National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tum lube refining

  1. Mobil lube dewaxing technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.L.; McGuiness, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    Currently, the lube refining industry is in a period of transition, with both hydroprocessing and catalytic dewaxing gathering momentum as replacements for solvent extraction and solvent dewaxing. In addition, lube product quality requirements have been increasing, both in the US and abroad. Mobil has developed a broad array of dewaxing catalytic technologies which can serve refiners throughout the stages of this transition. In the future, lube feedstocks which vary in source and wax content will become increasingly important, requiring an optimized system for highest performance. The Mobil Lube Dewaxing (MLDW) process is the work-horse of the catalytic dewaxing technologies, being a robust, low cost technology suitable for both solvent extracted and hydrocracked feeds. The Mobil Selective Dewaxing (MSDW) process has been recently introduced in response to the growth of hydroprocessing. MSDW requires either severely hydrotreated or hydrocracked feeds and provides improved lube yields and VI. For refiners with hydrocrackers and solvent dewaxing units, Mobil Wax Isomerization (MWI) technology can make higher VI base stocks to meet the growing demand for very high quality lube products. A review of these three technologies is presented in this paper.

  2. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  3. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  4. Impact of Lube-oil Phosphorus on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lube-oil Phosphorus on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Impact of Lube-oil Phosphorus on Diesel Oxidation Catalysts Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07_bunting.pdf (294.55 KB) More Documents & Publications The Development of Rapid Aging and Poisoning Protocols for

  5. Conversion of lpg hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of lpg dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. D.; Penick, J. E.; Socha, R. F.

    1985-09-17

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing distillate and/or lubes which employ integrating catalytic (or thermal) dehydrogenation of paraffins with MOGDL. The process feeds the product from a low temperature propane and/or butane dehydrogenation zone into a first catalytic reactor zone, which operates at low pressure and contains zeolite oligomerization catalysts, where the low molecular weight olefins are reacted to primarily gasoline range materials. These gasoline range materials can then be pressurized to the pressure required for reacting to distillate in a second catalytic reactor zone operating at high pressure and containing a zeolite oligomerization catalyst. The distillate is subsequently sent to a hydrotreating unit and product separation zone to form lubes and other finished products.

  6. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  7. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of LPG dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.; Penick, J.E.; Socha, R.F.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing distillates of lubes from paraffins, which comprise: (a) a dehydrogenation reactor including means for passing a paraffinic feedstock stream into a dehydrogenation zone at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert the paraffins to an olefin rich effluent stream comprising at least one of the group consisting of propylene and butylene; (b) a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the olefin rich effluent stream in a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert olefins to a first reactor effluent stream rich in liquid olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons; (c) a first means for separating the first reactor effluent stream to form a substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream and a C/sub 4/- rich stream; (d) means for passing the C/sub 5/+ rich stream to a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone; (e) a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream in the high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of temperature and pressure selected to produce a second reactor effluent stream which is rich in distillate; (f) second means for separating the second reactor effluent stream to recover an olefinic gasoline stream and a distillate stream; and (g) a hydrotreating reactor including means for contacting the distillate stream with hydrogen in a hydrotreating unit to produce a hydrotreated distillate stream comprising lube range hydrocarbons.

  8. Cascade reactions with Technische UniversitätMünchen (TUM) and University of Toronto Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5.4.407.Cascade reactions with Technische Universität München (TUM) and University of Toronto (U of T) March 24, 2015 Conversion R&D JOHANNES LERCHER YA-HUEI (CATHY) CHIN TUM U OF T CORINNE DRENNAN MARIEFEL V. OLARTE PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Problem Statement How can liquid transportation fuel from biomass be economically competitive? 2 Parameter Contribution to TEA Pressure

  9. Rietveld Refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profile Chi-squared value 4.944 Progress so far Inverse Modeling Method 2 Fourier Method Data Model Refined Structure 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 1000 2000 3000 4000...

  10. Refiner Crude Oil Inputs

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending ...

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf (1.16 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP ...

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in ...

  13. Step 3: Project Refinement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Project Refinement 2 1 Potential 3 Refinement 4 Implementation 5 Operations & Maintenance 2 Options 3 Refinement 1/28/2016 2 3 FUNDING AND FINANCING OPTIONS Project Ownership Financing structure is highly dependent on size of the project and the capital available for a given project: * Tribe owns the project (cash purchase or debt) * Tribe hosts the project and buys the electricity (power purchase agreement) * Tribe partners with private sector and co-owns the project (uncertainties about

  14. Refiners trade hydroprocessing experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-04-16

    Hydrogen treating and conversion processes less severe than hydrocracking abound in most refineries and therefore were a subject of high interest at the National Petroleum Refiners Association question and answer session on refining technology. The present paper, which is the second abstract of the transcript of the most recent meeting, covers hydroprocessing and some of its mechanical, process, and catalytic aspects.

  15. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  16. A lube hydrodearomatization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramos, R.Z. )

    1988-06-01

    The current worldwide demand of lubricating oils has increased the research for new technologies to obtain products with better quality, using processes less complicated than the current ones and at the same time decrease the process costs. The most familiar general process to obtain lubricating oils is by means of aromatic extraction with solvent. However, this stage represents elevated cost by raw materials consumptions; for that reason, it has increased the study of new catalytic technologies to substitute this step. In this work we are showing the last advances obtained by IMP developments about the application of the catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic compounds in lubricating oils, using a catalyst containing molybdenum as active metal and nickel and/or phosporous as promoters, - supported on gamma alumina with different concentration of metals. These catalysts have been evaluated in a pilot plant unit using several feeds of lubricating oils at different operating conditions, obtaining products with better quality than those produced by solvent extraction.

  17. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1984-01-01

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  18. CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) CLAMR (Compute Language Adaptive Mesh Refinement) is being developed as a DOE...

  19. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  20. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This energy bandwidth analysis provides a realistic estimate of the energy that may be saved in petroleum refining processes by quantifying measures of energy consumption.

  1. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California (2004) ... Photo credit: iStockphoto.com15906809 Petroleum Refining The United States is the largest, most ...

  2. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Financing Peer Exchange Call: Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning.

  3. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universitt Gttingen, Tammannstrae 4, Gttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as a CIF) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  4. Electronic structure of superconductivity refined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic structure of superconductivity refined Electronic structure of superconductivity refined A team of physicists propose a new model that expands on a little understood aspect of the electronic structure in high-temperature superconductors. July 10, 2008 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma

  5. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  6. Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guidance Tool (REFINe) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Financial Instruments Guidance Tool (REFINe) Focus Area: Renewable Energy...

  7. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Petroleum Refining (123.98 KB) More Documents & Publications Petroleum Refining (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - ...

  8. ,"U.S. Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...AEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars ...

  9. GRAIN REFINEMENT OF URANIUM BILLETS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.

    1964-02-25

    A method of refining the grain structure of massive uranium billets without resort to forging is described. The method consists in the steps of beta- quenching the billets, annealing the quenched billets in the upper alpha temperature range, and extrusion upset of the billets to an extent sufficient to increase the cross sectional area by at least 5 per cent. (AEC)

  10. Method for refining contaminated iridium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heshmatpour, B.; Heestand, R.L.

    1982-08-31

    Contaminated iridium is refined by alloying it with an alloying agent selected from the group consisting of manganese and an alloy of manganese and copper, and then dissolving the alloying agent from the formed alloy to provide a purified iridium powder.

  11. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes Prepared by Energetics Incorporated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Industrial Technologies Program October 2006 Foreword The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) is a research and development (R&D) program within the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). This program works in collaboration with U.S. industry to improve industrial energy efficiency and

  12. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  13. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  14. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry ...

  15. Improving the accuracy of macromolecular structure refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is challenging at low resolution. We compared refinement methods using synchrotron diffraction data of photosystem I at 7.4 resolution, starting from different initial models...

  16. Refiners Increasingly Employing Catalyst Regeneration as Alternative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    million by the end of 2019. Refiners Benefit from Catalyst Regeneration Technology via Price Reductions and Lower Maintenance Costs The catalyst regeneration technology is the...

  17. Right rock: Finding/refining customer expectations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashby, R.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on methods of finding customer expectations of software and then refining the documentation and software to fit these expectations.

  18. Midcourse Refinements of Financing Strategies | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 29, 2012. During this webinar participants discussed how programs have adapted and refined their financing strategies based on initial implementation experience and learning. ...

  19. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  20. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  2. U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

  3. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few) problem areas. Related industry work: American Petroleum Institute corrosion and materials work on high temperature hydrogen attack. Overall Perspectives 3 Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at

  4. Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining technologies, and Pacific ...

  5. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 3. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor...

  11. ,"U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Motor Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on ...

  13. Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2008-12-01

    In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.

  14. Trends in petroleum refining process technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalczyk, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the 1990`s, the shift toward reformulated fuels and the unrelenting economic pressures on the petroleum refining industry have led to the ongoing development of a series of technological advances to improve fuels quality and industry operating efficiency. In this paper, ten of the most innovative and high impact recent developments in petroleum refining process technology will be highlighted. Process improvements and innovations have occurred in all facets of petroleum refining operations including fluid catalytic cracking, ether production, desulfurization, hydrocracking, gas processing, environmental control and heavy oil processing. Discussed will be the technical and economic impact of each of these new technologies on the petroleum refinery of the late 20th and early 21st century.

  15. JAPAN: Refining options and liberalization plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totto, L.; Isaak, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    The reformulation of Japan's petroleum import policy is important to Japan and to the international energy community. The technical and economic factors involved in opening the Japanese market is unknown. Assuming that foreign refiners have the technical capability to meet Japanese product specifications, the prices and volumes that will prove economical to both parties are also little known. Japanese refiners have been investigating the possibility of exporting gasoline and processing crude for China and Malaysia. The study demonstrates that under certain trade policies, Japan could become a significant product exporter. This study's purpose is to investigate the economic efficiency of alternative petroleum supply options, i.e., combining Japan's refining and product imports. An evaluation of the current import program and the technically feasible alternatives will play a major role in a new import policy. For this evaluation, a linear programming (LP) model of Japan's domestic refinery capacity and the petroleum import system was constructed. 3 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-29

    This is a simulation code involving an ALE (arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) hydrocode with AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) and pluggable physics packages for material strength, heat conduction, radiation diffusion, and laser ray tracing developed a LLNL, UCSD, and Berkeley Lab. The code is an extension of the open source SAMRAI (Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Interface) code/library. The code can be used in laser facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. The code is alsi being appliedmore » to slurry flow (landslides).« less

  17. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  18. The strategic outlook for petroleum refiners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, C.

    1994-12-31

    After several years of acceptable and relatively reliable profitability, refiners were plunged into uncertainty once again following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) in 1990. While many of the original uncertainties that attended these regulations have since been resolved, the industry now must prepare for the new manufacturing, distributions, and transportation challenges that undoubtedly will accompany the first stages of reformulated gasoline (RFG) compliance in early 1995. This impending challenge introduces several fundamental questions: (1) How has the industry changed and adjusted to respond to anticipated future needs? (2) What strategies are refiners employing today? (3) What are industry performance expectations over the next several years?

  19. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  20. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  1. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  2. Refining New-Physics Searches in B→Dτν with Lattice QCD | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Series: Refiner Crude Oil Inputs Refiner Gross Inputs Refiner Operable Capacity (Calendar Day) Refiner Percent Operable Utilization Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of Motor Gasoline Blending Comp Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of RBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of CBOB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of GTAB Blending Components Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of All Other Blending Component Net Inputs (Refiner and Blender) of Fuel Ethanol

  3. Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement Application Infrastructure

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    SAMRAI is an object-oriented support library for structured adaptice mesh refinement (SAMR) simulation of computational science problems, modeled by systems of partial differential equations (PDEs). SAMRAI is developed and maintained in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) under ASCI ITS and PSE support. SAMRAI is used in a variety of application research efforts at LLNL and in academia. These applications are developed in collaboration with SAMRAI development team members.

  4. Refining quadrilateral and brick element meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneiders, R.; Debye, J.

    1995-12-31

    We consider the problem of refining unstructured quadrilateral and brick element meshes. We present an algorithm which is a generalization of an algorithm developed by Cheng et. al. for structured quadrilateral element meshes. The problem is solved for the two-dimensional case. Concerning three dimensions we present a solution for some special cases and a general solution that introduces tetrahedral and pyramidal transition elements.

  5. Secretary Bodman Tours Refinery and Calls for More Domestic Refining...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Bodman today renewed the call for expanded oil refining capacity in the United States and ... and one way to do that is to strengthen and expand our domestic oil refining capacity. ...

  6. Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductors | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors

  7. ,"Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  8. ,"U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","5... "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. Residual Fuel Oil Refiner Sales Volumes" ...

  9. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  10. Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Bandwidth Study U.S. Petroleum Refining Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas,

  11. Genealogy of major U.S. refiners - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    See full Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Previous Release Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Genealogy of Major U.S. Refiners Release date: September 18, 2013 figre 1. World energy consumption, 1990-2040. The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed substantially over the past several years. In the diagram the companies shown on the right side are presently active in U.S. refining. The transactions over the past 25 years that created these companies also are shown. The

  12. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrder, Gunnar F.; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T.

    2014-09-01

    An overview of applications of the deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method is presented together with recommendations for its optimal usage. Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 . Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  13. Pollution prevention in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fromm, C.H.; White, S.L.

    1995-09-01

    Pollution prevention (P2) as applied to petroleum refining should seek opportunities to reduce waste by preventing oil/hydrocarbon loss, by decreasing consumption of auxiliary input materials, and by improving conversion of incoming impurities into useful products. This chapter will focus on P2 techniques that have found or could find applications in minimizing or eliminating reducible solid waste and wastewater from the petroleum refining process. Air emissions are not covered. The following commonly encountered wastes are considered in this chapter: oily sludges; spent caustics; spent catalysts; miscellaneous process wastes; wastewater; maintenance and materials handling wastes. Following a brief description of waste components and sources, specific P2 techniques are presented in tabular form for each of these wastestreams. None of the P2 techniques presented is discussed here in any detail--the intent is to give the reader a menu of potentially effective P2 options to consider, along with the references where a more detailed discussion may be found. Some of the options presented were advanced in the original references merely as suggestions or plans for improvement. No effort was made to verify their efficacy or applicability in this compilation.

  14. COSMOLOGICAL ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS WITH ENZO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, David C.; Xu Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we present EnzoMHD, the extension of the cosmological code Enzo to include the effects of magnetic fields through the ideal magnetohydrodynamics approximation. We use a higher order Godunov method for the computation of interface fluxes. We use two constrained transport methods to compute the electric field from those interface fluxes, which simultaneously advances the induction equation and maintains the divergence of the magnetic field. A second-order divergence-free reconstruction technique is used to interpolate the magnetic fields in the block-structured adaptive mesh refinement framework already extant in Enzo. This reconstruction also preserves the divergence of the magnetic field to machine precision. We use operator splitting to include gravity and cosmological expansion. We then present a series of cosmological and non-cosmological test problems to demonstrate the quality of solution resulting from this combination of solvers.

  15. Visualization Tools for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki,Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-05-09

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations that must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR visualization research and tools and describe how VisIt currently handles AMR data.

  16. Visualization of Scalar Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VACET; Weber, Gunther; Weber, Gunther H.; Beckner, Vince E.; Childs, Hank; Ligocki, Terry J.; Miller, Mark C.; Van Straalen, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes

    2007-12-06

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a highly effective computation method for simulations that span a large range of spatiotemporal scales, such as astrophysical simulations, which must accommodate ranges from interstellar to sub-planetary. Most mainstream visualization tools still lack support for AMR grids as a first class data type and AMR code teams use custom built applications for AMR visualization. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Science Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET) is currently working on extending VisIt, which is an open source visualization tool that accommodates AMR as a first-class data type. These efforts will bridge the gap between general-purpose visualization applications and highly specialized AMR visual analysis applications. Here, we give an overview of the state of the art in AMR scalar data visualization research.

  17. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) | Department of Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry (November 2007) profile.pdf (1.62 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

  18. ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 ITP Petroleum Refining: Petroleum Technology Vision 2020 techvision.pdf (684.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing Energy and Carbon ...

  19. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Authors: Simms, L ; De Vries, W ; RIot, V ; Olivier, S ; Pertica, A ; Bauman, B ; ...

  20. ,"U.S. Total Refiner Petroleum Product Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NUSDPG","EMAEPPRPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRLPTGNUSDPG","EMAEPPRHPTGNUSDPG" "Date","U.S. Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per Gallon)","U.S. Aviation Gasoline...

  1. The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Space-Based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris Pathfinder Mission Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Space-Based Telescopes for ...

  2. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0rdpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Reformulated Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  3. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...www.eia.govdnavpetpetprirefmg2cnusepm0udpgalm.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information ... Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners (Dollars per ...

  4. Refiners react to changes in the pipeline infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    Petroleum pipelines have long been a critical component in the distribution of crude and refined products in the U.S. Pipelines are typically the most cost efficient mode of transportation for reasonably consistent flow rates. For obvious reasons, inland refineries and consumers are much more dependent on petroleum pipelines to provide supplies of crude and refined products than refineries and consumers located on the coasts. Significant changes in U.S. distribution patterns for crude and refined products are reshaping the pipeline infrastructure and presenting challenges and opportunities for domestic refiners. These changes are discussed.

  5. EERE Success Story—Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    W.R. Grace and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are working to establish a bio-oil refining process that users existing petroleum refinery infrastructure.

  6. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  7. The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: The Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) mission Authors: Riot, V ; Devries, W ; Bauman, B ; Simms, L ; Carter, D ; Phillion, D ; Olivier, S ...

  8. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  9. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  10. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  11. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  12. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  13. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  14. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  15. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  16. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  17. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  18. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997 Table 43....

  19. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  20. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  1. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 43....

  2. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf (1.34 ...

  3. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operationsmore » or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.« less

  4. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  5. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1988-05-17

    Apparatus is described for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom. 2 figs.

  6. Steel refining with an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Cook, G.M.

    1985-05-21

    Disclosed is an apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contact with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  7. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  8. ,"Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Total Gasoline Retail Sales by Refiners ...87,16127.8,1684.4,1377.2,128.8,497.8,835.6,2030.3,1178.7,674.5,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1...

  9. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  10. Reitveld refinement study of PLZT ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bavbande, D. V.; Bafna, V. H.; Mohan, D.; Kothiyal, G. P.; Mishra, R.

    2013-02-05

    PLZT ceramics of composition Pb{sub 0.93}La{sub 0.07}(Zr{sub 0.60}Ti{sub 0.40})O{sub 3}, have been milled for 6hrs and 24hrs were prepared by solid state synthesis route. The 6hrs milled and 24hrs milled samples are represented as PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern was recorded at room temperature. The XRD pattern has been analyzed by employing Rietveld refinement method. Phase identification shows that all the peaks observed in PLZT-6 and PLZT-24 ceramics could be indexed to P4mm space group with tetragonal symmetry. The unit cell parameters of 6hrs milled PLZT ceramics are found to be a=b=4.0781(5)A and c=4.0938(7)A and for 24hrs milled PLZT ceramics unit cell parameters are a=b=4.0679(4)A and c=4.1010(5)A . The axial ratio c/a and unit cell volume of PLZT-6 are 1.0038 and 68.09(2)A{sup 3} respectively. In PLZT-24 samples, the axial ratio c/a value is 1.0080 which is little more than that of the 6hr milled PLZT sample whereas the unit cell volume decrease to 67.88 (1) A{sup 3}. An average crystallite size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. Dielectric properties were obtained by measuring the capacitance and tand loss using Stanford LCR meter.

  11. Integrated process for the solvent refining of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1983-01-01

    A process is set forth for the integrated liquefaction of coal by the catalytic solvent refining of a feed coal in a first stage to liquid and solid products and the catalytic hydrogenation of the solid product in a second stage to produce additional liquid product. A fresh inexpensive, throw-away catalyst is utilized in the second stage hydrogenation of the solid product and this catalyst is recovered and recycled for catalyst duty in the solvent refining stage without any activation steps performed on the used catalyst prior to its use in the solvent refining of feed coal.

  12. May 28 Webinar to Focus on Tribal Energy Project Refinement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Register for the Tribal Renewable Energy Project Refinement webinar, which will be held on Wednesday, May 28, 2014, from 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. Mountain time.

  13. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  14. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  15. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Overall Perspectives: Few problems with hydrogen piping operating at ambient to at least 800F and pressures up to at least 3000psia as long as we stay within well-defined limits hpwgw_chevronrefining_niccolls.pdf (373.32 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines A Review of Stress Corrosion

  16. Waste minimization for selected residuals in the petroleum refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This technical report on residuals in the petroleum refining industry provides an industry overview, process description, and process flow diagrams. It presents residual descriptions for each of the 29 petroleum refining residuals of concern and what source reduction option exist. It reviews the data sources - RCRA Section 2007 surveys, site visits, and journal articles. It also describes major findings and evaluates the quantity and quality of waste minization information for each source.

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Belmont Smelting and Refining Works

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Inc - NY 44 Belmont Smelting and Refining Works Inc - NY 44 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Belmont Smelting & Refining Works Inc (NY 0-04) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Brooklyn , New York NY.44-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 NY.44-1 Site Operations: Supplied the MED with construction materials. NY.44-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication of radioactive materials handled at this site NY.44-1 Radioactive

  18. EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum EERE Success Story-Refining Bio-Oil alongside Petroleum April 9, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis W.R. Grace, a leading provider of refining ...

  19. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.

    1997-12-01

    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  1. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  2. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  3. PROP re-refined oil engine test performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linnard, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    Using conventional, commercially-available nonproprietary (to Phillips) additive treatments, engine test programs have successfully demonstrated Phillips Re-refined Oil Process (PROP) oils' compliance with the performance requirements of MIL-L-46152A and API Services SE/CC. This paper reports on the engine testing experience with PROP refined oils as produced in a full-scale 2 MM GPY PROP plant operating with Buyer-collected used oil feedstocks. Comment is also made on the status of the first two PROP plants, one built for the state of North Carolina and the other for Mohawk Oil Company, Ltd., Vancouver B.C., Canada.

  4. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  5. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  6. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. U.S. Refiner Retail Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No. 4...

  11. Process for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, P.S. Jr.; Agee, W.A.; Bullock, J.S. IV; Condon, J.B.

    1975-07-22

    A process is described for electroslag refining of uranium and uranium alloys wherein molten uranium and uranium alloys are melted in a molten layer of a fluoride slag containing up to about 8 weight percent calcium metal. The calcium metal reduces oxides in the uranium and uranium alloys to provide them with an oxygen content of less than 100 parts per million. (auth)

  12. Decontamination of transuranic contaminated metals by melt refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.; Heestand, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Melt refining of transuranic contaminated metals is a possible decontamination process with the potential advantages of producing metal for reuse and of simplifying chemical analyses. By routinely achieving the 10 nCi/g( about0.1ppm) level by melt refining, scrap metal can be removed from the transuranic waste category. (To demonstrate the effectiveness of this melt refining process, mild steel, stainless steel, nickel, and copper were contaminated with 500 ppm (..mu..g/g) PuO/sub 2/ and melted with various fluxes. The solidified slags and metals were analyzed for their plutonium contents, and corresponding partition ratios for plutonium were calculated. Some metals were double refined in order to study the effect of secondary slag treatment. The initial weight of the slags was also varied to investigate the effect of slag weight on the degree of plutonium removal. In general, all four metals could be decontaminated below 1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu ( about100 nCi/g) by a single slag treatment. Doubling the slag weight did not improve decontamination significantly; however, double slag treatment using 5 wt.% slag did decontaminate the metals to below 0.1 ppm (..mu..g/g) Pu (10 nCi/g).)

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  14. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  15. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  16. ,"Conventional Gasoline Sales to End Users, Total Refiner Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico Conventional Gasoline Retail Sales by ...928.8,,587,12358.1,196,1145.9,128.8,497.8,,2030.3,,459.7,56.4,3.9,4678.6,764.1,9.3,1677.4,...

  17. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  18. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale Contents * Introduction * Motor Gasoline Summer Volatility (RVP) Regulations o Table 1. Summer Volatility Regulations for Motor Gasoline o Table 2. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Figure 1. Refinery Inputs and Production of Normal Butane o Table 3. Price Relationship Between Normal Butane and Motor Gasoline o Table 4. Market Price Premium for Low Vapor Pressure (RVP) Gasoline *

  19. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs.

  20. Mesh refinement for uncertainty quantification through model reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing Stinis, Panos

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel way of deciding when and where to refine a mesh in probability space in order to facilitate uncertainty quantification in the presence of discontinuities in random space. A discontinuity in random space makes the application of generalized polynomial chaos expansion techniques prohibitively expensive. The reason is that for discontinuous problems, the expansion converges very slowly. An alternative to using higher terms in the expansion is to divide the random space in smaller elements where a lower degree polynomial is adequate to describe the randomness. In general, the partition of the random space is a dynamic process since some areas of the random space, particularly around the discontinuity, need more refinement than others as time evolves. In the current work we propose a way to decide when and where to refine the random space mesh based on the use of a reduced model. The idea is that a good reduced model can monitor accurately, within a random space element, the cascade of activity to higher degree terms in the chaos expansion. In turn, this facilitates the efficient allocation of computational sources to the areas of random space where they are more needed. For the Kraichnan–Orszag system, the prototypical system to study discontinuities in random space, we present theoretical results which show why the proposed method is sound and numerical results which corroborate the theory.

  1. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  2. Catalytic hydroprocessing of solvent refined coal to provide a liquid and a solid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Heck, R.H.; Stein, T.R.

    1980-04-29

    In the hydroprocessing of blends of solvent refined coal and recycle solvent, small pore hydrotreating catalysts cause separation of a solid phase from treating blends containing high concentration of solvent refined coal.

  3. ,"Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales ...

  4. RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc.Commonwealth of Puerto Rico RFA-14-0001 - In the Matter of Commonwealth Oil Refining Company, Inc....

  5. Occupational employment survey, booklet of definitions. Petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The publication gives occupational definitions for 149 occupations in the petroleum refining, coal products, and related industries.

  6. Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    69 2.4 PETROLEUM REFINING SECTOR (NAICS 324110) 2.4.1. Overview of the Petroleum Refining Manufacturing Sector Petroleum refining is a complex industry that generates a diverse slate of fuel products and petrochemicals, from gasoline to asphalt. Refining requires a range of processing steps, including distillation, cracking, reforming, and treating. Most of these processes are highly reliant on process heating and steam energy. Petroleum refineries are an essential part of the U.S. economy.

  7. Environmental control technology for mining, milling, and refining thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Young, J.K.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate, in terms of cost and effectiveness, the various environmental control technologies that would be used to control the radioactive wastes generated in the mining, milling, and refining of thorium from domestic resources. The technologies, in order to be considered for study, had to reduce the radioactivity in the waste streams to meet Atomic Energy Commission (10 CFR 20) standards for natural thorium's maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in air and water. Further regulatory standards or licensing requirements, either federal, state, or local, were not examined. The availability and cost of producing thorium from domestic resources is addressed in a companion volume. The objectives of this study were: (1) to identify the major waste streams generated during the mining, milling, and refining of reactor-grade thorium oxide from domestic resources; and (2) to determine the cost and levels of control of existing and advanced environmental control technologies for these waste streams. Six potential domestic deposits of thorium oxide, in addition to stockpiled thorium sludges, are discussed in this report. A summary of the location and characteristics of the potential domestic thorium resources and the mining, milling, and refining processes that will be needed to produce reactor-grade thorium oxide is presented in Section 2. The wastes from existing and potential domestic thorium oxide mines, mills, and refineries are identified in Section 3. Section 3 also presents the state-of-the-art technology and the costs associated with controlling the wastes from the mines, mills, and refineries. In Section 4, the available environmental control technologies for mines, mills, and refineries are assessed. Section 5 presents the cost and effectiveness estimates for the various environmental control technologies applicable to the mine, mill, and refinery for each domestic resource.

  8. Cogeneration handbook for the petroleum refining industry. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fassbender, A.G.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the petroleum refining industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  9. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Hyperbranched Alkanes for Lubes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting...

  11. Metal decontamination for waste minimization using liquid metal refining technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Lally, B.; Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    The current Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project flowsheet indicates that no conventional technology, other than surface decontamination, exists for metal processing. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain concentration. This project is in support of the National Mixed Low Level Waste Treatment Program. Because of the high cost of disposal, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low-level contaminated metals. It is important to be able to decontaminate complex shapes where surfaces are hidden or inaccessible to surface decontamination processes and destruction of organic contamination. These goals can be achieved by adapting commercial metal refining processes to handle radioactive and organic contaminated metal. The radioactive components are concentrated in the slag, which is subsequently vitrified; hazardous organics are destroyed by the intense heat of the bath. The metal, after having been melted and purified, could be recycled for use within the DOE complex. In this project, we evaluated current state-of-the-art technologies for metal refining, with special reference to the removal of radioactive contaminants and the destruction of hazardous organics. This evaluation was based on literature reports, industrial experience, plant visits, thermodynamic calculations, and engineering aspects of the various processes. The key issues addressed included radioactive partitioning between the metal and slag phases, minimization of secondary wastes, operability of the process subject to widely varying feed chemistry, and the ability to seal the candidate process to prevent the release of hazardous species.

  12. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

  13. Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlichting, M.R.

    1994-11-22

    A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

  14. A case study of energy conservation opportunities in copper refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somers, W.E.; Hughen, M.L.; Kurylko, L.; Stone, J.R.

    1982-07-01

    A study of energy usage and distribution in a copper refinery was conducted in an attempt to determine possible cost savings in operations of the plant. The study covered those processes which were the major users of energy, namely, smelting, anode casting, electrolytic refining, steam generation and distribution, and electricity distribution. The study involved obtaining data of mass and energy flows in the refinery; identifying energy conservation opportunities (ECO's); obtaining price, operating costs, and saving potentials; for each conservation measure; and analyzing the economical viability of each conservation proposal. Potential cost savings were found to be substantial in heat recovery from slag and anode furnace hot gases, modification of the central steam supply system, control, and redistribution of electrical loads, insulation of electrolytic tanks, and changes in the atomization of oil.

  15. ENZO: AN ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, Greg L.; Turk, Matthew J.; Norman, Michael L.; Bordner, James; Xu, Hao; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Smith, Britton; Abel, Tom; Wang, Peng; Skillman, Samuel W.; Wise, John H.; Reynolds, Daniel R.; Collins, David C.; Harkness, Robert P.; Kim, Ji-hoon; Kuhlen, Michael; Goldbaum, Nathan; Hummels, Cameron; Collaboration: Enzo Collaboration; and others

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the open-source code Enzo, which uses block-structured adaptive mesh refinement to provide high spatial and temporal resolution for modeling astrophysical fluid flows. The code is Cartesian, can be run in one, two, and three dimensions, and supports a wide variety of physics including hydrodynamics, ideal and non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics, N-body dynamics (and, more broadly, self-gravity of fluids and particles), primordial gas chemistry, optically thin radiative cooling of primordial and metal-enriched plasmas (as well as some optically-thick cooling models), radiation transport, cosmological expansion, and models for star formation and feedback in a cosmological context. In addition to explaining the algorithms implemented, we present solutions for a wide range of test problems, demonstrate the code's parallel performance, and discuss the Enzo collaboration's code development methodology.

  16. A Comparative Assessment of Resource Efficiency in Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, G; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Divita, V

    2015-10-01

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory's GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio. (c) 2015 Argonne National Laboratory. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study weremore » incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.« less

  18. A comparative assessment of resource efficiency in petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jeongwoo; Forman, Grant S.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; DiVita, Vincent B.

    2015-03-25

    Because of increasing environmental and energy security concerns, a detailed understanding of energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the petroleum refining industry is critical for fair and equitable energy and environmental policies. To date, this has proved challenging due in part to the complex nature and variability within refineries. In an effort to simplify energy and emissions refinery analysis, we delineated LP modeling results from 60 large refineries from the US and EU into broad categories based on crude density (API gravity) and heavy product (HP) yields. Product-specific efficiencies and process fuel shares derived from this study were incorporated in Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET life-cycle model, along with regional upstream GHG intensities of crude, natural gas and electricity specific to the US and EU regions. The modeling results suggest that refineries that process relatively heavier crude inputs and have lower yields of HPs generally have lower energy efficiencies and higher GHG emissions than refineries that run lighter crudes with lower yields of HPs. The former types of refineries tend to utilize energy-intensive units which are significant consumers of utilities (heat and electricity) and hydrogen. Among the three groups of refineries studied, the major difference in the energy intensities is due to the amount of purchased natural gas for utilities and hydrogen, while the sum of refinery feed inputs are generally constant. These results highlight the GHG emissions cost a refiner pays to process deep into the barrel to produce more of the desirable fuels with low carbon to hydrogen ratio.

  19. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  20. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  1. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

  2. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  3. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Resale, Total Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ...

  4. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1999 421 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  5. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Marketing Annual 1995 467 Table A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) -...

  6. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    retail outlets, e.g., sales to agricultural customers, commercial sales, and industrial sales. Source: Energy Information Administration Form EIA-782A, "Refiners'Gas...

  7. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  8. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  9. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  10. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  11. Effect of hydroprocessing on lubricant base stock composition and product performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galiano-Roth, A.S.; Page, N.M.

    1994-08-01

    Conventional lubricant base stock manufacture via solvent refining involves the physical separation of lube molecules while hydroprocessing changes the chemical structures of these molecules. Sulfur, nitrogen, and aromatic compounds are reduced to very low levels, compared to conventional refining. These changes in composition naturally affect product performance. Lube oil oxidation stability is increased but inferior solvency characteristics are apparent. This paper summarizes the effect of hydroprocessing unit configuration (one vs. two stage), hydrogen pressure, and hydrotreating temperature on lube base stock composition (sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics). Base stock aromatic composition, as evaluated by ultraviolet spectroscopy, is related to lube oil oxidation stability in a phenol-based antioxidant formulation. Solvency problems observed for the formulated products can be improved with additive modifications. 8 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extensionmore » of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.« less

  13. Environmental regulations and changes in petroleum refining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lidderdale, T.C.M.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. petroleum industry has responded to four major new federal rules on motor gasoline product quality in the last 6 years: Phase 1 Summer Volatility (Rvp) Regulation, June 1989; Phase 2 Summer Volatility (Rvp) regulation, May 1992; oxygenated Gasoline, November 1992; and reformulated Gasoline Phase I Simple Model, December 1994. These regulations have generated significant changes in domestic refinery operations, affecting marginal production costs and market prices, refinery yields, and the seasonality of production. Some changes have been dramatic. The price of motor gasoline has increased by as much as 60 {cents}/gal due to regulations. Refinery yields of motor gasoline (refinery output of motor gasoline as a fraction of refinery inputs or total refinery output), which historically peaked in the early summer to meet high summer driving demand, now are highest during the winter months. These changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the vapor pressure, oxygenated and reformulated gasoline (RFG) product quality regulations. This analysis uses linear regression equations from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the EIA`s Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum wastes from the refining of lubricant oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prince, M.; Sambasivam, Y. )

    1993-02-01

    The results of an initial feasibility study on the bioremediation of sludge are presented. The sludge used in the study was taken from a site containing waste produced during the refining of lubricant oils to which sulfuric acid had been added. The effectiveness of bioremediation was examined using shake flask experiments with indigenous and other bacteria sources and nutrient supplementation. The initial results show limited effectiveness of biological treatment at conditions employing indigenous bacteria and low (2%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas media. In addition, the indigenous bacteria were seen to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons naphthalene, penanthrene and pyrene which are present at some locations at the site. No apparent degradation of material was seen using conditions of high (30%) sludge concentrations in Bushnell-Haas medium under a variety of conditions. In addition, nutrients were rapidly depleted at these sludge concentrations, with the exception of sulfates which were produced when high sludge concentrations were used. 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Advances in Patch-Based Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scalability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunney, Brian T.N.; Anderson, Robert W.

    2015-12-18

    Patch-based structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) is widely used for high-resolution simu- lations. Combined with modern supercomputers, it could provide simulations of unprecedented size and resolution. A persistent challenge for this com- bination has been managing dynamically adaptive meshes on more and more MPI tasks. The dis- tributed mesh management scheme in SAMRAI has made some progress SAMR scalability, but early al- gorithms still had trouble scaling past the regime of 105 MPI tasks. This work provides two critical SAMR regridding algorithms, which are integrated into that scheme to ensure efficiency of the whole. The clustering algorithm is an extension of the tile- clustering approach, making it more flexible and efficient in both clustering and parallelism. The partitioner is a new algorithm designed to prevent the network congestion experienced by its prede- cessor. We evaluated performance using weak- and strong-scaling benchmarks designed to be difficult for dynamic adaptivity. Results show good scaling on up to 1.5M cores and 2M MPI tasks. Detailed timing diagnostics suggest scaling would continue well past that.

  16. Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

  17. ,"No. 2 Diesel Fuel Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel Retail Sales by Refiners ...17.9,1773.9,,,781.9,,3446.1,296.5,,,,129.9,2030.1,,,,182.8,,416.2,,60.5,369.8,1495.2,,76.6...

  18. RAM: a Relativistic Adaptive Mesh Refinement Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei-Qun; MacFadyen, Andrew I.; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study

    2005-06-06

    The authors have developed a new computer code, RAM, to solve the conservative equations of special relativistic hydrodynamics (SRHD) using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) on parallel computers. They have implemented a characteristic-wise, finite difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme using the full characteristic decomposition of the SRHD equations to achieve fifth-order accuracy in space. For time integration they use the method of lines with a third-order total variation diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme. They have also implemented fourth and fifth order Runge-Kutta time integration schemes for comparison. The implementation of AMR and parallelization is based on the FLASH code. RAM is modular and includes the capability to easily swap hydrodynamics solvers, reconstruction methods and physics modules. In addition to WENO they have implemented a finite volume module with the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for reconstruction and the modified Marquina approximate Riemann solver to work with TVD Runge-Kutta time integration. They examine the difficulty of accurately simulating shear flows in numerical relativistic hydrodynamics codes. They show that under-resolved simulations of simple test problems with transverse velocity components produce incorrect results and demonstrate the ability of RAM to correctly solve these problems. RAM has been tested in one, two and three dimensions and in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. they have demonstrated fifth-order accuracy for WENO in one and two dimensions and performed detailed comparison with other schemes for which they show significantly lower convergence rates. Extensive testing is presented demonstrating the ability of RAM to address challenging open questions in relativistic astrophysics.

  19. Impact of oxygenates on petroleum refining, review and forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unzelman, G.H.

    1995-09-01

    During the coming decade, oxygenates will continue to impact light oil processing and will steadily change the composition of the US gasoline pool. There are several major driving forces that will sustain the gradual influx of oxygen to US gasoline toward the regulatory limits: (1) the positive environmental characteristics of oxygenated compounds, (2) the high-octane quality of ethers that promote elimination of less desirable hydrocarbons and (3) the competitive need for ultra-clean gasoline to compete with alternatives. From 1995 forward, conventional gasoline will gradually shift to RFG (reformulated gasoline) containing a minimum of 2 wt% oxygen and less aromatics. As a result some processing changes, already in motion in the refining industry, will continue. For example, less severe naphtha reforming and cracking innovations to yield more feed for etherification and alkylation. While alternative fuel and vehicle technology will continue to develop, oxygenates in US gasoline will contribute the major alternative dimension to transportation fuel in the foreseeable future. With RFG, internal-combustion engine emissions will be progressively less toxic and lower in photochemical reactivity. The oxygenate mix will favor methyl ethers in spite of the recent methanol price spike. Ethyl ethers will be used on a more limited basis for specific situations where lower volatility and feedstock economics are an advantage. Downstream blending of ethanol will supplement ethers blended at the refinery in situations where economics are more favorable than refinery ethers. Long-range survival of ethanol, as a direct blending agent or feedstock for refinery ethers, depends on one or more of several factors: future crude oil costs, longevity of subsidies and/or mandates, and new production technology based on cellulose yielding ethanol economically competitive with hydrocarbons.

  20. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, R.; Flaherty, J.E.; Arney, D.C. Rensselaer Polytech. Inst., Troy, NY Military Acad., West Point, NY )

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  1. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from a Barrel of Oil | Department of Energy 6: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons of Gasoline from a Barrel of Oil A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of petroleum products. The additional 2 gallons of petroleum products come from refiner gains which result in an additional 6% of product. As shown in the figure below, a little more

  2. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore; Cross, Carl E.

    2012-06-28

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  3. Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEntee, Jarlath

    2013-08-30

    Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (ORPC) is a global leader in hydrokinetic technology and project development. ORPC develops hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of oceans and rivers to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC’s technology consists of a family of modular hydrokinetic power systems: the TidGen® Power System, for use at shallow to medium-depth tidal sites; the RivGen™ Power System, for use at river and estuary sites; and the OCGen® Power System, presently under development, for use at deep tidal and offshore ocean current sites. These power systems convert kinetic energy in moving water into clean, renewable, grid-compatible electric power. The core technology component for all ORPC power systems is its patented turbine generator unit (TGU). The TGU uses proprietary advanced design cross flow (ADCF) turbines to drive an underwater permanent magnet generator mounted at the TGU’s center. It is a gearless, direct-drive system that has the potential for high reliability, requires no lubricants and releases no toxins that could contaminate the surrounding water. The hydrokinetic industry shows tremendous promise as a means of helping reduce the U.S.’s use of fossil fuels and dependence on foreign oil. To exploit this market opportunity, cross-flow hydrokinetic devices need to advance beyond the pre-commercial state and more systematic data about the structure and function of cross-flow hydrokinetic devices is required. This DOE STTR project, “Recovery Act - Refinement of Cross Flow Turbine Airfoils,” refined the cross-flow turbine design process to improve efficiency and performance and developed turbine manufacturing processes appropriate for volume production. The project proposed (1) to overcome the lack of data by extensively studying the properties of cross flow turbines, a particularly competitive design approach for extracting hydrokinetic energy and (2) to help ORPC mature its pre

  4. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan; Brueske, Sabine; Carole, Tracy; Andres, Howard

    2007-11-01

    This 2007 report provides an overview of the U.S. petroleum refining industry, including new data on market trends and energy and material consumption, as well as information on environmental performance.

  5. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  6. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.1 18.7 See footnotes at end of table. 18 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade...

  8. FIA-15-0002 - In the Matter of Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Springs, Inc. This Decision concerns an Appeal that Alon Refining Krotz Springs, Inc. ... Energy (DOE) in 10 C.F.R. Part 1004. This Appeal, if granted, would require that the OIR ...

  9. Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

  10. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  11. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  12. Table A2. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - W 73.5 See footnotes at end of table. A2. RefinerReseller Prices of Aviation Fuels, Propane, and Kerosene, by PAD District, 1983-Present Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.3 3.4 7.9 3.3 W 11.3 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  14. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    88.4 87.8 80.1 70.0 NA 72.6 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  15. Table 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.7 5.9 4.4 12.9 NA 17.3 See footnotes at end of table. 9. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 18 Energy Information Administration ...

  16. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.8 92.5 84.0 72.5 W 80.7 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  17. Table 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    87.4 86.9 78.3 68.5 W 70.8 See footnotes at end of table. 8. U.S. Refiner Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 16 Energy Information Administration ...

  18. Table 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    92.4 92.1 83.7 74.1 W 80.9 See footnotes at end of table. 12. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 24 Energy Information Administration ...

  19. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    98.0 98.0 86.6 75.0 - 80.1 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Table 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    94.0 93.9 83.2 73.8 - 79.3 See footnotes at end of table. 10. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 20 Energy Information Administration ...

  1. Table 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.6 3.7 7.9 3.1 W 11.0 See footnotes at end of table. 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 26 Energy Information Administration ...

  2. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  3. Fact #676: May 23, 2011 U.S. Refiners Produce about 19 Gallons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A standard U.S. barrel contains 42 gallons of crude oil which yields about 44 gallons of ... and 10 gallons of diesel fuel are produced from a barrel of crudeoil by U.S. refiners. ...

  4. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining -

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum & Other Liquids Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Prices Crude reserves and production Refining and processing Imports/exports & movements Stocks Consumption/sales All petroleum & other liquids data reports Analysis & Projections Major Topics Most popular Consumption & sales Crude reserves & production Imports/exports & movements Prices Projections Recurring Refining & processing Stocks All reports Browse

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- National Smelting and Refining Co - OH

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    20 Smelting and Refining Co - OH 20 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: NATIONAL SMELTING & REFINING CO. (OH.20) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: 6800 Grand Avenue , Cleveland , Ohio OH.20-1 Evaluation Year: 1993 OH.20-2 Site Operations: No indication of other test operations using very limited quantities of slag material. OH.20-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote based upon

  6. Petroleum movements and investments in the refining industry: The impact of worldwide environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guariguata U., G.

    1995-09-01

    Since the enactment of the US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the worldwide refining industry has aligned itself to become increasing attuned to the future well-being of the environment. Refiners must now develop strategies which address careful selection of crude slates, significant increases and changes in product movements, and upgrading of facilities to meet growing demand--in short, strategies which allow them to make substantial increases in capital investments. The objective of this paper is to determine the regional capital investments refiners must make in order to comply with environmental legislation. The methodology in making this determination was founded on a comprehensive analysis of worldwide petroleum supply/demand and distribution patterns for the coming five years, and included evaluation of a set of linear programming (LP) models based on forecasts for regional product demands and projections of regional specifications. The models considered two scenarios, in which either (1) refinery expansion occurs chiefly in the market consuming regions, or (2) crude producers take control of incremental crude volumes and further expand their planned refining projects and the marketing of refined products. The results of these models, coupled with an understanding of geopolitical situations and economic analyses, provided estimates for capital expenditures for the coming decade. In specific, the following issues were addressed, and are discussed in this paper: refined product trade outlook; crude supply; crude quality; shipping; and capital investments.

  7. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  8. Need for refining capacity creates opportunities for producers in Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, M.S.S. )

    1994-07-11

    Oil industry interest in refining has revived in the past few years in response to rising oil consumption. The trend creates opportunities, for countries in the Middle East, which do not own refining assets nearly in proportion to their crude oil reserved. By closing this gap between reserves and refining capacity, the countries can ease some of the instability now characteristic of the oil market. Some major oil producing countries have begun to move downstream. During the 1980s, Venezuela, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries acquired refining assets through direct total purchase or joint ventures. Nevertheless, the oil industry remains largely unintegrated, with the Middle East holding two thirds of worldwide oil reserves but only a small share downstream. As worldwide refining capacity swings from a period of surplus toward one in which the need for new capacity will be built. The paper discusses background of the situation, shrinking surplus, investment requirements, sources of capital, and shipping concerns.

  9. An adaptive grid refinement strategy for the simulation of negative streamers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montijn, C. . E-mail: carolynne.montijn@cwi.nl; Hundsdorfer, W. . E-mail: willem.hundsdorfer@cwi.nl; Ebert, U. . E-mail: ute.ebert@cwi.nl

    2006-12-10

    The evolution of negative streamers during electric breakdown of a non-attaching gas can be described by a two-fluid model for electrons and positive ions. It consists of continuity equations for the charged particles including drift, diffusion and reaction in the local electric field, coupled to the Poisson equation for the electric potential. The model generates field enhancement and steep propagating ionization fronts at the tip of growing ionized filaments. An adaptive grid refinement method for the simulation of these structures is presented. It uses finite volume spatial discretizations and explicit time stepping, which allows the decoupling of the grids for the continuity equations from those for the Poisson equation. Standard refinement methods in which the refinement criterion is based on local error monitors fail due to the pulled character of the streamer front that propagates into a linearly unstable state. We present a refinement method which deals with all these features. Tests on one-dimensional streamer fronts as well as on three-dimensional streamers with cylindrical symmetry (hence effectively 2D for numerical purposes) are carried out successfully. Results on fine grids are presented, they show that such an adaptive grid method is needed to capture the streamer characteristics well. This refinement strategy enables us to adequately compute negative streamers in pure gases in the parameter regime where a physical instability appears: branching streamers.

  10. Adaptive h -refinement for reduced-order models: ADAPTIVE h -refinement for reduced-order models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlberg, Kevin T.

    2014-11-05

    Our work presents a method to adaptively refine reduced-order models a posteriori without requiring additional full-order-model solves. The technique is analogous to mesh-adaptive h-refinement: it enriches the reduced-basis space online by ‘splitting’ a given basis vector into several vectors with disjoint support. The splitting scheme is defined by a tree structure constructed offline via recursive k-means clustering of the state variables using snapshot data. This method identifies the vectors to split online using a dual-weighted-residual approach that aims to reduce error in an output quantity of interest. The resulting method generates a hierarchy of subspaces online without requiring large-scale operations or full-order-model solves. Furthermore, it enables the reduced-order model to satisfy any prescribed error tolerance regardless of its original fidelity, as a completely refined reduced-order model is mathematically equivalent to the original full-order model. Experiments on a parameterized inviscid Burgers equation highlight the ability of the method to capture phenomena (e.g., moving shocks) not contained in the span of the original reduced basis.

  11. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  12. Free kick instead of cross-validation in maximum-likelihood refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pranikar, Jure [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Primorska, (Slovenia); Turk, Duan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Institute Joef Stefan, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, (Slovenia)

    2014-12-01

    The maximum-likelihood free-kick target, which calculates model error estimates from the work set and a randomly displaced model, proved superior in the accuracy and consistency of refinement of crystal structures compared with the maximum-likelihood cross-validation target, which calculates error estimates from the test set and the unperturbed model. The refinement of a molecular model is a computational procedure by which the atomic model is fitted to the diffraction data. The commonly used target in the refinement of macromolecular structures is the maximum-likelihood (ML) function, which relies on the assessment of model errors. The current ML functions rely on cross-validation. They utilize phase-error estimates that are calculated from a small fraction of diffraction data, called the test set, that are not used to fit the model. An approach has been developed that uses the work set to calculate the phase-error estimates in the ML refinement from simulating the model errors via the random displacement of atomic coordinates. It is called ML free-kick refinement as it uses the ML formulation of the target function and is based on the idea of freeing the model from the model bias imposed by the chemical energy restraints used in refinement. This approach for the calculation of error estimates is superior to the cross-validation approach: it reduces the phase error and increases the accuracy of molecular models, is more robust, provides clearer maps and may use a smaller portion of data for the test set for the calculation of R{sub free} or may leave it out completely.

  13. New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants New Seismic Model Will Refine Hazard Analysis at U.S. Nuclear Plants January 31, 2012 - 2:09pm Addthis The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) released a new seismic study today that will help U.S. nuclear facilities in the central and eastern United States reassess seismic hazards. The Central and Eastern United

  14. ,"Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Aviation Gasoline Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes",60,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","9/1/2016" ,"Next Release

  15. ,"U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Aviation Gasoline Refiner Sales Volumes",2,"Monthly","6/2016","1/15/1983" ,"Release Date:","9/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","10/3/2016" ,"Excel File

  16. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining May 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Implications of Increasing Light Oil Production on the U.S. Refining System i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  17. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- American Smelting and Refining Co - CO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    0-01 Smelting and Refining Co - CO 0-01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: American Smelting and Refining Co (CO.0-01 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP - DOE facility Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Grand Junction , Colorado CO.0-01-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 CO.0-01-1 Site Operations: Purchased and assayed ores for AEC at Grand Junction Office, Colorado from 1949-1954. CO.0-01-1 CO.0-01-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Operations performed at Grand Junction

  18. Studies on design of a process for organo-refining of coal to obtain super clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.S.; Sharma, D.K.

    1999-08-01

    Organo-refining of coal results in refining the coal to obtain super clean coal and residual coal. Super clean coal may be used to obtain value added chemicals, products, and cleaner fuels from coal. In the present work, studies on the design of a semicontinuous process for organo-refining of one ton of coal have been made. The results are reported. This is only a cursory attempt for the design, and further studies may be required for designing this process for use in the development of a scaled-up process of organo-refining of coal.

  19. Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

  20. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  1. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  2. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  3. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  4. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 5.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 - 0.9 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  5. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  6. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  7. Table 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - 4.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 - 0.7 See footnotes at end of table. 11. U.S. Refiner Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 22 Energy Information Administration ...

  8. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may bemore » used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.« less

  9. EIS-0069: Solvent Refined Coal-II Demonstration Project, Fort Martin, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed this statement to assess the potential environmental, economic and social impacts associated with the construction and short-term operation of a 6,000-tons-per-stream-day-capacity facility that will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the solvent refined coal process at Fort Martin, West Virginia.

  10. Tools for macromolecular model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alan; Long, Fei; Nicholls, Robert A.; Toots, Jaan; Emsley, Paul; Murshudov, Garib, E-mail: garib@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of new tools to facilitate model building and refinement into electron cryo-microscopy reconstructions. The recent rapid development of single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) now allows structures to be solved by this method at resolutions close to 3 . Here, a number of tools to facilitate the interpretation of EM reconstructions with stereochemically reasonable all-atom models are described. The BALBES database has been repurposed as a tool for identifying protein folds from density maps. Modifications to Coot, including new Jiggle Fit and morphing tools and improved handling of nucleic acids, enhance its functionality for interpreting EM maps. REFMAC has been modified for optimal fitting of atomic models into EM maps. As external structural information can enhance the reliability of the derived atomic models, stabilize refinement and reduce overfitting, ProSMART has been extended to generate interatomic distance restraints from nucleic acid reference structures, and a new tool, LIBG, has been developed to generate nucleic acid base-pair and parallel-plane restraints. Furthermore, restraint generation has been integrated with visualization and editing in Coot, and these restraints have been applied to both real-space refinement in Coot and reciprocal-space refinement in REFMAC.

  11. Towards solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prill, Dragica; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J. L.; Schmidt, Martin U.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a method towards the solution and refinement of organic crystal structures by fitting to the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) is developed. Approximate lattice parameters and molecular geometry must be given as input. The molecule is generally treated as a rigid body. The positions and orientations of the molecules inside the unit cell are optimized starting from random values. The PDF is obtained from carefully measured X-ray powder diffraction data. The method resembles `real-space' methods for structure solution from powder data, but works with PDF data instead of the diffraction pattern itself. As such it may be used in situations where the organic compounds are not long-range-ordered, are poorly crystalline, or nanocrystalline. The procedure was applied to solve and refine the crystal structures of quinacridone (β phase), naphthalene and allopurinol. In the case of allopurinol it was even possible to successfully solve and refine the structure in P1 with four independent molecules. As an example of a flexible molecule, the crystal structure of paracetamol was refined using restraints for bond lengths, bond angles and selected torsion angles. In all cases, the resulting structures are in excellent agreement with structures from single-crystal data.

  12. Exploiting structure similarity in refinement: automated NCS and target-structure restraints in BUSTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, Oliver S. Womack, Thomas O.; Flensburg, Claus; Keller, Peter; Paciorek, Włodek; Sharff, Andrew; Vonrhein, Clemens; Bricogne, Gérard

    2012-04-01

    Local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) provide a novel method for exploiting NCS or structural similarity to an external target structure. Two examples are given where BUSTER re-refinement of PDB entries with LSSR produces marked improvements, enabling further structural features to be modelled. Maximum-likelihood X-ray macromolecular structure refinement in BUSTER has been extended with restraints facilitating the exploitation of structural similarity. The similarity can be between two or more chains within the structure being refined, thus favouring NCS, or to a distinct ‘target’ structure that remains fixed during refinement. The local structural similarity restraints (LSSR) approach considers all distances less than 5.5 Å between pairs of atoms in the chain to be restrained. For each, the difference from the distance between the corresponding atoms in the related chain is found. LSSR applies a restraint penalty on each difference. A functional form that reaches a plateau for large differences is used to avoid the restraints distorting parts of the structure that are not similar. Because LSSR are local, there is no need to separate out domains. Some restraint pruning is still necessary, but this has been automated. LSSR have been available to academic users of BUSTER since 2009 with the easy-to-use -autoncs and @@target target.pdb options. The use of LSSR is illustrated in the re-refinement of PDB entries http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -target enables the correct ligand-binding structure to be found, and http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm, where -autoncs contributes to the location of an additional copy of the cyclic peptide ligand.

  13. The effects of air pollution regulations on the US refining industry. Task 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Numerous air pollution regulations affecting petroleum refineries recently have been promulgated, have been proposed, or are under consideration at the federal, state, and local level. As shown in Figure ES-1, all of these environmental regulations are intended to take effect over the relatively short time period from 1989 through 1995. In the aggregate these regulatory activities have significant implications for the US refining industry and the Nation, including: Major investment requirements; changes in industry profitability; potential closure of some refineries; and potential changes in crude oil or product import dependence. At issue is whether the cumulative effect of these regulations could so adversely affect the US refining industry that US national security would be affected. In addition to the regulations outlined in Figure ES-1, President Bush recently presented a major new plan to improve the nation`s air quality. The aspects of the President`s plan that could strongly affect US refineries are summarized below.

  14. Profiling of selenium removal in hydrogen ambient zone-refined tellurium bar using RF-GDOES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anil, G. . E-mail: anilpillai_99@yahoo.com; Reddy, M.R.P.; Prasad, D.S.; Ali, S.T.; Munirathnam, N.R.; Prakash, T.L.

    2007-01-15

    Ultrapure tellurium (Te) metal has become an important metal in the strategic sector for fabricating high performance infrared devices for thermal imaging and night vision cameras. Zone refining (ZR) is a proven technique for purification of Te. Selenium (Se), present as an impurity in Te, is not easily removed by ZR under normal conditions as the segregation coefficient (K) is around 0.44-0.50. Hence, ZR was performed in a hydrogen atmosphere, during which Se gets converted to hydrogen selenide at the molten moving zones and carried away into the sodium hydroxide scrubbers. In this study a radio-frequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (RF-GDOES) was used for determining the concentration of Se along the 56 cm Te zone-refined bar. It was observed that the initial concentration of 1100 ppb Se was decreased to 30 ppb after 2 cycles.

  15. Report to the Congress on the storage of refined petroleum products and on regional supply interruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This report describes petroleum and petroleum products storage and supply disruption. Information is presented under the following topics: Historical Perspective; Current Patterns of Supply and Disposition of Petroleum Products in the Primary Distribution System; PADD I Clean Products Supply/Demand; 1990 Regional Petroleum Reserve Annual Computation; Market Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the California Motor Gasoline Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Infrastructure and Commercial Practices in the Northeast Distillate Market, as Related to Potential Refined Petroleum Product Reserve Structures and Sales Procedures; Storage Stability Characteristics of Petroleum Products and Crude Oil; Effect of 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on Demand for Petroleum Product Storage Capacity; and Environmental Regulations on Tanks.

  16. Application of a catalyst deactivation model for hydrotreating solvent refined coal feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nalitham, R.V.

    1983-10-01

    A simple kinetic model, including a first-order catalyst deactivation rate, is applied to upgrading of coal-derived feedstocks prepared from two solvent refined coal fractions. A catalyst deactivation mechanism is proposed which involves the adsorption and surface reaction of coke precursors on catalytic active sites. The effect of feedstock composition, temperature and pressure on kinetic parameters, and in particular the catalyst deactivation rate, is determined.

  17. Grain refinement of cast zinc through magnesium inoculation: Characterisation and mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhilin; Qiu, Dong; Wang, Feng; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Mingxing

    2015-08-15

    It was previously found that peritectic-forming solutes are more favourable for the grain refinement of cast Al alloys than eutectic-forming solutes. In this work, we report that the eutectic-forming solute, Mg, can also significantly grain refine cast Zn. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) of a Zn–Mg alloy, in which efficient grain refinement occurred, evidenced an unexpected peak that appeared before the nucleation of η-Zn grains on the DTA spectrum. Based on extensive examination using X-ray diffraction, high resolution SEM and EDS, it was found that: (a) some faceted Zn–Mg intermetallic particles were reproducibly observed; (b) the particles were located at or near grain centres; (c) the atomic ratio of Mg to Zn in the intermetallic compound was determined to be around 1/2. Using tilting selected area diffraction (SAD) and convergent beam Kikuchi line diffraction pattern (CBKLDP) techniques, these faceted particles were identified as MgZn{sub 2} and an orientation relationship between such grain-centred MgZn{sub 2} particles and the η-Zn matrix was determined. Hence, the unexpected peak on the DTA spectrum is believed to correspond to the formation of MgZn{sub 2} particles, which act as effective heterogeneous nucleation sites in the alloy. Together with the effect of Mg solute on restricting grain growth, such heterogeneous nucleation is cooperatively responsible for the grain size reduction in Zn–Mg alloys. - Highlights: • A new eutectic-based grain refiner for the cast Zn was found. • The formation process of an intermetallic compound (MgZn{sub 2}) was characterised. • MgZn{sub 2} can act as potent heterogeneous nucleation sites above the liquidus. • A new OR between MgZn{sub 2} and η-Zn was determined using the CBKLDP technique.

  18. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  19. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for stepmore » structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.« less

  20. Refined BCF-type boundary conditions for mesoscale surface step dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Renjie; Ackerman, David M.; Evans, James W.

    2015-06-24

    Deposition on a vicinal surface with alternating rough and smooth steps is described by a solid-on-solid model with anisotropic interactions. Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of the model reveal step pairing in the absence of any additional step attachment barriers. We explore the description of this behavior within an analytic Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF)-type step dynamics treatment. Without attachment barriers, conventional kinetic coefficients for the rough and smooth steps are identical, as are the predicted step velocities for a vicinal surface with equal terrace widths. However, we determine refined kinetic coefficients from a two-dimensional discrete deposition-diffusion equation formalism which accounts for step structure. These coefficients are generally higher for rough steps than for smooth steps, reflecting a higher propensity for capture of diffusing terrace adatoms due to a higher kink density. Such refined coefficients also depend on the local environment of the step and can even become negative (corresponding to net detachment despite an excess adatom density) for a smooth step in close proximity to a rough step. Incorporation of these refined kinetic coefficients into a BCF-type step dynamics treatment recovers quantitatively the mesoscale step-pairing behavior observed in the KMC simulations.

  1. Re-refinement from deposited X-ray data can deliver improved models for most PDB entries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joosten, Robbie P.; Womack, Thomas; Vriend, Gert; Bricogne, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    An evaluation of validation and real-space intervention possibilities for improving existing automated (re-)refinement methods. The deposition of X-ray data along with the customary structural models defining PDB entries makes it possible to apply large-scale re-refinement protocols to these entries, thus giving users the benefit of improvements in X-ray methods that have occurred since the structure was deposited. Automated gradient refinement is an effective method to achieve this goal, but real-space intervention is most often required in order to adequately address problems detected by structure-validation software. In order to improve the existing protocol, automated re-refinement was combined with structure validation and difference-density peak analysis to produce a catalogue of problems in PDB entries that are amenable to automatic correction. It is shown that re-refinement can be effective in producing improvements, which are often associated with the systematic use of the TLS parameterization of B factors, even for relatively new and high-resolution PDB entries, while the accompanying manual or semi-manual map analysis and fitting steps show good prospects for eventual automation. It is proposed that the potential for simultaneous improvements in methods and in re-refinement results be further encouraged by broadening the scope of depositions to include refinement metadata and ultimately primary rather than reduced X-ray data.

  2. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  3. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  4. Direct Reduction of Waste through Refining of DOE Metal Assets - 13632

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargett, Michael C.; Terekhov, Dimitri; Khozan, Kamran M.

    2013-07-01

    CVMR{sup R} presents a technology for refining nickel from the enrichment barrier materials of the DOE that is proven through 100 years of use by the metals industry. CVMR{sup R} applies modern controls, instrumentation for process and monitoring of the system, and innovative production methods to produce a wide spectrum of products that generate new technology applications and improvements to our society and economy. CVMR{sup R} will receive barrier materials as a secure operation and size reduce the metal to a shred that is fed to a carbonylation reactor where nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide and generate nickel carbonyl. The carbonyl will be filtered and decomposed with heat to form a variety of products that include high value nano powders, coated substrates, net shapes and pure nickel. The residue from the reactor will retain radionuclides from enrichment activities. The carbon monoxide will only react and extract nickel under the operating conditions to leave volumetric contamination in the unreacted residue. A demonstration plant was designed and built by CVMR{sup R} and operated by BWXT, to demonstrate the systems capabilities to DOE in 2006. A pilot plant operation precedes the detailed design of the nickel refinery and provides essential data for design, safe work practices, waste characterizations and system kinetics and confirms the project feasibility. CVMR{sup R} produces nickel products that are cleaner than the nickel in U.S. commerce and used by industry today. The CVMR{sup R} process and systems for nickel refining is well suited for DOE materials and will provide value through environmental stewardship, recovery of high value assets, and support of the DOE environmental remediation programs as the refined nickel generates additional long term benefits to local communities. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. European refiners must seek creative processes to justify heavy-ends projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.

    1996-12-09

    There are strong reasons for wanting to upgrade the bottom of the crude oil barrel. But European refiners will not find it easy to get approval and funding for major capital investment projects. In most cases, investment justification will have to be creative and may need to rely on factors traditionally considered to be outside the conventional refinery fence. Examples of such creative upgrading schemes are those employed in four gasification projects planned for refineries in Italy. It is clear that the major obstacles to heavy residue processing are not technical, but economic. A review of these obstacles will set the stage for European investment in bottom-of-the-barrel processing.

  8. Table 3a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars per barrel in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,16.69,16.42999,16.9899,17.66,18.28,19.0599,19.89,20.72,21.65,22.61,23.51,24.29,24.9,25.6,26.3,27,27.64,28.16

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  10. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.