P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

  12. Chaotic Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Adrian Barbulescu; Andrew Guidi; Steven S. Pietrobon

    This paper describes a new class of codes, chaotic turbo codes. They were born from a symbiosis between a chaotical digital encoder and a turbo code. This paper investigates the most important properties of both chaotic digital encoders and turbo encoders in order to understand how the two complement each other. A Chaotic Turbo Encoder is then described and initial results will be presented. I. INTRODUCTION A chaotic digital encoder was defined for the first time in [1] as a non--linear digital filter with finite precision (8 bits) which behaves in a quasi--chaotic fashion, both with zero and nonzero input sequences. A simple chaotic encoder is shown in Figure 1 [1]. D Y k X k LCIRC D Figure 1: Chaotic Digital Encoder Mapper L L L L L L 1 The main features of chaotic digital encoders that are used in this paper are: # The system is digital which makes possible its integration with a turbo code. # The output of a chaotic digital encoder with arbitrary inputs has a broad...

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURBO CODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alajaji, Fady

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURBO CODES by Guangchong Zhu A project submitted to the Department named ``Turbo codes'' which claims an extraordinary performance with reasonable decoding complexity. In this project, we begin with a study on the structure and principle of Turbo codes. We then investigate

  14. Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High EGR level and multiple- injection Application to DI Diesel Combustion Optimization Marc ZELLAT, Driss ABOURI, Thierry CONTE CD-adapco Group The development of CFD...

  15. From Turbo2 to TurboWin For ages already, information about

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koek, Frits

    From Turbo2 to TurboWin For ages already, information about the weather on board ships was re the operating sys- tem MsDOS and was called, suggesting a `speedy' character, Turbo2 (Turbo Transmission

  16. Van Turbo2 naar TurboWin Al eeuwen lang werden de gege-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koek, Frits

    Van Turbo2 naar TurboWin Al eeuwen lang werden de gege- vens over het weer aan boord van schepen' karakter te ge- ven, Turbo2 (Turbo Transmission of Weather Observations). Andere namen die indertijd werden

  17. Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline consumption and pollutant emissions from transportation are costly and have serious, demonstrated environmental and health impacts. Downsized, turbocharged direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines ...

  18. Near-Capacity Turbo Equalization Using Optimized Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir D. Trajkovi?; Minyue Fu; Peter J. Schreier

    AbstractIn this paper we analyze a turbo equalization scheme that combines Maximum a Posteriori Probability (MAP) equalization and turbo decoding. Our aim is to optimize the turbo equalizer in order to approach the information capacity limit for channels with severe Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI). For this purpose, we perform an extensive search for turbo codes that give an SNR-BER performance closest to the channel information capacity limit. Our results show that the optimized turbo equalizer can approach the information capacity limit to within 0.7 dB. We also optimize the turbo equalizer in terms of the minimum number of required turbo decoding iterations. Our results show that a turbo decoder within a turbo equalization loop requires only a small number of iterations. Finally, our analysis reveals that when there are turbo codes with similar extrinsic information transfer characteristics, the computational complexity can be reduced by choosing the code with the smallest constraint length with no loss in SNR-BER performance. I.

  19. Turbo and LDPC Codes: Implementation, Simulation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    1 Turbo and LDPC Codes: Implementation, Simulation, and Standardization June 7, 2006 Matthew/7/2006 Turbo and LDPC Codes 2/133 Tutorial Overview Channel capacity Convolutional codes ­ the MAP algorithm Turbo codes ­ Standard binary turbo codes: UMTS and cdma2000 ­ Duobinary CRSC turbo codes: DVB

  20. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  1. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  2. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Optimal Heavy Fuel Direct Injection analysis in a Rotary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Optimal Heavy Fuel Direct Injection analysis = Turbulent dissipation CFD = Computation Fluid Dynamics DPM = Discrete phase modeling DOE = Design objective of this computational study is to explore the optimum fuel injection for a 0.2 liter direct

  3. Entanglement boosts quantum turbo codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilde, Mark M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unexpected breakdowns in the existing theory of quantum serial turbo coding is that a quantum convolutional encoder cannot simultaneously be recursive and non-catastrophic. These properties are essential for a quantum turbo code to have an unbounded minimum distance and for its iterative decoding algorithm to converge, respectively. Here, we show that the entanglement-assisted paradigm gives a theoretical and practical "turbo boost" to these codes, in the sense that an entanglement-assisted quantum (EAQ) convolutional encoder can possess both of the aforementioned desirable properties, and simulation results indicate that entanglement-assisted turbo codes can operate reliably in a noise regime 5.5 dB beyond that of standard quantum turbo codes. Entanglement is the resource that enables a convolutional encoder to satisfy both properties because an encoder acting on only information qubits, classical bits, gauge qubits, and ancilla qubits cannot simultaneously satisfy them. We give several examples o...

  4. Effects of different fuels on a turbocharged, direct injection, spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrete, Justin E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following pages describe the experimentation and analysis of two different fuels in GM's high compression ratio, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) engine. The focus is on a burn rate analysis for the fuels - gasoline ...

  5. A Detailed Multi-Zone Thermodynamic Simulation For Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Xingyu 1985-

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed multi-zone thermodynamic simulation has been developed for the direct-injection (DI) diesel engine combustion process. For the purpose of predicting heterogeneous type combustion systems, the model explores the formation of pre...

  6. Evaluation of the environmental viability of direct injection schemes for ocean carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israelsson, Peter H. (Peter Hampus), 1973-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis evaluates the expected impact of several promising schemes for ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection of CO2, and serves as an update to the assessment by Auerbach et al. (1997) and Caulfield et al. ...

  7. A Detailed Multi-Zone Thermodynamic Simulation For Direct-Injection Diesel Engine Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Xingyu 1985-

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed multi-zone thermodynamic simulation has been developed for the direct-injection (DI) diesel engine combustion process. For the purpose of predicting heterogeneous type combustion systems, the model explores the formation of pre...

  8. Implementation and Performance of Parallelised Turbo Decoders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yýlmaz, ?zgür

    1 Implementation and Performance of Parallelised Turbo Decoders Enes Erdin TUBITAK Defense In this paper, we discuss the implementation of a low latency decoding algorithm for turbo codes and repeat. Index Terms Turbo codes, repeat accumulate codes, parallellised turbo decoding, BCJR, FPGA, metric

  9. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  10. Determination of desorption efficiency utilizing direct injection: a dynamic calibration system and phase equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Ronald H

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the material pro- ducing the pore structure. The chemical process adds a de- hydrating agent (usually phosphoric acid, zinc chloride or sulphur ic acid) to the heated raw material (200 ? 650 C) . 6, 9 The dehydrating agent is later leached out and concen... for performing desorption eff'iciency studies, there are several methods of loading activated charcoal with a compound. For many organic solvents a sta? 1 tic method, direct injection, is r ecommended. It is gen- erally believed that direct injection does...

  11. Turbo-Decoding RNA Secondary Structure Turbo-Decoding of RNA Secondary Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Gaurav

    Background Turbo-Decoding RNA Secondary Structure References Turbo-Decoding of RNA Secondary and Computational Biology June 18, 2013 1 #12;Outline Turbo-decoding in Communications: A Quick Review #12;Outline Turbo-decoding in Communications: A Quick Review RNA Structure Analysis: Motivation and Background RNA

  12. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 107 Combined Turbo Equalization and Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphaeli, Dan

    IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, APRIL 1998 107 Combined Turbo Equalization and Turbo Decoding Dan Raphaeli, Member, IEEE, and Yoram Zarai Abstract-- In this letter, the subject of turbo coding will be presented, which combines the channel equalization and the turbo decoding. At each iteration extrinsic

  13. TurboGenix Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin HydropowerTrinity ThermalTunisia-REEEP EnergyTurbo

  14. Turbo Lattices: Construction and Performance Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakzad, Amin; Panario, Daniel

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a new class of lattices called turbo lattices is introduced and established. We use the lattice Construction $D$ to produce turbo lattices. This method needs a set of nested linear codes as its underlying structure. We benefit from turbo codes as our basis codes. Therefore, a set of nested turbo codes based on nested interleavers and nested convolutional codes is built. To this end, we employ both tail-biting and zero-tail convolutional codes. Using these codes, along with construction $D$, turbo lattices are created. Several properties of Construction $D$ lattices and fundamental characteristics of turbo lattices including the minimum distance, coding gain, kissing number and an upper bound on the probability of error under a maximum likelihood decoder over AWGN channel are investigated. Furthermore, a multi-stage turbo lattice decoding algorithm based on iterative turbo decoding algorithm is given. Finally, simulation experiments provide strong agreement with our theoretical results. More prec...

  15. Quantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tonghun

    of engines with gasoline direct injection. Exhaust gas aftertreatment requires storage catalystsQuantitative in-cylinder NO-LIF imaging in a realistic gasoline engine with spray-guided direct fractions in a gasoline engine with spray-guided direct injection using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF

  16. 2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2010-01-0166 Ethanol Content Estimation in Flex Fuel Direct Injection Engines Using In to estimate the ethanol content, which exploits the difference in stoi- chiometric air-to-fuel ratio (SAFR to large errors with mass air flow sensor bias and/or fuel injector shift. In this paper, an ethanol

  17. CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams and sequestration. Carbon sequestration is often associated with the planting of trees. As they mature, the trees INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has

  18. Shortened Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David J.C. MacKay

    Simple arguments suggest that shortened codes must have distance properties equal to or better than those of their parent codes, and that they should be equally practical to decode. This relationship holds true in the case of low density generator codes and low density parity check codes. We investigate the properties of shortened turbo codes. I. Motivation for Shortening In our previous work on codes based on very sparse matrices we have observed that while codes with a low density generator matrix [1] are asymptotically bad, codes with a low density parity check matrix [2] are asymptotically good [3, 4, 5]. One way of viewing the relationship between low density generator matrix codes and low density parity check matrix codes is that one obtains a low density parity check matrix by taking the M \\Theta N parity check matrix [P IM ] of a (N; K) low density generator matrix code and chopping off its right-most M columns (where M = N \\Gamma K), to yield an M \\Theta K matrix [P], which...

  19. A Turbo Code Tutorial William E. Ryan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shea, John M.

    A Turbo Code Tutorial William E. Ryan New Mexico State University Box 30001 Dept. 3-O, Las Cruces, NM 88003 wryan@nmsu.edu Abstract| We give a tutorial exposition of turbo codes and the associated algorithms. Included are a simple derivation for the performance of turbo codes, and a straightforward

  20. CONTRACTIVITY IN TURBO ITERATIONS Phillip A. Regalia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    CONTRACTIVITY IN TURBO ITERATIONS Phillip A. Regalia Department of Communications, Image Fourier 91011 Evry cedex France Phillip.Regalia@int-evry.fr ABSTRACT The turbo decoding algorithm has met with intense study over the past decade, in an attempt to harness the full power of the "turbo principle". Here

  1. Optimality and Duality of the Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    INVITED P A P E R Optimality and Duality of the Turbo Decoder Two optimality criteria which underlie the turbo decoder are reconciled within. By Phillip A. Regalia, Fellow IEEE, and John MacLaren Walsh, Member IEEE ABSTRACT | The near-optimal performance of the turbo decoder has been a source

  2. Turbo Equalization Ralf Koetter, Andrew C. Singer, Michael Tuchler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koetter, Ralf

    1 Turbo Equalization Ralf Koetter, Andrew C. Singer, Michael T¨uchler Abstract-- Capitalizing on the tremendous performance gains of turbo codes and the turbo decoding algorithm, turbo equalization from intersymbol interference (ISI). In this paper, we dis- cuss the turbo equalization approach

  3. Development of Innovative Combustion Processes for a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Dec; Paul Miles

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) emissions and fuel economy goals, a small-bore, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel facility in which to conduct research into the physics of the combustion process relevant to these engines has been developed. The characteristics of this facility are described, and the motivation for selecting these characteristics and their relation to high efficiency, low-emission HSDI engine technology is discussed.

  4. Turbo Power Systems Inc formerly Turbo Genset Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin Baxin HydropowerTrinity ThermalTunisia-REEEP EnergyTurbo Power

  5. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers This fact sheet describes a supercritical carbon...

  6. Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers Project Profile: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbo-Expander and Heat Exchangers SWRI Logo The Southwest Research...

  7. Effects of Biodiesel and Engine Load on Some Emission Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alireza Shirneshan; Morteza Almassi; Barat Ghobadian; Ali Mohammad Borghei; Gholam Hassan Najafi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this research, experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using biodiesel as an alternative fuel and their blends to investigate the emission characteristics of the engine under four engine loads (25%, 40%, 65 % and 80%) at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and four different blends of diesel/ biodiesel (B20, B40, B60 and B80) made from waste frying oil and the results were analyzed. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of hydrocarbon (HC) and CO and increased emissions

  8. Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of EnergyModeling of Direct-Injection

  9. Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimou, Iason

    The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0 C to 40 C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under ...

  10. Organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kar, Kenneth

    The organic gas emissions from a stoichiometric direct injection spark ignition engine operating on ethanol/gasoline blends have been assessed under warmed-up and cold idle conditions. The speciated emissions show that the ...

  11. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards providing adequate gas...

  12. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use

  13. Turbo Decoding on the Binary Erasure Channel: Finite-Length Analysis and Turbo Stopping Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eirik Rosnes; yvind Ytrehus; Senior Member

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to the finite-length analysis of turbo decoding over the binary erasure channel (BEC). The performance of iterative belief-propagation (BP) decoding of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over the BEC can be characterized in terms of stopping sets. We describe turbo decoding on the BEC which is simpler than turbo decoding on other channels. We then adapt the concept of stopping sets to turbo decoding and state an exact condition for decoding failure. Apply turbo decoding until the transmitted codeword has been recovered, or the decoder fails to progress further. Then the set of erased positions that will remain when the decoder stops is equal to the unique maximum-size turbo stopping set which is also a subset of the set of erased positions. Furthermore, we present some improvements of the basic turbo decoding algorithm on the BEC. The proposed improved turbo decoding algorithm has substantially better error performance as illustrated by the given simulation results. Finally, we give an expression for the turbo stopping set size enumerating function under the uniform interleaver assumption, and an efficient enumeration algorithm of small-size turbo stopping sets for a particular interleaver. The solution is based on the algorithm proposed by Garello et al. in 2001 to compute an exhaustive list of all low-weight codewords in a turbo code.

  14. A computational study of an HCCI engine with direct injection during gas exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Haiyun; Vikhansky, Alexander; Mosbach, Sebastian; Kraft, Markus [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Bhave, Amit [Reaction Engineering Solutions Ltd., 61 Canterbury Street, Cambridge CB4 3QG (United Kingdom); Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, Mishuku 1200, Susono, Shizuoka 480-1193 (Japan); Mauss, Fabian [Division of Combustion Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new probability density function (PDF)-based computational model to simulate a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with direct injection (DI) during gas exchange. This stochastic reactor model (SRM) accounts for the engine breathing process in addition to the closed-volume HCCI engine operation. A weighted-particle Monte Carlo method is used to solve the resulting PDF transport equation. While simulating the gas exchange, it is necessary to add a large number of stochastic particles to the ensemble due to the intake air and EGR streams as well as fuel injection, resulting in increased computational expense. Therefore, in this work we apply a down-sampling technique to reduce the number of stochastic particles, while conserving the statistical properties of the ensemble. In this method some of the most important statistical moments (e.g., concentration of the main chemical species and enthalpy) are conserved exactly, while other moments are conserved in a statistical sense. Detailed analysis demonstrates that the statistical error associated with the down-sampling algorithm is more sensitive to the number of particles than to the number of conserved species for the given operating conditions. For a full-cycle simulation this down-sampling procedure was observed to reduce the computational time by a factor of 8 as compared to the simulation without this strategy, while still maintaining the error within an acceptable limit. Following the detailed numerical investigation, the model, intended for volatile fuels only, is applied to simulate a two-stroke, naturally aspirated HCCI engine fueled with isooctane. The in-cylinder pressure and CO emissions predicted by the model agree reasonably well with the measured profiles. In addition, the new model is applied to estimate the influence of engine operating parameters such as the relative air-fuel ratio and early direct injection timing on HCCI combustion and emissions. The qualitative trends observed in the parametric variation study match well with experimental data in literature. (author)

  15. RESEARCH Open Access Multi-non-binary turbo codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH Open Access Multi-non-binary turbo codes Horia Balta1,2 , Catherine Douillard3 and Radu Lucaciu1* Abstract This paper presents a new family of turbo codes called multi-non-binary turbo codes (MNBTCs) that generalizes the concept of turbo codes to multi-non-binary (MNB) parallel concatenated

  16. Turbo Detection for Mobile MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    Turbo Detection for Mobile MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications Jun Tao , Yahong Rosa Zheng-- Turbo detection for high data-rate single-carrier mobile multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO signal is then sent to a MIMO turbo equalization module for detection. In the MIMO turbo equalization

  17. Figure 1. Block diagram of the turbo decoder. A Memory-Reduced Log-MAP Kernel for Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    Figure 1. Block diagram of the turbo decoder. A Memory-Reduced Log-MAP Kernel for Turbo Decoder--Generally, the Log-MAP kernel of the turbo decoding consume large memories in hardware implement- tation of the turbo decoder is implemented to verify the proposed memory-reduced Log- MAP kernel in 3.04?3.04mm2 core

  18. A REAL-TIME EMBEDDED SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF A TURBO ENCODER AND SOFT OUTPUT VITERBI ALGORITHM BASED TURBO DECODER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Brian L.

    A REAL-TIME EMBEDDED SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF A TURBO ENCODER AND SOFT OUTPUT VITERBI ALGORITHM BASED TURBO DECODER M. Farooq Sabir, Rashmi Tripathi, Brian L. Evans and Alan C. Bovik Dept,rashmi,bevans,bovik}@ece.utexas.edu ABSTRACT Turbo codes are used for error protection, esp. in wireless systems. A turbo encoder consists

  19. Thermophoretic effects on soot distribution in a direct-injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently developed stochastic particle approach for computing soot particle dynamics is implemented in a three-dimensional model for flows, sprays, combustion and emissions in Diesel engines. The model is applied to study the distribution of soot particles in a direct-injection Diesel engine. In particular, the effect of thermophoresis on soot distribution is examined. It is shown that thermophoresis could be important once the soot particles are brought close to the walls, i.e. within the boundary layer, by turbulent eddy convection or as a result of the orientation of the sprays. Thermophoresis does not appear to result in a change in the distribution of soot in the regions outside the boundary layer as the characteristic time associated with turbulent eddy convection is at least an order of magnitude shorter than that associated with thermophoresis and it and bulk convection are by far the dominant factors in determining the soot distribution.

  20. Simulation of direct plasma injection for laser ion beam acceleration with a radio frequency quadrupole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Q. Y.; Li, Zh. M.; Liu, W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, H. Y., E-mail: zhaohy@impcas.ac.cn; Zhang, J. J.; Sha, Sh.; Zhang, Zh. L.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) has been being studied at Institute of Modern Physics since several years ago. A C{sup 6+} beam with peak current of 13 mA, energy of 593 keV/u has been successfully achieved after acceleration with DPIS method. To understand the process of DPIS, some simulations have been done as follows. First, with the total current intensity and the relative yields of different charge states for carbon ions measured at the different distance from the target, the absolute current intensities and time-dependences for different charge states are scaled to the exit of the laser ion source in the DPIS. Then with these derived values as the input parameters, the extraction of carbon beam from the laser ion source to the radio frequency quadrupole with DPIS is simulated, which is well agreed with the experiment results.

  1. Quantum serial turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Poulin; Jean-Pierre Tillich; Harold Ollivier

    2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum serial turbo-codes, describe their iterative decoding algorithm, and study their performances numerically on a depolarization channel. Our construction offers several advantages over quantum LDPC codes. First, the Tanner graph used for decoding is free of 4-cycles that deteriorate the performances of iterative decoding. Secondly, the iterative decoder makes explicit use of the code's degeneracy. Finally, there is complete freedom in the code design in terms of length, rate, memory size, and interleaver choice. We define a quantum analogue of a state diagram that provides an efficient way to verify the properties of a quantum convolutional code, and in particular its recursiveness and the presence of catastrophic error propagation. We prove that all recursive quantum convolutional encoder have catastrophic error propagation. In our constructions, the convolutional codes have thus been chosen to be non-catastrophic and non-recursive. While the resulting families of turbo-codes have bounded minimum distance, from a pragmatic point of view the effective minimum distances of the codes that we have simulated are large enough not to degrade the iterative decoding performance up to reasonable word error rates and block sizes. With well chosen constituent convolutional codes, we observe an important reduction of the word error rate as the code length increases.

  2. Insights on postinjection-associated soot emissions in direct injection diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arregle, Jean; Pastor, Jose V.; Lopez, J. Javier; Garcia, Antonio [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n 46022, Valencia (Spain)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive study was carried out in order to better understand combustion behavior in a direct injection diesel engine when using postinjections. More specifically, the aim of the study is twofold: (1) to better understand the mechanism of a postinjection to reduce soot and (2) to improve the understanding of the contribution of the postinjection combustion on the total soot emissions by looking at the effect of the postinjection timing variation and the postinjection mass variation on the soot emissions associated with the postinjection. The study is focused only on far postinjections, and the explored operating conditions include the use of EGR. The first objective was fulfilled analyzing some results from a previous work adding only a few complementary results. Concerning the second objective, the basic idea behind the analysis performed is the search of appropriate parameters physically linked to the processes under analysis. These parameters are found based on the state-of-the-art of diesel combustion. For the effect of the postinjection timing, the physical parameter found was the temperature of the unburned gases at the end of injection, T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI}. It was checked that a threshold level of T{sub ug{sub E}}{sub oI} ({proportional_to}700 K for the cases explored here) exists below which soot is unable to be formed, independently of the postinjection size, and the amount of soot increases as the temperature increases beyond this threshold. For the effect of the postinjection size, the physical parameter that was found was DoI/ACT (the ratio between the actual duration of injection and the time necessary for mixing - the apparent combustion time). This parameter can quantify when the postinjection is able to produce soot (the threshold value is {proportional_to}0.37 for the cases explored here), and the amount of soot produced increases as this parameter increases beyond this threshold value. A function containing these two parameters has been fitted to the experimental soot emissions associated with the postinjection obtained in many engine operating conditions, and the appropriate quality of the fit demonstrates that these two parameters explain the main behaviors of the soot emissions associated with a postinjection. (author)

  3. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Feng

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2002 June 03, 2002, Amsterdam, , Netherlands GT-2002 has only 1 Copyright 2002 by ASME #12;been investigated by a limited number of researchers. The un-dimensional and unsteady Navier Stokes code

  4. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shum, S.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization. Tabs, figs, refs.

  5. Comparison of propane and methane performance and emissions in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, C. M.; Polk, A. C.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    With increasingly restrictive NO x and particulate matter emissions standards, the recent discovery of new natural gas reserves, and the possibility of producing propane efficiently from biomass sources, dual fueling strategies have become more attractive. This paper presents experimental results from dual fuel operation of a four-cylinder turbocharged direct injection (DI) diesel engine with propane or methane (a natural gas surrogate) as the primary fuel and diesel as the ignition source. Experiments were performed with the stock engine control unit at a constant speed of 1800 rpm, and a wide range of brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) (2.7-11.6 bars) and percent energy substitutions (PESs) of C 3 H 8 and CH 4. Brake thermal efficiencies (BTEs) and emissions (NO x, smoke, total hydrocarbons (THCs), CO, and CO 2) were measured. Maximum PES levels of about 80-95% with CH 4 and 40-92% with C 3 H 8 were achieved. Maximum PES was limited by poor combustion efficiencies and engine misfire at low loads for both C 3 H 8 and CH 4, and the onset of knock above 9 bar BMEP for C 3 H 8. While dual fuel BTEs were lower than straight diesel BTEs at low loads, they approached diesel BTE values at high loads. For dual fuel operation, NO x and smoke reductions (from diesel values) were as high as 66-68% and 97%, respectively, but CO and THC emissions were significantly higher with increasing PES at all engine loads

  6. EU Energy Voith Turbo JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy OffshoreDeveloper - Q &EnergieEPC Jump to:Turbo JV

  7. Synchronization of Turbo Codes Based on Online Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    Synchronization of Turbo Codes Based on Online Statistics Jian Sun and Matthew C. Valenti Wireless 26506-6109 email: [jian,mvalenti]@csee.wvu.edu, phone: 304-293-0405, fax: 304-293-8602 Abstract-- Turbo. Since turbo codes are intended to be deployed in environments with very low SNR, conventional

  8. Joint Source-Channel Coding via Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alajaji, Fady

    Joint Source-Channel Coding via Turbo Codes by Guang-Chong Zhu A dissertation submitted coding. One of the most exciting break- throughs in channel coding is the invention of Turbo codes, whose- tigate three joint source-channel coding issues in the context of Turbo codes. In the #12;rst part

  9. Turbo Space-Time Codes with Time Varying Linear Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haimovich, Alexander

    1 Turbo Space-Time Codes with Time Varying Linear Transformations Hangjun Chen and Alexander 07102 Email: {hangjun.chen; alexander.m.haimovich}@njit.edu Abstract Turbo space-time codes with symbols in this paper. It is shown that turbo codes with TVLT achieve full diversity gain and do not require exhaustive

  10. A Turbo Iteration Algorithm In 16QAM Hierarchical Modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Turbo Iteration Algorithm In 16QAM Hierarchical Modulation Xu Zhe Electric and Information on the turbo code, OFDM modulation and 16QAM hierarchical modulation to increase the flexibility, and in the high SNR, it can also gain a high BER performance of low priority bit stream. Keywords- turbo iteration

  11. Compression of redundancy free trellis stages in Turbo-Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Compression of redundancy free trellis stages in Turbo-Decoder E. Boutillon, J. Sánchez-Rojas and C. Marchand For turbo code with coding rate close to one, the high puncturing rate induces long sequences. The computation is reduced accordingly. Introduction: Turbo codes with coding rate close to one are specified

  12. On Multiple Slice Turbo Codes(1)(2) David Gnaedig*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On Multiple Slice Turbo Codes(1)(2) David Gnaedig* , Emmanuel Boutillon+ , Michel Jézéquel- , Vincent C. Gaudet° and P. Glenn Gulak& * TurboConcept + LESTER. Université de Bretagne Sud - ENST Bretagne.gnaedig@univ-ubs.fr, emmanuel.boutillon@univ-ubs.fr Abstract: The main problem concerning the hardware implementation of turbo

  13. ENERGY-EFFICIENT TURBO DECODER Jagadeesh Kaza and Chaitali Chakrabarti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    ENERGY-EFFICIENT TURBO DECODER Jagadeesh Kaza and Chaitali Chakrabarti Department of Electrical Engineering Arizona State University, Tempe, 85287 jagadeeshk@asu.edu, chaitali@asu.edu ABSTRACT Turbo codes termination on the Bit Error Rate (BER) and energy consumption for a Turbo decoder implemented on a general

  14. Turbo Decoding as Constrained Optimization John M. Walsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    Turbo Decoding as Constrained Optimization John M. Walsh School of Elec. and Comp. Eng. Cornell. Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14850 johnson@ece.cornell.edu June 25, 2005 Abstract The turbo decoder was not originally introduced as a solution to an optimization problem. This has made explaining just why the turbo

  15. Turbo synchronization : an EM algorithm interpretation , C. Herzet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steendam, Heidi

    Turbo synchronization : an EM algorithm interpretation N. Noels* , C. Herzet , A. Dejonghe , V is devoted to turbo synchronization, that is to say the use of soft information to estimate parameters like carrier phase, frequency offset or timing within a turbo receiver. It is shown how maximum

  16. Methods for the Reconstruction of Parallel Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cluzeau, Mathieu; Tillich, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present two new algorithms for the reconstruction of turbo codes from a noisy intercepted bitstream. With these algorithms, we were able to reconstruct various turbo codes with realistic parameter sizes. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first algorithms able to recover the whole permutation of a turbo code in the presence of high noise levels.

  17. Variable Latency Turbo Codes for Wireless Multimedia Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    Variable Latency Turbo Codes for Wireless Multimedia Applications Matthew C. Valenti and Brian D acceptable latency and Bit Error Rate BER or Frame Error Rate FER. In turbo coded systems a tradeo between an adaptive turbo coding strategy for wire- less multimedia communications that incor- porates a set

  18. CommunicotionTheory Improved Turbo Decoding through Belief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Saejoon

    CommunicotionTheory Improved Turbo Decoding through Belief Propagation Saejoon Kim and Stephen B to obtain any insight as to the functionality of turbo decoding. Graph- based techniques do, however, lead to useful extensions and general- izations of the turbo decoding concept. In this paper we use a graph

  19. Simplified Compression of Redundancy Free Trellis Sections in Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Simplified Compression of Redundancy Free Trellis Sections in Turbo Decoder Emmanuel Boutillon that for an M state Turbo decoder, among the L compressed trellis stages, only m = 3 or even m = 2 are necessary turbo-code and/or to reduce its power consumption.1 I. INTRODUCTION The quality of an error control code

  20. A HIGHLY PARALLEL TURBO PRODUCT CODE DECODER WITHOUT INTERLEAVING RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A HIGHLY PARALLEL TURBO PRODUCT CODE DECODER WITHOUT INTERLEAVING RESOURCE Camille Leroux-STICC firstname.lastname@telecom-bretagne.eu ABSTRACT This article presents an innovative Turbo Product Code (TPC of such an architecture compared with exist- ing previous solutions. Considering a 6-iteration turbo de- coder of a (32

  1. Joint Synchronization and Decoding Exploiting the Turbo Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regalia, Phillip A.

    Joint Synchronization and Decoding Exploiting the Turbo Principle John M. Walsh and C. Richard´el´ecommunications/GET 91011 Evry cedex France Abstract-- This paper investigates turbo methods for joint synchronization and decoding in pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) systems. We begin with a brief review of the turbo principle

  2. Differential Turbo Coded Modulation with APP Channel Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Sheryl

    Differential Turbo Coded Modulation with APP Channel Estimation Sheryl L. Howard and Christian, iterative decoding. I. INTRODUCTION With the advent of turbo codes [1], [2] and iterative de- coding in very high noise/low signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. Turbo trellis coded modulation (TTCM

  3. AREA-EFFICIENTHIGH-THROUGHPUTVLSI ARCHITECTUREFOR MAP-BASED TURBO EQUALIZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    AREA-EFFICIENTHIGH-THROUGHPUTVLSI ARCHITECTUREFOR MAP-BASED TURBO EQUALIZER Seok-Jun Lee, Naresh R an area-efficient MAP-based turbo equalizer VLSI architecture by proposing a symbol-based soft-input soft-interleaved com- putation with an area savings of 25%. 1. INTRODUCTION The turbo decoding technique has found

  4. SNR Estimation in Nakagami Fading with Diversity for Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chockalingam, A.

    SNR Estimation in Nakagami Fading with Diversity for Turbo Decoding A. Ramesh£, A. Chockalingam-? fading channels without di- versity combining and used this estimate in the decoding of turbo codes. Now equal gain diversity combining. We use our SNR estimates in the iterative decoding of turbo codes

  5. Fast Decodable Turbo Codes Orhan GAZI, A. Ozgur YILMAZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yýlmaz, ?zgür

    1 Fast Decodable Turbo Codes Orhan GAZI, A. ¨Ozg¨ur YILMAZ Abstract-- Decoding delay is an important consideration for the use of turbo codes in practical applications. We propose a new structure for turbo codes which is very suitable for parallel decoding. It is shown by union bound analysis

  6. A Pipelined Turbo Decoder with Random Convolutional Interleaver Werner Henkel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkel, Werner

    A Pipelined Turbo Decoder with Random Convolutional Interleaver Werner Henkel University of Applied: jusif, sayir¡ @ftw.at Abstract-- This paper describes a pipelined iterative decoder ("Turbo" decoder. INTRODUCTION SINCE the introduction of "Turbo" codes in 1993 [1] the coding community has put much effort

  7. A Survey on Turbo Codes and Recent Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Matthew Geoffrey

    A Survey on Turbo Codes and Recent Developments by Halvor Utby halvor.utby@student.uib.no Thesis . . . . . . . 30 4 Turbo-codes 41 4.1 Shannon limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.2 Encoding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4.5.2 Soft-Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA) . . . . 48 5 New Research in Turbo Codes 51 5

  8. Hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct-injection spark engine : gasoline and gasohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tharp, Ronald S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to better understand the effects on hydrocarbon emissions of loading, engine temperature, fuel type, and injection timing, a series of experiments was performed. The effect of loading was observed by running the ...

  9. Self-Inverse Interleavers for Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sakzad, Amin; Panario, Daniel; Eshghi, Nasim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we introduce and study a set of new interleavers based on permutation polynomials and functions with known inverses over a finite field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ for using in turbo code structures. We use Monomial, Dickson, M\\"{o}bius and R\\'edei functions in order to get new interleavers. In addition we employ Skolem sequences in order to find new interleavers with known cycle structure. As a byproduct we give an exact formula for the inverse of every R\\'edei function. The cycle structure of R\\'edei functions are also investigated. Finally, self-inverse versions of permutation functions are used to construct interleavers. These interleavers are their own de-interleavers and are useful for turbo coding and turbo decoding. Experiments carried out for self-inverse interleavers constructed using these kind of permutation polynomials and functions show excellent agreement with our theoretical results.

  10. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically.

  11. vTurbo: Accelerating Virtual Machine I/O Processing Using Designated Turbo-Sliced Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong Xu; Sahan Gamage; Hui Lu; Ramana Kompella; Dongyan Xu

    In a virtual machine (VM) consolidation environment, it has been observed that CPU sharing among multiple VMs will lead to I/O processing latency because of the CPU access latency experienced by each VM. In this paper, we present vTurbo, a system that accelerates I/O processing for VMs by offloading I/O processing to a designated core. More specifically, the designated core called turbo core runs with a much smaller time slice (e.g., 0.1ms) than the cores shared by production VMs. Most of the I/O IRQs for the production VMs will be delegated to the turbo core for more timely processing, hence accelerating the I/O processing for the production VMs. Our experiments show that vTurbo significantly improves the VMs network and disk I/O throughput, which consequently translates into application-level performance improvement. 1

  12. Turbo Decoding for PR4: Parallel Versus Serial Concatenation Tom Souvignier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Paul H.

    Turbo Decoding for PR4: Parallel Versus Serial Concatenation Tom Souvignier , Arnon Friedmann Diego Quantum Corporation Seagate Technology Abstract -- Recent work on the application of turbo results comparing the parallel and serial concatenation systems will be presented. I. INTRODUCTION Turbo

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Cummins at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline turbocharged direct...

  14. Investigations of H-Mode Plasmas Triggered Directly by Pellet Injection in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohil, P.; Baylor, L. R.; Jernigan, T. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Carlstrom, T. N.

    2001-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition from low-confinement (L-mode) to high-confinement (H-mode) plasmas has been directly produced by injecting frozen deuterium pellets in the DIII-D tokamak. H-mode transitions were produced at edge electron and ion temperatures below the L-mode values. This implies that a critical edge temperature is not necessary for H-mode transitions. The experimentally determined edge plasma parameters were well below those predicted by several theories of the H-mode transition to trigger the H-mode, indicating a need for revision of these theories.

  15. Irregular Turbo Codes in Block-Fading Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraidy, Ghassan M; Fbregas, Albert Guilln i

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study irregular binary turbo codes over non-ergodic block-fading channels. We first propose an extension of channel multiplexers initially designed for regular turbo codes. We then show that, using these multiplexers, irregular turbo codes that exhibit a small decoding threshold over the ergodic Gaussian-noise channel perform very close to the outage probability on block-fading channels, from both density evolution and finite-length perspectives.

  16. Scaling Turbo Boost to a 1000 cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S, Ananth Narayan; Fedorova, Alexandra

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Intel Core i7 processor code named Nehalem provides a feature named Turbo Boost which opportunistically varies the frequencies of the processor's cores. The frequency of a core is determined by core temperature, the number of active cores, the estimated power consumption, the estimated current consumption, and operating system frequency scaling requests. For a chip multi-processor(CMP) that has a small number of physical cores and a small set of performance states, deciding the Turbo Boost frequency to use on a given core might not be difficult. However, we do not know the complexity of this decision making process in the context of a large number of cores, scaling to the 100s, as predicted by researchers in the field.

  17. Analysis and Design of Tuned Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koller, Christian; Kliewer, Joerg; Vatta, Francesca; Zigangirov, Kamil S; Costello, Daniel J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been widely observed that there exists a fundamental trade-off between the minimum distance properties and the iterative decoding convergence behavior of turbo-like codes. While capacity achieving code ensembles typically are asymptotically bad in the sense that their minimum distance does not grow linearly with block length, and they therefore exhibit an error floor at moderate-to-high signal to noise ratios, asymptotically good codes usually converge further away from channel capacity. In this paper, we introduce the concept of tuned turbo codes, a family of asymptotically good hybrid concatenated code ensembles, where minimum distance growth rates, convergence thresholds, and code rates can be traded-off using two tuning parameters, {\\lambda} and {\\mu}. By decreasing {\\lambda}, the asymptotic minimum distance growth rate is reduced for the sake of improved iterative decoding convergence behavior, while increasing {\\lambda} raises the growth rate at the expense of worse convergence behavior, and thus...

  18. ag turbo turbotech: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    decoding algorithm to converge, respectively. Here, we show that the entanglement-assisted paradigm gives a theoretical and practical "turbo boost" to these codes, in the sense...

  19. ag turbo ii: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    decoding algorithm to converge, respectively. Here, we show that the entanglement-assisted paradigm gives a theoretical and practical "turbo boost" to these codes, in the sense...

  20. High Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Compression Ratio Turbo Gasoline Engine Operation Using Alcohol Enhancement PI: John B. Heywood Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology June 19, 2014...

  1. Distance Spectrum Analysis of Third Generation Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract: Turbo Codes are a class of powerful error correction codes that were introduced in 1993 by a group of researchers from France, which has the performance near the limit of Claude Shannon. After the introduction of turbo codes it has given raise a tremendous research work related to the new coding theory. This paper addresses the performance of Turbo codes by examining the codes distance spectrum. It is well known that error floor occurs in the performance curve of turbo codes at moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio. The cause of error floor is due to the relatively low free distance of the codewords. Several techniques were proposed by researchers to lower the error floor. These techniques are assessed in this paper. To determine the free distance several algorithms were developed by different researchers. In this paper we used one of the recent algorithm to evaluate the distance spectrum of Turbo codes. We concentrate our analysis to measure and explain the distance spectrum of UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System), cdma2000 and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) standards Turbo Codes. It is shown that the distance spectrum depends on the code rate, interleaver size and the interleaver type.This distance spectrum of turbo codes can be used to estimate its performance at medium to higher SNR (signal to noise ratio). From our analysis we find out that the distance spectrum is one of the elementary issues using which one can find the optimum architecture of Turbo codes for specific application.

  2. 3D Duo Binary Turbo Decoder Hardware Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Lehngik-emden; Matthias Alles; Norbert Wehn

    Abstract: Each digital communication system needs channel coding to provide a certain quality of service. With the introducation of advanced channel codes like turbo codes and LDPC codes, error correcting near theoretical shannon limit became possible. Many applications require a low error floor in addition. The classical turbo code cannot meet this demand. Increasing the number of components codes, non-binary component codes or code concatenation are solutions for this problem, but come with a large complexity increase. In 2007 a new class of turbo codes, the 3D turbo code, was introduced by Berrou. The 3D turbo code provides a very good convergence and a large minimum distance at a low complexity. To the best of our knowledge this paper presents the first hardware implementation of a 3D turbo decoder. In addition we compare the implementation complexity of the 3D turbo decoder with the 8 and 16-state duo binary turbo decoder on FPGA and in 65nm ASIC technology.

  3. Some Reflections on the Design of Bandwidth Efficient Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel J. Costello, Jr.; Adrish Banerjee; Thomas E. Fuja; Peter C. Massey

    In this paper we review several approaches to bandwidth efficient turbo coding that have appeared in the recent literature. In addition, some new designs using bit interleaved coded modulation are introduced, including asymmetric designs and low-complexity multiple turbo code designs.

  4. Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request Scheme With Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jozef Hamorsky; Udo Wachsmann; Johannes B. Huber; Anton Cizmar

    A novel hybrid automatic repeat request system based on turbo codes, called turbo HARQ system, is proposed. The iterative turbo decoding procedure is exploited to request retransmission of not decodable blocks without the necessity of an outer error--detecting code. It is shown that the turbo HARQ scheme with code rate R c = 1=2 and interleaver length 1024 significantly outperforms the classical turbo coding scheme --- especially for low SNR --- without essential loss in throughput. 1 INTRODUCTION Automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocols are well--known methods to achieve high reliability in digital transmission schemes. The information is protected by an error--detecting block code. If the decoder detects an erroneous transmitted block, retransmission of this block is requested via a feedback channel which is assumed to be error--free throughout this paper. Additionally, the request is assumed to be repeated until the decoder detects error--free transmission. The great advantage of s...

  5. Studies of H-Mode Plasmas Produced Directly by Pellet Injection in the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Gohil; L.R. Baylor; T.C. Jernigan; K.H. Burrell; T.N. Carlstrom; G.R. McKee; T.L. Rhodes

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key issue for the physics of H-mode plasmas is to determine which plasma quantities are critical for the formation of the edge transport barrier. One approach is to directly perturb the edge plasma and observe the subsequent changes. In DIII-D, pellet injection has been used to directly change the edge plasma conditions and produce H-mode transitions. One hypothesis for the H-mode transition is that the attainment of a critical edge electron temperature is required for the transition [1-3]. This hypothesis is disproved in this paper. H-mode transitions were produced by injecting frozen deuterium pellets of diameter 2.7 mm from the inner wall of the DIII-D vessel into the high toroidal field side (HFS) and from the outer wall into the low field side (LFS) of the plasma. Both the HFS and LFS pellets produced significant increases in the edge electron density, which led to substantial reductions in the edge electron and ion temperatures. However, H-mode transitions were still produced with the lowered edge temperatures, implying that a critical edge temperature is not necessary for H-mode transitions. The pellet induced H-mode plasma exhibited clear pedestals in electron density and electron and ion temperatures at the plasma edge and persisted for the duration of the applied neutral beam power. The HFS pellet's penetration and deposition profiles were substantially deeper (up to {rho} {approx} 0.2) than that of the LFS pellet (up to {rho} {approx} 0.7). However, since both HFS and LFS pellets produced H-mode transitions, this implies that pellet penetration depth is not important the important factor is the large increase in the electron density right at the plasma edge produced by both types of pellets. The values of the edge plasma quantities at the H-mode transition were expressed in the parametric terms described in several theories and models of the H-mode transitions [4-6]. On comparison, the experimentally determined parameters at the H-mode transition were well below those required by several theoretical models. Finally, pellet injection reduced the neutral beam power required to produce the H-mode from 7.3 MW to 4.9 MW in plasmas which had the {del}B drift away from the X-point.

  6. How to produce a turbo equalization system with complexity O(logL)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    How to produce a turbo equalization system with complexity O(logL)? by Professor Defeng Huang University of Hong Kong Abstract Following the great success of turbo codes in 1993, turbo equalization-symbol interference channels. However, for more than 15 years, the prohibitive complexity of turbo equalization has

  7. Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalisation in Coded SC-FDMA Systems: EXIT Chart Analysis and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quartly, Graham

    Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalisation in Coded SC-FDMA Systems: EXIT Chart Analysis and Performance) turbo equalisers are considered. The first one is the turbo FD linear equaliser (LE). The second one is a parallel interference cancellation (PIC)-assisted turbo FD decision-feedback equaliser (DFE). The final one

  8. TURBO EQUALIZATIONWITH AN UNKNOWN CHANNEL SeongwookSong', Andrew C. Singer2,Koeng-MoSun?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    TURBO EQUALIZATIONWITH AN UNKNOWN CHANNEL SeongwookSong', Andrew C. Singer2,Koeng-MoSun? l t 2Univ the method of turbo equalization originally de- veloped by Douillard, et al. [3]. In its original form, turbo and without training data. The resultingjoint channeland data estimator is shown to outperform standard turbo

  9. Space-Time Turbo Codes Youjian Liu and Michael P. Fitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Youjian "Eugene"

    Space-Time Turbo Codes Youjian Liu and Michael P. Fitz Department of Electrical Engineering. We propose a new class of scalable space{time codes based on turbo codes or turbo trellis codes 1]. They will be referred as space{time turbo codes (STT) in the sequel. The scalability implies that the code rate

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENT TURBO BASED SPACE-TIMECODER YumingZhu, Laura Li and ChaitaliChakrabarti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    ENERGY EFFICIENT TURBO BASED SPACE-TIMECODER YumingZhu, Laura Li and ChaitaliChakrabarti Department that Space-Time code is an effective approach to increasing the data rate over wireless channels. Turbo of the Turbo codes. In this paper, we compare two Turbo-based Space-Time Codes and their approximate versions

  11. Efficient SIMD technique with parallel Max-Log-MAP Algorithm for Turbo Decoders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Efficient SIMD technique with parallel Max-Log-MAP Algorithm for Turbo Decoders David Gnaedig Turbo on a DSP a parallel Max-Log-MAP algorithm for turbo decoders. It consists in using SIMD instructions by the use of an adapted two-dimensional turbo code and its parallel interleaver structure. After a brief

  12. From Application to ASIP-based FPGA prototype: a Case Study on Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, Olivier

    From Application to ASIP-based FPGA prototype: a Case Study on Turbo Decoding Olivier Muller, Amer turbo decoder. It introduces turbo decoding application and proposes an Application-Specific Instruction when decoding a double binary turbo code with 5 iterations. 1. Introduction Applications in the field

  13. 2090 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 57, NO. 7, JULY 2009 Turbo Receivers for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoît, Escrig

    2090 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 57, NO. 7, JULY 2009 Turbo Receivers for Interleave turbo receivers for Interleave- Division Multiple-Access (IDMA) systems will be discussed. The multiple provides faster convergence of the turbo receiver. The discussed turbo receivers will be evaluated by means

  14. A New Stopping Criterion for Efficient Early Termination in Turbo Decoder Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    A New Stopping Criterion for Efficient Early Termination in Turbo Decoder Designs Fan-Min Li and An, stopping criterion, early termination, Turbo codes, Turbo principle. 1. INTRODUCTION In 1993, a new class of Forward-Error-Correction (FEC) code, Turbo code, was introduced by Berrou, Glavieux and Thitimajashima [1

  15. Turbo-BLAST with Semi-Blind Co-Channel Interference Cancellation in Multicell MIMO Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Huaiyu

    Turbo-BLAST with Semi-Blind Co-Channel Interference Cancellation in Multicell MIMO Systems Vivek to obtain in practice. In this paper we first exploit the turbo principle to enhance an effective blind detection method based on multiuser kurtosis (MUK) maximization, thus coined as turbo-MUK. In turbo

  16. AN ANALOG TURBO DECODER FOR AN (8,4) PRODUCT CODE Neiyer Correal and Joe Heck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    AN ANALOG TURBO DECODER FOR AN (8,4) PRODUCT CODE Neiyer Correal and Joe Heck Florida@wvu.edu ABSTRACT This paper illustrates how analog circuitry can be used to decode turbo and turbo-like codes. INTRODUCTION Iteratively decodable codes, such as turbo [1] and low density parity check (LDPC) [2] codes

  17. Turbo Equalization of Non-Linear Satellite Channels using Soft Interference Cancellation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rontogiannis, Athanasios A.

    Turbo Equalization of Non-Linear Satellite Channels using Soft Interference Cancellation D by such channels is considered, by employing a soft interference canceller operating in a turbo equalization framework. I. INTRODUCTION Inspired by the advent of turbo codes [1], turbo equal- ization (TE) [2] has

  18. Space-Time Turbo Code Using Quantized Feedback with Two Transmit Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae Hong

    Space-Time Turbo Code Using Quantized Feedback with Two Transmit Antennas Chi Hoon Yoo and Jae Hong-time turbo code with two transmit antennas in a quasi- static Rayleigh fading channel. The performance for the space-time turbo code. To improve the perform- ance of the space-time turbo code, we propose the new

  19. CE Turbo Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainable andBucoda,BurkeNebraska:CDM SustainableRelocation Permits toTurbo

  20. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.

  1. The Error-Pattern-Correcting Turbo Equalizer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhussien, Hakim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The error-pattern correcting code (EPCC) is incorporated in the design of a turbo equalizer (TE) with aim to correct dominant error events of the inter-symbol interference (ISI) channel at the output of its matching Viterbi detector. By targeting the low Hamming-weight interleaved errors of the outer convolutional code, which are responsible for low Euclidean-weight errors in the Viterbi trellis, the turbo equalizer with an error-pattern correcting code (TE-EPCC) exhibits a much lower bit-error rate (BER) floor compared to the conventional non-precoded TE, especially for high rate applications. A maximum-likelihood upper bound is developed on the BER floor of the TE-EPCC for a generalized two-tap ISI channel, in order to study TE-EPCC's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gain for various channel conditions and design parameters. In addition, the SNR gain of the TE-EPCC relative to an existing precoded TE is compared to demonstrate the present TE's superiority for short interleaver lengths and high coding rates.

  2. Coding Theorems for "Turbo-Like" Codes Dariush Divsalar, Hui Jin, and Robert J. McEliece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

    Coding Theorems for "Turbo-Like" Codes Dariush Divsalar, Hui Jin, and Robert J. McEliece Jet call these systems "turbo-like" codes and they include as special cases both the classical turbo codes for turbo-like codes. 1. Introduction. The 1993 discovery of turbo codes by Berrou, Glavieux

  3. REDUCED-COMPLEXITY DECODING FOR CONCATENATED CODES BASED ON RECTANGULAR PARITY-CHECK CODES AND TURBO CODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Tan F.

    AND TURBO CODES John M. Shea and Tan F. Wong University of Florida Department of Electrical and Computer-check code (RPCC) with a turbo code. These concatenated codes are referred to as RPCC+turbo codes. RPCC+turbo codes have been shown to significantly outperform turbo codes in several scenarios [1],[2]. One

  4. Zero State Doped Turbo Equalizer Orhan GAZI, is with Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Cankaya University, 06530,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yýlmaz, ?zgür

    1 Zero State Doped Turbo Equalizer Orhan GAZI, is with Electronics and Communication Engineering. In this article we propose zero state doped turbo equalizers (ZSDTEs) which can be processed in parallel and have to the sliding window method. Index Terms-- Turbo Codes, Turbo Equalizer, Zero State Doped Turbo Equalizer. I

  5. Looking From A Hilltop: Automotive Propulsion System Technology...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Valve Lift, Active Fuel Management Spark Ignition Direct Injection Downsized SIDI Turbo Boosting Advanced Combustion 6 DOWNSIZED TURBO GASOLINE ENGINE Diesel Particulate...

  6. Turbo-generator control with variable valve actuation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuk, Carl T. (Denver, IA)

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion engine incorporating a turbo-generator and one or more variably activated exhaust valves. The exhaust valves are adapted to variably release exhaust gases from a combustion cylinder during a combustion cycle to an exhaust system. The turbo-generator is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the exhaust system and rotationally harness energy therefrom to produce electrical power. A controller is adapted to command the exhaust valve to variably open in response to a desired output for the turbo-generator.

  7. Passionate Technologists Wanted at ASME Turbo Expo|GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meet & Greet GE Researchers at ASME Turbo 2014 Thomas Ripplinger 2014.06.10 Do you love gas turbine research as much as I do? Then I want to meet you next week Since joining GE...

  8. COPYRIGHT 2006 by ASME Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    COPYRIGHT 2006 by ASME 1 Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2007 Power for Land, Sea, and Air May 14. [7] and Dorney and Schwab [8]. #12;COPYRIGHT 2006 by ASME 2 Due to significant energy extraction

  9. Development of Inexpensive Turbo Compressor/Expanders for Industrial Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacox, J. W.

    DEVELOPMENT OF INEXPENSIVE TURBO COMPRESSOR/EXPANDERS FOR INDUSTRIAL USE JOHN W. Senior Project Manager NUCON International, Columbus, ABSTRACT Use of Turbo Compressor/Expanders (TCEs) as industrial reversed Brayton Cycle Heat Pumps... offers many technical and energy saving advantages. until recently, such devices have been far too expensive in both capital cost and inefficiency mainly because the compressor and expander stages were built for forward Brayton Cycle operation...

  10. Performance and reliability enhancement of turbo-pump labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidry, Michael James

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF TURBO-PUMP LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by MICHAEL JAMES GUIDRY, JR. Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF TURBO-PUMP LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by Michael Ja. mes Guidry, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: D. L. Rhode (Chair...

  11. Leaking Interleavers for UEP Turbo Codes Abdul Wakeel, David Kronmueller, Werner Henkel, and Humberto Beltr~ao Neto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkel, Werner

    Leaking Interleavers for UEP Turbo Codes Abdul Wakeel, David Kronmueller, Werner Henkel to Turbo coding's exceptional performance. An interleaver provides bit-permutation designed to ensure deterministic randomness. When applying interleavers to unequal error protecting (UEP) Turbo codes, typically

  12. Analysis of ignition behavior in a turbocharged direct injection dual fuel engine using propane and methane as primary fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, A. C.; Gibson, C. M.; Shoemaker, N. T.; Srinivasan, K. K.; Krishnan, S. R.

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents experimental analyses of the ignition delay (ID) behavior for diesel-ignited propane and diesel-ignited methane dual fuel combustion. Two sets of experiments were performed at a constant speed (1800 rev/min) using a 4-cylinder direct injection diesel engine with the stock ECU and a wastegated turbocharger. First, the effects of fuel-air equivalence ratios (???© pilot ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.6 and ???© overall ?¢???¼ 0.2-0.9) on IDs were quantified. Second, the effects of gaseous fuel percent energy substitution (PES) and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) (from 2.5 to 10 bar) on IDs were investigated. With constant ???© pilot (> 0.5), increasing ???© overall with propane initially decreased ID but eventually led to premature propane autoignition; however, the corresponding effects with methane were relatively minor. Cyclic variations in the start of combustion (SOC) increased with increasing ???© overall (at constant ???© pilot), more significantly for propane than for methane. With increasing PES at constant BMEP, the ID showed a nonlinear (initially increasing and later decreasing) trend at low BMEPs for propane but a linearly decreasing trend at high BMEPs. For methane, increasing PES only increased IDs at all BMEPs. At low BMEPs, increasing PES led to significantly higher cyclic SOC variations and SOC advancement for both propane and methane. Finally, the engine ignition delay (EID) was also shown to be a useful metric to understand the influence of ID on dual fuel combustion.

  13. Proceedings of GT2007 ASME Turbo Expo 2007: Power for Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Proceedings of GT2007 ASME Turbo Expo 2007: Power for Land, Sea and Air May 14-17, 2007, Montreal manuscript, published in "Proceedings of GT2007, ASME Turbo Expo, Canada (2007)" #12;INTRODUCTION The current

  14. A study of Turbo Codes across Space Time Spreading Channel 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim S. Raad; Peter Vial; Tad Wysocki

    This study looks at the use of Turbo Codes across a space time spreading (STS) channel in the absence of multi-path. For 3 and 5 iterations, turbo codes was shown to improve the BER by up to 3%.

  15. Turbo ASL: Arterial Spin Labeling With Higher SNR and Temporal Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sereno, Martin

    Turbo ASL: Arterial Spin Labeling With Higher SNR and Temporal Resolution Eric C. Wong,* Wen the ASL SNR per image. We refer to this modified technique as turbo ASL. THEORY In pulsed ASL techniques

  16. Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0, SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel...

  17. Improved Space-time Turbo Codes with Full Spatial Diversity over Integer Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae Hong

    Improved Space-time Turbo Codes with Full Spatial Diversity over Integer Ring Tae Min Kim and Jae-time turbo codes designed over integer ring for BPSK and QPSK modulation. The proposed spacetime turbo codes of 0.5 dB at FER of IO-$ over the space-time turbo codes with the iterative non-binary m a x i " D

  18. 1 Copyright 2003 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    1 Copyright © 2003 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2003 Power for Land, Sea, and Air June 16

  19. Performance Analysis of 3-Dimensional Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosnes, Eirik

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we consider the minimum distance properties and convergence thresholds of 3-dimensional turbo codes (3D-TCs), recently introduced by Berrou et al.. Here, we consider binary 3D-TCs while the original work of Berrou et al. considered double-binary codes. In the first part of the paper, the minimum distance properties are analyzed from an ensemble perspective, both in the finite-length regime and in the asymptotic case of large block lengths. In particular, we analyze the asymptotic weight distribution of 3D-TCs and show numerically that their typical minimum distance dmin may, depending on the specific parameters, asymptotically grow linearly with the block length, i.e., the 3D-TC ensemble is asymptotically good for some parameters. In the second part of the paper, we derive some useful upper bounds on the dmin when using quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) interleavers with a quadratic inverse. Furthermore, we give examples of interleaver lengths where an upper bound appears to be tight. The b...

  20. Study of Turbo Coded OFDM over Fading Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suchita Chatterjee; Mangal Singh

    AbstractThe main problems of reliable data communication in the wireless environment are the distorting multipath fading channel and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) noise. These impairments can distort the transmitted signal severely and thus leading to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI). So the reception becomes erroneous and the Bit Error Rate (BER) increases. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) or multicarrier communication is a recent technique used to mitigate ISI introduced by the distorting frequency selective fading channel. The earlier approaches used to combat ISI are based on Equalization and Maximum Likelihood Sequence Estimation (MLSE). Though MLSE is the optimum detector, its complexity grows exponentially with the channel length. Equalization has a low complexity but is suboptimal. OFDM essentially bridges the performance gap between MLSE and Equalization at a reasonable complexity. In this paper, we attempt to study the performance of uncoded and turbo coded OFDM signal transmitted through frequency selective Rayleigh fading channels having uniform power delay profile. The channel is assumed to be static for one OFDM symbol and varies randomly from one symbol to the next. Simulation results are presented for rate 1/3 and rate 1/2 turbo code. KeywordsTurbo codes, turbo encoder, fading channel, turbo decoder, MAP algorithm, likelihood ratio. I.

  1. Optimum Frame Synchronization for Preamble-less Packet Transmission of Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valenti, Matthew C.

    Optimum Frame Synchronization for Preamble-less Packet Transmission of Turbo Codes Jian Sun introduces an optimum maximum a posteriori (MAP) frame synchronization method for packet- based turbo coded the received signal sequences. This method is based on the low- density parity-check properties of turbo codes

  2. Packet Transmission with Turbo Codes over Fading Bartosz Mielczarek 1 and Arne Svensson 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packet Transmission with Turbo Codes over Fading Channels Bartosz Mielczarek 1 and Arne Svensson 2.se. Abstract This paper presents the main issues of using turbo coding schemes in wireless packet transmission it particu- larly suitable for packet transmission. 1 Introduction Turbo codes [1, 2] are one of the most

  3. Power and Area Efficient Turbo Decoder Implementation for Mobile Wireless Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Tughrul

    Power and Area Efficient Turbo Decoder Implementation for Mobile Wireless Systems J. H. Han1 , A. T Abstract-- The authors present a low power and area efficient turbo soft-input soft-output (SISO) decoder. Our turbo SISO decoder is based on trace back algorithm (TBA) and saves area and power by replacing

  4. The Distribution of Loop Lengths in Graphical Models for Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Padhraic

    1 The Distribution of Loop Lengths in Graphical Models for Turbo Decoding Xianping Ge, David model for a K = 6, N = 12, rate 1=2 turbo code. Abstract| This paper analyzes the distribution of loop lengths in graphical models for turbo decoding. The prop- erties of such loops are of signi#12;cant

  5. Performance of Turbo Coded WCDMA with Downlink Space Time Block Coding in Correlated Fading Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandayam, Narayan

    Performance of Turbo Coded WCDMA with Downlink Space Time Block Coding in Correlated Fading due to potential high data rate applications such as wireless internet access. Turbo codes. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of turbo coded WCDMA systems with downlink transmit diversity

  6. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, TO APPEAR 1 Soft-Decision COVQ for Turbo-Coded AWGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Tamás

    IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, TO APPEAR 1 Soft-Decision COVQ for Turbo-Coded AWGN and Rayleigh-decision channel-optimized vec- tor quantization (COVQ) scheme for Turbo-coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading chan- nels is proposed. The log likelihood ratio (LLR) gener- ated by the Turbo decoder

  7. Unified Convolutional/Turbo Decoder Architecture Design Based on Triple-Mode MAP/VA Kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    Unified Convolutional/Turbo Decoder Architecture Design Based on Triple-Mode MAP/VA Kernel Fan convolutional/ turbo decoder design. According to the triple-mode MAP/VA timing chart and by merging some similar modules in both the Viterbi decoder and the log-MAP turbo code decoder, we build one unified

  8. Stochastic decoding of Turbo Codes Quang Trung DONG, Matthieu ARZEL*, Christophe JEGO and Warren J. GROSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Stochastic decoding of Turbo Codes Quang Trung DONG, Matthieu ARZEL*, Christophe JEGO and Warren the application of the stochastic decoding approach to the families of convolutional codes and turbo codes. It demonstrates that stochastic compu- tation is a promising solution to improve the data throughput of turbo

  9. 754 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Turbo-SPC Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ping, Li

    754 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 49, NO. 5, MAY 2001 Turbo-SPC Codes Li Ping, Member, IEEE Abstract--This letter is concerned with a family of modified turbo-type codes, referred to as turbo-SPC (single parity check) codes. A technique based on the SPC code is introduced to re- place

  10. Butterfly and Benes-Based on-Chip Communication Networks for Multiprocessor Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, Olivier

    Butterfly and Benes-Based on-Chip Communication Networks for Multiprocessor Turbo Decoding Hazem interconnection networks as on-chip communication networks for parallel turbo decoding. Adapted Benes for all turbo code standards and constitutes a promising feature for their reuse for any similar

  11. Reed-Solomon Turbo Product Codes for Optical Communications: From Code Optimization to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Reed-Solomon Turbo Product Codes for Optical Communications: From Code Optimization to Decoder Design Rapha¨el Le Bidan, Camille Leroux, Christophe J´ego, Patrick Adde, Ramesh Pyndiah Abstract--Turbo. In this paper, we investi- gate the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) turbo product codes for 40 Gb/s transmission over

  12. Designing and Mapping of a Turbo Decoder for 3G Mobile Systems Using Dynamically Reconfigurable Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Starzyk, Janusz A.

    Designing and Mapping of a Turbo Decoder for 3G Mobile Systems Using Dynamically Reconfigurable University, USA {imding|alsolaim|starzyk}@bobcat.ent.ohiou.edu Abstract Turbo codes enable high quality communication links by offering exceptional error correction capabilities. Turbo coding is proposed

  13. Turbo Codes for Binary Markov Sources 1 Guang-Chong Zhu and Fady Alajaji

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Tamás

    Turbo Codes for Binary Markov Sources 1 Guang-Chong Zhu and Fady Alajaji Dept. of Mathematics@mast.queensu.ca Abstract | The reliable transmission via Turbo codes of binary stationary ergodic Markov sources over noisy channels is investigated. The #12;rst con- stituent Turbo decoder is designed to exploit the source

  14. A Union Bound Approximation for Rapid Performance Evaluation of Punctured Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    A Union Bound Approximation for Rapid Performance Evaluation of Punctured Turbo Codes Ioannis a simple technique to approximate the performance union bound of a punctured turbo code. The bound to calculate the most significant terms of the transfer function of a turbo encoder. We demonstrate that

  15. Improved Upper Bounds on the ML Decoding Error Probability of Parallel and Serial Concatenated Turbo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sason, Igal

    Turbo Codes via their Ensemble Distance Spectrum Igal Sason and Shlomo Shamai (Shitz) Department The ensemble performance of parallel and serial concatenated turbo codes is considered, where the ensemble enumeration functions of the ensembles of random parallel and serial concatenated turbo codes,the tangential

  16. Bounds on the Error Probability of ML Decoding for Block and Turbo-Block Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sason, Igal

    Bounds on the Error Probability of ML Decoding for Block and Turbo-Block Codes Igal Sason 32000, Israel March 1999 Abstract The performance of either structured or random turbo-block codes on the other. We focus here on uniformly interleaved and parallel concatenated turbo-Hamming codes

  17. A New Technique To Determine The Upper Threshold for Finite Length Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaturvedi, A K

    A New Technique To Determine The Upper Threshold for Finite Length Turbo Codes A.Rajeshand A in finite frame length turbo codes. These thresholds depend on the component encoder as well as the frame to indecisive and unequivocal fixed points respectively, for finiteframe length turbo codes. Concurrently, Gamal

  18. Layered Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalization for Single Carrier Broadband MIMO Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yahong Rosa

    Layered Frequency-Domain Turbo Equalization for Single Carrier Broadband MIMO Systems Jian Zhang 72701, USA Abstract-- A new layered frequency-domain turbo equalization (LFDTE) scheme is proposed the respective advantages of layered detection and turbo equalization to further lower the bit error rate (BER

  19. Turbo Codes are Low Density Parity Check Codes David J. C. MacKay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    Turbo Codes are Low Density Parity Check Codes David J. C. MacKay July 8, 1998--- Draft 0.2, not for distribution! (First draft written July 5, 1998) Abstract Turbo codes and Gallager codes (also known as low note that the parity check matrix of a Turbo code can be written as low density parity check matrix

  20. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 6, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2002 503 Channel Reliability Estimation for Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae Hong

    for Turbo Decoding in Rayleigh Fading Channels With Imperfect Channel Estimates Hyundong Shin, Student scheme of the channel reliability factor for turbo decoding in Rayleigh fading channels with imperfect channel estimates. The channel re- liability factor is required for iterative MAP decoding of turbo codes

  1. High Speed Max-Log-MAP Turbo SISO Decoder Implementation Using Branch Metric Normalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arslan, Tughrul

    High Speed Max-Log-MAP Turbo SISO Decoder Implementation Using Branch Metric Normalization J. H.Erdogan@ee.ed.ac.uk, Tughrul.Arslan@ee.ed.ac.uk Abstract The authors present a turbo soft-in soft-out (SISO) decoder based. The turbo decoder with the proposed technique has been synthesized to evaluate its power consumption

  2. CONCATENATED CODES BASED ON MULTIDIMENSIONAL PARITY-CHECK CODES AND TURBO CODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Tan F.

    CONCATENATED CODES BASED ON MULTIDIMENSIONAL PARITY-CHECK CODES AND TURBO CODES John M. Shea, Florida Abstract--Turbo-codes provide communications near capac- ity when very large interleavers (and parity-check code can be used as an outer code with a turbo code as an inner code in a serial

  3. ASIP-Based Multiprocessor SoC Design for Simple and Double Binary Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, Olivier

    ASIP-Based Multiprocessor SoC Design for Simple and Double Binary Turbo Decoding Olivier Muller presents a new multiprocessor platform for high throughput turbo decoding. The proposed platform is based the recent shuffling technique introduced in the turbo-decoding field to reduce communication latency

  4. TDA Progress Report 42-122 August 15, 1995 Weight Distributions for Turbo Codes Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tiffany Jing

    TDA Progress Report 42-122 August 15, 1995 Weight Distributions for Turbo Codes Using Random takes a preliminary look at the weight distributions achievable for turbo codes using random, nonrandom to being foiled by higher-weight inputs. I. Introduction Turbo codes are constructed by applying two

  5. Decoding Turbo-Like Codes via Linear Programming Jon Feldman David R. Karger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoding Turbo-Like Codes via Linear Programming Jon Feldman David R. Karger MIT Laboratory algorithm for decoding turbo-like codes based on linear programming. We prove that for the case of Repeat is the path corresponding to the original transmitted code word. 1 Introduction The introduction of turbo

  6. EXIT Chart Analysis of Turbo-BLAST Receivers in Rayleigh Fading Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Huaiyu

    EXIT Chart Analysis of Turbo-BLAST Receivers in Rayleigh Fading Channels Wenjun Li and Huaiyu Dai: Wli5@ncsu.edu, Huaiyu Dai@ncsu.edu Abstract-- Turbo-BLAST is an advanced space-time layered with Turbo-BLAST to combat the co-channel interference (CCI) and significantly improve the performance

  7. High-Throughput Contention-Free Concurrent Interleaver Architecture for Multi-Standard Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    High-Throughput Contention-Free Concurrent Interleaver Architecture for Multi-Standard Turbo paral- lel turbo decoder architectures have been developed. However, the interleaver has become a major that can efficiently solve the memory conflict problem for parallel turbo decoders with very high

  8. Turbo-SMT: Accelerating Coupled Sparse Matrix-Tensor Factorizations by 200x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbo-SMT: Accelerating Coupled Sparse Matrix-Tensor Factorizations by 200x Evangelos E maintaining good accuracy? We intro- duce Turbo-SMT, a meta-method capable of doing exactly that: it boosts, with comparable accuracy to the baseline. We apply Turbo-SMT to BrainQ, a dataset consisting of a (nouns, brain

  9. Turbo Pump Magnetic Shielding Analysis NSTX-CALC-24-04-00

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    NSTX Turbo Pump Magnetic Shielding Analysis NSTX-CALC-24-04-00 March 16, 2011 Prepared By turbo pump to reduce the fringe field from NSTX coils at the pump location to below 50 gauss to be at least 12 inches longer than the pump (6 inches above the top and below the bottom of the turbo pump

  10. ITW2003, Paris, France, March 31 April 4, 2003 Punctured Turbo Code Ensembles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljanin, Emina

    ITW2003, Paris, France, March 31 ­ April 4, 2003 Punctured Turbo Code Ensembles Ruoheng Liu the asymptotic performance of punctured turbo codes. The analysis is based on the union bound on the word error probability of maximum likelihood decoding for a punctured turbo code ensem- bles averaged over all possible

  11. IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE SPRING, 2003 1 Space-Time Block Coding applied to Turbo Coded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE SPRING, 2003 1 Space-Time Block Coding applied to Turbo Coded and a Turbo Code (TC) as channel code. MC-CDMA is likely to be one of the most promising access technique. Then, since Turbo Coded MC-CDMA was demonstrated to be very efficient for a Single Input Single Output

  12. The Augmented State Diagram and its Application to Convolutional and Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1 The Augmented State Diagram and its Application to Convolutional and Turbo Codes Ioannis Abstract Convolutional block codes, which are commonly used as constituent codes in turbo code configu code. In the case of a turbo code, we can readily calculate an upper bound to its bit error rate

  13. Parallel Interleaver Architecture with New Scheduling Scheme for High Throughput Configurable Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    Parallel Interleaver Architecture with New Scheduling Scheme for High Throughput Configurable Turbo}@rice.edu, yuanbinguo@huawei.com Abstract--Parallel architecture is required for high throughput turbo decoder to meet also shows great flexibility and scalability compared to prior work. Index Terms--VLSI, turbo decoder

  14. Priberam: A Turbo Semantic Parser with Second Order Features Andre F. T. Martins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Robert F.

    Priberam: A Turbo Semantic Parser with Second Order Features Andr´e F. T. Martins Mariana S. C a recently pro- posed dependency parser, TurboParser (Martins et al., 2010, 2013), to be able to perform). The result is TurboSemanticParser, which we re- lease as open-source software.1 We describe here a second

  15. Highly Scalable On-the-Fly Interleaved Address Generation for UMTS/HSPA+ Parallel Turbo Decoder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    Highly Scalable On-the-Fly Interleaved Address Generation for UMTS/HSPA+ Parallel Turbo Decoder@huawei.com Abstract-- High throughput parallel interleaver design is a major challenge in designing parallel turbo the silicon area and frequency is improved compared to recent related works. Keywords--Turbo decoder

  16. The Minimum Distance of Turbo-Like Codes Louay Bazzi, Mohammad Mahdian, Daniel A. Spielman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spielman, Daniel A.

    1 The Minimum Distance of Turbo-Like Codes Louay Bazzi, Mohammad Mahdian, Daniel A. Spielman Abstract--Worst-case upper bounds are derived on the minimum distance of parallel concatenated Turbo codes that parallel-concatenated Turbo codes and repeat-convolute codes with sub-linear memory are asymptotically bad

  17. 174 IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 Modified LMMSE Turbo Equalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ping, Li

    174 IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 8, NO. 3, MARCH 2004 Modified LMMSE Turbo Equalization Sen a modified linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) turbo equalization scheme that uses an augmented real retaining a complexity similar to that of the existing LMMSE turbo equalization scheme. Index Terms

  18. Linear Equalizers for Turbo Equalization A New Optimization Criterion for Determining the Equalizer Taps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphaeli, Dan

    Linear Equalizers for Turbo Equalization A New Optimization Criterion for Determining the Equalizer: This paper investigates the subject of turbo equalizations in which a receiver combines the equalization for parallel-concatenated turbo code with BPSK modulation over channels that introduce severe amplitude

  19. Robust Turbo Equalization Under Channel Uncertainties Nargiz Kalantarova, Suleyman S. Kozat and Alper T. Erdogan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdogan, Alper Tunga

    Robust Turbo Equalization Under Channel Uncertainties Nargiz Kalantarova, Suleyman S. Kozat and Alper T. Erdogan Koc University, Istanbul, 34450, Turkey Abstract-- Robust turbo equalization over is investigated. The turbo equal- ization framework proposed in this paper contains a linear equalizer (LE

  20. On the higher ef ciency of parallel Reed-Solomon turbo-decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On the higher ef ciency of parallel Reed-Solomon turbo-decoding Camille LEROUX, Christophe JEGO.lastname@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract-- In this paper, we demonstrate the higher hardware ef ciency of Reed-Solomon (RS) parallel turbo decoding compared with BCH parallel turbo decoding. Based on an innovative ar- chitecture, this is the rst

  1. SWITCHING LMS LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Andrew C. Singer, and Naresh R. Shanbhag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    SWITCHING LMS LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Andrew C. Singer, and Naresh R. Shanbhag-Champaign 1308 West Main Street, Urbana, IL 61801 Email: [slee6,acsinger,shanbhag]@uiuc.edu ABSTRACT Turbo symbol for each iteration. In this paper, we consider a class of turbo equal- ization algorithms in which

  2. Turbo Receiver Design for Phase Noise Mitigation in OFDM Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridharan, Gokul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper addresses the issue of phase noise in OFDM systems. Phase noise (PHN) is a transceiver impairment resulting from the non-idealities of the local oscillator. We present a case for designing a turbo receiver for systems corrupted by phase noise by taking a closer look at the effects of the common phase error (CPE). Using an approximate probabilistic framework called variational inference (VI), we develop a soft-in soft-out (SISO) algorithm that generates posterior bit-level soft estimates while taking into account the effect of phase noise. The algorithm also provides an estimate of the phase noise sequence. Using this SISO algorithm, a turbo receiver is designed by passing soft information between the SISO detector and an outer forward error correcting (FEC) decoder that uses a soft decoding algorithm. It is shown that the turbo receiver achieves close to optimal performance.

  3. Low Complexity Turbo-Equalization: A Clustering Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kyeongyeon; Kozat, Suleyman S; Singer, Andrew C

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a low complexity approach to iterative equalization and decoding, or "turbo equalization", that uses clustered models to better match the nonlinear relationship that exists between likelihood information from a channel decoder and the symbol estimates that arise in soft-input channel equalization. The introduced clustered turbo equalizer uses piecewise linear models to capture the nonlinear dependency of the linear minimum mean square error (MMSE) symbol estimate on the symbol likelihoods produced by the channel decoder and maintains a computational complexity that is only linear in the channel memory. By partitioning the space of likelihood information from the decoder, based on either hard or soft clustering, and using locally-linear adaptive equalizers within each clustered region, the performance gap between the linear MMSE equalizer and low-complexity, LMS-based linear turbo equalizers can be dramatically narrowed.

  4. Soft-Decision-Driven Channel Estimation for Pipelined Turbo Receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Daejung

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider channel estimation specific to turbo equalization for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication. We develop a soft-decision-driven sequential algorithm geared to the pipelined turbo equalizer architecture operating on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols. One interesting feature of the pipelined turbo equalizer is that multiple soft-decisions become available at various processing stages. A tricky issue is that these multiple decisions from different pipeline stages have varying levels of reliability. This paper establishes an effective strategy for the channel estimator to track the target channel, while dealing with observation sets with different qualities. The resulting algorithm is basically a linear sequential estimation algorithm and, as such, is Kalman-based in nature. The main difference here, however, is that the proposed algorithm employs puncturing on observation samples to effectively deal with the inherent correlation among the multiple demappe...

  5. Designing Nonlinear Turbo Codes with a Target Ones Density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jiadong; Chen, Tsung-Yi; Xie, Bike; Wesel, Richard

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain binary asymmetric channels, such as Z-channels in which one of the two crossover probabilities is zero, demand optimal ones densities different from 50%. Some broadcast channels, such as broadcast binary symmetric channels (BBSC) where each component channel is a binary symmetric channel, also require a non-uniform input distribution due to the superposition coding scheme, which is known to achieve the boundary of capacity region. This paper presents a systematic technique for designing nonlinear turbo codes that are able to support ones densities different from 50%. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our design technique, we design and simulate nonlinear turbo codes for the Z-channel and the BBSC. The best nonlinear turbo code is less than 0.02 bits from capacity.

  6. 2490 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 50, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2004 Performance Analysis of Turbo-SPC Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ping, Li

    of Turbo-SPC Codes Keying Wu, Student Member, IEEE, Li Ping, Member, IEEE, Xiaoling Huang, and Nam Phamdo, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--This correspondence concerns the performance analysis of turbo used in turbo-SPC codes is discussed. It is shown that simple two- or four-state turbo-SPC codes

  7. EXIT Charts for Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation Hangjun Chen, Student Member, IEEE, and Alexander Haimovich, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haimovich, Alexander

    EXIT Charts for Turbo Trellis Coded Modulation Hangjun Chen, Student Member, IEEE, and Alexander information transfer charts (EXIT) method to the analysis of the convergence of turbo codes to turbo trellis can be used as a tool in the design of TTCM. Index Terms-- Turbo trellis coded modulation, convergence

  8. The minimum distance of classical and quantum turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbara, Mamdouh

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum stabilizer turbo-encoders with unbounded minimum distance. This theory is presented under a framework common to both classical and quantum turbo-encoding theory. The main conditions to have an unbounded minimum distance are that the inner seed encoder has to be recursive, and either systematic or with a totally recursive truncated decoder. This last condition has been introduced in order to obtain a theory viable in the quantum stabilizer case, since it was known that in this case the inner seed encoder could not be recursive and systematic in the same time.

  9. Precoded Turbo Equalizer for Power Line Communication Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Kai; Li,

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power line communication continues to draw increasing interest by promising a wide range of applications including cost-free last-mile communication solution. However, signal transmitted through the power lines deteriorates badly due to the presence of severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) and harsh random pulse noise. This work proposes a new precoded turbo equalization scheme specifically designed for the PLC channels. By introducing useful precoding to reshape ISI, optimizing maximum {\\it a posteriori} (MAP) detection to address the non-Gaussian pulse noise, and performing soft iterative decision refinement, the new equalizer demonstrates a gain significantly better than the existing turbo equalizers.

  10. The minimum distance of classical and quantum turbo-codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mamdouh Abbara; Jean-Pierre Tillich

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theory of quantum stabilizer turbo-encoders with unbounded minimum distance. This theory is presented under a framework common to both classical and quantum turbo-encoding theory. The main conditions to have an unbounded minimum distance are that the inner seed encoder has to be recursive, and either systematic or with a totally recursive truncated decoder. This last condition has been introduced in order to obtain a theory viable in the quantum stabilizer case, since it was known that in this case the inner seed encoder could not be recursive and systematic in the same time.

  11. Power Control for Turbo Coded Symmetrical Collaborative Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Power Control for Turbo Coded Symmetrical Collaborative Networks Weisi Guo1, Ioannis Chatzigeorgiou, we explore the performance of adaptive power control for decode-and-forward (DF) col- laborative. We conclude that power control can greatly benefit a DF collaborative network in a block fading

  12. Improving Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operation with Turbo Power Assist System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Improving Turbocharged Diesel Engine Operation with Turbo Power Assist System I. Kolmanovsky A. G Engineering, UC, Santa Barbara Abstract The paper investigates improvements in the tur- bocharged diesel problem. Comparison with a conventional turbocharged diesel engine reveals the mechanism by which

  13. Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct-Injection Flex-Fuel Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Modeling the Effect of Fuel Ethanol Concentration on Cylinder Pressure Evolution in Direct the fuel vaporization pro- cess for ethanol-gasoline fuel blends and the associated charge cooling effect from both measured and modeled cylinder pressure exhibit a monotonic correlation with the fuel ethanol

  14. ALERTEES PAR LA MORT CELLULAIRE, NOS DEFENSES ANTIVIRALES METTENT LE TURBO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loewith, Robbie

    MORT CELLULAIRE, NOS DEFENSES ANTIVIRALES METTENT LE TURBO Genève, le 9 février 2012 SOUS EMBARGO JUSQU

  15. Iterative Decoding and Turbo Equalization: The Z-Crease Phenomenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Li; Kai Xie

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Iterative probabilistic inference, popularly dubbed the soft-iterative paradigm, has found great use in a wide range of communication applications, including turbo decoding and turbo equalization. The classic approach of analyzing the iterative approach inevitably use the statistical and information-theoretical tools that bear ensemble-average flavors. This paper consider the per-block error rate performance, and analyzes it using nonlinear dynamical theory. By modeling the iterative processor as a nonlinear dynamical system, we report a universal "Z-crease phenomenon:" the zig-zag or up-and-down fluctuation -- rather than the monotonic decrease -- of the per-block errors, as the number of iteration increases. Using the turbo decoder as an example, we also report several interesting motion phenomenons which were not previously reported, and which appear to correspond well with the notion of "pseudo codewords" and "stopping/trapping sets." We further propose a heuristic stopping criterion to control Z-crease and identify the best iteration. Our stopping criterion is most useful for controlling the worst-case per-block errors, and helps to significantly reduce the average-iteration numbers.

  16. Sub-femtosecond electron bunches created by direct laser acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator with ionization injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemos, N; Marsh, K A; Joshi, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we will show through three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that direct laser acceleration in laser a wakefield accelerator can generate sub-femtosecond electron bunches. Two simulations were done with two laser pulse durations, such that the shortest laser pulse occupies only a fraction of the first bubble, whereas the longer pulse fills the entire first bubble. In the latter case, as the trapped electrons moved forward and interacted with the high intensity region of the laser pulse, micro-bunching occurred naturally, producing 0.5 fs electron bunches. This is not observed in the short pulse simulation.

  17. Detection of renal ischemic lesions using Gd-DTPA enhanced turbo FLASH MRI: Experimental and clinical results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vosshenrich, R.; Fischer, U.; Funke, M.; Kopka, L.; Grabbe, E. [Univ. of Goettingen (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); and others

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal was to investigate the role of Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI in the evaluation of renal ischemic lesions. With a turbo FLASH sequence before and after injection of Gd-DTPA, nine foxhound dogs after 60-120 min of renal ischemia underwent MR examination. In addition, five patients with a tumor in a solitary kidney were examined before and after nephron-sparing renal surgery to evaluate renal perfusion and function. The experimental and clinical findings were correlated with conventional measurements of kidney function and with histological findings. Complete renal ischemia leads to a poor corticomedullary differentiation in Gd-DTPA-enhanced turbo FLASH MRI. The signal-intensity-versus-time plots of kidneys with significant postischemic changes show a less steep increase of signal intensity in the cortex and a steeper increase of signal intensity in the medulla than those of normal kidneys. Dynamic MRI demonstrate renal morphology and reflect the functional status of the renal vasculature. 21 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Die MAN Diesel & Turbo sucht am Standort Augsburg fr den Bereich Strategie/Unternehmensentwicklung zum frhestmglichen Eintrittstermin eine/n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stein, Oliver

    Die MAN Diesel & Turbo sucht am Standort Augsburg fr den Bereich Strategie Projekte. Als Stabsfunktion berichtet die Abteilung direkt an den Vorstand von MAN Diesel & Turbo SE. Wir Diesel & Turbo ist weltweit fhrender Anbieter von Grodieselmotoren und Turbomaschinen fr maritime und

  19. SWITCHING METHODS FOR LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Naresh R. Shanbhag, and Andrew C. Singer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    SWITCHING METHODS FOR LINEAR TURBO EQUALIZATION Seok-Jun Lee, Naresh R. Shanbhag, and Andrew C,acsinger]@uiuc.edu ABSTRACT In this paper, several switching methods are presented for a class of switching turbo equalization the best bit error rate (1.5dB processing gain at 10-4 ) with low complexity. 1. INTRODUCTION The turbo

  20. Interleaver Design for Turbo Codes H. R. Sadjadpour, N. J. A. Sloane, M. Salehi, and G. Nebe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane, Neil J. A.

    1 Interleaver Design for Turbo Codes H. R. Sadjadpour, N. J. A. Sloane, M. Salehi, and G. Nebe H DRAFT #12; 2 Abstract The performance of a Turbo code with short block length depends critically corresponding to its parity bits. This paper describes a new interleaver design for Turbo codes with short block

  1. 2570 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 58, NO. 5, MAY 2012 The Performance of Serial Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Como, Giacomo

    Turbo Codes Does Not Concentrate Federica Garin, Giacomo Como, and Fabio Fagnani Abstract--Minimum distances and maximum likelihood error probabilities of serial turbo codes with uniform interleaver are an, the minimum distance of se- rial turbo codes grows as a positive power of their block-length, while

  2. Performance of Turbo Product Codes on the Multiple-Access Relay Channel with Relatively Poor Source-Relay Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Performance of Turbo Product Codes on the Multiple-Access Relay Channel with Relatively Poor Source.amis}@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract--In this paper, we study a cooperative coding scheme based on turbo product codes where a number by the turbo decoder. The error performance under the degraded source-relay channel condition is shown

  3. 2212 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 46, NO. 6, SEPTEMBER 2000 The Super-Trellis Structure of Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdú, Sergio

    -Trellis Structure of Turbo Codes Marco Breiling, Student Member, IEEE, and Lajos Hanzo, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--In this contribution we derive the super-trellis structure of turbo codes. We show that this structure and its associated decoding com- plexity depend strongly on the interleaver applied in the turbo encoder. We provide

  4. IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 6, JUNE 2001 257 Soft-Decision COVQ for Turbo-Coded AWGN and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alajaji, Fady

    IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 5, NO. 6, JUNE 2001 257 Soft-Decision COVQ for Turbo-Coded AWGN-decision channel-optimized vector quantization (COVQ) scheme for Turbo-coded additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and Rayleigh fading channels is pro- posed. The log likelihood ratio (LLR) generated by the Turbo decoder

  5. 160 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 1998 Design and Analysis of Turbo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Stephen G.

    and Analysis of Turbo Codes on Rayleigh Fading Channels Eric K. Hall and Stephen G. Wilson, Member, IEEE Abstract--The performance and design of turbo codes using coherent BPSK signaling on the Rayleigh fading turbo coding systems. For higher signal- to-noise regions beyond simulation capabilities, an average

  6. 1932 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 On the Performance of Turbo Product Codes over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tiffany Jing

    1932 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 37, NO. 4, JULY 2001 On the Performance of Turbo Product. Georghiades Abstract--This paper evaluates the performance of single-parity check turbo product codes (TPC with PR4/EPR4 channels with proper precoding and with turbo equalization. Gains of 4.5 to 5 d

  7. IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 19, NO. 5, MAY 2001 831 Interleaver Design for Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadjadpour, Hamid

    for Turbo Codes Hamid R. Sadjadpour, Senior Member, IEEE, Neil J. A. Sloane, Fellow, IEEE, Masoud Salehi, and Gabriele Nebe Abstract--The performance of a Turbo code with short block length depends critically corresponding to its parity bits. This paper describes a new interleaver design for Turbo codes with short block

  8. Interleaver Design for Turbo Codes H. R. Sadjadpour, N. J. A. Sloane, M. Salehi, and G. Nebe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sloane, Neil J. A.

    1 Interleaver Design for Turbo Codes H. R. Sadjadpour, N. J. A. Sloane, M. Salehi, and G. Nebe H DRAFT #12;2 Abstract The performance of a Turbo code with short block length depends critically corresponding to its parity bits. This paper describes a new interleaver design for Turbo codes with short block

  9. 5506 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 55, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2007 On the New Stopping Criteria of Iterative Turbo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, Shih-Hao

    Criteria of Iterative Turbo Decoding by Using Decoding Threshold Fan-Min Li and An-Yeu (Andy) Wu, Member--Decoding threshold, early termination (ET), extrinsic information transform (EXIT) chart, iterative decoding, turbo codes, turbo principle. I. INTRODUCTION IN 1993, a new class of forward-error-correction (FEC) code

  10. 1776 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 18, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2000 BER Performance of Turbo-Coded PPM CDMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, Joseph M.

    1776 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 18, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2000 BER Performance of Turbo Abstract--We obtain upper bounds on the bit error rate (BER) for turbo-coded optical code-division multiple noise, and multi-user interference using a Gaussian approximation. We compare the performance of turbo

  11. 1 Copyright 2009 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    1 Copyright 2009 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea, and Air GT2009,4,5] ingested. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea and Air GT2009 June 8-12, 2009, Orlando, Florida, USA GT2009-60199 #12;2 Copyright 2009 by ASME While there are many particle separation methods

  12. Can Punctured Rate-1/2 Turbo Codes Achieve a Lower Error Floor than their Rate-1/3 Parent Codes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Can Punctured Rate-1/2 Turbo Codes Achieve a Lower Error Floor than their Rate-1/3 Parent Codes of punctured parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCCs), also known as punctured turbo codes, has also/3 turbo code results in better high-rate turbo codes, in terms of BEP performance, than puncturing only

  13. Wilson TurboPower | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's picture SubmittedWielandJump to:

  14. TurboTech Precision Engineering Private Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (UtilityTri-StateTucsonTurboTech Precision Engineering

  15. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Where We Are Directions The Bradbury Science Museum is located at 1350 Central Avenue Los Alamos, NM 87544 Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the...

  16. Modeling the effects of EGR and injection pressure on soot formation in a High-Speed Direct-Injection (HSDI) diesel engine using a multi-step phenomenological soot model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitz, Rolf D. (University of Wisconsin); Choi, Dae; Liu, Yi. (University of Wisconsin); RempleEwert, Bret H. (University of Wisconsin); Foster, David. (University of Wisconsin); Miles, Paul; Tao, Feng (University of Wisconsin)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-temperature combustion concepts that utilize cooled EGR, early/retarded injection, high swirl ratios, and modest compression ratios have recently received considerable attention. To understand the combustion and, in particular, the soot formation process under these operating conditions, a modeling study was carried out using the KIVA-3V code with an improved phenomenological soot model. This multi-step soot model includes particle inception, surface growth, surface oxidation, and particle coagulation. Additional models include a piston-ring crevice model, the KH/RT spray breakup model, a droplet wall impingement model, a wall heat transfer model, and the RNG k-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The Shell model was used to simulate the ignition process, and a laminar-and-turbulent characteristic time combustion model was used for the post-ignition combustion process. A low-load (IMEP=3 bar) operating condition was considered and the predicted in-cylinder pressures and heat release rates were compared with measurements. Predicted soot mass, soot particle size, soot number density distributions and other relevant quantities are presented and discussed. The effects of variable EGR rate (0-68%), injection pressure (600-1200 bar), and injection timing were studied. The predictions demonstrate that both EGR and retarded injection are beneficial for reducing NO{sub x} emissions, although the former has a more pronounced effect. Additionally, higher soot emissions are typically predicted for the higher EGR rates. However, when the EGR rate exceeds a critical value (over 65% in this study), the soot emissions decrease. Reduced soot emissions are also predicted when higher injection pressures or retarded injection timings are employed. The reduction in soot with retarded injection is less than what is observed experimentally, however.

  17. Pseudocodewords of Linear Programming Decoding of 3-Dimensional Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosnes, Eirik; Amat, Alexandre Graell i

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we consider pseudocodewords of (relaxed) linear programming (LP) decoding of 3-dimensional turbo codes (3D-TCs), recently introduced by Berrou et al.. Here, we consider binary 3D-TCs while the original work of Berrou et al. considered double-binary codes. We present a relaxed LP decoder for 3D-TCs, which is an adaptation of the relaxed LP decoder for conventional turbo codes proposed by Feldman in his thesis. The vertices of this relaxed polytope are the pseudocodewords. We show that the support set of any pseudocodeword is a stopping set of iterative decoding of 3D-TCs using maximum a posteriori constituent decoders on the binary erasure channel. Furthermore, we present a numerical study of small block length 3D-TCs, which shows that typically the minimum pseudoweight (on the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel) is smaller than both the minimum distance and the stopping distance. In particular, we performed an exhaustive search over all interleaver pairs in the 3D-TC based on quadratic...

  18. 1 Evaluation of the Intel Core i7 Turbo Boost feature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Charles; Preet Jassi; Ananth Narayan S; Abbas Sadat; Ra Fedorova

    AbstractThe Intel Core i7 processor code named Nehalem has a novel feature called Turbo Boost which dynamically varies the frequencies of the processors cores. The frequency of a core is determined by core temperature, the number of active cores, the estimated power and the estimated current consumption. We perform an extensive analysis of the Turbo Boost technology to characterize its behavior in varying workload conditions. In particular, we analyze how the activation of Turbo Boost is affected by inherent properties of applications (i.e., their rate of memory accesses) and by the overall load imposed on the processor. Furthermore, we analyze the capability of Turbo Boost to mitigate Amdahls law by accelerating sequential phases of parallel applications. Finally, we estimate the impact of the Turbo Boost technology on the overall energy consumption. We found that Turbo Boost can provide (on average) up to a 6% reduction in execution time but can result in an increase in energy consumption up to 16%. Our results also indicate that Turbo Boost sets the processor to operate at maximum frequency (where it has the potential to provide the maximum gain in performance) when the mapping of threads to hardware contexts is sub-optimal. I.

  19. Cooling system of an internal combustion engine having a turbo-charger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, M.; Fukuda, T.

    1986-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooling system of an internal combustion engine is described having a turbo-charger, comprising a cooling water circulation passageway filled with cooling water for cooling the engine including at least a cylinder head cooling portion, a cooling water circulation passageway for cooling the turbo-charger including a turbo-charger cooling portion, and means for supplying a part of the engine cooling water to the turbo-charger cooling water ciruclation passageway and returning it from there to the engine cooling water cirulation passageway, characterized in that the turbo-charger cooling portion is positioned at the same level or higher than the cylinder head cooling portion of the engine, the turbo-charger cooling water circulation passageway includes a water volume positioned at a level higher than the turbo-charger cooling portion. The volume is connected to a cooling water reservoir tank via a pressure relief valve which is opened when pressure in the volume exceeds a predetermined value to supply cooling water to the volume.

  20. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  1. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an Aircraft Turbo Diesel Engine using JET-A Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Sean Christopher

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance and emission data was acquired by testing an aircraft turbo diesel engine with JET-A at the Mal Harned Propulsion Laboratory of the University of Kansas. The performance data was analyzed and compared to the presented data...

  2. Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Retrofit and Testing of a Pre-Turbo, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst on a Tier 0, SD60M Freight Locomotive Achieving Over 50% PM Reduction Don Newburry Research & Development Manager...

  3. Analysis of cubic permutation polynomials for turbo codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trifina, Lucian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quadratic permutation polynomials (QPPs) have been widely studied and used as interleavers in turbo codes. However, less attention has been given to cubic permutation polynomials (CPPs). This paper proves a theorem which states sufficient and necessary conditions for a cubic permutation polynomial to be a null permutation polynomial. The result is used to reduce the search complexity of CPP interleavers for short lengths (multiples of 8, between 40 and 256), by improving the distance spectrum over the set of polynomials with the largest spreading factor. The comparison with QPP interleavers is made in terms of search complexity and upper bounds of the bit error rate (BER) and frame error rate (FER) for AWGN channel. Cubic permutation polynomials leading to better performance than quadratic permutation polynomials are found for some lengths.

  4. A Survey on Space-Time Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshaiah, C V

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As wireless communication systems look intently to compose the transition from voice communication to interactive Internet data, achieving higher bit rates becomes both increasingly desirable and challenging. Space-time coding (STC) is a communications technique for wireless systems that inhabit multiple transmit antennas and single or multiple receive antennas. Space-time codes make use of advantage of both the spatial diversity provided by multiple antennas and the temporal diversity available with time-varying fading. Space-time codes can be divided into block codes and trellis codes. Space-time trellis coding merges signal processing at the receiver with coding techniques appropriate to multiple transmit antennas. The advantages of space-time codes (STC) make it extremely remarkable for high-rate wireless applications. Initial STC research efforts focused on narrowband flat-fading channels. The decoding complexity of Space-time turbo codes STTC increases exponentially as a function of the diversity level ...

  5. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  6. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac ChargeDiracDirect

  7. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Briggs, Thomas E [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery, turbocharging or turbo-compounding, and exhaust aftertreatment.

  8. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Soo-Yong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ReCAPT), Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Cho, Chong-Hyun [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Kim, Chaesil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  9. 1238 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 52, NO. 8, AUGUST 2004 An Improved Two-State Turbo-SPC Code for Wireless Communication Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ping, Li

    1238 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 52, NO. 8, AUGUST 2004 An Improved Two-State Turbo-SPC as special two-state turbo single-parity-check (SPC) codes [4]. For rates and nearly all code lengths, CT been devised in [5] based on Hadamard codes. The problem can also be treated using turbo-SPC codes [4

  10. HSPA+/LTE-A Turbo Decoder on GPU and Multicore CPU Michael Wu, Guohui Wang, Bei Yin, Christoph Studer, and Joseph R. Cavallaro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    HSPA+/LTE-A Turbo Decoder on GPU and Multicore CPU Michael Wu, Guohui Wang, Bei Yin, Christoph implementations of re- configurable and high-throughput turbo decoders. The first implementation is optimized Bridge processor. Both implementations support max-log-MAP and log-MAP turbo decoding algorithms, various

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 52, NO. 4, APRIL 2006 1739 [11] S. N. Crozier, "New high-spread high-distance interleavers for turbo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    No, Jong-Seon

    high-spread high-distance interleavers for turbo- codes," in Proc. 20th Bienn. Symp. Communications-memory inter- leaver banks for turbo-codes," in Proc.54th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC'01), Atlantic City, NJ, Oct. 2001, pp. 2394­2398. [13] D. Divsalar and F. Pollara, "Turbo codes for PCS applications

  12. From Awareness to TeamRooms, GroupWeb and TurboTurtle: Eight Snapshots of Recent Work in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Saul

    From Awareness to TeamRooms, GroupWeb and TurboTurtle: Eight Snapshots of Recent Work in the Group. and Cockburn, A. (1995) From Awareness to TeamRooms, GroupWeb and TurboTurtle: Eight Snapshots of Recent Work in the GroupLab Project. Research Report 95/580/32, Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary

  13. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air GT2010 June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow by simula- tions with the PREMIX code using the detailed kinetic mecha- nism GRI-mech. 3.0. Numerical by ASME hal-00497963,version1-6Jul2010 Author manuscript, published in "ASME Turbo Expo 2010, United

  14. Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2010: Power for Land, Sea & Air June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, GB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2010: Power for Land, Sea & Air GT2010 June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, GB Author manuscript, published in "ASME TURBO EXPO 2010: Power for Land, Sea & Air (GT2010), Glasgow of the cavity h/b Re Rotational Reynolds number b2/ 1 Copyright c 2010 by ASME hal-00679123,version1-14Mar2012

  15. A Study on the Effectiveness of Turbo Equalization with FEC for Nonlinearity Compensation in Coherent WDM Transmissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takafumi Fujimori; Toshiaki Koike-akino; Takashi Sugihara

    We evaluate the performance improvement in the presence of fiber nonlinearity obtained using a Turbo equalizer. Numerical simulation shows that Turbo equalization offers an improvement of 0.8 dB in a 100 Gb/s NZ-DSF transmission, even with only 5 taps for the MAP estimation. I.

  16. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010 June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, Scotland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coal IGCC with CO2 capture. In the first, the syngas coolers are replaced by a "partial water quench" where the raw syngas stream is cooled and humidified via direct injection of hot water. This design is less costly, but also less efficient. The second approach retains syngas coolers but instead employs

  17. The Distribution of Loop Lengths in Graphical Models for Turbo Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Padhraic

    1 The Distribution of Loop Lengths in Graphical Models for Turbo Decoding Xianping Ge, David ¢¡£ ¢¡ ¡ ¤¡¥ ¢¡¦ ¢¡§ ¤¡¨ © £ © ¡ © ¥ © ¦ © § © ¨ £ £ £ ¡ £ ¥ £ ¦ £ § £ ¨ ¦ £ ¡ ¦ £ ¡ £ ¡ ¥ § ¨ £ ££ £ ¡ ¥ § ¨ £ ££ Fig. 1 The ADG model for a K = 6, N = 12, rate 1/2 turbo code. Abstract-- This paper analyzes the distribution of loop lengths in graphical models for turbo decoding. The prop- erties of such loops

  18. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection Systems Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Underground...

  19. AN IMPROVED SOFT FEEDBACK V-BLAST DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR TURBO-MIMO SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Andrew C

    AN IMPROVED SOFT FEEDBACK V-BLAST DETECTION TECHNIQUE FOR TURBO-MIMO SYSTEMS Jun Won Choi*, Andrew-demapper) and the channel decoder exchange soft (extrinsic) information to iteratively improve system perfor- mance. Hence In this paper, an improved minimum mean square error (MMSE) soft feedback detector, called the soft input, soft

  20. Joint Turbo Equalization and Channel Estimation with Fixed-Lag Extended Kalman Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Tan F.

    Joint Turbo Equalization and Channel Estimation with Fixed-Lag Extended Kalman Filtering Xin Li. In the receiver, a fixed-lag Kalman equalizer jointly estimates the channel and equalizes the data symbols channel estimators employing least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and Kalman filtering

  1. Frequency Domain Turbo Equalization for MIMO-CPSC Systems with Large Delay Spreads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chockalingam, A.

    Frequency Domain Turbo Equalization for MIMO-CPSC Systems with Large Delay Spreads Yogendra U characterized by large delay spreads. A low-complexity graph based equalization is carried out in the frequency domain. Because of the reduction in correlation among the noise samples that happens for large frame

  2. 1 Copyright 2011 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo Turbine Technical Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camci, Cengiz

    the melting point of blade material, efficient turbine cooling is most often required to ensure acceptable1 Copyright 2011 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo Turbine Technical Conference GT2011 June TRANSFER INVESTIGATION AROUND A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS TURBINE ROTOR BLADE Ibrahim ERYILMAZ Tusas Engine

  3. Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2002 International Gas Turbine & Aeroengine Congress & Exhibition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    Proceedings of ASME TURBO EXPO 2002 International Gas Turbine & Aeroengine Congress & Exhibition dynamics code using the proper orthogonal decomposition technique. This results in a low-order model to be a signifi- 1 Copyright 2002 by ASME #12;cant factor, increasing the vibratory stress levels by 70% over

  4. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004 2004 Power for Land, Sea, and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Gecheng

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004 2004 Power for Land, Sea, and Air Vienna, Austria, June 14 incidence cascade. The second order accuracy is obtained with the dual time stepping technique. The code is reached. However, the flutter exists in much 1 Copyright c 2004 by ASME #12;wider Mach number region

  5. TurboCap: A Batteryless, Supercapacitor-based Power Supply for Mini-FDPM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    TurboCap: A Batteryless, Supercapacitor-based Power Supply for Mini-FDPM Chulsung Park1 , KeunsikCap, a batteryless, supercapacitor-based power supply subsystem for a handheld, laser-based breast cancer detector on the selection of supercapacitor topology for conversion efficiency and for form- factor minimization

  6. Separation phenomena in the tritium source and numerical simulations of turbo-molecular pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharipov, Felix

    Separation phenomena in the tritium source and numerical simulations of turbo-molecular pumps Felix In the previous works [1, 2], the results of numerical calculations of tritium flow from the buffer vessel up to the first vacuum system were reported. Two values of the tritium source temperature were considered, i.e. 27

  7. INFLUENCES OF RAKE RECEIVER/TURBO DECODER PARAMETERS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    INFLUENCES OF RAKE RECEIVER/TURBO DECODER PARAMETERS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND QUALITY Lodewijk T are selected and their influences on the energy consumption and quality are investigated by means power hardware is needed to save energy consumption. Furthermore, an adequate quality of the wireless

  8. Fact #658: January 17, 2011 Increasing Use of Vehicle Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the market share of selected vehicle technologies (hybrid, cylinder deactivation, turbo, gasoline direct injection, and continuously variable transmission) from 2001 to 2010....

  9. BMW Diesel Engines - Dynamic, Efficient and Clean

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nrburgring 2001 - DI with 2nd generation Common Rail, 1600 bar 2004 - Variable Twin Turbo - Particulate filter 2nd generation 1999 - First V8 diesel with direct injection...

  10. Model-Based Transient Calibration Optimization for Next Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OUTPUTS Torque Emissions *HC *CO *NOx *CO2 *PM Exhaust Temperature Exhaust Pressure Turbo Speed Combustion Pressure Direct Injection Diesel Engine 2005 Detroit Diesel...

  11. Phase-locking of an InP/InGaP/InGaAs resonant tunneling diode relaxation oscillator by direct optical injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenstein, Gadi

    Phase-locking of an InP/InGaP/InGaAs resonant tunneling diode relaxation oscillator by direct relaxation oscillator is demonstrated. The diode is an Al-free InP/InGaP/InGaAs structure in the InP/InGaAs/InGaP aluminum-free material system, following the work of Cohen and Ritter [6

  12. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea and Air june 8-12, 2009, Orlando, Florida, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea and Air GT2009 june 8-12, 2009, Orlando are constructed with another finite element mesh which 1 Copyright c 2009 by ASME hal-0068

  13. doi:10.1155/2007/75757 Research Article Performance of JPEG Image Transmission Using Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ramasamy; Mohammad Umar Siddiqi; Mohamad Yusoff Alias; Recommended Richard; J. Barton

    This paper gives the results of a simulation study on the performance of JPEG image transmission over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels using typical and proposed asymmetric turbo codes for error control coding. The baseline JPEG algorithm is used to compress a QCIF (176 144) Suzie image. The recursive systematic convolutional (RSC) encoder with generator polynomials (1, D 3 +D 2 +1/D 3 + D + 1), that is, (13/11) in decimal, and 3G interleaver are used for the typical WCDMA and CDMA2000 turbo codes. The proposed asymmetric turbo code uses generator polynomials (1, D 3 +D 2 +1/D 3 +D+1;D 3 +D 2 +1/D 3 +1),that is, (13/11; 13/9) in decimal, and a code-matched interleaver. The effect of interleaver in the proposed asymmetric turbo code is studied using weight distribution and simulation. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code for the frame length N = 400, code rate r = 1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over AWGN channel are compared with the typical system. From the simulation results, it is observed that the image transmission using proposed asymmetric turbo code performs better than that with the typical system. Copyright 2007 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. All rights reserved. 1.

  14. Future EfficientDynamics with Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    fuel injection * DI2 lean stratified * Piezo injectors * High precision injection * Turbo * Twin turbo * Variable twin turbo * Downsizing * Gearbox efficiency * Gearbox...

  15. Further Results on Quadratic Permutation Polynomial-Based Interleavers for Turbo Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosnes, Eirik

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An interleaver is a critical component for the channel coding performance of turbo codes. Algebraic constructions are of particular interest because they admit analytical designs and simple, practical hardware implementation. Also, the recently proposed quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) based interleavers by Sun and Takeshita (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, Jan. 2005) provide excellent performance for short-to-medium block lengths, and have been selected for the 3GPP LTE standard. In this work, we derive some upper bounds on the best achievable minimum distance dmin of QPP-based conventional binary turbo codes (with tailbiting termination, or dual termination when the interleaver length N is sufficiently large) that are tight for larger block sizes. In particular, we show that the minimum distance is at most 2(2^{\

  16. EXIT-Chart Aided Near-Capacity Quantum Turbo Code Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zunaira Babar; Soon Xin Ng; Lajos Hanzo

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of Quantum Turbo Codes (QTCs) typically relies on the analysis of their distance spectra, followed by Monte-Carlo simulations. By contrast, in this paper we appropriately adapt the conventional non-binary EXtrinsic Information Transfer (EXIT) charts for quantum turbo codes by exploiting the intrinsic quantum-to-classical isomorphism. The EXIT chart analysis not only allows us to dispense with the time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations, but also facilitates the design of near-capacity codes without resorting to the analysis of their distance spectra. We have demonstrated that our EXIT chart predictions are in line with the Monte-Carlo simulations results. We have also optimized the entanglement-assisted QTC using EXIT charts, which outperforms the existing distance spectra based QTCs. More explicitly, the performance of our optimized QTC is as close as 0.3 dB to the corresponding hashing bound.

  17. DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT OF E-TURBO FOR SUV AND LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balis, C; Middlemass, C; Shahed, SM

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the project is to develop an electronically controlled, electrically assisted turbocharging system, e-Turbo, for application to SUV and light truck class of passenger vehicles. Earlier simulation work had shown the benefits of e-Turbo system on increasing low-end torque and improving fuel economy. This paper will present further data from the literature to show that advanced turbocharging can enable diesel engine downsizing of 10-30% with 6-17% improvement in fuel economy. This is in addition to the fuel economy benefit that a turbocharged diesel engine offers over conventional gasoline engines. E-Turbo is necessary to get acceptable driving characteristics with downsized diesel engines. As a first step towards the development of this technology for SUV/light truck sized diesel engines (4-6 litre displacement), design concepts and hardware were evaluated for a smaller engine (2 litre displacement). It was felt that design and developments issues could be minimized, the concept proven progressively on the bench, on a small engine and then applied to a large Vee engine (one on each bank). After successful demonstration of the concept, large turbomachinery could be designed and built specifically for larger SUV sized diesel engines. This paper presents the results of development of e-Turbo for a 2 litre diesel engine. A detailed comparison of several electric assist technologies including permanent magnet, six-phase induction and conventional induction motor/generator technology was done. A comparison of switched reluctance motor technology was also done although detailed design was not carried out.

  18. Performance Analyses of 38 kWe Turbo-Machine Unit for Space Reactor Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper developed a design and investigated the performance of 38 kWe turbo-machine unit for space nuclear reactor power systems with Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) energy conversion. The compressor and turbine of this unit are scaled versions of the NASA's BRU developed in the sixties and seventies. The performance results of turbo-machine unit are calculated for rotational speed up to 45 krpm, variable reactor thermal power and system pressure, and fixed turbine and compressor inlet temperatures of 1144 K and 400 K. The analyses used a detailed turbo-machine model developed at University of New Mexico that accounts for the various energy losses in the compressor and turbine and the effect of compressibility of the He-Xe (40 mole/g) working fluid with increased flow rate. The model also accounts for the changes in the physical and transport properties of the working fluid with temperature and pressure. Results show that a unit efficiency of 24.5% is achievable at rotation speed of 45 krpm and system pressure of 0.75 MPa, assuming shaft and electrical generator efficiencies of 86.7% and 90%. The corresponding net electric power output of the unit is 38.5 kWe, the flow rate of the working fluid is 1.667 kg/s, the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency for the compressor are 1.60 and 83.1%, and 1.51 and 88.3% for the turbine.

  19. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  20. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  1. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  2. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ace065weaver2012...

  3. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace065rinkevich2011...

  4. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Public * Continuing efforts for further CO 2 and PN reduction create a challenging environment for vehicles equipped with DI gasoline engines * Gasoline particulate filters...

  5. Joint Turbo Channel Detection and RLL Decoding for (1, 7) Coded Partial Response Recording Channels Zhao Fang IBM Global Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Mathew; B. Farhang-boroujeny

    Abstract Runlength limited (RLL) codes are essential in recording systems for minimizing distortions and maintaining bit synchronization. In this paper, we investigate the application of turbo codes on RLL (1, 7) coded partial response equalized recording channels. We propose a combined trellis approach for doing soft-in soft-out (SISO) channel detection and RLL decoding jointly. This approach makes the implementation of turbo equalization easier since it eliminates the need for a SISO RLL encoder in the feedback path from turbo decoder to channel detector. Simulation studies on magnetic recording channels show that our approach provides a coding gain of about 4 dB compared to Viterbi detection at 10 ?6 bit error rate. I.

  6. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  7. 1D-8 Duo-Binary Circular Turbo Decoder Based on Border Metric Encoding for WiMAX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji-hoon Kim; In-cheol Park

    Abstract- This paper presents a duo-binary circular turbo decoder based on border metric encoding. With the proposed method, the memory size for branch memory is reduced by half and the dummy calculation is removed at the cost of the small-sized memory which holds the encoded border metrics. Based on the proposed SISO decoder and the dedicated hardware interleaver, a duo-binary circular turbo decoder is designed for the WiMAX standard using a 0.13 ?m CMOS process, which can support 24.26 Mbps at 200MHz. I.

  8. Ber analysis of iterative turbo encoded miso wireless communication system under implementation of q-ostbc scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kabir, M Hasnat; Zaman, Mustari; Rashed, Md Golam

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a comprehensive study has been made to evaluate the performance of a MISO wireless communication system. The 4-by-1 spatially multiplexed Turbo encoded system under investigation incorporates Quasi-orthogonal space-time block coding (Q-STBC) and ML signal detection schemes under QPSK, QAM, 16PSK and 16QAM digital modulations. The simulation results elucidate that a significant improvement of system performance is achieved in QAM modulation. The results are also indicative of noticeable system performance enhancement with increasing number of iterations in Turbo encoding/decoding scheme.

  9. A serially concatenated BCH-Turbo code scheme over an Additive White Gaussion Noise channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ovalekar, Sameer V.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ', ?. ) (3-1) where wr. is the weight of the k'" data word. If all the cocle-words are considered, using union bounding techniques rve get, Ps = Ps(choose any k E (I, 2, 3. . . . 2'v ? 1) ~0) (2a ? li Ps(k 0) = Z ?, . 'a(+) (3. 2) whme all non... " (Head of Department) December 1997 Major Subject: Electrical Fngineering 111 ABSTRACT A Serially Concatenated BCH-Turbo Code Scheme over an Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel. (December 1997) Sameer V. Ovalekar, I3. E. , Hniversity of Bombay...

  10. Turbo Compounding: A Technology Whose Time Has Come | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenterMarch 4; RSVP byof Energy Turbines in U.S.Turbo

  11. Two-Stroke Uniflow Turbo-Compound IC Engine | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenterMarch 4; RSVP byofUniflow Turbo-Compound IC Engine

  12. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work completed over a two and one half year effort sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The goal was to demonstrate the technology needed to produce a highly efficient engine enabled by several technologies which were to be developed in the course of the work. The technologies included: (1) A low-pressure direct injection system; (2) A mass air flow sensor which would measure the net airflow into the engine on a per cycle basis; (3) A feedback control system enabled by measuring ionization current signals from the spark plug gap; and (4) An infinitely variable cam actuation system based on a pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation These developments were supplemented by the use of advanced large eddy simulations as well as evaluations of fuel air mixing using the KIVA and WAVE models. The simulations were accompanied by experimental verification when possible. In this effort a solid base has been established for continued development of the advanced engine concepts originally proposed. Due to problems with the valve actuation system a complete demonstration of the engine concept originally proposed was not possible. Some of the highlights that were accomplished during this effort are: (1) A forward-backward mass air flow sensor has been developed and a patent application for the device has been submitted. We are optimistic that this technology will have a particular application in variable valve timing direct injection systems for IC engines. (2) The biggest effort on this project has involved the development of the pneumatic-hydraulic valve actuation system. This system was originally purchased from Cargine, a Swedish supplier and is in the development stage. To date we have not been able to use the actuators to control the exhaust valves, although the actuators have been successfully employed to control the intake valves. The reason for this is the additional complication associated with variable back pressure on the exhaust valves when they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  13. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  14. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deli, Martin, E-mail: martin.deli@web.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Fritz, Jan, E-mail: jfritz9@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Mateiescu, Serban, E-mail: mateiescu@microtherapy.de; Busch, Martin, E-mail: busch@microtherapy.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany); Carrino, John A., E-mail: jcarrin2@jhmi.edu [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Becker, Jan, E-mail: j.becker@microtherapy.de; Garmer, Marietta, E-mail: garmer@microtherapy.de; Groenemeyer, Dietrich, E-mail: dg@microtherapy.de [University of Witten/Herdecke, Department of Radiology and Microtherapy, Groenemeyer Institute for Microtherapy (GIMT) (Germany)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 {+-} 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 {+-} 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  15. Turbo Codes Based on Time-Variant Memory-1 Convolutional Codes over Fq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liva, Gianluigi; Scalise, Sandro; Chiani, Marco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two classes of turbo codes over high-order finite fields are introduced. The codes are derived from a particular protograph sub-ensemble of the (dv=2,dc=3) low-density parity-check code ensemble. A first construction is derived as a parallel concatenation of two non-binary, time-variant accumulators. The second construction is based on the serial concatenation of a non-binary, time-variant differentiator and of a non-binary, time-variant accumulator, and provides a highly-structured flexible encoding scheme for (dv=2,dc=4) ensemble codes. A cycle graph representation is provided. The proposed codes can be decoded efficiently either as low-density parity-check codes (via belief propagation decoding over the codes bipartite graph) or as turbo codes (via the forward-backward algorithm applied to the component codes trellis). The forward-backward algorithm for symbol maximum a posteriori decoding of the component codes is illustrated and simplified by means of the fast Fourier transform. The proposed codes provid...

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH FOR LOWER POWER DESIGN IN TURBO CODING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr. K. Sathaya Prasad

    Abstract: Low Power is an extremely important issue for future mobile communication systems; The focus of this paper is to implementat turbo codes for low power solutions. The effect on performance due to variation in parameters like frame length, number of iterations, type of encoding scheme and type of the interleave in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise is studied with the floating point model. In order to obtain the effect of quantization and word length variation, a fixed point model of the application is also developed.. The application performance measure, namely bit-error rate (BER) is used as a design constraint while optimizing for power and area coverage. Low power Optimization is Performed on Implementation levels by the use of Voltage scaling. With those Techniques we can reduced the power 98.5%and Area(LUT) is 57 % and speed grade is Increased.This type of Power maneger is proposed and implemented based on the timing details of the turbo decoder in the VHDL model.

  17. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2014: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition June 16-20, 2014, Dusseldorf, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2014: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition GT2014 June 16 Bordes, France moustapha.mbaye@turbomeca.fr ABSTRACT The recent improvements in turbomachinery design into consideration when dealing with turbomachinery bladed disks. The predictive com- putational models are more

  18. Modeling the effects of maintenance on the degradation of a water-feeding turbo-pump of nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the components, which derives from the particular `life' (failures, shocks, preventive maintenance actionsModeling the effects of maintenance on the degradation of a water-feeding turbo-pump of nuclear Abstract: This work addresses the modeling of the effects of maintenance on the degradation of an electric

  19. 1 Copyright 20xx by ASME Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea and Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabiri, John O.

    1 Copyright 20xx by ASME Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2009: Power for Land, Sea and Air on a simple 8th power velocity scaling law for jet noise generation. Thus, highly effective subsonic jet noise and author of correspondence #12;2 Copyright 20xx by ASME the same mechanisms for which these devices have

  20. Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow, UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010: Power for Land, Sea and Air GT2010 June 14-18, 2010, Glasgow by sweeping the forcing frequency. It is then possible to conduct 1 Copyright c 2010 by ASME hal-00825511,version1-23May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 133

  1. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  2. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  3. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  4. Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

  5. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  6. Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment VTG Variable Turbine Geometry EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation TC Turbo Charger Control Strategies Packaging Fuel Consumption Costs 3 DS-CVNE 686 0130e | 8...

  7. Use of Xenon Difluoride to Clean Hazardous By-Products in Ion Implanter Source Housings, Turbo Pumps, and Fore-Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despres, J.; Chambers, B.; Bishop, S.; Kaim, R.; Letaj, S.; Sergi, S.; Sweeney, J.; Tang, Y.; Wilson, S.; Yedave, S. [ATMI, 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT, 06810 (United States)

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of xenon difluoride to clean deposits in the source housing, source turbo pump, and source turbo pump fore-line of ion implanters. Xenon difluoride has previously been shown to be effective in increasing the lifetime of the ion source{sup 1,2} and this paper presents an extension of the technology to other areas within the tool. Process by-products that are deposited in the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line can not only pose productivity issues, in the case of coatings on insulators, but can also be flammable and toxic in the case of deposits formed within the turbo pump and fore-line. The results presented in this paper detail the initial successful examples of using xenon difluoride to clean these deposits.ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is capable of cleaning an insulator in an ion implanter. Typically during use an insulator will become increasingly coated with deposits that could lead to productivity problems. By introducing xenon difluoride into the source housing the insulator residues were effectively cleaned in-situ, thereby extending the maintenance interval and resulting in significant consumable savings.Similar deposits that form in the turbo pump and fore-line could not only lead to production problems due to turbo pump failure or fore-line build-up, but pose significant health risks during the ex-situ cleaning process. Through internal testing ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is able to clean phosphorus and germanium deposits located within a turbo pump. Additionally, testing has demonstrated that the turbo pump fore-line can be cleaned in-situ without the need to remove these components, thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of fires. The cleaning reaction progress and by-products were monitored using FTIR spectrometry and thermocouples.In order to efficiently clean the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line xenon difluoride delivery must be optimized. This paper also details a hardware concept that maximizes xenon difluoride delivery and allows the clean to be done in a way that is viable for production ion implanters.

  8. Fuel injection device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  9. International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering 3:10 2008 Optimal Power Allocation for the Proposed Asymmetric Turbo Code for 3G Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ramasamy; B. Balamuralithara; Mohammad Umar Siddiqi

    AbstractWe proposed a new class of asymmetric turbo encoder for 3G systems that performs well in both water fall and error floor regions in [7]. In this paper, a modified (optimal) power allocation scheme for the different bits of new class of asymmetric turbo encoder has been investigated to enhance the performance. The simulation results and performance bound for proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified Unequal Power Allocation (UPA) scheme for the frame length, N=400, code rate, r=1/3 with Log-MAP decoder over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are obtained and compared with the system with typical UPA and without UPA. The performance tests are extended over AWGN channel for different frame size to verify the possibility of implementation of the modified UPA scheme for the proposed asymmetric turbo code. From the performance results, it is observed that the proposed asymmetric turbo code with modified UPA performs better than the system without UPA and with typical UPA and it provides a coding gain of 0.4 to 0.52dB. KeywordsAsymmetric turbo code, Generator polynomial, Interleaver, UPA, WCDMA, cdma2000. I.

  10. Transonic Combustion ? - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy...

  11. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, W.B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of direct conversion of the energy of ionsbeams tends to make direct conversion here more difficult

  12. Optimization of Injection Scheduling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-I12 Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields James Lovekin May 1987&injection optimization problem is broke$ into two subpmbkm:(1) choosing a configuration of injectorsfrom an existing set is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells

  13. Pellet injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, S.K. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 10 to 15 years, significant progress has been made worldwide in the area of pellet injection technology. This specialized field of research originated as a possible solution to the problem of depositing atoms of fuel deep within magnetically confined, hot plasmas for refueling of fusion power reactors. Using pellet injection systems, frozen macroscopic (millimeter-size) pellets composed of the isotopes of hydrogen are formed, accelerated, and transported to the plasma for fueling. The process and benefits of plasma fueling by this approach have been demonstrated conclusively on a number of toroidal magnetic confinement configurations; consequently, pellet injection is the leading technology for deep fueling of magnetically confined plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion research. Hydrogen pellet injection devices operate at very low temperatures ([congruent]10 K) at which solid hydrogen ice can be formed and sustained. Most injectors use conventional pneumatic (light gas gun) or centrifuge (mechanical) acceleration concepts to inject hydrogen or deuterium pellets at speeds of [congruent]1--2 km/s. Pellet injectors that can operate at quasi-steady state (pellet delivery rates of 1--40 Hz) have been developed for long-pulse fueling. The design and operation of injectors with the heaviest hydrogen isotope, tritium, offer some special problems because of tritium's radioactivity. To address these problems, a proof-of-principle experiment was carried out in which tritium pellets were formed and accelerated to speeds of 1.4 km/s. Tritium pellet injection is scheduled on major fusion research devices within the next few years. Several advanced accelerator concepts are under development to increase the pellet velocity. One of these is the two-stage light gas gun, for which speeds of slightly over 4 km/s have already been reported in laboratory experiments with deuterium ice.

  14. Measurement and control system for cryogenic helium gas bearing turbo-expander experimental platform based on Siemens PLC S7-300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Xiong, L. Y.; Peng, N.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Wang, P. [Beijing Sciample Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental platform for cryogenic Helium gas bearing turbo-expanders is established at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This turbo-expander experimental platform is designed for performance testing and experimental research on Helium turbo-expanders with different sizes from the liquid hydrogen temperature to the room temperature region. A measurement and control system based on Siemens PLC S7-300 for this turbo-expander experimental platform is developed. Proper sensors are selected to measure such parameters as temperature, pressure, rotation speed and air flow rate. All the collected data to be processed are transformed and transmitted to S7-300 CPU. Siemens S7-300 series PLC CPU315-2PN/DP is as master station and two sets of ET200M DP remote expand I/O is as slave station. Profibus-DP field communication is established between master station and slave stations. The upper computer Human Machine Interface (HMI) is compiled using Siemens configuration software WinCC V6.2. The upper computer communicates with PLC by means of industrial Ethernet. Centralized monitoring and distributed control is achieved. Experimental results show that this measurement and control system has fulfilled the test requirement for the turbo-expander experimental platform.

  15. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN); Cernohous, Bob R. (Rochester, MN); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  16. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  17. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  18. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  19. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  20. Underground Injection Control (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule set forth criteria and standards for the requirements which apply to the State Underground Injection Control Program (U.I.C.). The UIC permit program regulates underground injections by...

  1. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  2. Achieving Consistent Maximum Brake Torque with Varied Injection Timing in a DI Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Timothy H

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The brake torque of a direct-injection diesel engine is known to plateau over a range of injection timings. Injection timing affects the engines ignition delay and the fractions of fuel which burn in premixed and diffusion modes. Therefore...

  3. ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagannatham, Aditya K.

    ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 13 August, 2011 Diesel Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala #12;ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES A Milestone in Green Initiatives by Indian Diesel Locomotive equipped with "Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)" was turned out by the Diesel Loco

  4. Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarino, Mario A.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    ? them in an insulated cooler with ice packs during the summer. In cold weather, use the same container to keep vaccines from freezing. Freezing makes some vaccines ineffective. If vaccines do not require ? refrigeration, store them out of direct... needle or a transfer needle. Use a clean needle for ? each animal to prevent the transmission of disease. for protecting meat quality. Always use this method if it is an option given on the label. Intramuscularly (IM). ? This injection goes...

  5. PHEV Engine Control and Energy Management Strategy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    specifications - Gasoline Direct Injection - Naturally aspirated (VVT, no EGR, no turbo) - 2.4l, 4 cylinder - 182 hp (136 kW) @ 6700 rpm - 172 lb.ft (233 Nm) @ 4900 rpm...

  6. Injection Laser System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFPTri-PartyFor manyInhibiting IndividualInjection

  7. The University has a number of dedicated automotive research centres, including the Powertrain and Vehicle Research Centre, the Turbo Centre and LARG (Lean and Agile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    The University has a number of dedicated automotive research centres, including the Powertrain and Vehicle Research Centre, the Turbo Centre and LARG (Lean and Agile Research Group) Automotive. The research carried out through these centres addresses the broad issues associated with the automotive

  8. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPEs technology refines coal by employing a novel catalyst to crack the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild catalytic gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPEs catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to fluidize the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A PdCu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

  9. 1 Copyright 2004 by ASME Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    in the turbine is to effectively use film- cooling whereby coolant is extracted from the compressor and injected environmentally conscious, yet energy thirsty, world. The power output and efficiency of a turbine engine is through the use of film-cooling holes whereby cooler air is extracted from the compressor, bypasses

  10. Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

  11. Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

  12. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

  13. Rep-Rated Target Injection for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, D.T.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Drake, T.J.; Egli, W.; Vermillion, B.A.; Klasen, R.; Cleary, M.M

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) with laser drivers is a pulsed power generation system that relies on repetitive, high-speed injection of targets into a fusion reactor. To produce an economically viable IFE power plant the targets must be injected into the reactor at a rate between 5 and 10 Hz.To survive the injection process, direct drive (laser fusion) targets (spherical capsules) are placed into protective sabots. The sabots separate from the target and are stripped off before entering the reactor chamber. Indirect drive (heavy ion fusion) utilizes a hohlraum surrounding the spherical capsule and enters the chamber as one piece.In our target injection demonstration system, the sabots or hohlraums are injected into a vacuum system with a light gas gun using helium as a propellant. To achieve pulsed operation a rep-rated injection system has been developed. For a viable power plant we must be able to fire continuously at 6 Hz. This demonstration system is currently set up to allow bursts of up to 12 targets at 6 Hz. Using the current system, tests have been successfully run with direct drive targets to show sabot separation under vacuum and at barrel exit velocities of {approx}400 m/s.The existing revolver system along with operational data will be presented.

  14. Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

  15. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  16. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Jr., Henry S. (Wilsonville, AL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  17. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in their physics and their technology, or in any case they are considered to be adequately covered by these other authors.

  18. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI): Sun, Yong (Madison, WI)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  19. Directives Tools

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

  20. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth BMW Diesel - Engine Concepts for Efficient Dynamics...

  1. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  2. Intermodulation distortion in a directly modulated semiconductor injection laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Yariv, A.

    1984-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A most important quantity in high-frequency analog transmission is the intermodulation distortion product. Experimental studies of the third order intermodulation distortion products in the modulation response of high-speed semiconductor lasers give very low values (<-60 dB) at low frequencies, an increase at a rate of 40 dB/dec as the modulation frequency is increased, and a leveling off at one-half of the relaxation oscillation resonance frequency. These experimental results can be well explained by a theory based on a perturbative analysis of laser dynamics.

  3. Lean direct injection diffusion tip and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Ziminsky, Willy S. (Simpsonville, SC); Lipinski, John (Simpsonville, SC); Kraemer, Gilbert O. (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Niskayuna, NY); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A nozzle for a gas turbine combustor includes a first radially outer tube defining a first passage having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet adapted to supply air to a reaction zone of the combustor. A center body is located within the first radially outer tube, the center body including a second radially intermediate tube for supplying fuel to the reaction zone and a third radially inner tube for supplying air to the reaction zone. The second intermediate tube has a first outlet end closed by a first end wall that is formed with a plurality of substantially parallel, axially-oriented air outlet passages for the additional air in the third radially inner tube, each air outlet passage having a respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages in the first end wall for the fuel in the second radially intermediate tube. The respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages have non-parallel center axes that intersect a center axis of the respective air outlet passage to locally mix fuel and air exiting said center body.

  4. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace009wallner2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Optimization...

  5. Investigation of Sulfur Removal by Direct Limestone Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colaluca, M. A.; Maloney, D. J.

    Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting, DOE/METC 88/6094, Contract DE-AC21-86MC23262, 295-304. Chase, et al, 1985, JANAF Thermochemical Tables, J. Phys. Chern. Ref. Data, 14, Suppl. 1. Cole, J. A., Kramlich, J. C., Seeker, W. R...-IE-90-06-05 Proceedings from the 12th National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 19-20, 1990 Newton, G. H., Chen, S. L., and Kramlich, J. D., 1989, Role of Porosity Less in Limiting Sulfur Dioxide Capture by Calcium...

  6. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002 Investigation Letter2009Department of

  7. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment ofOil'sEnergy 9IndustrialOptima:of Energy 0

  8. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment ofOil'sEnergy 9IndustrialOptima:of Energy

  9. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenterMarch 4; RSVP byof Energy Turbines in

  10. Application of Uncertainty Quantification to Direct-injection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederal Facility Agreement and 2015 FAQSpark-ignition

  11. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment of EnergyModelingDepartmentDepartment

  12. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartmentDepartment2 DOEX-RayDepartmentIgnition

  13. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHEEnergyReliability2015 Peer Review. d r a mfor Euro VI

  14. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartmentDevelopment and1Department of

  15. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAccelerated agingDepartmentDevelopment and1Department ofDepartment

  16. The energy injection and losses in the Monte Carlo simulations of a diffusive shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) could be simulated by some well-established models, the assumption of the injection rate from the thermal particles to the superthermal population is still a contentious problem. But in the self-consistent Monte Carlo simulations, because of the prescribed scattering law instead of the assumption of the injected function, hence particle injection rate is intrinsically defined by the prescribed scattering law. We expect to examine the correlation of the energy injection with the prescribed multiple scattering angular distributions. According to the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, the energy injection and the losses in the simulation system can directly decide the shock energy spectrum slope. By the simulations performed with multiple scattering law in the dynamical Monte Carlo model, the energy injection and energy loss functions are obtained. As results, the case applying anisotropic scattering law produce a small energy injection and large energy losses leading to a s...

  17. WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: WPCF Underground Injection...

  18. Feasibility Studies on a Downstream Injection System for Mu2e Calorimeter Calibration Guangyong Koha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollin, George

    Feasibility Studies on a Downstream Injection System for Mu2e Calorimeter Calibration Electrons A calibration-electron injection system sited downstream of the calorimeters within the Mu2e detector solenoid directed along the beam axis), progressing downstream over the extent of the stopping target array.1

  19. Injection system for small betatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuorygin, V.P.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Pushin, U.S.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the head loads on the injector electrodes and to raise the efficiency of electron capture during acceleration, small betatrons are provided with an injection system with a controlled three-electrode injector in which injection current pulse with steep leading and trailing edges is formed by the application of a voltage pulse to the control electrode from a separate circuit through a pulse transformer. In a betatron injection system described, elements of the controlled injector of the accelerating chamber are used to correct the shape of the current pulse. The circuit for correcting the current-pulse shape can increase the accelerated charge by the average of 75% per betatron cycle and decrease the heat loads on the electrodes of the injector without the use of a generator of controlling voltage pulses.

  20. Well injection valve with retractable choke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pringle, R.E.

    1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection valve is described for use in a well conduit consisting of: a housing having a bore, a valve closure member in the bore moving between open and closed positions, a flow tube telescopically movable in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, means for biasing the flow tube in a direction for allowing the valve closure member to move to the closed position, an expandable and contractible fluid restriction connected to the flow tube and extending into the bore for moving the flow tube to the open position in response to injection fluid, but allowing the passage of well tools through the valve, the restriction contractible in response to fluid flow, the restriction includes, segments movable into and out of the bore, and biasing means yieldably urging the segments into the bore, a no-go shoulder on the flow tube, and releasable lockout means between the flow tube and the housing for locking the flow tube and valve in the open position.

  1. -Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Investigator: Roland N. Home September 1985 First Annual Report Department of Energy Contract Number, and the forecasting of field behavior with time. Injection I I Tec hnology is a research area receiving special on geothermal energy. The Program publishes technical reports on all of its research projects. Research findings

  2. -Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    For the Period October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986 DE-ASO7-84ID12529 Stanford Geothermal Program was initiated in fiscal year 1981. The report covers the period from October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986SGP-TR-107 - Injection Technology - Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research at Stanford Principal

  3. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  4. An environmental analysis of injection molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiriez, Alexandre

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

  5. Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapter 27 of the Texas Water Code (the Injection Well Act) defines an injection well as an artificial excavation or opening in the ground made by digging, boring, drilling, jetting, driving, or...

  6. Continuous injection method controls downhole corrosion - 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradburn, J.B.; Todd, R.B.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In designing a continuous downhole corrosion inhibitor injection system, many interrelated factors must be considered: bottomhole pressure, inhibitor viscosity, injection rate, friction loss, hole geometry, cost, delivery time, annulus environment, elastomers, and corrosivity of well fluids. In view of the many variables associated with the design of a downhole injection system, the following design outline is presented. 8 refs.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

  8. Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Ticos, Catalin M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

  9. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  10. Method for preventing bitumen backflow in injection wells when steam injection is interrupted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.C.; Djabbarah, N.F.

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for preventing viscous hydrocarbonaceous fluids from backflowing into a well upon interruption of a steamflood. It comprises: detecting a substantial reduction in steam injection pressure in at least one injection well via a pressure sensing device; and causing automatically a pressurized fluid to be injected into the injection well in response to the reduction in pressure which prevents viscous hydrocarbonaceous fluids from backflowing into the injection well.

  11. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  12. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  13. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  14. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  15. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application Fees (DEQ Form UIC 1003-GIC) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon...

  16. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection Control Registration webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  17. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal Heating Systems (DEQ Form UICGEO-1004(f)) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form:...

  18. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Effect of Injection Parameters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Experimental Investigation of Effect of Injection Parameters, Compression Ratio and Ultra-cooled EGR on CI Engine Performance and Emissions Low temperature combustion,...

  20. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  1. Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.G.; McDowell, D.A.; Scheck, R.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The body of information in this paper is directed to engineers involved in desulfurization of boiler flue gas. The problems of wet scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from power plant flue gases have been well documented. The utility industry has been interested in developing new processes that would overcome problems associated with wet slurry systems. While spray dryer technology for FGD may alleviate many of these problems, this concept has problems as well. Dry injection FGD takes the development process one step further to a totally dry system, thus eliminating the difficulties of wet slurry handling. The concept of using the fabric filter as a chemical contactor for the SO/sub 2/ absorption was proposed in the late 1960s by Chaffee and Hill. In the early 1970s, Superior Oil Company, Wheelabrator Frye, Carborundum, and others investigated the use of nahcolite for SO/sub 2/ removal. Nahcolite is a natural occurring sodium bicarbonate found in great quantities in the oil shale regions of Colorado. In general, these developments were found viable in certain circumstances, but commercialization was hampered by the lack of nahcolite suppliers.

  2. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  3. End-fire injection of guided light into optical microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Lyu, Quan; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling light into microdisk plays a key role in a number of applications such as resonant filters and optical sensors. While several approaches have successfully coupled light into microdisk efficiently, most of them suffer from the ultrahigh sensitivity to the environmental vibration. Here we demonstrate a robust mechanism, which is termed as end-fire injection. By connecting an input waveguide to a circular microdisk directly, the mechanism shows that light can be efficiently coupled into optical microcavity. The coupling efficiency can be as high as 0.75 when the input signals are on resonances. Our numerical results reveal that the high coupling efficiency is attributed to the constructive interference between the whispering gallery modes and the input signals. We have also shown that the end-fire injection can be further extended to the long-lived resonances with low refractive index such as n = 1.45. We believe our results will shed light on the applications of optical microcavities.

  4. Real-Time Observation of Platinum Redispersion on Ceria-Based Oxide by In-situ Turbo-XAS in Fluorescence Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagai, Yasutaka; Dohmae, Kazuhiko; Tanabe, Toshitaka; Shinjoh, Hirofumi [TOYOTA Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan); Takagi, Nobuyuki [TOYOTA Motor Corporation Higashi-fuji Technical Center, Shizuoka, 410-1193 (Japan); Ikeda, Yasuo [TOYOTA Motor Europe Technical Centre, Zaventem, B-1930 (Belgium); Guilera, Gemma; Pascarelli, Sakura; Newton, Mark [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, F-38043 (France); Matsumoto, Shin'ichi [TOYOTA Motor Corporation, Toyota, Aichi, 471-8572 (Japan)

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A real-time observation of the redispersion behavior of sintered Pt on ceria-based oxide was made possible by in-situ time-resolved Turbo-XAS in fluorescence mode. 2 wt% Pt/Ce-Zr-Y mixed oxide samples were prepared, and then treated under an aging condition. The average Pt particle size measured by CO absorption method after aging was 7 nm. Redispersion treatments of the previously aged catalyst were carried out at 600 deg. C within an in-situ XAS cell in a cyclical flow of reducing/oxidizing gases. Pt L3-edge XANES spectra were collected every 1.1 second under in-situ conditions. From a change in the XANES spectra, we observed that the Pt particle size of the aged catalyst decreased from 7 to 5 nm after 60 seconds and then to 3 nm after 1000 seconds.

  5. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald G. Ballinger Chunyun Wang Andrew Kadak Neil Todreas

    2004-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the power conversion system have been verified with an industry-standard general thermal-fluid code Flownet. With respect to the dynamic model, bypass valve control and inventory control have been used as the primary control methods for the power conversion system. By performing simulation using the dynamic model with the designed control scheme, the combination of bypass and inventory control was optimized to assure system stability within design temperature and pressure limits. Bypass control allows for rapid control system response while inventory control allows for ultimate steady state operation at part power very near the optimum operating point for the system. Load transients simulations show that the indirect, three-shaft arrangement gas turbine power conversion system is stable and controllable. For the indirect cycle the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is the interface between the reactor and the turbomachinery systems. As a part of the design effort the IHX was identified as the key component in the system. Two technologies, printed circuit and compact plate-fin, were investigated that have the promise of meeting the design requirements for the system. The reference design incorporates the possibility of using either technology although the compact plate-fin design was chosen for subsequent analysis. The thermal design and parametric analysis with an IHX and recuperator using the plate-fin configuration have been performed. As a three-shaft arrangement, the turbo-shaft sets consist of a pair of turbine/compressor sets (high pressure and low pressure turbines with same-shaft compressor) and a power turbine coupled with a synchronous generator. The turbines and compressors are all axial type and the shaft configuration is horizontal. The core outlet/inlet temperatures are 900/520 C, and the optimum pressure ratio in the power conversion cycle is 2.9. The design achieves a plant net efficiency of approximately 48%.

  6. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  7. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

  8. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic effects on pellet injection in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, H.R. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012 (United States)] [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Park, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The location at which pellets are injected into a plasma can have a significant effect on what fraction of the pellet mass remains in the plasma for refueling purposes. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations presented here, confirm the results of pellet injection experiments: toroidal curvature makes it favorable to inject pellets from the inboard side or from the top or bottom, rather than from the outboard side. Sufficiently large pellets injected at the inboard edge can reach the plasma center, and in the process drive magnetic reconnection to produce negative central shear. Injection at the top (or bottom) of the tokamak causes relatively little displacement of the pellet. A scaling law is obtained for pellet displacement which agrees well with the simulations. The MHD simulations were carried out with a new unstructured mesh finite element version of the MH3D full MHD code. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  11. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Esslingen, DE); Vranas, Pavlos (Danville, CA)

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for direct memory access (`DMA`) transfer completion notification. Embodiments include determining, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node, whether a data descriptor for an application message to be sent to a target compute node is currently in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer in dependence upon a sequence number previously associated with the data descriptor, the total number of descriptors currently in the injection FIFO buffer, and the current sequence number for the newest data descriptor stored in the injection FIFO buffer; and notifying a processor core on the origin DMA engine that the message has been sent if the data descriptor for the message is not currently in the injection FIFO buffer.

  12. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (? 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ? 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (? 7.0 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  13. Pellet injection in the RFP (Reversed Field Pinch)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Bunting, C.A.; Carolan, P.G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (xi/sub drift/ /approximately/ 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50% have been observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D/sub ..cap alpha../ light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 ..mu..sec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  15. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  16. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  17. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  18. Directives Help

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

  19. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  20. Underground Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule establishes schedules of permit fees for state under?ground injection control permits issued by the Chief of the Office of Water Resources. This rule applies to any person who is...

  1. Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

  2. Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (UIC code) is adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-5-11). It is the...

  3. A case study of seawater injection incompatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindlof, J.C.; Stoffer, K.G.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the primary concerns in the implementation of an effective waterflood is the compatibility between the formation water and the water to be injected. The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) and the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Technical Branch recognized a potential incompatibility problem and embarked on a comprehensive program to evaluate possible strontium sulfate and calcium sulfate scaling associated with the injection of seawater into the Arab-D reservoir in the northern areas of Ghawar field.

  4. albumin ions injected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 Hunt, Galen 3 Characterizing Oligosaccharides Using Injected-Ion MobilityMass Spectrometry Chemistry Websites Summary: Characterizing Oligosaccharides Using Injected-Ion...

  5. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  6. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  7. automated flow injection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the great majority the feasibility of our attack. The friend injection attack enables a stealth infiltra- tion of social networks Boyer, Edmond 7 Preventing injection attacks...

  8. Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission...

  9. Design and Operation of a Fast Electromagnetic Inductive Massive Gas Injection Valve for NSTX-Ua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    for the sliding piston. The pressure rise in the test chamber is measured directly using a fast time response based on valve opening times and orifice size, in these studies the vessel pressure increase following injects the required amount of gas (200 Torr.L, at an operating pressure of just 7000 Torr) in less than 3

  10. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics A Numerical Study of Water Injection on Transonic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    disadvantages include: compressor icing2 and/or compressor instability can result as a result of injection-dimensional mean line compressor performance codes. Homji7-9 examined the theory of direct water fogging on Transonic Compressor Rotor Performance Istvan Szabo1 and Mark G. Turner2 University of Cincinnati

  11. Supported-sorbent injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

  12. Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hals, Kjetil M D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

  13. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  14. Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetoba, L.A.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

  15. Biological treatments and uses of geothermal water as alternatives to injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Cahn, L.S.; Thurow, T.L.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of using geothermal fluids to support various biological systems prior to, or as an alternative to, direct injection at the DOE's Raft River goethermal site is discussed. Researchers at the Raft River site studied the feasibility of using geothermal fluid for establishign methods and for irrigating trees and agricultural crops. The emphasis of these studies has been on the bioaccumulative potential of the plants, their survivability, production rates, and water-purification potential. The possible adverse impacts associated with not injecting the fluid back into the geothermal reservoir have not been addressed. (MJF)

  16. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

  17. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Westerman, Stuart; /SLAC; Cheng, Weixing; /Brookhaven; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  18. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  19. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  20. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  1. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  2. A study on Raman Injection Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Debin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raman Injection Laser is a new type of laser which is based on triply resonant stimulated Raman scattering between quantum confined states within the active region of a Quantum Cascade Laser that serves as an internal optical pump. The Raman...

  3. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  4. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  5. Alfvn ion-cyclotron instability in an axisymmetric trap with oblique injection of fast atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsidulko, Yu. A.; Chernoshtanov, I. S., E-mail: cherivn@ngs.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Conditions for the onset of Alfvn ion-cyclotron instability and the spatial structure of unstable modes in an axisymmetric mirror trap with oblique injection of fast atoms are studied. It is shown that the main contribution to instability comes from the inverse population of ions in the velocity space domain into which atoms are injected. Using the distribution function of fast ions obtained by approximately solving the Fokker-Planck equation, the instability threshold in terms of ?{sub ?} is determined in the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation as a function of the geometric parameters and the parameters of injection and target plasma. It is demonstrated that the stability threshold increases substantially when the radius of the hot plasma decreases to a size comparable with the Larmor radius of fast ions. It is shown that the perturbed fields near the axis and at the plasma periphery can rotate in opposite directions, which is important for the interpretation of experimental data.

  6. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  7. Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, Maxim [Computational Nanoelectronics Laboratory, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, Vladimir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260-1920 (United States)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

  8. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  10. Evaluation of Profile Injection Attacks In Collaborative Recommender Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Evaluation of Profile Injection Attacks In Collaborative Recommender Systems Chad Williams, Runa recommender systems. The open nature of collaborative filtering allows attackers to inject biased profile data identified attack profiles. Second, we analyze the effectiveness of a supervised classification approach

  11. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  12. STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study...........................................................................................................................10 Gas turbine technology

  13. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  14. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ronan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings.

  15. SNS Laser Stripping for H- Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Danilov, Y. Liu, K.B. Beard, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Michelle D. Shinn

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORNL spallation neutron source (SNS) user facility requires a reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron has the potential to provide the needed beam currents, but it will be limited by intrinsic limitations of carbon and diamond stripping foils. A laser in combination with magnetic stripping has been used to demonstrate a new technique for high intensity proton injection, but several problems need to be solved before a practical system can be realized. Technology developed for use in Free Electron Lasers is being used to address the remaining challenges to practical implementation of laser controlled H- charge exchange injection for the SNS. These technical challenges include (1) operation in vacuum, (2) the control of the UV laser beam to synchronize with the H- beam and to shape the proton beam, (3) the control and stabilization of the Fabry-Perot resonator, and (4) protection of the mirrors from radiation.

  16. Bosch Powertrain Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    improved mixture prep. reduced penetration (e.g. soft spray, split inj.) nominal power turbo-charger P max torque higher injection spread multiple injection controlled valve...

  17. Direct-Contact Process Water Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamann, M. R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the manufacturing processes utilizing direct steam injection from process boilers to a hot water storage tank. Although the boiler plant was in fair operating condition, the boilers were over 30 years old and had measured seasonal heating efficiencies of 60... water heater. Since the new system was better matched to the plant load, energy savings occurred as a result of the new systems reduced input capacity and higher efficiency. This project, which can be duplicated in other industries with facility...

  18. INJECTION STRAIGHT PULSED MAGNET ERROR TOLERANCE STUDY FOR TOP-OFF INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.: Fliller; R.; Parker; B.; Heese; R.; Kowalski; S.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    NSLS II is designed to work in top-off injection mode. The injection straight includes a septum and four fast kicker magnets. The pulsed magnet errors will excite a betatron oscillation. This paper gives the formulas of each error contribution to the oscillation amplitude at various source points in the ring. These are compared with simulation results. Based on the simple formulas, we can specify the error tolerances on the pulsed magnets with the goal to minimize the injection transient and scale it to similar machines. The NSLS-II is a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Due to its short lifetime, NSLS-II storage ring requires the top-off injection (once per minute) during which the stored beam orbit is highly desired as transparent. But the errors, from the SR pulsed magnets at the injection straight - kickers (non-closed injection bump) and pulsed septum (time-dependent stray field), excite a stored beam betatron oscillation. The magnitude of the perturbation can be large disturning some of the user experiments. In 2010 injection straight review, based on the experts experiences in ALS, DIAMOND, SLS and SPEAR, we came to the conclusion that the acceptable oscillation amplitude at the long straight is set as 100 {micro}m (i.e. 0.7 {sigma}x) in horizontal plane and 12 {micro}m, 2.5 {sigma}y, in vertical plane for NSLS II. This paper gives the analysis estimate of the different error source tolerance from the pulse magnets and scales it to our requirements. The result is compared with simulation.

  19. NumericalS imulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NumericalS imulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen words:fi nite volume method,fi lm cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation#ciency is investigated. Keywords: Finite Volum Method,Film cooling, Cooling gas injection, Multiscale techniques, Grid

  20. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  1. Injection and acceleration of H at Earth's bow shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Injection and acceleration of H and He2 at Earth's bow shock M. Scholer1 , H. Kucharek1 , K the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter

  2. Analysis of Power System Dynamics Subject to Stochastic Power Injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Abstract--We propose a framework to study the impact of stochastic active/reactive power injections. In this framework the active/reactive power injections evolve according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model. The DAE model is linearized around a nominal set of active/reactive power injections

  3. Study on Off-Design Steady State Performances of Helium Gas Turbo-compressor for HTGR-GT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qisen Ren; Xiaoyong Yang; Zhiyong Huang; Jie Wang [Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with direct gas turbine cycle is a promising concept in the future of nuclear power development. Both helium gas turbine and compressor are key components in the cycle. Under normal conditions, the mode of power adjustment is to control total helium mass in the primary loop using gas storage vessels. Meanwhile, thermal power of reactor core is regulated. This article analyzes off-design performances of helium gas turbine and compressors for high temperature gas-cooled reactor with gas turbine cycle (HTGR-GT) at steady state level of electric power adjustment. Moreover, performances of the cycle were simply discussed. Results show that the expansion ratio of turbine decreases as electric power reduces but the compression ratios of compressors increase, efficiencies of both turbine and compressors decrease to some extent. Thermal power does not vary consistently with electric power, the difference between these two powers increases as electric power reduces. As a result of much thermal energy dissipated in the temperature modulator set at core inlet, thermal efficiency of the cycle has a widely reduction under partial load conditions. (authors)

  4. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  5. Fluid dynamics of sinking carbon dioxide hydrate particle releases for direct ocean carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Aaron C. (Aaron Chunghin), 1978-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One strategy to remove anthropogenic CO? from the atmosphere to mitigate climate change is by direct ocean injection. Liquid CO? can react with seawater to form solid partially reacted CO? hydrate composite particles (pure ...

  6. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  7. Current generation by phased injection of pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By phasing the injection of frozen pellets into a tokamak plasma, it is possible to generate current. The current occurs when the electron flux to individual members of an array of pellets is asymmetric with respect to the magnetic field. The utility of this method for tokamak reactors, however, is unclear; the current, even though free in a pellet-fueled reactor, may not be large enough to be worth the trouble. Uncertainty as to the utility of this method is, in part, due to uncertainty as to proper modeling of the one-pellet problem.

  8. Resonantly pumped optical pumping injection cavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santilli, Michael Robert; McAlpine, T. C.; Greene, K. R.; Olafsen, L. J.; Bewley, W. W.; Felix, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Lee, H.; Martinelli, R. U.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the optically pumped devices have thus far produced much higher powers than their diode counterparts. 48 To en- sure the efficient injection of carriers, these optically pumped lasers have employed two main approaches to maximize the absorption of pump photons... of active QWs. The first OPIC lasers to be investigated 12,13 were de- signed for pumping by a Q-switched Ho:YAG laser emitting at 2100 nm. Whereas the cavity resonance wavelength sl cav d for normal incidence, as determined from the transmittance spectrum...

  9. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  10. JET multi-pellet injection experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kupschus, P.; Bartlett, D.V.; Behringer, K.; Campbell, D.J.; Cheetham, A.; Cordey, J.G.; Corti, S.; Gadeberg, M.; Gondhalekar, A.; Gottardi, N.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Morgan, P.; O'Rourke, J.; Sadler, G.; Snipes, J.; Stubberfield, D.; Taroni, A.; Tubbing, B.; Von Hellermann, M. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (UK)); Baylor, L.R.; Houlberg, W.A.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Galvao, R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multiple injection of deuterium pellets into JET plasmas under various scenarios for limiter and X-point discharges with currents up to 5 MA with pure ohmic, neutral beam and RF heating has been undertaken in a collaborative effort between JET and an USDOE team under the umbrella of the EURATOM-USDOE (US Department of Energy) Fusion Agreement on Pellet Injection using an ORNL built 3-barrel, repetitive multi-pellet launcher. The best plasma performance with pellet injection and additional heating so far has been obtained by injecting early into 3 MA, 3.1 T pulses while centrally depositing the pellet mass, with N{sub eo} initially well in excess of 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}. Subsequent central heating of this dense and clean core by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) with H and {sup 3}He minorities in the 10 MW range yields T{sub eo} up to 12 keV and T{sub io} up to more than 10 keV, while n{sub eo} is decreasing (within up to 1.5s) decaying to 0.6 {times} 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}, suggesting an enhanced central energy confinement in limiter discharges with only modestly improved global L-mode confinement. In this plasma core electron pressures of more than 1 bar with gradients in the order of 4 bar*m{sup {minus}1} have been reached with the total pressure approaching ballooning stability limits. The resulting total neutron rate from D-D reactions of up to 4.5*10{sup 15} s{sup {minus}1} so far increases strongly with RF power and can exceed that of similar non-enhanced shots by factors of 3 to 5. n{sub D}(O)*T{sub i}(O)*{tau}{sub E}(a) products in the range of 1 to 2*10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} keVs are obtained but combined power with neutral beams (up to 28 MW total), generally degrades the performance though leading to higher neutron rates of up to 7*10{sup 15} s{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  12. Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Gary Michael

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . . . 22 4. 2 Water-Oil and Water-Solvent Fractional Flow Curves . . 4. 3 Mobility of Water-Oil-Solvent Mixtures. . . . . . . . 25 5. 1 Injected Solvent Displacing Formation Oil at 0. 5 PVI . . . . 31 5. 2 Comparison of Simulator Results and Buckley...-Levcrctt Analytic Solution at 0. 3 PVI . 5. 3 Comparison of Simulator Results and Walsh-Lake Analytic Solution for Secondary Flood (S, =- S;?= 0. 2) at "Equal Velocity" f?& (f, & ? 0. 35) and 0. 3 PVI?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 4 Saturation Plot...

  13. Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarino, Mario A.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    labeled for use in dairy ? cattle. Refer to the vaccine label for this information. Using a vaccine in an animal species for which it is not labeled is illegal. Give the proper dosage as indicated on the label. ? Always give an injection in the body... for consumption is called the withdrawal time. The withdrawal times for meat and milk may be different. It is illegal to sell meat or milk that contains medicine residue and sellers are subject to large fines. If there is a withdrawal time ? on the label...

  14. Category:Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual Model Add.pngpage?sourcehelp ispage?Injectivity

  15. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ( lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li[sup +] line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li[sup +] emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from [approximately]0.3 to [approximately]7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  16. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with hot pre-injected helium. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen, E-mail: yaoz@me.queensu.ca; Daymond, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen's University Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kirk, Marquis A. [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the current investigation, TEM in-situ heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with helium pre-injected at elevated temperature (400?C) was conducted to simulate in-reactor neutron irradiation induced damage in CANDU spacer material Inconel X-750, in an effort to understand the effects of helium on irradiation induced cavity microstructures. Three different quantities of helium, 400 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm, were pre-injected directly into TEM foils at 400?C. The samples containing helium were then irradiated in-situ with 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} at 400?C to a final dose of 5.4 dpa (displacement per atom). Cavities were formed from the helium injection solely and the cavity density and size increased with increasing helium dosage. In contrast to previous heavy ion irradiations with cold pre-injected helium, heterogeneous nucleation of cavities was observed. During the ensuing heavy ion irradiation, dynamical observation showed noticeable size increase in cavities which nucleated close to the grain boundaries. A bubble-void transformation was observed after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to high dose (5.4?dpa) in samples containing 1000 appm and 5000 appm helium. Cavity distribution was found to be consistent with in-reactor neutron irradiation induced cavity microstructures. This implies that the distribution of helium is greatly dependent on the injection temperature, and helium pre-injection at high temperature is preferred for simulating the migration of the transmutation produced helium.

  17. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  18. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  19. Continuous active-source seismic monitoring of CO2 injection in a brine aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Thomas M.; Solbau, Ray D.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTERPRETATION The injection of CO 2 causes a decrease in seismicseismic monitoring during injection. Although quantitative interpretation

  20. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

  1. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node in an injection FIFO buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target compute node on behalf of an application on the origin compute node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying an address of a completion notification field in application storage for the application; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target compute node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that the transfer of the message is complete, including performing a local direct put operation to store predesignated notification data at the address of the completion notification field.

  2. A Unified Force Controller for a Proportional-Injector Direct-Injection Monopropellant-Powered Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of an air compressor. This configuration incorporates a solenoid valve to meter the flow of hydrogen

  3. A Unified Force Controller for a Proportional-Injector Direct-Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    a monopropellant gas generator in place of an air compressor. This configuration incorporates a solenoid valve to meter the flow of hydrogen peroxide through a catalyst pack and into a high- pressure hot-gas reservoir

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ford Motor Companyh at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about advanced gasoline...

  5. Evaluation of Oxydiesel as a Fuel for Direct-Injection Compression-Ignition Engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    fitted with a turbocharger and intercooler. Engine performance checks, oil sample analyses and injector and corrosion in the pump compared to other pumps run under similar conditions on no. 2 diesel. However, this wear and corrosion had not affected the performance of the pump. A final report on the condition

  6. Fact #801: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartment ofofChoicesDepartment of

  7. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartmentLast TenPrice of Gasolineand Fuel

  8. Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change Request |82:91:4Applications | Department of Energy

  9. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  10. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  11. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  12. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's...

  13. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  14. V-170: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    script while processing filenames and can be exploited to inject and execute arbitrary shell commands via a specially crafted request. Successful exploitation requires that...

  15. assembly injection moulding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    management of moulds and dies : a contribution to improved design and manufacture of tooling for injection moulding. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Thesis (PhD...

  16. SLOW DEGRADATION AND ELECTRON INJECTION IN SODIUM-B ALUMINAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer of 703 XBB 804 4126 Degradation of sulfur side ofsilver staining. The degradation layer becomes more uniformMaterials Science SLOW DEGRADATION AND ELECTRON INJECTION IN

  17. Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin, Et Al., 1993) Exploration Activity...

  18. Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date 1999 - 1999 Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes A second...

  19. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties. 1 Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Roger Busch Common Rail...

  20. Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers, California, Geothermal Field; 2010...

  1. Investigation of injection-induced seismicity using a coupled fluid ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    injection of fluid for the extraction of geothermal heat: Journal of Geo- physical ... earthquakes: Disposal of waste fluids into a deep well has triggered earth-.

  2. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  3. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Motivation and background * Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) * Simulation and optimization - Two-Stage Combustion (TSC -- HCCI + Diffusion combustion) optimization using AIS...

  4. Turbo Dynamics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global Energy LLC Place: Dallas, Texas Zip:HillsTucker,Tupman,Revenue

  5. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft{sup 2}, the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft{sup 2}-degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation.

  6. EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) program for evaluation and demonstration of low-cost retrofit LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.D.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses program objectives, approaches, current status and results, future activities, and schedules for EPA's program for research and development, field evaluation, and demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology. Primary emphasis is on: (1) the full-scale demonstration being conducted on Ohio Edison's 104-MW wall-fired Edgewater Station Unit 4; (2) evaluation on a 50 million Btu/hr tangentially fired prototype nearing completion; (3) on-going field evaluation on Richmond Power and Light's 61-MW tangentially fired Whitewater Valley Generating Station Unit 2. The new program for demonstration on Virginia Electric Power's 180-MW tangentially fired Yorktown II Plant is also described. The LIMB process is based on injecting dry sorbents into the boiler for direct capture of SO/sub 2/ from the combustion gases. LIMB combines sorbent injection for SO/sub 2/ control with the use of low-NOx burners, in which staged combustion is utilized for NOx control.

  7. Calculation of Neutral Beam Injection into SSPX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Hill, D N; LoDestro, L L; McLean, H S

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The SSPX spheromak experiment has achieved electron temperatures of 350eV and confinement consistent with closed magnetic surfaces. In addition, there is evidence that the experiment may be up against an operational beta limit for Ohmic heating. To test this barrier, there are firm plans to add two 0.9MW Neutral Beam (NB) sources to the experiment. A question is whether the limit is due to instability. Since the deposited Ohmic power in the core is relatively small the additional power from the beams is sufficient to significantly increase the electron temperature. Here we present results of computations that will support this contention. We have developed a new NB module to calculate the orbits of the injected fast fast-ions. The previous computation made heavy use of tokamak ordering which fails for a tight-aspect-ratio device, where B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub pol}. The model calculates the deposition from the NFREYA package [1]. The neutral from the CX deposition is assumed to be ionized in place, a high-density approximation. The fast ions are then assumed to fill a constant angular momentum orbit. And finally, the fast ions immediately assume the form of a dragged down distribution. Transfer rates are then calculated from this distribution function [2]. The differential times are computed from the orbit times and the particle weights in each flux zone (the sampling bin) are proportional to the time spent in the zone. From this information the flux-surface-averaged profiles are obtained and fed into the appropriate transport equation. This procedure is clearly approximate, but accurate enough to help guide experiments. A major advantage is speed: 5000 particles can be processed in under 4s on our fastest LINUX box. This speed adds flexibility by enabling a ''large'' number of predictive studies. Similar approximations, without the accurate orbit calculation presented here, had some success comparing with experiment and TRANSP [3]. Since our procedure does not have multiple CX and relies on disparate time scales, more detailed understanding requires a ''complete'' NB package such as the NUBEAM [4] module, which follows injected fast ions along with their generations until they enter the main thermal distribution.

  8. Influence of electron injection into 27 cm audio plasma cell on the plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haleem, N. A.; Ragheb, M. S.; Zakhary, S. G. [Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Cairo 13759 (Egypt)] [Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); El Fiki, S. A.; Nouh, S. A. [Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)] [Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt); El Disoki, T. M. [Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)] [Faculty of Girls, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566 (Egypt)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the plasma is created in a Pyrex tube (L = 27 cm, ?= 4 cm) as a single cell, by a capacitive audio frequency (AF) discharge (f = 10100 kHz), at a definite pressure of ?0.2 Torr. A couple of tube linear and deviating arrangements show plasma characteristic conformity. The applied AF plasma and the injection of electrons into two gas mediums Ar and N{sub 2} revealed the increase of electron density at distinct tube regions by one order to attain 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 3}. The electrons temperature and density strengths are in contrast to each other. While their distributions differ along the plasma tube length, they show a decaying sinusoidal shape where their peaks position varies by the gas type. The electrons injection moderates electron temperature and expands their density. The later highest peak holds for the N{sub 2} gas, at electrons injection it changes to hold for the Ar. The sinusoidal decaying density behavior generates electric fields depending on the gas used and independent of tube geometry. The effect of the injected electrons performs a responsive impact on electrons density not attributed to the gas discharge. Analytical tools investigate the interaction of the plasma, the discharge current, and the gas used on the electrodes. It points to the emigration of atoms from each one but for greater majority they behave to a preferred direction. Meanwhile, only in the linear regime, small percentage of atoms still moves in reverse direction. Traces of gas atoms revealed on both electrodes due to sheath regions denote lack of their participation in the discharge current. In addition, atoms travel from one electrode to the other by overcoming the sheaths regions occurring transportation of particles agglomeration from one electrode to the other. The electrons injection has contributed to increase the plasma electron density peaks. These electrons populations have raised the generated electrostatic fields assisting the elemental ions emigration to a preferred electrode direction. Regardless of plasma electrodes positions and plasma shape, ions can be departed from one electrode to deposit on the other one. In consequence, as an application the AF plasma type can enhance the metal deposition from one electrode to the other.

  9. Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques Wolfgang Dahmen is investigated. Keywords: Finite Volume Method, Film cooling, Cooling gas injection, Multiscale techniques, Grid Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen Abstract The interaction of a jet of cooling gas

  10. Colliding Laser Pulses for Laser-Plasma Accelerator Injection Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Colliding Laser Pulses for Laser-Plasma Accelerator Injection Control G. R. Plateau, , C. G. R acceleration is a key challenge to achieve compact, reliable, tunable laser-plasma accelerators (LPA) [1, 2]. In colliding pulse injection the beat between multiple laser pulses can be used to control energy, energy

  11. Assessing the Impact of Cache Injection on Parallel Application Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maccabe, Barney

    ´on University of New Mexico leon@cs.unm.edu 1 Introduction The memory wall [13], the continuing disparity by the NIC (producer). This producer-initiated model makes cache injection prone to cache pollution to inject into the cache to minimize pollution. In Section 4, I character- ize application sensitivity

  12. The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    177 The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt T he human plutonium that was pertinent to those and LouisHempelmann #12;similar radiation experi- ments with humans. This article injection experiments carried out during and after the Manhattan Project have received tremendous noto

  13. Experimental investigation of caustic steam injection for heavy oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan, Rajiv

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to compare the effect of steam injection and caustic steam injection in improving the recovery of San Ardo and Duri heavy oils. A 67 cm long x 7.4 cm O.D (outer diameter), steel ...

  14. Directions and Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions & Maps Plan Your Visit Visit About the Museum Museum Hours Directions & Maps When to Visit Arrange for a Visit Around Los Alamos Contact Us invisible utility element...

  15. How the world's largest seawater injection system was designed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.B.; Jorque, M.A.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world's largest seawater injection system went on stream in Saudi Arabia in June 1978 to furnish 4.2 million bpd of water for pressure maintenance in the Uthmaniyah sector of the giant Ghawar Field. The operator, Aramco, first began water injection along the flanks in this field in 1966 using gravity injection wells. This gravity system gave way to a pressurized system under a program started in 1973. During this period, the primary source for injection was saline water from the Wasia Aquifer in the Uthmaniyah area. In 1974 it was determined that this aquifer could not supply the design requirement of 4.2 million bpd of saline water. Therefore, it was decided to convert the injection system to seawater obtained from the Arabian Gulf. This required the design and construction of a seawater treating plant and installation of pipelines and intermediate pump stations to transport the water from the treating plant to the existing Uthmaniyah Water Supply Station.

  16. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmer, David O. (San Francisco, CA)

    1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  17. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

  18. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  19. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  20. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...