National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for trough solar collectors

  1. SkyTrough Parabolic Solar Collector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This photograph features a collaboration between the solar industry and national laboratories that resulted in a ground-breaking, low-cost system for utility-scale power generation: the SkyTrough ...

  2. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, V.E.; Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  3. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  4. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  5. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.

    2008-05-01

    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  6. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  7. Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Developmen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development Solar Millennium logo The Solar Millennium Group and its subsidiary Flagsol, under the CSP R&D FOA, are ...

  8. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CSP Applications | Department of Energy Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications Abengoa logo Abengoa Solar, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing the technology needed to build a competitive parabolic trough industry for the U.S. utility market. Approach Rows of parabolic trough collectors The research team aims to develop alternative collector structures,

  9. Cleaning strategies for parabolic-trough solar-collector fields; guidelines for decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, K.D.; Freese, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    This report is intended to assist the owner or operator of a parabolic trough solar collector system to decide on a cleaning strategy (equipment, materials, procedures, and schedules). The guidelines are based on information obtained in past research studies, as well as interviews with vendors and users of cleaning and water treatment equipment. The basic procedure recommended utilizes high pressure portable washing equipment. However, since the cleaning problem is so site-specific, no single, detailed approach can be specified. A systematic procedure for evaluating the particular requirements of a site is therefore given. This will allow the solar energy system operator to develop a cleaning strategy which is cost-effective because it is suited to local conditions.

  10. Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Temperature Trough Collector Development Project Profile: Advanced High Temperature Trough Collector Development Solar Millennium logo The Solar Millennium Group and its subsidiary Flagsol, under the CSP R&D FOA, are completing work on an advanced parabolic trough collector that uses molten salt as a heat transfer fluid. Approach Solar Millenium's Flagsol SKAL-ET heliotrough. Solar Millennium has developed a preliminary design of an advanced geometry parabolic

  11. Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Next-Generation Parabolic Trough Collectors and Components for CSP Applications Abengoa logo Abengoa Solar, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing the technology ...

  12. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  13. High concentration two-stage optics for parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorber and large rim angle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collares-Pereira, M. ); Gordon, J.M. ); Rabl, A. ); Winston, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A new two-stage optical design is proposed for parabolic trough solar collectors with tubular absorbers. It can boost the concentration ratio by a factor of 2.5 relative to the conventional design, while maintaining the large rim angles (i.e., low nominal f-numbers) that are desirable for practical and economical reasons. The second state involves asymmetric nonimaging concentrators of the CPC type, facing segments of the parabolic first stage. The second stage can be accommodated inside an evacuated receiver, allowing the use of first-surface silvered reflectors. The low heat loss of this design opens the possibility of producing steam at temperatures and pressures of conventional power plants, using only one-axis tracking. The improvement in conversion efficiency would be substantial.

  14. Solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-05-04

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  15. Numerical study on coupled fluid flow and heat transfer process in parabolic trough solar collector tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.B.; He, Y.L.

    2010-10-15

    A unified two-dimensional numerical model was developed for the coupled heat transfer process in parabolic solar collector tube, which includes nature convection, forced convection, heat conduction and fluid-solid conjugate problem. The effects of Rayleigh number (Ra), tube diameter ratio and thermal conductivity of the tube wall on the heat transfer and fluid flow performance were numerically analyzed. The distributions of flow field, temperature field, local Nu and local temperature gradient were examined. The results show that when Ra is larger than 10{sup 5}, the effects of nature convection must be taken into account. With the increase of tube diameter ratio, the Nusselt number in inner tube (Nu{sub 1}) increases and the Nusselt number in annuli space (Nu{sub 2}) decreases. With the increase of tube wall thermal conductivity, Nu{sub 1} decreases and Nu{sub 2} increases. When thermal conductivity is larger than 200 W/(m K), it would have little effects on Nu and average temperatures. Due to the effect of the nature convection, along the circumferential direction (from top to down), the temperature in the cross-section decreases and the temperature gradient on inner tube surface increases at first. Then, the temperature and temperature gradients would present a converse variation at {theta} near {pi}. The local Nu on inner tube outer surface increases along circumferential direction until it reaches a maximum value then it decreases again. (author)

  16. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    The invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame. A thin film window is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  17. Solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1982-01-01

    The field of this invention is solar collectors, and more particularly, the invention pertains to a flat plate collector that employs high performance thin films. The solar collector of this invention overcomes several problems in this field, such as excessive hardware, cost and reliability, and other prior art drawbacks outlined in the specification. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame (14). A thin film window (42) is bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber (24) of laminate construction is comprised of two thin film layers (24a, 24b) that are sealed perimetrically. The layers (24a, 24b) define a fluid-tight planar envelope (24c) of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. Absorber (24) is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  18. Solar parabolic trough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar parabolic trough section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  19. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM) This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for

  20. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  1. Centerless-drive solar collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, B. L.

    1985-12-24

    A parabolic-trough solar collector system is disclosed, with each collector driven to track the sun using a ring driven in centerless fashion. The parabolic troughs are made of laminated plywood or molded or formed of plastics or metals. The drive motor moves a flexible belt, i.e., chain or cable, which is routed about the drive ring on each collector. The motion of the cable moves all drive rings together to track the sun. A photodetector senses the position of the sun and provides the signal needed to drive the collectors in the correct direction.

  2. Integrated solar thermal energy collector system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.

    1987-08-18

    A solar thermal collector system is described one of a class of devices which converts solar radiation into heat and transmits this heat to storage from whence it is utilized, comprising: an evacuated glass solar collector, the evacuated glass solar collector having a glass vacuum envelope, the upper portion of the glass vacuum envelope also serving as window to pass solar radiation, the evacuated glass solar collector having a multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent concentrating troughs, each trough shaped and mirror surfaced so as concentrate solar radiation in the vacuum, the mirror surface inside the vacuum and the concentration approximately ideal, the multiplicity of substantially parallel linear adjacent troughs extending substantially over the entire length and width of the evacuated glass solar collector; a heat storage system, the heat storage system adjacent to the evacuated glass solar collector, the heat storage system having a heat storage tank which is thermally insulated, the heat storage tank containing a heat storage medium, and the heat storage system including means of removal of heat from the heat storage tank for utilization.

  3. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4 Average thermal performance rating of solar thermal collectors by type shipped in 2009 ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey." ...

  4. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 Shipments of complete solar thermal collector systems, 2008 and 2009 Shipment ... Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers Survey."

  5. Solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  6. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 Number of companies expecting to introduce new solar new solar thermal collector products in 2010 Low-Temperature Collectors 4 Medium-Temperature Collectors 16 High-Temperature ...

  7. Solar collector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  8. Solar collector panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessford, J.D.

    1983-03-01

    A solar collector panel and a method of making the collector panel. The solar collector panel has four layers of fiberglass mat which are each saturated with a catalyzed liquiform resin. Between the first two layers, unimpregnated kraft honeycomb paper having an open cellular structure is placed so as to form a resinated honeycomb core between these first two layers. A plurality of fluid channels are then bonded to the second layer of resin saturated fiberglass mat. The fluid channels are made of a material having a coefficient of thermal expansion essentially equal to that of the fiberglass mat. The third layer of resinsaturated fiberglass mat is placed over the fluid channels. A second layer of kraft honeycomb paper is then placed between the third and fourth layers of resin-saturated fiberglass mat, and a clear gel coat mixed with an ultraviolet inhibitor solution is rolled out over the top of the solar collector panel to partially screen out ultraviolet rays.

  9. Line-Focus Solar Collector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar thermal electric technologies, such as this concentrating solar power parabolic trough, use highly reflective materials to capture the sun's energy and produce electricity. Shown is solar...

  10. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  11. NREL Develops New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    New analytical method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes.

  12. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 Solar thermal collector shipments by type, quantity, revenue, and average price, 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  13. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 Distribution of domestic solar thermal collector shipments (thousand square feet) 2008 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  14. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  15. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Shipments of solar thermal collectors ranked by origin and destination, 2009 Origin Top ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  16. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by source, 2000 - 2009 Imports Domestically ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  17. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Annual shipments of solar thermal collectors by disposition, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  18. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Percent of solar thermal collector shipments by the 10 largest companies, 2000 - 2009 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  19. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by country, 2008 and 2009 (square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  20. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7 Import shipments of solar thermal collectors by type, 2000 - 2009 (thousand square feet) ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal ...

  1. Stellate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, R. R.

    1981-02-03

    A solar collector device of the type adapted for heating water and the like is disclosed. An elongated, opaque collector is provided with a plurality of radially extending vanes so as to define a hollow interior of stellate cross-section. Water is sprayed through a feeding conduit which extends through the hollow interior. As the sprayed water accumulates upon the interior vane surfaces, the collector wheel is rotated according to the weight of the deposited water. As the vane tips are rotated downwardly, the water is heated by conductive contact with the interior vane surfaces and by convection and radiation within the hollow interior. The heated water is then discharged downwardly through apertures in the vane tips into a collector pan. The invention is distinguished from the prior art in its introduction of the water upon the interior surfaces of collector vanes within a paddle wheel of stellate configuration, rather than upon the exterior surfaces of the vanes. The stellate configuration provides an increased area of exposure to the radiation of the sun within a compact unit and provides heating of the water by conduction, convection and radiation.

  2. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1977-03-08

    Herein is disclosed a flat plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  3. Structurally integrated steel solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1975-06-03

    Herein is disclosed a flate plate solar heat collector unit. The solar collector is integrated as a structural unit so that the collector also functions as the building roof. The functions of efficient heat collection, liquid coolant flow passages, roof structural support, and building insulation are combined into one unit.

  4. Solar collector panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessford, J.D.

    1980-11-11

    A solar collector panel and method of making same are disclosed. The solar collector panel has four layers of fiberglass mat which are each saturated with a catalyzed liquiform resin. Between the first two layers, unimpregnated kraft honeycomb paper having an open cellular structure is placed so as to form a resinated honeycomb core between these first two layers. A black gel coat is sprayed onto the second layer of resin-saturated fiberglass mat and a plurality of copper tubes are then placed onto the black gel coat so as to be bonded in heat-transfer relation thereto. The third layer of resin-saturated fiberglass mat is draped over the copper tubes so as to insulate them. A second layer of kraft honeycomb paper is then placed between the third and forth layers of resin-saturated fiberglass mat, and a clear gel coat mixed with an ultraviolet inhibitor solution is rolled out over the top of the solar collector panel to partially screen out ultraviolet rays.

  5. Integrated solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tchernev, Dimiter I.

    1985-01-01

    A solar collector having a copper panel in a contiguous space relationship with a condenser-evaporator heat exchanger located under the panel, the panel having a honeycomb-like structure on its interior defining individual cells which are filled with zeolite loaded, in its adsorbed condition, with 18 to 20% by weight of water. The interior of the panel and heat exchanger are maintained at subatmospheric pressure of about 0.1 to 1 psia. The panel and heat exchanger are insulated on their lateral sides and bottoms and on the top of the heat exchange. The panel has a black coating on its top which is exposed to and absorbs solar energy. Surrounding the insulation (which supports the panel) is an extruded aluminum framework which supports a pair of spaced-apart glass panels above the solar panel. Water in conduits from a system for heating or cooling or both is connected to flow into an inlet and discharge from outlet of a finned coil received within the heat exchanger. The collector panel provides heat during the day through desorption and condensing of water vapor from the heated solar panel in the heat exchanger and cools at night by the re-adsorption of the water vapor from the heat exchanger which lowers the absolute pressure within the system and cools the heat exchange coils by evaporation.

  6. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  7. Tracking system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  8. Solar collector panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W. S.

    1985-04-23

    A solar collector panel having a solar energy collector plate and means for flowing a fluid along one side of the plate in a perpendicular serpentine path so that the fluid is repetitively moved toward and away from the plate as it moves along the plate.

  9. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9 Companies involved in solar thermal collector related activities by type, 2008 and 2009 ... 26 32 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  10. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8 Employment in the solar thermal collector industry, 2000 - 2009 2000 284 2001 256 2002 ... Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal

  11. Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Solar Thermal Collector Project Profile: Low-Cost Solar Thermal Collector SunTrough Energy logo SunTrough, under the Baseload CSP FOA, developed a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that can significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field. Approach Rendering of an L-shaped metal frame faced to the sky. SunTrough Energy developed a single-axis tracking, line-focus solar concentrator and a pilot manufacturing facility under this

  12. Research and Development of a Low Cost Solar Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari, Asif; Philip, Lee; Thouppuarachchi, Chirath

    2012-08-01

    This is a Final Technical Report on the Research and Development completed towards the development of a Low Cost Solar Collector conducted under the DOE cost-sharing award EE-0003591. The objective of this project was to develop a new class of solar concentrators with geometries and manufacturability that could significantly reduce the fully installed cost of the solar collector field for concentrated solar thermal power plants. The goal of the project was to achieve an aggressive cost target of $170/m2, a reduction of up to 50% in the total installed cost of a solar collector field as measured against the current industry benchmark of a conventional parabolic trough. The project plan, and the detailed activities conducted under the scope of the DOE Award project addressed all major drivers that affect solar collector costs. In addition to costs, the study also focused on evaluating technical performance of new collector architectures and compared them to the performance of the industry benchmark parabolic trough. The most notable accomplishment of this DOE award was the delivery of a full-scale integrated design, manufacturing and field installation solution for a new class of solar collector architecture which has been classified as the Bi-Planar Fresnel Collector (BPFC) and may be considered as a viable alternative to the conventional parabolic trough, as well as the conventional Fresnel collectors. This was in part accomplished through the design and development, all the way through fabrication and test validation of a new class of Linear Planar Fresnel Collector architecture. This architecture offers a number of key differentiating features which include a planar light-weight frame geometry with small mass-manufacturable elements utilizing flat mirror sections. The designs shows significant promise in reducing the material costs, fabrication costs, shipping costs, and on-site field installation costs compared to the benchmark parabolic trough, as well as the

  13. Shenandoah parabolic dish solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of the Shenandoah, Georgia, Solar Total Energy System are to design, construct, test, and operate a solar energy system to obtain experience with large-scale hardware systems for future applications. This report describes the initial design and testing activities conducted to select and develop a collector that would serve the need of such a solar total energy system. The parabolic dish was selected as the collector most likely to maximize energy collection as required by this specific site. The fabrication, testing, and installation of the parabolic dish collector incorporating improvements identified during the development testing phase are described.

  14. SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero

    2008-08-01

    This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.

  15. Turning collectors for solar radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about the polar axis so that the collector is directed toward the sun as the sun tracks the sky each day. It includes two heat-expansive elements and a shadow plate. In the morning a first expansive element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the second expansive element is shaded by the plate. In the afternoon the second element is heated, expands to turn the collector to face the sun, while the first is shaded by the plate.

  16. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    U.S. Total 74 88 Percent of Total Sales Revenue Number of Companies Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63A, "Annual Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturers ...

  17. New Optical Evaluation Approach for Parabolic Trough Collectors: First-Principle OPTical Intercept Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, G.; Lewandowski, A.

    2012-11-01

    A new analytical method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is presented here for optical evaluation of trough collectors. It employs first-principle optical treatment of collector optical error sources and derives analytical mathematical formulae to calculate the intercept factor of a trough collector. A suite of MATLAB code is developed for FirstOPTIC and validated against theoretical/numerical solutions and ray-tracing results. It is shown that FirstOPTIC can provide fast and accurate calculation of intercept factors of trough collectors. The method makes it possible to carry out fast evaluation of trough collectors for design purposes. The FirstOPTIC techniques and analysis may be naturally extended to other types of CSP technologies such as linear-Fresnel collectors and central-receiver towers.

  18. Performance testing of the Acurex solar-collector Model 3001-03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudley, V.E.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1982-03-01

    Results are summarized of tests conducted at the Collector Module Test Facility on an Acurex Model 3001-03 Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Collector. Test temperaure range was 100/sup 0/C to 300/sup 0/C. Tests were conducted with the collector axis oriented east-west and again with the collector axis oriented north-south. Three collectors were tested: one using polished aluminum mirrors, one using glass mirrors, and another using an aluminized acrylic film mirror.

  19. Concentrating Solar Power Parabolic Trough Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this b-roll, the parabolic solar trough is just one of the several types of concentrating solar power technologies that focus the sun's heat using reflective surfaces to generate electricity.

  20. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  1. Thin film solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrauto, R.J.; Myers, H.; Williams, J.C.

    1982-03-23

    A solar energy collector has improved absorptance and emissivity levels comprising: (1) a silver-copper oxide-rhodium oxide solar absorption film, (2) a cerium oxide interlayer and a substrate of quartz, silica glass or metal. The cerium oxide interlayer minimizes agglomeration of the metal particles, maintains a relatively low thermal emittance and improves overall stability.

  2. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  3. Transpired Solar Collector - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transpired Solar Collector National Renewable Energy ...

  4. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  5. Performance contracting for parabolic trough solar thermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, H.; Hewett, R.; Walker, A.; Gee, R.; May, K.

    1997-12-31

    Several applications of solar energy have proven viable in the energy marketplace, due to competitive technology and economic performance. One example is the parabolic trough solar collectors, which use focused solar energy to maximize efficiency and reduce material use in construction. Technical improvements are complemented by new business practices to make parabolic trough solar thermal systems technically and economically viable in an ever widening range of applications. Technical developments in materials and fabrication techniques reduce production cost and expand applications from swimming pool heating and service hot water, to higher-temperature applications such as absorption cooling and process steam. Simultaneously, new financing mechanisms such as a recently awarded US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) indefinite quantity Energy Savings Performance Contract (Super ESPC) facilitate and streamline implementation of the technology in federal facilities such as prisons and military bases.

  6. Solar collector with altitude tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for turning a solar collector about an east-west horizontal axis so that the collector is tilted toward the sun as the EWV altitude of the sun varies each day. It includes one or more heat responsive elements and a shading means aligned so that within a range of EWV altitudes of the sun during daylight hours the shading means shades the element or elements while during the rest of the daylight hours the elements or elements are heated by the sun to assume heated, stable states. Mechanical linkage between the collector and the element is responsive to the states of the element or elements to tilt the collector in accordance with variations in the EWV altitude of the sun.

  7. Solar collector roof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marossy, G.; Mueller, W.E.

    1983-07-19

    A solar roof is disclosed for providing air heated by solar energy to the interior of a prefabricated building of the type having a relatively low pitched roof structure formed by a plurality of interlocking ribbed roof panels. A solar radiation transmissive glazing is attached between the roof panel ribs or other support members to form air passageways. A duct-like inlet plenum communicates with the inlet of each passageway for selectively directing air from inside or outside of the building passageways. A duct-like exhaust plenum communicates with the outlet of each passageway for directing heated air to the building interior. The roof surface may be provided with a darkened coating to increase the absorptivity of the surface and increase the collecting efficiency. The glazing material may be thin flexible solar radiation transmissive sheets or relatively rigid panels of solar radiation transmissive material. The solar roof may be retrofitted to an existing roof structure to provide supplemental solar heating capability.

  8. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  9. Midtemperature solar systems test faclity predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  10. Sea shell solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for the collection and concentration of solar radiant energy including a longitudinally extending structure having a wall for directing radiant energy. The wall is parabolic with its focus along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at one solstice and with its axis along a line parallel to an extreme ray of the sun at the other solstice. An energy absorber is positioned to receive the solar energy thereby collected.

  11. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Sun-Heet nontracking solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Sun-Heet nontracking, line-focusing parabolic trough collector at five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  12. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  13. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet on Next-Generation Collectors for CSP highlights a solar energy program awarded through the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D awards. The team is developing new solar collector base technologies for next-generation heliostats used in power tower systems. If successful, this project will result in a 50% reduction in solar field equipment cost and a 30% reduction in field installation cost compared to existing heliostat designs.

  14. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy ...

  15. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A A; Wipke, K

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  16. Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

    2012-04-01

    An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

  17. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042413hoste.pd...

  18. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: solar kinetics T-600 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics T-600 solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector are presented for three output temperatures at five cities in the US. (WHK)

  19. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  20. Freeze protection apparatus for solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, E.F.; Bagshaw, D.P.; Kast, M.A.; Masters, G.M.; Whitehouse, H.T.

    1984-05-29

    A freeze protection system allows the working fluid contained in the communicating tubes of the solar collector to drain from both the input and output tubes of the collector when a first predetermined temperature of the working fluid is detected and to fill the collector via both the input and output tubes when a second predetermined temperature is detected. The invention includes valve mechanisms, of the spool valve variety, that communicate the working fluid to be heated to the collector and therefrom to a storage tank, a valve actuator and a sensor. The actuator moves a valve element from a first position for communicating working fluid to be heated from a source to the imput tube of the collector and for communicating heated working fluid from the output tube of the collector to a storage facility to a second position for interrupting fluid communication from the source to the collector and for communicating both the input and output tubes of the collector to a drainpipe-draining the collector of working fluid-when the first predetermined temperature level is detected by the sensor. Upon detection of the second predetermined temperature level the sensor causes the actuator to return the valve element to the first position via an intermediate position that closes the drainpipe and temporarily communicates the working fluid to both the input and output tubes of the collector.

  1. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM) Parthiv Kurup and Craig S. Turchi National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-65228 November 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No.

  2. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurup, Parthiv; Turchi, Craig S.

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  3. Apparatus for preventing high temperatures in a glazed solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckley, Bruce S.

    1979-01-01

    Venting the glazing (i.e., transparent cover) of a solar collector can be used to prevent the collector's absorber surface from reaching too high a temperature.

  4. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collector research at NREL focuses on developing and testing the next generation of concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors that reduce delivered electricity costs by 50%. ...

  5. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B.

    2010-02-23

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  6. Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Electric Power Plants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-07-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the potential for parabolic trough solar thermal electric power plants, especially in the Southwestern U.S.

  7. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - TroughNet Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steam is coming out of the generation system building. Power Plant Systems Parabolic Trough Data and Resources Industry Partners Solar Data Power Plant Data Models and Tools System ...

  8. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnar, Attila; Charles, Ruth

    2014-07-31

    The intent of “Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP” program was to develop key technology elements for collectors in Phase 1 (Budget Period 1), design these elements in Phase 2 (Budget Period 2) and to deploy and test the final collector in Phase 3 (Budget Period 3). 3M and DOE mutually agreed to terminate the program at the end of Budget Period 1, primarily due to timeline issues. However, significant advancements were achieved in developing a next generation reflective material and panel that has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of CSP systems.

  9. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Parabolic Trough Thermal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of solar power Help reduce the cost of solar electricity. Parabolic trough technology currently has one thermal energy storage option-a two-tank, indirect, molten-salt system. ...

  10. Finite element modeling of concentrating solar collectors for evauation of gravity loads, bending, and optical characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.

  11. Solar Air Collectors: How Much Can You Save?

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Newburn, J. D.

    1985-04-01

    A collector efficiency curve is used to determine the output of solar air collectors based on the testing of seven solar collectors sold in Iowa. In this application the solar heater is being used as a space heater for a house. The performance of the solar air heater was analyzed and an 8% savings in energy was achieved over a one year period using two 4 x 8 collectors in a typical house.

  12. Solar collector with blackened layer facing insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, R.

    1981-05-12

    A solar collector has a surface turned toward the sun and forms a heat exchange cell which has at least one wall composed of sheet aluminum. A tramsmitting layer of such a wall or the absorption layer thereof is a black layer of aluminum oxide containing Ag or Sn and formed unitarily on the aluminum sheet, e.g. By a chemical or electrochemical process.

  13. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D.; Vansant, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  15. A new trough solar concentrator and its performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Tao; Hongfei, Zheng; Kaiyan, He; Mayere, Abdulkarim

    2011-01-15

    The operation principle and design method of a new trough solar concentrator is presented in this paper. Some important design parameters about the concentrator are analyzed and optimized. Their magnitude ranges are given. Some characteristic parameters about the concentrator are compared with that of the conventional parabolic trough solar concentrator. The factors having influence on the performance of the unit are discussed. It is indicated through the analysis that the new trough solar concentrator can actualize reflection focusing for the sun light using multiple curved surface compound method. It also has the advantages of improving the work performance and environment of high-temperature solar absorber and enhancing the configuration intensity of the reflection surface. (author)

  16. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley W.

    1983-07-12

    The disclosure relates to an active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintain lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  17. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  18. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  19. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.C.

    1990-11-06

    This patent describes a tracking solar collector mechanism. It comprises: a stationary base structure which supports the tracking components; two parallel rows of uniformly spaced axial polar bearings attached to the base structure, each row comprising at least one bearing, wherein each member bearing of each row is coaligned with an associated bearing of the other row, the line joining each pair of coaligned polar bearings defining an associated polar tracking axis wherein the pair's polar axes are mutually parallel and are adapted to be aligned with the Earth's axis; at least one tracking module, each of which is supported by and turns on one of the pairs of coaligned polar bearings.

  20. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  1. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent& Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  2. Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Sargent and Lundy LLC conducted an independent analysis of parabolic trough and power tower solar technology cost and performance.

  3. Performance of a double pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramani, B.M.; Gupta, Akhilesh; Kumar, Ravi

    2010-11-15

    Double pass counter flow solar air collector with porous material in the second air passage is one of the important and attractive design improvement that has been proposed to improve the thermal performance. This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of double pass solar air collector with and without porous material. A mathematical model has been developed based on volumetric heat transfer coefficient. Effects of various parameters on the thermal performance and pressure drop characteristics have been discussed. Comparison of results reveals that the thermal efficiency of double pass solar air collector with porous absorbing material is 20-25% and 30-35% higher than that of double pass solar air collector without porous absorbing material and single pass collector respectively. (author)

  4. Alignment method for solar collector arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driver, Jr., Richard B

    2012-10-23

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for establishing camera fixture location for aligning mirrors on a solar collector array (SCA) comprising multiple mirror modules. The method aligns the mirrors on a module by comparing the location of the receiver image in photographs with the predicted theoretical receiver image location. To accurately align an entire SCA, a common reference is used for all of the individual module images within the SCA. The improved method can use relative pixel location information in digital photographs along with alignment fixture inclinometer data to calculate relative locations of the fixture between modules. The absolute locations are determined by minimizing alignment asymmetry for the SCA. The method inherently aligns all of the mirrors in an SCA to the receiver, even with receiver position and module-to-module alignment errors.

  5. Thermal efficiency of single-pass solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Zamry; Ibarahim, Zahari; Yatim, Baharudin; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz

    2013-11-27

    Efficiency of a finned single-pass solar air collector was studied. This paper presents the experimental study to investigate the effect of solar radiation and mass flow rate on efficiency. The fins attached at the back of absorbing plate to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. The results show that the efficiency is increased proportional to solar radiation and mass flow rate. Efficiency of the collector archived steady state when reach to certain value or can be said the maximum performance.

  6. Solar collector panels having coated fibrous filling for fire inhibition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinert, C.P.

    1982-04-13

    Solar collector panels filled with porous fiber mats have the fibers coated with a pigmented intumescent paint which expands to partially fill the spaces between the fibers for retarding convective fluid flow through the fiber mat in the case of a fire in the structure with which the collector is associated.

  7. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  8. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Parabolic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D. M.

    2008-03-01

    Solar parabolic trough systems for electricity production are receiving renewed attention, and new solar plants are under construction to help meet the growing demands of the power market in the Western United States. The growing solar trough industry will rely on operating experience it has gained over the last two decades. Recently, researchers found that trough plants that use organic heat transfer fluids (HTF) such as Therminol VP-1 are experiencing significant heat losses in the receiver tubes. The cause has been traced back to the accumulation of excess hydrogen gas in the vacuum annulus that surrounds the steel receiver tube, thus compromising the thermal insulation of the receiver. The hydrogen gas is formed during the thermal decomposition of the organic HTF that circulates inside the receiver loop, and the installation of hydrogen getters inside the annulus has proven to be insufficient for controlling the hydrogen build-up over the lifetime of the receivers. This paper will provide an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigation of heat pipe solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azad, E.

    2008-09-15

    Heat pipe solar collector was designed and constructed at IROST and its performance was measured on an outdoor test facility. The thermal behavior of a gravity assisted heat pipe solar collector was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A theoretical model based on effectiveness-NTU method was developed for evaluating the thermal efficiency of the collector, the inlet, outlet water temperatures and heat pipe temperature. Optimum value of evaporator length to condenser length ratio is also determined. The modelling predictions were validated using experimental data and it shows that there is a good concurrence between measured and predicted results. (author)

  10. Solar collector with improved thermal concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barak, Amitzur Z.

    1976-01-01

    Reduced heat loss from the absorbing surface of the energy receiver of a cylindrical radiant energy collector is achieved by providing individual, insulated, cooling tubes for adjacent parallel longitudinal segments of the receiver. Control means allow fluid for removing heat absorbed by the tubes to flow only in those tubes upon which energy is then being directed by the reflective wall of the collector.

  11. Low cost bare-plate solar air collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maag, W.L.; Wenzler, C.J.; Rom, F.E.; VanArsdale, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a low cost, bare-plate collector, determine its performance for a variety of climatic conditions, analyze the economics of this type of solar collector and evaluate specific applications. Two prototype collectors were designed, fabricated and installed into an instrumented test system. Tests were conducted for a period of five months. Results of the tests showed consistent operating efficiencies of 60% or greater with air preheat temperature uses up to 20/sup 0/F for one of the prototypes. The economic analyses indicated that an installed cost of between $5 and $10 per square foot would make this type of solar system economically viable. For the materials of construction and the type of fabrication and installation perceived, these costs for the bare-plate solar collector are believed to be attainable. Specific applications for preheating ventilation air for schools were evaluated and judged to be economically viable.

  12. Utility-Scale Parabolic Trough Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines, April 2009 - December 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.

    2011-05-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The Guidelines contained here are specifically written for parabolic trough collector systems with a heat-transport system using a high-temperature synthetic oil, but the basic principles are relevant to other CSP systems.

  13. Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeper, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.

  14. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, J. K.

    2012-02-01

    The thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The thermal efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain the thermal efficiency curve. This paper describes this approach and also makes the case that there are advantages to plotting collector efficiency versus the difference between the operating temperature and the ambient temperature at which the receiver heat loss was measured divided by radiation to a fractional power (on the order of 1/3 but obtained via data regression) - as opposed to the difference between operating and ambient temperatures divided by the radiation. The results are shown to be robust over wide ranges of ambient temperature, sky temperature, and wind speed.

  15. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  16. Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities - Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Solar Thermal Manufacturing Activities Release Date: December 2010 | Next Release Date: ... Year: (PDF) 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 1993 Go Overview Total shipments26 of solar ...

  17. Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors with compound...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors with compound parabolic concentrators Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design and test of non-evacuated solar collectors ...

  18. Transpired Solar Collectors: Office of Power Technologies (OPT) Success Stories Series Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2000-08-01

    Transpired solar collectors are a reliable, low-cost way to preheat ventilation air in commercial buildings.

  19. Evaluation of solar collectors for heat pump applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skartvedt, Gary; Pedreyra, Donald; McMordle, Dr., Robert; Kidd, James; Anderson, Jerome; Jones, Richard

    1980-08-01

    The study was initiated to evaluate the potential utility of very low cost (possibly unglazed and uninsulated) solar collectors to serve as both heat collection and rejection devices for a liquid source heat pump. The approach consisted of exercising a detailed analytical simulation of the complete heat pump/solar collector/storage system against heating and cooling loads derived for typical single-family residences in eight US cities. The performance of each system was measured against that of a conventional air-to-air heat pump operating against the same loads. In addition to evaluation of solar collector options, the study included consideration of water tanks and buried pipe grids to provide thermal storage. As a supplement to the analytical tasks, the study included an experimental determination of night sky temperature and convective heat transfer coefficients for surfaces with dimensions typical of solar collectors. The experiments were conducted in situ by placing the test apparatus on the roofs of houses in the Denver, Colorado, area. (MHR)

  20. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  1. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L.

    1985-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  2. A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology A New Generation of Parabolic Trough Technology This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042513_price.pdf (5.01 MB) More Documents & Publications Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing POLYMERIC MIRROR

  3. Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic Trough Collector for Baseload Operation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Method Of Making Solar Collectors By In-Situ Encapsulation Of Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrie, Peter J.; Chen, Kingsley D. D.

    2000-10-24

    A method of making solar collectors by encapsulating photovoltaic cells within a base of an elongated solar collector wherein heat and pressure are applied to the cells in-situ, after an encapsulating material has been applied. A tool is fashioned having a bladder expandable under gas pressure, filling a region of the collector where the cells are mounted. At the same time, negative pressure is applied outside of the bladder, enhancing its expansion. The bladder presses against a platen which contacts the encapsulated cells, causing outgassing of the encapsulant, while heat cures the encapsulant. After curing, the bladder is deflated and the tool may be removed from the collector and base and reflective panels put into place, if not already there, thereby allowing the solar collector to be ready for use.

  5. Generation of a Parabolic Trough Collector Efficiency Curve from Separate Measurements of Outdoor Optical Efficiency and Indoor Receiver Heat Loss: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Stynes, K.

    2010-10-01

    The overall efficiency of a parabolic trough collector is a function of both the fraction of direct normal radiation absorbed by the receiver (the optical efficiency) and the heat lost to the environment when the receiver is at operating temperature. The overall efficiency can be determined by testing the collector under actual operating conditions or by separately measuring these two components. This paper describes how outdoor measurement of the optical efficiency is combined with laboratory measurements of receiver heat loss to obtain an overall efficiency curve. Further, it presents a new way to plot efficiency that is more robust over a range of receiver operating temperatures.

  6. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  7. Thin polymer film collectors as a contribution to the solar industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-06-01

    Achievements made in research on thin polymer film solar flat-plate collectors using monocoque construction techniques are briefly discussed. The significance of these achievements for cost reduction of flat-plate collectors without compromising performance is briefly discussed.

  8. Review of state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes. Task 1 of solar collector studies for solar heating and cooling applications. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, J E; Diegle, R B

    1980-04-11

    The state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes is reviewed, and Task 1 of a current research program on use of aqueous heat transfer fluids for solar heating and cooling is summarized. The review of available published literature has indicated that lack of quantitative information exists relative to collector corrosion at the present time, particularly for the higher temperature applications of solar heating and cooling compared to domestic water heating. Solar collector systems are reviewed from the corrosion/service life viewpoint, with emphasis on various applications, collector design, heat transfer fluids, and freeze protection methods. Available information (mostly qualitative) on collector corrosion technology is reviewed to indicate potential corrosion problem areas and corrosion prevention practices. Sources of limited quantitative data that are reviewed are current solar applications, research programs on collector corrosion, and pertinent experience in related applications of automotive cooling and non-solar heating and cooling. A data bank was developed to catalog corrosion information. Appendix A of this report is a bibliography of the data bank, with abstracts reproduced from presently available literature accessions (about 220). This report is presented as a descriptive summary of information that is contained in the data bank.

  9. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, K.C.

    1992-12-08

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion. 16 figs.

  10. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  11. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  12. Project Profile: Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Abengoa Solar, under the Solar Manufacturing Technology (SolarMat) program, will be investigating the use of an automotive-style high-rate fabrication and automated assembly techniques to achieve a substantial reduction in the deployment cost of their new SpaceTube advanced large aperture parabolic trough collector.

  13. Solar absorber panel, collector assembly and installation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.L.

    1980-12-23

    A solar absorber panel assembly has a pair of substantially parallel plates sealed together at their perimeter. A raised integral header is formed in one of the plates. An external header is in fluid communication with the integral header and is spaced from and mechanically connected to the plates. A solar collector assembly includes hanger brackets mounted on an inclined support surface to engage and retain bodies of insulation material and solar absorber panels. The absorber panels are in side-by-side relation with relatively slidable slightly overlapping marginal portions. External headers on the absorber panels are connected together by slip-on resilient sleeves of silicone rubber. An enclosure having a transparent cover and a wall extending around a plurality of absorber panels and external headers is attached directly to the support surface independently of the hanger brackets and absorber panels. The cover is supported by cover support brackets mounted on the support surface and extending upwardly between panels, passing through openings formed by lateral recesses in the marginal portions of the absorber panels. A solar collector is installed by attaching hanger brackets to an inclined support surface, placing thermal insulation and absorber panels on the hanger brackets to prevent downward slipping movement, and enclosing the absorber panels with a cover which is transmissive of radiant solar energy.

  14. Project Profile: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Generation Solar Collectors for CSP Project Profile: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP 3M logo -- This project is inactive. -- 3M Company, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is developing high-reflectivity films and high-rigidity structures that can replace current solar collectors that use heavy glass mirrors. Solar collectors represent the most expensive component of a CSP system. Approach Photo of metallic panels connected with pipes. The

  15. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  16. Check valve and spring to prevent forward and reverse thermosiphoning in solar collector systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagshaw, D. P.; Kast, M. A.; Whitehouse, H. T.

    1985-09-17

    A freeze protection system allows the working fluid contained in the communicating tubes of the solar collector to drain from both the input and output tubes of the collector when a first predetermined temperature of the working fluid is detected and to fill the collector via both the input and output tubes when a second predetermined temperature is detected.

  17. Attaching solar collectors to a structural framework utilizing a flexible clip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, John S

    2014-03-25

    Methods and apparatuses described herein provide for the attachment of solar collectors to a structural framework in a solar array assembly. A flexible clip is attached to either end of each solar collector and utilized to attach the solar collector to the structural framework. The solar collectors are positioned to allow a member of the framework to engage a pair of flexible clips attached to adjacent solar collectors during assembly of the solar array. Each flexible clip may have multiple frame-engaging portions, each with a flange on one end to cause the flexible clip to deflect inward when engaged by the framework member during assembly and to guide each of the frame-engaging portions into contact with a surface of the framework member for attachment.

  18. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  19. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  20. Solar Trough Organic Rankine Electricity System (STORES) Stage 1: Power Plant Optimization and Economics; November 2000 -- May 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhu, E.

    2006-03-01

    Report regarding a Stage 1 Study to further develop the concept of the Solar Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Electricity Systems (STORES).

  1. Low-cost, high-performance solar flat-plate collectors for applications in northern latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar flat plate collector designs have been developed which incorporate high performance polymer film and laminate technology that have a projected manufacturing cost approaching $15/m/sup 2/ and potential thermal performance consistent with the best commercial solar flat plate collectors available today.

  2. Solar swimming pool heating -- A copper collector after 26 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, F. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a progress report and a technology overview for a do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater built by the author. Since March 1973 the heater has operated successfully day in day out for over 26 years, as a simple component in the pool circulation system, for three successive homeowners. The heater project was sponsored by the Copper Development Association (CDA), and used a copper flat plate collector design mounted on a small building, which provided both the roofing and the solar collection function. The heater was built in Pasadena, California, at 34.2 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude. A do-it-yourself manual was written so others could build such heaters, and about 100,000 copies of this manual have been distributed. The manual has helped many to get a better understanding of solar energy, has allowed many around the world to build similar swimming pool heater, and caused this author to get into the solar energy field.

  3. Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-09

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

  4. Cable tensioned membrane solar collector module with variable tension control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising a membrane for concentrating sunlight, a plurality of elongated structural members for suspending the membrane member thereon, and a plurality of control members for adjustably tensioning the membrane member, as well as for controlling a focus produced by the membrane members. Each control member is disposed at a different corresponding one of the plurality of structural members. The collector also comprises an elongated flexible tensioning member, which serves to stretch the membrane member and to thereafter hold it in tension, and a plurality of sleeve members, which serve to provide the membrane member with a desired surface contour during tensioning of the membrane member. The tensioning member is coupled to the structural members such that the tensioning member is adjustably tensioned through the structural members. The tensioning member is also coupled to the membrane member through the sleeve members such that the sleeve members uniformly and symmetrically stretch the membrane member upon applying tension to the tensioning member with the control members.

  5. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-08

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  6. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the two sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  7. Focusing solar collector and method for manufacturing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar collector comprising an annular-shaped frame and a composite membrane member for concentrating and focusing sun radiation. The composite membrane member is supported and tensioned by the frame and consists of first and second differentially pretensioned sheet members which are integrally bonded to one another. The frame and one of the two sheet members are adapted to allow tensions in both of the sheets to be adjusted. Subsequent to bonding and upon adjusting a tension in one of the two sheet members, both of the two bonded sheet members react with one another so as to cause the composite membrane member to have a contoured configuration, which enables the membrane member to be focusable. Additionally, adjusting the tension in one of the two sheet members provides a reciprocal adjustment in a focus provided by the membrane member.

  8. Development of polymer film solar collectors: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Andrews, J.W.

    1982-08-01

    Solar energy collector panels using polymer film and laminate technology have been developed which demonstrate low cost and high thermal performance for residential and commercial applications. This device uses common water in the absorber/heat exchanger which is constructed with polymer film adhesively laminated to aluminum foil as the outer surfaces. Stressed polymer films are also used for the outer window and back surface of the panel forming a high strength structural composite. Rigid polymer foam complements the design by contributing insulation and structural definition. This design has resulted in very low weight (3.5 kg/m/sup 2/), potentially very low manufacturing cost (approx. $11/m/sup 2/), and high thermal performance. The development of polymer materials for this technology will be a key to early commercial success. This report summarizes the current status of development and discusses the information gained from system tests are summarized.

  9. Free-formed insulated concentrating solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, G.

    1981-01-01

    A free-formed, insulated solar concentrating-collector was designed, built, and tested. The design utilizes new concepts to achieve simplicity, low cost, high efficiency, and long service life. Three concepts were utilized to meet these goals: First, the concentrating reflector is free-formed by hand from a thin steel sheet. Second, a transparent cover is placed over the concentrator and insulation is placed on the back and ends reduce heat losses and protect the reflecting surface from attack by rain and dust. Third, a highly-reflective aluminum film, protected by bonding between two thin sheets of uv stabilized polyester, is fastened to the steel substrate by peelable adhesive. The material cost of the unit without sun seeking electronics and drive motor is about $6.75 per square foot of sun capturing area. Sun following equipment adds to the cost, however, in units of about 100 square feet sun following equipment contributes about $2.00 per square foot. Labor costs are estimated to be approximately $3.00 per square foot for a $5.00 per hour labor rate for a trained crew. On a do-it-yourself basis a 100 square foot unit would cost about $875. Tests of the prototype collector performed by a certified solar test laboratory were made and the results compared with similar tests of a commercial unit. These tests indicate that the efficiency of the prototype is higher than the commercial unit at outlet temperatures below 160/sup 0/F and comparable with the commercial unit at the boiling point of water.

  10. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 30 ... LABORATORY; PERFORMANCE; PERFORMANCE TESTING; RECOMMENDATIONS; SIMULATION; ...

  11. Renewable energy technologies for federal facilities: Solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This sheet presents information on solar water heaters (passive and active), solar collectors (flat plate, evacuated tube, parabolic trough), lists opportunities for use of solar water heating, and describes what is required and the costs. Important terms are defined.

  12. Nexant Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant Systems Analysis; Task 3: Multiple Plants at a Common Location, 20 January 2005 - 31 December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, B.

    2006-07-01

    Subcontract report by Nexant, Inc., regarding a system analysis of multiple solar parabolic trough plants at a common location.

  13. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Research Org: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Solar Energy Technologies Program Country of Publication: United States ...

  14. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Baseload CSP | Department of Energy Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough System for Baseload CSP SkyFuel logo SkyFuel, under the Baseload CSP FOA, developed an advanced, low-cost CSP collector using higher-concentration, higher-temperature, parabolic trough technology to substantially reduce the cost of baseload utility-scale solar power generation. Approach Overhead photo of horizontal metallic

  15. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1981-02-10

    A prototype design for an evacuated tube air cooled solar collector module has been completed. A product cost study, based on the production of 60,000 of the prototype modules per year (approx. 1,000,000 square feet annually), estimates that the module as shipped would have a cost at inventory of $7.09 to $7.40 per square foot of aperture. Computer programs were developed to predict the optical and thermal performance of the module. Antireflective coatings (porous aluminum oxide) which could be formed by spraying or dipping were demonstrated but degraded more rapidly when exposed to a high humidity ambient than acid etched films. A selective black chromium oxide multi-layered graded film was vapor deposited which had an absorptivity of about 0.9 and an emissivity of 0.03. When the film was heated to temperatures of 400/sup 0/C in a gettered vacuum for as little as 24 hours, however, irreversible changes took place both between and within coating layers which resulted in ..cap alpha.. decreasing to about 0.73 and epsilon increasing to 0.14. The product cost studies indicate that module design changes are warranted to reduce product cost prior to tooling for production.

  16. Thin-film flat-plate solar collectors for low-cost manufacture and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    A flat-plate solar energy collector design using thin-film plastics in both the absorber and glazing is described. The design approach proceeded in two steps. First, cost constraints on solar collectors were determined using reasonable economic projections. Second, engineering was applied only to those ideas which had hope of falling within those cost boundaries. The use of thin-film plastics appeared most attractive according to these criteria. The nature of the marketing and distribution network can be expected to have a strong impact on the final installed cost of the collector; the proposed design has characteristics which could make possible a reduced price markup.

  17. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This PowerPoint presentation was originally given by Dylan Grogan, principal investigator at Abengoa Solar, during a SunShot Initiative Concentrating Solar Power program review on April 24, 2013. The project, Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants, seeks to determine whether the inorganic fluids (molten salts) offer a sufficient reduction in levelized energy costs to pursue further development, and to develop the components required for their use. The presentation focuses on presenting conclusions from Phase 1 of the program and looks ahead to review Phase 2 activities."

  18. Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Boston University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  19. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  20. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, B.T.; Rabl, A.

    1975-06-27

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  1. Means of increasing efficiency of CPC solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1977-02-15

    A device is provided for improving the thermal efficiency of a cylindrical radiant energy collector. A channel is placed next to and in close proximity to the nonreflective side of an energy reflective wall of a cylindrical collector. A coolant is piped through the channel and removes a portion of the nonreflective energy incident on the wall which is absorbed by the wall. The energy transferred to the coolant may be utilized in a useful manner.

  2. Numerical simulation of solar collectors: The effect of nonuniform and nonsteady state of the boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliva, A.; Costa, M.; Perez Segarra, C.D. )

    1991-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed for determination of thermal behavior of solar collector. The model takes into account the multidimensional and transient aspects that characterize the phenomenon of heat transfer in a collector. The modelization carried out allows the analysis of the influence of such aspects as: flow nonuniformity distribution, areas of shadow, and variations in dimension and properties of the different elements. These aspects can be analyzed equally for steady and nonsteady outdoor conditions. Illustrative situations of the influence on the collector performance of the different aspects previously mentioned are shown.

  3. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  4. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility Program for predicting thermal performance of line-focusing, concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    The program at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, for predicting the performance of line-focusing solar collectors in industrial process heat applications is described. The qualifications of the laboratories selected to do the testing and the procedure for selecting commercial collectors for testing are given. The testing program is outlined. The computer program for performance predictions is described. An error estimate for the predictions and a sample of outputs from the program are included.

  5. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  6. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  7. Do-it-yourself low-cost solar-hot-air-collector design book. Final report, April 1983-September 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bumpus, P.; Croteau, R.

    1985-12-01

    The book contains a detailed step-by-step instruction manual on how to assemble a 4' X 8' wood collector with a domestic hot-water option. A complete material list of all components necessary to fabricate a solar hot-air-collector are included in the text. The book also contains actual performance and computer-simulated performance of a site-built solar hot-air collector.

  8. Solar tests of aperture plate materials for solar thermal dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L.D.

    1983-08-15

    In parabolic dish solar collectors, walk-off of the spot of concentrated sunlight can be a hazard if a malfunction causes the concentration to stop following the sun. Therefore, a test program was carried out to evaluate the behavior of various ceramics, metals, and polymers under solar irradiation of about 7000 kW/m/sup 2/ (peak) for 15 minutes. The only materials that did not slump or shatter were two grades of medium-grain extruded graphite. High-purity, slip-cast silica might be satisfactory at somewhat lower flux. Oxidation of the graphite appeared acceptable during tests simulating walk-off, acquisition (2000 cycles on/off sun), and spillage (continuous on-sun operation).

  9. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  10. Annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attalage, R.A.; Reddy, T.A. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation for annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate solar collector has been developed using simulated results based on typical meteorological year (TMY) data for 26 US locations. A preliminary validation of this correlation has been carried out with data from four Australian locations. With the advent of increasing interest in photovoltaic systems, there are a number of advantages of using a two-axis flat-plate collector. Since the tracking system is generally much cheaper than the collector panel, such a mode permits the incident solar radiation to be collected more efficiently. Incidence angle effects are minimized and, moreover, contrary to concentrating collectors, such a mode enables both the diffuse and beam components of solar radiation to be collected. In tropical locations where the diffuse fraction is generally high, this may be a great advantage. The objective of this study was to develop a correlation for the annual collectible energy of a two-axis tracking flat-plate collector.

  11. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.

    1981-06-29

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  12. Heat collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A.

    1984-01-01

    A heat collector and method suitable for efficiently and cheaply collecting solar and other thermal energy are provided. The collector employs a heat pipe in a gravity-assist mode and is not evacuated. The collector has many advantages, some of which include ease of assembly, reduced structural stresses on the heat pipe enclosure, and a low total materials cost requirement. Natural convective forces drive the collector, which after startup operates entirely passively due in part to differences in molecular weights of gaseous components within the collector.

  13. Solar Thermal Collectors - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understanding

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy - Energy Information Administration Collectors Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) Degree-Days U.S. Energy Facts State and U.S. Territory Data Use of Energy In Industry For Transportation In Homes In Commercial Buildings Efficiency and Conservation Energy and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook

  14. Low-cost solar flat-plate-collector development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goals were developed for the collector which led to the rejection of conventional approaches and to the exploration of thin-film technology. A thin-film sola absorber suited for high-speed continous-roll manufacture at low cost was designed. The absorber comprises two sheets of aluminum-foil/polymeric-material laminate bonded together at intervals to form channels with water as the heat transfer fluid. Several flat-plate panels were fabricated and tested. (MHR)

  15. Heat exchanger for concentrating solar collectors and method for making the heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stultz, R.A.

    1983-08-09

    nment of the flow passages with the A heat exchanger assembly is disclosed for use with concentrating solar collectors of the type employing an elongated conduit for transporting a heat exchange fluid, the heat exchanger being positioned within an opening in the upper surface of the conduit and operating to transfer heat to the heat exchange fluid. The heat exchanger includes a plurality of stacked heat conducting heat exchanger plates having grooves oriented to form flow passage extending in the direction of fluid flow. The heat direction of heat exchange fluid flow. The grooved heat exchange plates may be fabricated by stamp from a sheet of heat conducting material to facilitate manufacturing of the heat exchanger. In another embodiment, the plates are positioned normal to the fluid flow direction with openings in the plates serving to form flow channels. The heat exchanger is usuable with collectors employing either photovoltaic cells or a solar radiation absorbing flat plate collector.

  16. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  17. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  18. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  19. Design considerations for solar industrial process heat systems: nontracking and line focus collector technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1981-03-01

    Items are listed that should be considered in each aspect of the design of a solar industrial process heat system. The collector technologies covered are flat-plate, evacuated tube, and line focus. Qualitative design considerations are stressed rather than specific design recommendations. (LEW)

  20. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Collector R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal energy storage (TES) research at NREL focuses on reducing the costs of thermal storage and electricity from concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. NREL's TES effort ...

  1. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  2. Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042513madrone....

  3. Fluidic Solar Collectors New Materials and Mechanisms for Heliostats

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  4. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: AAI solar collector with pressure-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhance oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the AAI solar line-focusing slat-type collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  5. Transpired Solar Collector at NREL's Waste Handling Facility Uses Solar Energy to Heat Ventilation Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-09-01

    The transpired solar collector was installed on NREL's Waste handling Facility (WHF) in 1990 to preheat ventilation air. The electrically heated WHF was an ideal candidate for the this technology - requiring a ventilation rate of 3,000 cubic feet per meter to maintain safe indoor conditions.

  6. Low cost, bare plate solar air collector. Semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A low cost, bare plate solar collector that is specifically designed to preheat ambient air with solar energy is discussed. Two prototype solar collector test systems have been designed, fabricated and assembled. Each system has been instrumented to provide instantaneous and average thermal performance data by means of a computerized data logger system. This data logger system is currently being made operational. Data collection is scheduled to begin March 1, 1980 and continue until the project completion date of June 17, 1980. Some preliminary test data have been obtained for both prototype systems. The results showed that ambient air was preheated between 5/sup 0/F and 10/sup 0/F with the systems achieving a thermal performance of between 15% and 30% efficiency.

  7. Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.; Mahoney, Alan Roderick

    2007-07-01

    Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.

  8. Solar collector panels (process-method). Rainwater collection and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mowery, J.W.

    1981-10-15

    A process for producing panels for solar heating of potable water is described. The panels have PVC tubing flat-coiled into square or rectangular shapes. Also described is a cistern for collecting and storing rainwater. (LEW)

  9. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  10. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.

    2010-12-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  11. PROJECT PROFILE: Abengoa Solar, LLC - ATLAS | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INNOVATION The Advanced Trough with Lower-cost System-Architecture design (ATLAS) builds upon the state-of-the-art SpaceTube large-aperture collector and SolarMat innovative ...

  12. Low-cost, do-it-yourself solar collector handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Step-by-step directions are given for constructing a low-cost, active flat-plate solar air heater that can be constructed using only minimal carpentry skills. The system consists of an insulated box containing a metal plate, covered with a glazing material, and connected to a small fan. Some data from monitoring such a system are given. (LEW)

  13. Optical performance of the TBC-2 solar collector before and after the 1993 mirror lustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, R.; Strachan, J.

    1995-02-01

    In 1993, the mirror facets of one of Sandia`s point-focusing solar collectors, the Test Bed Concentrator {number_sign}2 (TBC-2), were reconditioned. The concentrator`s optical performance was evaluated before and after this operation. This report summarizes and compares the results of these tests. The tests demonstrated that the concentrator`s total power and peak flux were increased while the overall flux distribution in the focal plane remained qualitatively the same.

  14. Development of low-cost polymer film solar collectors. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Le Doux, P.; Metz, P.D.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1983-09-01

    This report covers work performed on the Brookhaven National Laboratory polymer film collector project during the period October 1, 1981 to November 1, 1982, in four major areas of endeavor: materials, engineering, economics, and testing. It also describes the search for solutions to the major problem - delamination of the polymer and metal sheets in the absorber - which occurred during the severe conditions associated with solar cooling applications. Finally, it outlines the plan of work for fiscal year 1983.

  15. Experimental analysis of thermal performance of flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors in stationary standard and daily conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zambolin, E.; Del Col, D.

    2010-08-15

    New comparative tests on two different types of solar collectors are presented in this paper. A standard glazed flat plate collector and an evacuated tube collector are installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions; the evacuated collector is a direct flow through type with external compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) reflectors. Efficiency in steady-state and quasi-dynamic conditions is measured following the standard and it is compared with the input/output curves measured for the whole day. The first purpose of the present work is the comparison of results in steady-state and quasi-dynamic test methods both for flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. Besides this, the objective is to characterize and to compare the daily energy performance of these two types of collectors. An effective mean for describing and analyzing the daily performance is the so called input/output diagram, in which the collected solar energy is plotted against the daily incident solar radiation. Test runs have been performed in several conditions to reproduce different conventional uses (hot water, space heating, solar cooling). Results are also presented in terms of daily efficiency versus daily average reduced temperature difference: this allows to represent the comparative characteristics of the two collectors when operating under variable conditions, especially with wide range of incidence angles. (author)

  16. 22.5% efficient silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geissbühler, Jonas Werner, Jérémie; Martin de Nicolas, Silvia; Hessler-Wyser, Aïcha; Tomasi, Andrea; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Barraud, Loris; Despeisse, Matthieu; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-08-24

    Substituting the doped amorphous silicon films at the front of silicon heterojunction solar cells with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides can mitigate parasitic light absorption losses. This was recently proven by replacing p-type amorphous silicon with molybdenum oxide films. In this article, we evidence that annealing above 130 °C—often needed for the curing of printed metal contacts—detrimentally impacts hole collection of such devices. We circumvent this issue by using electrodeposited copper front metallization and demonstrate a silicon heterojunction solar cell with molybdenum oxide hole collector, featuring a fill factor value higher than 80% and certified energy conversion efficiency of 22.5%.

  17. Performance of a double-effect absorption chiller driven by ICPC solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Duff, W.S.; Brezner, J.M.; Henkel, E.T.; Winston, R.; O'Gallagher, J.; Sethi, P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analytical results describing the performance of a 70 kW (20 ton), water-fired, double-effect absorption chiller. The chiller is driven by a 106 m{sup 2} array of integrated compound parabolic concentrator (ICPC) solar collectors. For this project, an existing gas-fired chiller was modified to operate on hot water. The water was heated by an array of 336 evacuated ICPC tubes. Each tube has an effective area of 0.317 m{sup 2}. The chiller and collector array are part of a complete solar HVAC system that provides air conditioning and space heating for a 743 m{sup 2} (8,000 ft{sup 2}) commercial building in Sacramento, CA. The other components of the HVAC system are a high temperature storage tank, a cooling tower, a gas-fired back-up boiler and five 14 kW (4 ton) cooling/heating fan coil units. The experimental data are used to determine; (1) the efficiency of the collectors; (2) the coefficient of performance of the chiller; and (3) the overall energy balance on the system. Computer models have also been developed to predict the performance and to optimize the design and operating characteristics of the HVAC system.

  18. Final Report- Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Solar Thermal Electric (STE) power generation is facing significant challenges from other sources of renewable energy; their advances have made it more and more difficult for solar thermal to remain a cost effective alternative in the United States. The primary advantage of STE is the thermal storage capability, which allows plants to continue producing electricity long after the sun has set. While it is necessary for the industry to fully develop this storage technology, it is also critical that significant cost reductions are found in the solar field construction and installation. If STE is to be competitive, these cost reductions must be recognized not only in the design and manufacture of the collectors, but also in the assembly and installation of the solar field. The goal of this project was to evaluate the current state of the art parabolic trough collector field and develop an improved field that can be installed for

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

    2012-04-01

    In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

  20. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  1. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  2. Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP, Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    3M Company is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their advanced collectors. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  3. Executive Summary: Assessment of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ... of Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Solar Technology Cost and Performance Forecasts ...

  4. Testing results of tubeless flat-plate phase-change solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamimi, A. ); Rawajfeh, K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a tubeless solar collector charged with Refrigerant-113 (R-113) that was installed and tested. Steady-state performance of this system showed high efficiency values; this was due to phase-change heat transfer characteristics of a boiling process that is accompanied by low plate temperature as well as low thermal resistance to heat flow from the absorber plate to the working fluid. The only resistance to heat flow toward the working fluid is the conduction resistance through the upper plate, which is negligible.

  5. Flat-plate solar collectors utilizing polymeric film for high performance and very low cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Polymeric films are used in the construction of the absorber and window portions of a flat plate solar collector. The absorber heat exchanger consists of a channeled liquid envelope constructed using a polymeric film and metal foil laminate. In addition, the composite films and light frame monocoque construction contribute to very light weight and low cost. The use of high-performance polymers permits low-loss designs with high thermal performance. The construction concepts are consistent with high speed mass production and installation with manufacturing cost projections of $15/m/sup 2/. Tests performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and elsewhere indicate performance potential consistent with applications incorporating solar absorption air conditioning.

  6. Theory and Manufacturing Processes of Solar NanoAntenna Electromagnetic Collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale K. Kotter; Steven D. Novack

    2010-02-01

    DRAFT For Submittal to Journal of Solar Energy - Rev 10.1 ---SOL-08-1091 SOLAR Nantenna Electromagnetic Collectors Dale K. Kotter Idaho National Laboratory Steven D. Novack Idaho National Laboratory W. Dennis Slafer MicroContinuum, Inc. Patrick Pinhero University of Missouri ABSTRACT The research described in this paper explores a new and efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun, using nanoantenna (nantenna) electromagnetic collectors (NECs). NEC devices target mid-infrared wavelengths, where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells are inefficient and where there is an abundance of solar energy. The initial concept of designing NECs was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory to the infrared and visible regions. This approach initially proved unsuccessful because the optical behavior of materials in the terahertz (THz) region was overlooked and, in addition, economical nanofabrication methods were not previously available to produce the optical antenna elements. This paper demonstrates progress in addressing significant technological barriers, including: 1) development of frequency-dependent modeling of double-feedpoint square spiral nantenna elements; 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties; and 3) development of novel manufacturing methods that could potentially enable economical large-scale manufacturing. We have shown that nantennas can collect infrared energy and induce THz currents, and we have also developed cost-effective proof-of-concept fabrication techniques for the large-scale manufacture of simple square loop nantenna arrays. Future work is planned to embed rectifiers into the double-feedpoint antenna structures. This work represents an important first step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity. This could lead to a broadband, high conversion efficiency low-cost solution to complement conventional PV

  7. Alternative energy sources. IV. Proceedings of the Fourth Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, FL, December 14-16, 1981. Volume 1 - Solar Collectors Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veziroglu, T.N.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of solar measurements, solar collectors, selective coatings, thermal storage, phase change storage, and heat exchangers are discussed. The analysis and testing of flat-plate solar collectors are addressed. The development and uses of plastic collectors, a solar water heating system, solar energy collecting oil barrels, a glass collector panel, and a two-phase thermosyphon system are considered. Studies of stratification in thermal storage, of packed bed and fluidized bed systems, and of thermal storage in solar towers, in wall passive systems, and in reversible chemical reactions are reported. Phase change storage by direct contact processes and in residential solar space heating and cooling is examined, as are new materials and surface characteristics for solar heat storage. The use of R-11 and Freon-113 in heat exchange is discussed.

  8. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  9. Commercialization of BNL design solar collector in India: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Mubayi, V.

    1985-09-01

    The present market for solar thermal energy technologies in India is almost completely restricted to solar hot water and, in a smaller number, hot air systems. A few projects utilizing concentrating systems for producing steam and/or thermally generated electric power have been carried out but these are restricted to the R and D stage. Similarly, a few projects employing solar space heating have also been done in remote, mountainous areas but these are also at the R and D level. Based on interviews with knowledgeable observers, including officials of DNES/STEC, state ''nodal'' agencies responsible for implementing solar energy projects in different states, and flat plate collector/hot water systems manufacturers, it has been roughly estimated that between 90 to 95% of the hot water systems installed or under installation have been funded by government programs. This includes systems funded under Central Government programs by DNES and systems installed under State Government projects. The remaining 5 to 10% of the installations are in the private sector and are believed to be mostly small, domestic systems (100 liters per day of hot water at 60/sup 0/C).

  10. Low-cost evacuated-tube solar collector appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beecher, D.T.

    1980-05-31

    A low cost solar heat energy collector module and array has been designed using the evacuated tube, selective absorber, air cooled concept. Glass tubing as used in fluorescent lamps with automatic sealing methods is a key feature of the evacuated tube design. A molded fiber glass concentrating reflector panel and sheet metal header assembly are proposed. Major design problems involved included the cost of materials and labor, thermal expansion and distortion problems, high stagnation and operating temperatures, isolation, thermal efficiency, sealing, joining, air pressure drop, and weight of the preassembled module. A cost of less than $5 per active square foot of collecting surface has been estimated for materials and labor of the module and its mounting frame.

  11. Technical evaluation of a solar heating system having conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    A simple innovative solar heating design (Solar Option One) using conventional hydronic solar collectors and a radiant panel slab was constructed. An objective of hybrid solar design is to combine the relative advantages of active and passive design approaches while minimizing their respective disadvantages. A test house using the Solar Option One heating system was experimentally monitored to determine its energy based performance during the 1982-83 heating season. The test residence is located in Lyndonville, Vermont, an area which has a characteristically cold and cloudy climate. The two story residence has a floor area of about 1400 square feet and is constructed on a 720 square foot 5.5 inch thick floor slab. A 24 inch packed gravel bed is located beneath the slab and the slab-gravel bed is insulated by two inches of polystyrene insulation. The test building is of frame construction and uses insulation levels which have become commonplace throughout the country. The structure would not fall into the superinsulated category but was tightly constructed so as to have a low infiltration level. The building is sun-tempered in that windows were concentrated somewhat on the South side and all but avoided on the North. A solar greenhouse on the South side of the building was closed off from the structure permanently throughout the testing so as to better observe the solar heating invention without confounding variables. The monitoring equipment generated an internal gain of about 17,000 BTUs per day, roughly the equivalent of occupancy by two persons. A full description of the experimental testing program is given. System efficiency and performance are reported.

  12. Coaxial extrusion conversion concept for polymeric flat plate solar collectors. Final technical report, September 30, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, R.O.; Chapman, N.J.; Chao, K.C.; Sorenson, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated materials and processes for fundamental improvements in flat-plate solar collector cost and performance. The goal was to develop a process for direct conversion of inexpensive raw materials into a completed solar collector unit, without labor intensive assembly operations. It was thought that materials carefully matched to the process and end-use environment would substantially reduce collector costs, as compared to conventional industry practice. The project studied the feasibility of a cost-effective, glazed solar collector, with low labor input, utilizing a coaxial extrusion of compatible polymeric materials. This study evaluated all considered materials for the desired application. In addition, there was a trial extrusion of the leading candidate glazing and absorber materials, which resulted in successfully performing a coaxial extrusion of one cell. At the time the study was conducted, there were no materials available that met the necessary requirements for the specified utilization. It was recommended that, if potentially compatible materials become available, further investigation into the suitability of those materials be researched. Then, if a suitable material was found, proceeding into Phase II would be recommended.

  13. Lite Trough LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 6460 Sector: Solar Product: Developing a parabolic trough system for Solar Thermal Electricity Generation (STEG). Coordinates: 38.026545, -77.371139 Show Map Loading...

  14. Parabolic Trough | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE funds solar research and development (R&D) in parabolic trough systems as one of four concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies aiming to meet the goals of the SunShot ...

  15. CONC/11: a computer program for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1984-02-15

    CONC/11 is a computer program designed for calculating the performance of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. It is intended to aid the system or collector designer in evaluating the performance to be expected with possible design alternatives. From design or test data on the characteristics of the various subsystems, CONC/11 calculates the efficiencies of the collector and the overall power system as functions of the receiver temperature for a specified insolation. If desired, CONC/11 will also determine the receiver aperture and the receiver temperature that will provide the highest efficiencies at a given insolation. The program handles both simple and compound concentrators. CONC/11 is written in Athena Extended Fortran (similar to Fortran 77) to operate primarily in an interactive mode on a Sperry 1100/81 computer. It could also be used on many small computers.

  16. OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Clyne, R.

    2000-08-01

    Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.

  17. To develop a dynamic model of a collector loop for purpose of improved control of solar heating and cooling. Final technical report. [TRNSYS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herczfeld, P R; Fischl, R

    1980-01-01

    The program objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of using the TRNSYS computer code for solar heating and cooling control studies and modify it wherever possible, and (2) develop a new dynamic model of the solar collector which reflects the performance of the collector under transient conditions. Also, the sensitivity of the performance of this model to the various system parameters such as collector time constants, flow rates, turn-on and turn-off temperature set points, solar insolation, etc., was studied. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  18. Advances in Concentrating Solar Power Collectors: Mirrors and Solar Selective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenendy, C. E.

    2007-10-10

    The intention is to explore the feasibility of depositing the coating by lower-cost methods and to perform a rigorous cost analysis after a viable high-temperature solar-selective coating is demonstrated by e-beam.

  19. Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted) Year Low-Temperature Collectors 1 Medium-Temperature Collectors 2 High-Temperature Collectors 3 Total Shipments Trade Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Quantity Shipped Price 4 (dollars 5 per

  20. Performance analysis of a latent heat storage system with phase change material for new designed solar collectors in greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benli, Hueseyin; Durmus, Aydin

    2009-12-15

    The continuous increase in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the rise in fuel prices are the main driving forces behind the efforts for more effectively utilize various sources of renewable energy. In many parts of the world, direct solar radiation is considered to be one of the most prospective sources of energy. In this study, the thermal performance of a phase change thermal storage unit is analyzed and discussed. The storage unit is a component of ten pieced solar air collectors heating system being developed for space heating of a greenhouse and charging of PCM. CaCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O was used as PCM in thermal energy storage with a melting temperature of 29 C. Hot air delivered by ten pieced solar air collector is passed through the PCM to charge the storage unit. The stored heat is utilized to heat ambient air before being admitted to a greenhouse. This study is based on experimental results of the PCM employed to analyze the transient thermal behavior of the storage unit during the charge and discharge periods. The proposed size of collectors integrated PCM provided about 18-23% of total daily thermal energy requirements of the greenhouse for 3-4 h, in comparison with the conventional heating device. (author)

  1. Final test results for the Schott HCE on a LS-2 collector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, Timothy A.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2005-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed thermal performance testing on the Schott parabolic trough receiver using the LS-2 collector on the Sandia rotating platform at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, NM. This testing was funded as part of the US DOE Sun-Lab USA-Trough program. The receiver tested was a new Schott receiver, known as Heat Collector Elements (HCEs). Schott is a new manufacturer of trough HCEs. The Schott HCEs are 4m long; therefore, two were joined and mounted on the LS-2 collector module for the test. The Schott HCE design consists of a 70mm diameter high solar absorptance coated stainless steel (SS) tube encapsulated within a 125mm diameter Pyrex{reg_sign} glass tube with vacuum in the annulus formed between the SS and glass tube to minimize convection heat losses. The Schott HCE design is unique in two regards. First, the bellows used to compensate for the difference in thermal expansion between the metal and glass tube are inside the glass envelope rather than outside. Second, the composition of materials at the glass-to-metal seal has very similar thermal expansion coefficients making the joint less prone to breakage from thermal shock. Sandia National Laboratories provided both the azimuth and elevation collector module tracking systems used during the tests. The test results showed the efficiency of the Schott HCE to be very similar to current HCEs being manufactured by Solel. This testing provided performance verification for the use of Schott tubes with Solargenix trough collector assemblies at currently planned trough power plant projects in Arizona and Nevada.

  2. Tracking and stationary flat plate solar collectors: Yearly collectible energy correlations for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, J.M. ); Kreider, J.F.; Reeves, P. )

    1991-01-01

    For tracking and stationary flat plate (nonconcentrating) solar collectors, the authors develop easy-to-use, closed form, analytical formulae for yearly collectible energy as a function of radiation threshold. Primary applications include central-station photovoltaic systems. These correlations include the explicit dependence on: yearly average clearness index, latitude, and ground cover ratio (shading effects), and are in excellent agreement with data-based results for 26 US SOLMET stations. They also incorporate appropriate functional forms that ensure accurate results for photovoltaic system design and, in particular, for systems with buy-back thresholds. Both beam and diffuse shading are treated properly and diffuse shading is found to represent a 2%-6% loss that has systematically been ignored in past studies. Sample sensitivity studies illustrate evaluation of the energetic advantage of tracking vs. stationary deployment and its significant dependence on ground cover ratio. The impact of isotropic versus anisotropic modeling of diffuse radiation is quantified and shown to give rise to non-negligible differences (up to 10%) in yearly collectible energy. They also determine an optimal tracking strategy for two-axis trackers which, however, is found to yield a 0%-2% energetic advantage relative to conventional normal-incidence tracking.

  3. Solar energy collector including a weightless balloon with sun tracking means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Frederick F.

    1978-01-01

    A solar energy collector having a weightless balloon, the balloon including a transparent polyvinylfluoride hemisphere reinforced with a mesh of ropes secured to its outside surface, and a laminated reflector hemisphere, the inner layer being clear and aluminized on its outside surface and the outer layer being opaque, the balloon being inflated with lighter-than-air gas. A heat collection probe extends into the balloon along the focus of reflection of the reflective hemisphere for conducting coolant into and out of the balloon. The probe is mounted on apparatus for keeping the probe aligned with the sun's path, the apparatus being founded in the earth for withstanding wind pressure on the balloon. The balloon is lashed to the probe by ropes adhered to the outer surface of the balloon for withstanding wind pressures of 100 miles per hour. Preferably, the coolant is liquid sodium-potassium eutectic alloy which will not normally freeze at night in the temperate zones, and when heated to 4,000.degree. R exerts a pressure of only a few atmospheres.

  4. Discrimination and quantification of contamination and implanted solar wind in Genesis collector shards using grazing incidence synchrotron x-ray techniqies: Initial results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitts, K.; Sutton, S.; Eng, P.; Ghose, S.; Burnett, D.

    2006-12-13

    Grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that can differentiate the embedded solar wind component from surface contamination and collector background in the Genesis shards. Initial solar Fe abundance in D30554 is 8 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2}. Accurate knowledge of the composition of the Sun provides a baseline, which allows an understanding of how the solar system has evolved over time and how solar processes and solar wind mechanics behave. Unfortunately, the errors in photospheric abundances are too large for many planetary science problems and this hampers our understanding of these different processes. Analyses of solar wind implanted in meteorites or lunar soils have provided more precise data but alteration processes on these bodies may complicate such information. In response to this need for pristine solar wind samples, NASA developed and launched the Genesis Probe. Unfortunately, the probe smashed into the Utah desert shattering the 300 collector plates into 15,000+ pieces all of which are now coated in a both a fine terrestrial dust and Si and Ge powder from the disrupted collectors themselves. The solar wind penetration depth is 100-200 nm and the superposed contamination layers are typically 40-50 nm. Stringent cleaning regimes have the potential of removing the solar wind itself. The best solution is to have sufficient spatial resolution to separately analyze the surface contamination and penetrated solar wind. To that end, three Genesis collector array shards and their appropriate flight spares were characterized via grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence and x-ray reflectivity. The goals were (1) to evaluate the various cleaning methods used to eliminate contamination, (2) to identify the collector substrates most suited for this technique, (3) to determine whether the solar wind signature could be deconvolved from the collector background signature, and (4) to measure the relative abundances of Ca to Ge in the embedded solar

  5. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gawlik, Keith

    2013-06-25

    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  6. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  7. Wisconsin collector-efficiency study, phase two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abright, B.L.

    1982-01-15

    The collector efficiency study developed a solar collector rating methodology specific to Wisconsin conditions. Existing rating programs were researched and a collector methodology was developed. A computer program was written to calculate the collector ratings and 25 collector models were rated. The accuracy of the proposed rating methodology was evaluated for 16 collectors placed in 11 domestic hot water systems. One liquid space heating analysis with storage and one air space heating analysis without storage were completed. A solar assisted heat pump in which the solar collectors function as evaporators was also analyzed.

  8. NREL: TroughNet - Data and Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This site features data and resources about parabolic trough power plant technology, including: Industry partners U.S. power plant data Solar data Models and tools System and ...

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  10. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  11. Design of solar cells for use in photovoltaic/thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, C.H. III

    1980-01-01

    A promising design development for combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is one in which the photovoltaic cell is both the conversion device for electrical energy and the absorber of thermal energy. To accomplish this, the PV cell design is modified to use the approximately 25 percent of the air mass 1 spectrum at lambda > 1.1 ..mu..m that is currently rejected by the cell. The parameters investigated are: cell back metallization, back surface field, texture etching and anti-reflective coating. A model indicating the increase in absorptance as a function of these parameters is presented, together with the results of experimental measurements. Discussion closes with the presentation of a PV/T collector design that incorporates the improved cells, has 10 percent greater thermal output than current PV/T collectors, and exhibits no degradation in electrical output.

  12. Graybox and adaptative dynamic neural network identification models to infer the steady state efficiency of solar thermal collectors starting from the transient condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberto, Baccoli; Ubaldo, Carlini; Stefano, Mariotti; Roberto, Innamorati; Elisa, Solinas; Paolo, Mura

    2010-06-15

    This paper deals with the development of methods for non steady state test of solar thermal collectors. Our goal is to infer performances in steady-state conditions in terms of the efficiency curve when measures in transient conditions are the only ones available. We take into consideration the method of identification of a system in dynamic conditions by applying a Graybox Identification Model and a Dynamic Adaptative Linear Neural Network (ALNN) model. The study targets the solar collector with evacuated pipes, such as Dewar pipes. The mathematical description that supervises the functioning of the solar collector in transient conditions is developed using the equation of the energy balance, with the aim of determining the order and architecture of the two models. The input and output vectors of the two models are constructed, considering the measures of 4 days of solar radiation, flow mass, environment and heat-transfer fluid temperature in the inlet and outlet from the thermal solar collector. The efficiency curves derived from the two models are detected in correspondence to the test and validation points. The two synthetic simulated efficiency curves are compared with the actual efficiency curve certified by the Swiss Institute Solartechnik Puffung Forschung which tested the solar collector performance in steady-state conditions according to the UNI-EN 12975 standard. An acquisition set of measurements of only 4 days in the transient condition was enough to trace through a Graybox State Space Model the efficiency curve of the tested solar thermal collector, with a relative error of synthetic values with respect to efficiency certified by SPF, lower than 0.5%, while with the ALNN model the error is lower than 2.2% with respect to certified one. (author)

  13. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  14. Determination of the distribution of incident solar radiation in cavity receivers with approximately real parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bammert, K.; Lange, H. ); Hegazy, A. )

    1990-11-01

    The absorption of solar heat and the attendant thermal and mechanical loadings on the tubes of cavity receivers depend predominantly on the flux distribution of the incident solar radiation. For an axially symmetric cavity receiver with a parabolic dish collector, it is simple to determine the insolation pattern on the receiver internal surfaces if the system is ideal. In such a system the surface of the dish is perfectly parabolic (no contour flaws are present), and the sun's central ray impinges on the dish surface parallel to the focal axis (no sun tracking flaws are present). These two conditions cannot be achieved in practice, and therefore the feasible parabolic dish system is referred to as a real system although, in actual fact, it is only an approximation to any actual system. The purpose of this paper is to devise calculation principles which permit analysis of a receiver designed for ideal conditions to verify its structural adequacy under the nonideal conditions to be expected in reality. Of the many possible imperfections in real collectors, two were selected which increase the loadings sustained. The first case concerns flaws in the contour of the dish surface. These locally increase the radiation concentration on the receiver inside walls and tubing. In the second case, sun-tracking errors give rise to axially asymmetric radiation distributions. In both examples, greater than design basis loadings will occur in the receiver tubing. Both kinds of flaws considered in this paper are of a purely deterministic nature.

  15. Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Project Profile: Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators Pennsylvania State University logo -- This project is inactive -- Pennsylvania State University, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing and testing a novel solar collector system that relies on stationary optics, avoiding the need for mirror movement. The system is capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough

  16. Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing Awardee: Abengoa Solar Location: Lakewood, CO Subprogram: Concentrating Solar Power, Technology to Market Funding ...

  17. FirstOPTIC Software Package for Parabolic Trough Evaluation ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar power (CSP) technologies used in commercial utility-scale power generation plants. ... Fast Accurate Applications and Industries Solar Thermal Parabolic Trough Technology ...

  18. Project Profile: Advanced Anti-Soiling Coatings for CSP Collector...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Advanced Anti-Soiling Coatings for CSP Collector Mirrors and Heliostats ... the need to further develop self-cleaning reflector coatings for solar collectors. ...

  19. Experimental study of the influence of collector height on the steady state performance of a passive solar air heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, D.; Burek, S.A.M.

    2010-09-15

    Passive solar air heaters, such as solar chimneys and Trombe Walls, rely on solar-induced buoyancy-driven (natural) convection to produce the flow of air. Although buoyancy-driven convection is well understood for a single vertical plate, buoyancy-driven convection in an asymmetrically-heated channel is more problematic, and in particular, the effects of the channel height on the flow rate and heat transfer. This paper reports on experiments on test rigs resembling lightweight passive solar air-heating collectors. The test rigs were of heights 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m, with adjustable channel depths (20-150 mm) and heat inputs (up to 1000 W/m{sup 2}). Measurements were made of the air, plate and cover temperatures, and air velocities. Results are presented as dimensionless correlations of mass flow (as Reynolds number) and efficiency against heat input (as Rayleigh number), channel depth and height. Thermal efficiency is shown to be a function of the heat input and the system height, but not of the channel depth; mass flow is shown to be a dependent on all three parameters. (author)

  20. Final Report- Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Awardee: Boston UniversityLocation: Boston, MASubprogram: Concentrating Solar PowerFunding Program: SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&DProject: Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self...

  1. Performance of evacuated tubular solar collectors in a residential heating and cooling system. Final report, 1 October 1978-30 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duff, W.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1981-03-01

    Operation of CSU Solar House I during the heating season of 1978-1979 and during the 1979 cooling season was based on the use of systems comprising an experimental evacuated tubular solar collector, a non-freezing aqueous collection medium, heat exchange to an insulated conventional vertical cylindrical storage tank and to a built-up rectangular insulated storage tank, heating of circulating air by solar heated water and by electric auxiliary in an off-peak heat storage unit, space cooling by lithium bromide absorption chiller, and service water heating by solar exchange and electric auxiliary. Automatic system control and automatic data acquisition and computation are provided. This system is compared with others evaluated in CSU Solar Houses I, II and III, and with computer predictions based on mathematical models. Of the 69,513 MJ total energy requirement for space heating and hot water during a record cold winter, solar provided 33,281 MJ equivalent to 48 percent. Thirty percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 29 percent was delivered and used for heating and hot water. Of 33,320 MJ required for cooling and hot water during the summer, 79 percent or 26,202 MJ were supplied by solar. Thirty-five percent of the incident solar energy was collected and 26 percent was used for hot water and cooling in the summer. Although not as efficient as the Corning evacuated tube collector previously used, the Philips experimental collector provides solar heating and cooling with minimum operational problems. Improved performance, particularly for cooling, resulted from the use of a very well-insulated heat storage tank. Day time (on-peak) electric auxiliary heating was completely avoided by use of off-peak electric heat storage. A well-designed and operated solar heating and cooling system provided 56 percent of the total energy requirements for heating, cooling, and hot water.

  2. Project Profile: High Temperature Heat Pipe Receiver for Parabolic Trough

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Collectors (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy High Temperature Heat Pipe Receiver for Parabolic Trough Collectors (SuNLaMP) Project Profile: High Temperature Heat Pipe Receiver for Parabolic Trough Collectors (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM SunShot Award Amount: $3,000,000 This project, done in partnership with Norwich Technologies, focuses on the development of heat pipe receiver technology for use with

  3. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  4. Finite element strategies for the efficient analysis and evaluation of solar collector structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koteras, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrating or reflecting structures for solar energy systems must be evaluated as to their structural integrity and optical performance. Computer studies can be used as an integral part of these evaluations. The computer studies make use of finite element structural codes coupled with post-processors that calculate optical data. If the analysis of a solar structure is to be carried out in an efficient manner, these computer codes must have certain capabilities. A number of solar energy projects at Sandia National Laboratories have made extensive use of finite element analyses. The analyses have been useful in evaluating design concepts which hold promise for large scale use in solar energy projects. Analysis procedures have been developed for some structures so that evaluations can be carried out in a straightforward manner.

  5. A steady state thermal duct model derived by fin-theory approach and applied on an unglazed solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanovic, B.; Hallberg, D.; Akander, J.

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents the thermal modelling of an unglazed solar collector (USC) flat panel, with the aim of producing a detailed yet swift thermal steady-state model. The model is analytical, one-dimensional (1D) and derived by a fin-theory approach. It represents the thermal performance of an arbitrary duct with applied boundary conditions equal to those of a flat panel collector. The derived model is meant to be used for efficient optimisation and design of USC flat panels (or similar applications), as well as detailed thermal analysis of temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations at steady-state conditions; without requiring a large amount of computational power and time. Detailed surface temperatures are necessary features for durability studies of the surface coating, hence the effect of coating degradation on USC and system performance. The model accuracy and proficiency has been benchmarked against a detailed three-dimensional Finite Difference Model (3D FDM) and two simpler 1D analytical models. Results from the benchmarking test show that the fin-theory model has excellent capabilities of calculating energy performances and fluid temperature profiles, as well as detailed material temperature fields and heat transfer distributions/variations (at steady-state conditions), while still being suitable for component analysis in junction to system simulations as the model is analytical. The accuracy of the model is high in comparison to the 3D FDM (the prime benchmark), as long as the fin-theory assumption prevails (no 'or negligible' temperature gradient in the fin perpendicularly to the fin length). Comparison with the other models also shows that when the USC duct material has a high thermal conductivity, the cross-sectional material temperature adopts an isothermal state (for the assessed USC duct geometry), which makes the 1D isothermal model valid. When the USC duct material has a low thermal conductivity, the heat transfer course of

  6. Potential for Solar Industrial Process Heat in the United States: A Look at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    California (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Potential for Solar Industrial Process Heat in the United States: A Look at California Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential for Solar Industrial Process Heat in the United States: A Look at California The use of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors (e.g., parabolic trough or linear Fresnel systems) for industrial thermal applications has been increasing in global interest in the last few years. In particular, the

  7. Solargenix Energy Advanced Parabolic Trough Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R. C.; Hale, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    The Solargenix Advanced Trough Development Project was initiated in the Year 2000 with the support of the DOE CSP Program and, more recently, with the added support of the Nevada Southwest Energy Partnership. Parabolic trough plants are the most mature solar power technology, but no large-scale plants have been built in over a decade. Given this lengthy lull in deployment, our first Project objective was development of improved trough technology for near-term deployment, closely patterned after the best of the prior-generation troughs. The second objective is to develop further improvements in next-generation trough technology that will lead to even larger reductions in the cost of the delivered energy. To date, this Project has successfully developed an advanced trough, which is being deployed on a 1-MW plant in Arizona and will soon be deployed in a 64-MW plant in Nevada. This advanced trough offers a 10% increase in performance and over an 20% decrease in cost, relative to prior-generation troughs.

  8. Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6<//td> 2001 Total 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 240 24 5 0 1 16

  9. Concentrating solar heat collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fattor, A.P.

    1980-09-23

    A heat storage unit is integrated with a collection unit providing a heat supply in off-sun times, and includes movable insulation means arranged to provide insulation during off-sun times for the heat storage unit.

  10. Assessment of Unglazed Solar Domestic Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Salasovich, J.; Hillman, T.

    2005-12-01

    Conference paper investigating cost-performance tradeoffs in replacing glazed collectors with unglazed collectors in solar domestic water heating systems.

  11. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grasser, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects' surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  12. Rinse trough with improved flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O`Hern, T.J.; Grasser, T.W.

    1998-08-11

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The troughs are suitable for one or more essentially planar objects having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs provide uniform rinse fluid flow over the objects` surfaces to accomplish a more thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 5 figs.

  13. Project Profile: Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs Project Profile: Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs Norwich Technologies logo -- This project is inactive -- Norwich Technologies, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is developing a novel receiver for parabolic trough CSP systems that will dramatically improve performance while substantially reducing acquisition and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Approach Two side-by-side

  14. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

  15. NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Power Plant Market, Economic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Overview The primary market for parabolic trough technology is large-scale bulk power. Because trough plants can be hybridized or can include thermal energy storage, they ...

  16. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Rain Collector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's rainwater collector that was put to use during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon on the National Mall. The butterfly...

  17. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  18. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  19. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  20. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  1. Linear Concentrator Solar Power Plant Illustration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This graphic illustrates linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors that capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is heated by the sunlight and then used to create superheated steam that spins a turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity. Alternatively, steam can be generated directly in the solar field, eliminating the need for costly heat exchangers. In a parabolic trough system, the receiver tube is positioned along the focal line of each parabola-shaped reflector.

  2. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Custom Engineering trough with glass reflector surface and Sandia-designed receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Custom Engineering trough and Sandia-designed receivers, with glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States. Two experimental receivers were tested, one with an antireflective coating on the glass envelope around the receiver tube and one without the antireflective coating.

  3. Corona Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Corona Solar Place: Tholey-Theley, Germany Zip: D 66636 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar passive large-size collectors. References:...

  4. Project Profile: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors Project Profile: Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors Boston University logo -- This project is inactive -- Boston University and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, are working to develop a new method to keep solar collectors dirt- and dust-free and thereby maintain high optical efficiency. Approach This project aims to develop large-scale prototypes, cost-effective manufacturing processes, and commercialization of the

  5. Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet details the efforts of a Boston University-led team which is working on a DOE SunShot Initative project. The concentrated solar power industry needs an automated, efficient cleaning process that requires neither water nor moving parts to keep the solar collectors clean for maximum reflectance and energy output. This project team is working to develop a transparent electrodynamic screen as a self-cleaning technology for solar concentrators; cleaning is achieved without water, moving parts, or manual labor. Because of these features, it has a strong potential for worldwide deployment.

  6. Ultracapacitor current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jerabek, Elihu Calfin (Glenmont, NY); Mikkor, Mati (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-10-16

    An ultracapacitor having two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. At least one of the current collectors comprises a conductive metal substrate coated with a metal nitride, carbide or boride coating.

  7. Apparatus for collecting solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildenrotter, K.

    1981-08-18

    Apparatus is described for collecting solar energy comprises a collector having a solar-energy collector surface. The collector is mounted on a support and is pivotable between an exposed position in which the collector surface faces the sun and a substantially horizontal sheltered position in which the collector surface faces the earth, thereby protecting the collector surface from the elements and facilitating access thereto for maintenance.

  8. Premier Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Premier Solar Technologies Name: Premier Solar Technologies Place: Dubai, United Arab Emirates Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Integrated Storage Collector Website:...

  9. Stress in shaped glass evacuated collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.; Fischer-Cripps, A.

    1997-02-01

    Shaped glass evacuated collectors have the lower vacuum envelope formed with a CPC shape. The internal surface is silvered. This surface concentrates solar radiation onto an internal absorbing tube. The upper part of the vacuum envelope is a window to pass the solar radiation in to the absorbing tube. A computer program using analytical equations is used to design these collectors while keeping the glass tensile stress arising from evacuation below acceptable limits. A finite element computer program is used to test the accuracy of the stress calculated analytically. The calculations agree within about 1 MPa. Wind and thermal stresses in the glass are lower than the stresses caused by evacuation.

  10. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  11. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  12. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.

    2011-06-01

    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  13. Think Solar USA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar USA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Think Solar USA Product: Maker, installer and distributor of parabolic trough STEG power and hot water systems. References: Think Solar...

  14. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes an advanced, low-cost receiver project for parabolic troughs, awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. Norwich Technologies is designing a novel receiver that addresses these issues for parabolic trough concentrating solar power systems. This technology represents significant operational and cost advances in the most trusted and broadly implemented form of CSP and provides a viable pathway to achieving SunShot’s $0.06/kWh goal for utility-scale CSP systems.

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Solar Collector Manufacturer Statistics - Number of Manufacturers in 2008: 88 - Companies with 90% of their revenue coming from solar collector sales: 56 - Percentage of shipped solar collectors produced by top 5 manufacturers: 79% Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, p. 2, Table 2.17, p. 24, Table 2.20, p. 27.

  16. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  17. 1980 annual report of the Coolidge Solar Irrigation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torkelson, L.; Larson, D. L.

    1981-02-01

    The Coolidge Solar Irrigation Facility at Coolidge, Arizona, consists of a 2136.8-m/sup 2/ (23,000-ft/sup 2/) line-focus parabolic trough collector subsystem, a 113.55-m/sup 3/ (30,000-gallon) thermal storage subsystem, and a 150-kW/sub e/ (142.2-Btu/s) organic Rankine cycle power generation unit. The performance of the facility and its operational and maintenance requirements are reported. The period from the the facility's initial operation in October 1979 to 31 August 1980 is covered.

  18. Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors Prototype Development for Self-Cleaning CSP Collectors This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_mazumder.pdf (2.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Final Report - Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors Self-Cleaning CSP Optics with EDS - FY13 Q2

  19. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cities and counties in North Carolina generally may not adopt ordinances prohibiting the installation of "a solar collector that gathers solar radiation as a substitute for traditional energy for...

  20. Design, construction, and startup of a concentrating photovoltaic solar energy system in Hawaii: Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, R.; Harper, R.; Maberry, G.; Bedard, R.; Rafinejad, D.

    1982-10-01

    Acurex Corporation has designed, constructed, and is now operating a 35-kWp concentrating photovoltaic solar system located at the G.N. Wilcox Memorial Hospital in Lihue, Kauai, Hawaii. The facility consists of 446 m/sup 2/ (4800 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough photovoltaic collectors, an electrical power generation system which converts the direct current field output into grid-compatible alternating current power, and a thermal power subsystem for heating the hospital potable water. This report summarizes the design, construction, startup, and performance of this solar facility.

  1. Fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Murray; Bonk, Stanley P.; Maricle, Donald L.; Abrams, Martin

    1991-01-01

    A fuel cell has a current collector plate (22) located between an electrode (20) and a separate plate (25). The collector plate has a plurality of arches (26, 28) deformed from a single flat plate in a checkerboard pattern. The arches are of sufficient height (30) to provide sufficient reactant flow area. Each arch is formed with sufficient stiffness to accept compressive load and sufficient resiliently to distribute the load and maintain electrical contact.

  2. Copper Mountain Solar Farm

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This b-roll shows a large-scale solar farm in Nevada that generates renewable solar energy using parabolic troughs, a form of concentrating solar power (CSP) technology, and photovoltaic technology.

  3. The Green Fuel Project: The Solar / Biodiesel Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    solar energy efficiency energy transference shading Parabolic Trough Laws of Thermodynamics solar gain Entropy BTU, solar mass RESOURCES AND MATERIALS: Resources: BTU or Bust...

  4. Dimas Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Argos, Greece Sector: Solar Product: Makes solar passive systems, particularly collectors and absorbers. Coordinates: 41.23725, -86.245919 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Solvent vapor collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  6. Biological sample collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  7. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar wind samples Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system Most of the Genesis payload consisted of fragile solar-wind collectors, which had been exposed to the ...

  8. Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.

  9. Shenzhen Prosunpro PengSangPu Solar Industrial Products Corporation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Zip: 518055 Sector: Solar Product: Shenzhen Prosunpro makes and installs flat panel solar passive energy collectors and engineers central solar hot water systems....

  10. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Advanced Optical Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Today, the solar collectors used in concentrating solar power systems account for approximately 50% of the total capital cost of power plants. The solar reflector costs for these ...

  11. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  12. Optimal Heat Collection Element Shapes for Parabolic Trough Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C

    2007-11-15

    For nearly 150 years, the cross section of the heat collection tubes used at the focus of parabolic trough solar concentrators has been circular. This type of tube is obviously simple and easily fabricated, but it is not optimal. It is shown in this article that the optimal shape, assuming a perfect parabolic figure for the concentrating mirror, is instead oblong, and is approximately given by a pair of facing parabolic segments.

  13. Line-Focus Solar Power Plant Cost Reduction Plan (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Mehos, M.; Turchi, C.; Glatzmaier, G.; Moss, T.

    2010-12-01

    Line-focus solar collectors, in particular parabolic trough collectors, are the most mature and proven technology available for producing central electricity from concentrated solar energy. Because this technology has over 25 years of successful operational experience, resulting in a low perceived risk, it is likely that it will continue to be a favorite of investors for some time. The concentrating solar power (CSP) industry is developing parabolic trough projects that will cost billions of dollars, and it is supporting these projects with hundreds of millions of dollars of research and development funding. While this technology offers many advantages over conventional electricity generation -- such as utilizing plentiful domestic renewable fuel and having very low emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants -- it provides electricity in the intermediate power market at about twice the cost of its conventional competitor, combined cycle natural gas. The purpose of this document is to define a set of activities from fiscal year 2011 to fiscal year 2016 that will make this technology economically competitive with conventional means.

  14. NREL: TroughNet - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar field Thermal energy storage Power plant systems Research and development Market and economic assessment Solar data Models and tools Also see presentations and posters from ...

  15. Korea Solar Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Seoul, Korea (Republic) Sector: Solar Product: Manufacturer of solar collectors, modules, and water heaters. Coordinates: 37.557121, 126.977379 Show Map Loading...

  16. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    may be integrated with existing or new combined-cycle natural-gas- and coal-fired plants. ... Illustration of a linear concentrator power plant using parabolic trough collectors. ...

  17. MAP: Concentrating Solar Power Across the United States | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concentrating Solar Power Facilities and CSP Energy Potential Gradient Click icons to ... Trough or Fresnel Parabolic Dish Concentrating Solar Energy Potential (watt hoursmday) ...

  18. Solargenix Energy LLC formerly Duke Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    develops projects using a STEGS parabolic trough system, and also produces solar passive water heating systems. References: Solargenix Energy LLC (formerly Duke Solar)1 This...

  19. Analytically calculating shading in regular arrays of sun-pointing collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meller, Yosef

    2010-11-15

    A method is presented for deriving an algorithm for analytically calculating shading of sun-pointing solar collectors by other identical collectors in the field. The method is particularly suited to regularly-spaced collectors, with convex aperture shapes. Using this method, an algorithm suitable for circular-aperture collectors is derived. The algorithm is validated against results obtained using an existing algorithm, and an example for usage of the algorithm as a tool for validating assumptions of an existing algorithm is presented. (author)

  20. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  1. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  2. Assess the Efficacy of an Aerial Distant Observer Tool Capable of Rapid Analysis of Large Sections of Collector Fields: FY 2008 CSP Milestone Report, September 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Burkholder, F.; Gray, A.; Wendelin, T.

    2009-02-01

    We assessed the feasibility of developing an aerial Distant Observer optical characterization tool for collector fields in concentrating solar power plants.

  3. Solar Swimming Pool Heaters | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A solar collector -- the device through which pool water is circulated to be heated by the sun A filter -- removes debris before water is pumped through the collector A pump -- ...

  4. Biobriefcase aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Perry M.; Christian, Allen T.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Willis, Ladona; Masquelier, Donald A.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2009-09-22

    A system for sampling air and collecting particles entrained in the air that potentially include bioagents. The system comprises providing a receiving surface, directing a liquid to the receiving surface and producing a liquid surface. Collecting samples of the air and directing the samples of air so that the samples of air with particles entrained in the air impact the liquid surface. The particles potentially including bioagents become captured in the liquid. The air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid but cause minor turbulence. The liquid surface has a surface tension and the collector samples the air and directs the air to the liquid surface so that the air with particles entrained in the air impacts the liquid surface with sufficient velocity to entrain the particles into the liquid, but cause minor turbulence on the surface resulting in insignificant evaporation of the liquid.

  5. Radiant energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, William R.

    1983-01-01

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses. The reflector includes a plurality of adjacent facets of V shaped segments sloped so as to reflect all energy entering between said absorber and said reflector onto said absorber. The outer arms of each facet are sloped to reflect one type of extremal ray in a line substantially tangent to the lowermost extremity of the energy absorber. The inner arms of the facets are sloped to reflect onto the absorber all rays either falling directly thereon or as a result of reflection from an outer arm.

  6. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  7. FRACTIONATING COLUMN PRODUCT COLLECTOR CONTROL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paxson, G.D. Jr.

    1964-03-10

    Means for detecting minute fluid products from a chemical separation column and for advancing a collector tube rack in order to automatically separate and collect successive fractionated products are described. A charge is imposed on the forming drops at the column orifice to create an electric field as the drop falls in the vicinity of a sensing plate. The field is detected by an electrometer tube coupled to the plate causing an output signal to actuate rotation of a collector turntable rack, thereby positioning new collectors under the orifice. The invention provides reliable automatic collection independent of drop size, rate of fall, or chemical composition. (AEC)

  8. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes ...

  9. Abengoa Solar Visual Inspection Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Abengoa Solar Visual Inspection Tool Abengoa Solar Visual Inspection Tool Presented at the ... - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado Final Report - Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

  10. Concentrating Solar Program; Session: Thermal Storage - Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.; Mehos, M.; Mancini, T.

    2008-04-01

    The project overview of this presentation is: (1) description--(a) laboratory R and D in advanced heat transfer fluids (HTF) and thermal storage systems; (b) FOA activities in solar collector and component development for use of molten salt as a heat transfer and storage fluid; (c) applications for all activities include line focus and point focus solar concentrating technologies; (2) Major FY08 Activities--(a) advanced HTF development with novel molten salt compositions with low freezing temperatures, nanofluids molecular modeling and experimental studies, and use with molten salt HTF in solar collector field; (b) thermal storage systems--cost analysis and updates for 2-tank and thermocline storage and model development and analysis to support near-term trought deployment; (c) thermal storage components--facility upgrade to support molten salt component testing for freeze-thaw receiver testing, long-shafted molten salt pump for parabolic trough and power tower thermal storage systems; (d) CSP FOA support--testing and evaluation support for molten salt component and field testing work, advanced fluids and storage solicitation preparation, and proposal evaluation for new advanced HTF and thermal storage FOA.

  11. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power...

  12. Radiant energy collector. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, W.R.

    1980-02-14

    A cylindrical radiant energy collector is provided which includes a reflector spaced apart from an energy absorber. The reflector is of a particular shape which ideally eliminates gap losses.

  13. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  14. Effect of electron-density gradients on propagation of radio waves in the mid-latitude trough. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Citrone, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Partial contents of this thesis include: (1) Radio-wave propagation and the mid-latitude trough; (2) Ionospheric measurements; (3) Modification of time-dependent ionospheric model output with latitudinal electron-density profiles from digisonde trough depictions; (4) Ray-tracing simulations to examine ground range; and (5) Effects of three-dimensional gradients in electron density on radio-wave propagation in the trough region. Data is tabulated for geophysical conditions, solar activity level, geomagnetic activity level, conditions for vertical ray refraction to surface, and ray-tracing fixed-input conditions.

  15. Radiant energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1977-01-11

    An electromagnetic energy collection device is provided which does not require a solar tracking capability. It includes an energy receiver positioned between two side walls which reflect substantially all incident energy received over a predetermined included angle directly onto the energy receiver.

  16. A performance data network for solar process heat systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, G.; Hale, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    A solar process heat (SPH) data network has been developed to access remote-site performance data from operational solar heat systems. Each SPH system in the data network is outfitted with monitoring equipment and a datalogger. The datalogger is accessed via modem from the data network computer at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The dataloggers collect both ten-minute and hourly data and download it to the data network every 24-hours for archiving, processing, and plotting. The system data collected includes energy delivered (fluid temperatures and flow rates) and site meteorological conditions, such as solar insolation and ambient temperature. The SPH performance data network was created for collecting performance data from SPH systems that are serving in industrial applications or from systems using technologies that show promise for industrial applications. The network will be used to identify areas of SPH technology needing further development, to correlate computer models with actual performance, and to improve the credibility of SPH technology. The SPH data network also provides a centralized bank of user-friendly performance data that will give prospective SPH users an indication of how actual systems perform. There are currently three systems being monitored and archived under the SPH data network: two are parabolic trough systems and the third is a flat-plate system. The two trough systems both heat water for prisons; the hot water is used for personal hygiene, kitchen operations, and laundry. The flat plate system heats water for meat processing at a slaughter house. We plan to connect another parabolic trough system to the network during the first months of 1996. We continue to look for good examples of systems using other types of collector technologies and systems serving new applications (such as absorption chilling) to include in the SPH performance data network.

  17. Solar collector having a solid transmission medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schertz, William W.; Zwerdling, Solomon

    1977-06-14

    There is provided a radiant energy transmission device capable of operation in a concentrative mode in which energy incident on an entrance area is directed toward and concentrated on an exit area of smaller area than the entrance area. The device includes a solid radiant energy transmission medium having surfaces coincident with the entrance and exit areas and particularly contoured reflective side walls. The surface coinciding with the entrance area is coupled to a cover plate formed of a radiant energy transmissive material. An energy transducer is coupled to the surface of the medium coinciding with the exit area.

  18. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  19. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H.

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  20. Solar water heating technical support. Technical report for November 1997--April 1998 and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, J.

    1998-10-01

    This progress report covers the time period November 1, 1997 through April 30, 1998, and also summarizes the project as the final report. The topics of the report include certification of solar collectors for water heating systems, modeling and testing of solar collectors and gas water heater backup systems, ratings of collectors for specific climates, and solar pool heating systems.

  1. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stettenheim, Joel; McBride, Troy O.; Brambles, Oliver J.; Cashin, Emil A.

    2013-12-31

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  2. Active Solar Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Active Solar Heating Basics Active Solar Heating Basics August 16, 2013 - 3:23pm Addthis There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid-either liquid or air-that is heated in the solar energy collectors. The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun. Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector." Both of these systems

  3. Solar Water Heaters | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    They are popular in climates prone to freezing temperatures. Illustration of an active, closed loop solar water heater. A large, flat panel called a flat plate collector is ...

  4. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in its CSP deployment efforts in the following areas: Collectors Receivers Power block Thermal energy storage Analysis. NREL received funding from DOE for concentrating solar...

  5. Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Coatings for CSP Collectors This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042413_hunter.pdf (5.38 MB) More Documents & Publications PowerPoint Presentation - FY13 Q1 Low-Cost Self-Cleaning Reflector Coatings for CSP Collectors - FY13 Q2 Urban Heat Islands: Anti-Soiling Cool Roof Coatings

  6. Project Profile: Advanced Anti-Soiling Coatings for CSP Collector Mirrors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Heliostats (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Project Profile: Advanced Anti-Soiling Coatings for CSP Collector Mirrors and Heliostats (SuNLaMP) Project Profile: Advanced Anti-Soiling Coatings for CSP Collector Mirrors and Heliostats (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN SunShot Award Amount: $2,800,000 This project addresses the need to further develop self-cleaning reflector coatings for solar collectors. When

  7. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  8. Comparison of indoor-outdoor thermal performance for the Sunpak evacuated tube liquid collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Performance data is provided for current Sunpak production collectors. The effects of an improved manifold are seen from the test results. The test results show excellent correlation between the solar simulator derived test results and outdoor test results. Also, because of different incident angle modifiers, the all-day efficiency of this collector with a diffuse reflector is found to be comparable to the performance with the standard shaped specular reflector.

  9. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  10. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, C.; Bremmer, R.J.; Meng, S.Y.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for circulating fluid coolant through a reactor core of a pool-type nuclear reactor having a sealed containment vessel containing a reactor core submersed in a body of liquid coolant. The method for circulating coolant including utilization of a rotary pump including an impeller for producing a highly circumferential flow of cooling fluid and a method for collecting and discharging coolant fluid, the improvement to the method of collecting and discharging coolant fluid including the steps of: producing a substantially uniform circumferential flow of the fluid by directing the flow through a plurality of diffuser vanes and into an annular collector located radially outboard from the impeller. The annular collector having an entirely closed outer periphery; and turning the flow of cooling fluid into a substantially axially direction while maintaining a substantially constant average flow velocity by directing the coolant flow from the annular collector into a plurality of individual passageways located in an axial position relative to the annular collector.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant built in the United States since 1999. Located in Boulder City, Nevada, about 40 miles southeast of Las Vegas, this parabolic trough system has been operating since June 2007. The US$260

  12. Current and Future Economics of Parabolic Trough Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, H.; Mehos, M.; Kutscher, C.; Blair, N.

    2007-01-01

    Solar energy is the largest energy resource on the planet. Unfortunately, it is largely untapped at present, in part because sunlight is a very diffuse energy source. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use low cost reflectors to concentrate the sun's energy to allow it to be used more effectively. Concentrating solar power systems are also well suited for large solar power plants that can be connected into the existing utility infrastructure. These two facts mean that CSP systems can be used to make a meaningful difference in energy supply in a relatively short period. CSP plants are best suited for the arid climates in the Southwestern United States, Northern Mexico, and many desert regions around the globe. A recent Western Governors' Association siting study [1] found that the solar potential in the U.S. Southwest is at least 4 times the total U.S. electric demand even after eliminating urban areas, environmentally sensitive areas, and all regions with a ground slope greater than 1%.While it is currently not practical to power the whole county from the desert southwest, only a small portion of this area is needed to make a substantial contribution to future U.S. electric needs. Many of the best sites are near existing high-voltage transmission lines and close to major power load centers in the Southwest (Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and Phoenix). In addition, the power provided by CSP technologies has strong coincidence with peak electric demand, especially in the Southwest where peak demand corresponds in large part to air conditioning loads. Parabolic troughs currently represent the most cost-effective CSP technology for developing large utility-scale solar electric power systems. These systems are also one of the most mature solar technologies, with commercial utility-scale plants that have been operating for over 20 years. In addition, substantial improvements have been made to the technology in recent years including improved efficiency and the addition of

  13. A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Yin, Hongxi; Archer, David H.

    2010-02-15

    A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

  14. Experimental comparison of retrofit vertical air collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, A.T.; Stickney, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two vertical air collector systems were built and monitored. One of these is a back-pass collector in which a layer of sheet metal serves as the absorber plate. The other is a front pass collector in which the wall surface serves as the absorber plate. The results demonstrate the importance of considering heat moving through walls even when storage of heat in the wall is of limited significance. With poorly insulated walls, heat is better able to move through the wall with a front pass collector, indicating that this type of collector is a more effective heating system.

  15. Portable solar water heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borodulin, G.; Baron, R.; Shkolnik, A.

    1985-11-12

    A combined table and portable solar water heater comprises a suitcase-like rigid casing molded from a rigid plastic material which contains a pair of solar collector panels and connected in series. The panels can be exposed to solar radiation when the casing is opened. Each collector panel or is formed by a copper plate with the solar radiation absorbing surface and copper pipe coil or in heat-transferring relationship with said copper plate. The casing is provided with compartments for accessories, such as adjustable legs for supporting the casing, adjusting its angle to incident sunlight, and for converting the casing into a table; containers for feeding cold water to the solar collector and for receiving hot water from the collector; and a tripod stand for supporting the feeding container at the level above the collector and for arranging a shower set. Temperature-insulating layers of the collectors are formed by separate pieces of rigid material which can be removed from the casing and assembled into a box-shaped container which can be utilized for maintaining water heated by means of the solar water heater at an elevated temperature.

  16. Geothermal Literature Review At Salton Trough Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geothermal Literature Review At Salton Trough Geothermal Area (1984) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  17. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks...

  18. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  19. NREL: Solar Research Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Research A collage of solar photographs. The first photo shows a parabolic solar trough at the Eldorado Valley site. The second is of a gird-tied high-concentration solar cell MicroDish. And the third photo shows the photovoltaic panels at Oberlin College's Adam Joseph Lewis Center for Environmental studies. Learn About Solar Energy Solar technologies use the sun's energy to provide electricity, heat, light, hot water, and even cooling for homes, businesses, and industry. Learn more about

  20. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  1. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power Addthis Description From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. Text Version Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Concentrating Solar

  2. Santa Clara University 2007 Solar Decathlon House

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a 2007 Solar Decathlon competition home that includes residential photovoltaic (PV) modules from SunPower Corporation of San Jose, California, and a solar collector from...

  3. Installation on 2007 Solar Decathlon Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This photograph features a 2007 Solar Decathlon competition home that includes residential photovoltaic (PV) modules from SunPower Corporation of San Jose, California, and a solar collector from ...

  4. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L.; Sutton, Theodore G.; Armstrong, Timothy R.

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  5. Hydrogen Removal From Heating Oil of a Parabolic Trough Increases the Life of the Trough and its Components: A Method to Selectively Remove & Measure Hydrogen Gas from a Fluid Volume

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2016-03-09

    Parabolic trough power plants use concentrated solar thermal energy to generate electricity by producing steam that drives a Rankine power cycle. Solar thermal energy is captured in a fluid medium which flows through receiver tubes. At high temperatures the vapor generates hydrogen gas which can leak into the annular volume of the heat collection element. The presence of low partial pressures of hydrogen gas in the annulus significantly decreases the thermal performance of the heat...

  6. Solar/Wind Construction Permitting Standards | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to wind turbines in the code) 10 kilowatts or less: Licensing Requirements Any person bidding or contracting for the installation of a solar collector system must possess a...

  7. Wind Issues in Solar Thermal Performance Ratings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Casey, R.

    2009-04-01

    We suggest that wind bias against unglazed solar water heaters be mitigated by using a calibrated collector model to derive a wind correction to the measured efficiency curve.

  8. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar...

  9. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar ...

  10. Conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezammahalleh, H.; Farhadi, F.; Tanhaemami, M.

    2010-09-15

    Direct steam generation (DSG) in parabolic trough collectors causes an increase to competitiveness of solar thermal power plants (STPP) by substitution of oil with direct steam generation that results in lower investment and operating costs. In this study the integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology is introduced and techno-economic assessment of this plant is reported compared with two conventional cases. Three considered cases are: an integrated solar combined cycle system with DSG technology (ISCCS-DSG), a solar electric generating system (SEGS), and an integrated solar combined cycle system with HTF (heat transfer fluid) technology (ISCCS-HTF). This study shows that levelized energy cost (LEC) for the ISCCS-DSG is lower than the two other cases due to reducing O and M costs and also due to increasing the heat to electricity net efficiency of the power plant. Among the three STPPs, SEGS has the lowest CO{sub 2} emissions, but it will operate during daytime only. (author)

  11. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Bell, Jason R; Felde, David K; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; Qualls, A L; Weaver, Samuel P

    2014-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon thermal fluids showing thermally stability to 600 C have been tested for solar thermal-power applications. Although static thermal tests showed promising results for 1-phenylnaphthalene, loop testing at temperatures to 450 C indicated that the fluid isomerized and degraded at a slow rate. In a loop with a temperature high enough to drive the isomerization, the higher melting point byproducts tended to condense onto cooler surfaces. So, as experienced in loop operation, eventually the internal channels of cooler components in trough solar electric generating systems, such as the waste heat rejection exchanger, may become coated or clogged affecting loop performance. Thus, pure 1-phenylnaphthalene, without addition of stabilizers, does not appear to be a fluid that would have a sufficiently long lifetime (years to decades) to be used in a loop at the temperatures greater than 500 C. The performance of a concentrating solar loop using high temperature fluids was modeled based on the National Renewable Laboratory Solar Advisory Model. It was determined that a solar-to-electricity efficiency of up to 30% and a capacity factor of near 60% could be achieved using a high efficiency collector and 12 h thermal energy storage.

  12. New Energy Partners Solar PTY Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Energy Partners Solar PTY Ltd Address: Unit 21, 14 Jubilee Ave Place: Warriewood, Australia Zip: 2102 Sector: Solar Product: Poly Trough 1200 Phone Number: +61 2 9998 4700...

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Xina Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power | NREL Xina Solar One Abengoa has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) of South Africa to develop Xina Solar One, a 100 MW parabolic trough plant with a five-hour thermal energy storage system using molten salts. This project will form the largest solar complex in Africa together with Abengoa's plant KaXu Solar One that is currently under construction in the country. Xina Solar One was awarded to Abengoa in the third round of renewable energy projects organized by the

  14. NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Randy Gee talk about their partnership to develop a thin film to substitute for bulkier glass mirrors on solar-collecting parabolic troughs. Learn more about NREL's ...

  15. Current and future costs for parabolic trough and power tower systems in the US market.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig; Kolb, Gregory J.; Mehos, Mark Steven; Ho, Clifford Kuofei

    2010-08-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  16. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  17. Portable solar heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilar, L.J.

    1981-08-18

    A portable solar heater combines a self-contained hot air and heat storage system having a collector area with adjustable reflectors in a unit that can be moved from room to room as needed. The heater has fans for circulation of the solar heater air and provides both direct and indirect heat transfer to the ambient room air.

  18. Solar tracking device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyland, R.R.

    1981-01-20

    A solar tracking device having a plurality of reflector banks for reflecting the sun rays onto collector tubes and heating a fluid circulated therethrough. The reflector banks synchronized to follow the sun during the daily and yearly cycle of the earth as the earth orbits around the sun. The device by accurately following the sun provides a more efficient means of collecting solar energy.

  19. Portable solar heater structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holley, D.; Holley, D.E.

    1981-09-08

    Portable solar heater structure is described. A substantially rectangular frame has a back with openings therethrough for permitting air to be drawn into the solar heater. A layer of insulating materials is in contact with the back. A plurality of cupshaped solar collectors open toward the front of the solar heater structure are positioned adjacent the insulating material. A cover is over the front of the solar heater having openings therein adjacent the top thereof through which air heated by the solar heater is passed. A passage is between the openings in the back and cover of the solar heater through which relatively cool air is drawn through the openings in the back over the collectors to be heated for subsequent withdrawal through the openings in the cover.

  20. Mechanism of Hydrogen Formation in Solar Paraboic Trough Receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2008-02-01

    Technical report that provides an overview of the chemical literature dealing with the thermal decomposition of diphenyl oxide and biphenyl, the two constituents of Therminol VP-1.

  1. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Group Report under NREL contract KAXL-9-99205-01 September 9, 2009 N ATION AL ... control center MTO - material take off NFPA - National Fire Protection Association ...

  2. Solar Hot Water Hourly Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel which provides an hourly simulation of a solar hot water heating system (including solar geometry, solar collector efficiency as a function of temperature, energy balance on storage tank and lifecycle cost analysis).

  3. Detailed analysis of the energy yield of systems with covered sheet-and-tube PVT collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santbergen, R.; Rindt, C.C.M.; van Zolingen, R.J.Ch.; Zondag, H.A.

    2010-05-15

    Solar cells have a typical efficiency in the range of 5-20%, implying that 80% or more of the incident solar energy can be harvested in the form of heat and applied for low-temperature heating. In a PVT collector one tries to collect this heat. In this work, the electrical and thermal yield of solar domestic hot water systems with one-cover sheet-and-tube PVT collectors were considered. Objectives of the work were to understand the mechanisms determining these yields, to investigate measures to improve these yields and to investigate the yield consequences if various solar cell technologies are being used. The work was carried out using numerical simulations. A detailed quantitative understanding of all loss mechanisms was obtained, especially of those being inherent to the use of PVT collectors instead of PV modules and conventional thermal collectors. The annual electrical efficiencies of the PVT systems investigated were up to 14% (relative) lower compared to pure PV systems and the annual thermal efficiencies up to 19% (relative) lower compared to pure thermal collector systems. The loss of electrical efficiency is mainly caused by the relatively high fluid temperature. The loss of thermal efficiency is caused both by the high emissivity of the absorber and the withdrawal of electrical energy. However, both the loss of electrical and thermal efficiency can be reduced further by the application of anti-reflective coatings. The thermal efficiency can be improved by the application of a low-emissivity coating on the absorber, however at the cost of a reduced electrical efficiency. (author)

  4. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  5. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water ...

  6. Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & ...

  7. Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities for collector/receiver characterization: determining optical efficiency, measuring heat loss, developing and testing concentrators, concentrating the sun's power, and optically characterizing CSP plants.

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 2009 Top Five Destinations of Thermal Solar Collector Shipments Percent of Domestic State U.S. Shipments Thousand SF Florida 27% California 26% Arizona 5% Hawaii 4% Oregon 3% Note(s): Source(s): EIA, Solar Thermal Collector Manufacturing Activities 2009, Dec. 2010, Table 2.4, p. 10. 3771 3537 745 520 387

  9. South River EMC- Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    South River Electric Membership Corporation (EMC) is providing rebates to encourage their customers to install solar water heating systems. To be eligible for the rebate solar collectors must have...

  10. Hybrid Solar GHP Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-12-11

    This project provides an easy-to-use, menu-driven, software tool for designing hybrid solar-geothermal heat pump systems (GHP) for both heating- and cooling-dominated buildings. No such design tool currently exists. In heating-dominated buildings, the design approach takes advantage of glazed solar collectors to effectively balance the annual thermal loads on the ground with renewable solar energy. In cooling-dominated climates, the design approach takes advantage of relatively low-cost, unglazed solar collectors as the heat rejecting component. The primarymore » benefit of hybrid GHPs is the reduced initial cost of the ground heat exchanger (GHX). Furthermore, solar thermal collectors can be used to balance the ground loads over the annual cycle, thus making the GHX fully sustainable; in heating-dominated buildings, the hybrid energy source (i.e., solar) is renewable, in contrast to a typical fossil fuel boiler or electric resistance as the hybrid component; in cooling-dominated buildings, use of unglazed solar collectors as a heat rejecter allows for passive heat rejection, in contrast to a cooling tower that consumes a significant amount of energy to operate, and hybrid GHPs can expand the market by allowing reduced GHX footprint in both heating- and cooling-dominated climates. The design tool allows for the straight-forward design of innovative GHP systems that currently pose a significant design challenge. The project lays the foundations for proper and reliable design of hybrid GHP systems, overcoming a series of difficult and cumbersome steps without the use of a system simulation approach, and without an automated optimization scheme. As new technologies and design concepts emerge, sophisticated design tools and methodologies must accompany them and be made usable for practitioners. Lack of reliable design tools results in reluctance of practitioners to implement more complex systems. A menu-driven software tool for the design of hybrid solar GHP systems

  11. Solar energy collection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummel, R.L.

    1982-04-06

    A solar energy collection system for a building is described. A solar energy collector is disposed at the exterior surface of the building and includes a solar energy absorbent body having a surface which is exposed to sunlight and from which solar energy can be transmitted as sensible heat. A panel which is transparent to sunlight is spaced from the said surface of the absorbent body so as to define therewith a passageway in which air contacts at least a substantial area of said surface so that air in said passageway absorbs heat transmitted from said surface when the collector is in use. The passageway has an inlet and an outlet and the absorbent body and panel are arranged with the outlet higher than the inlet so that heated air in the passageway tends to rise by convection towards the outlet. The building is provided with heating means including a circulation circuit for a heating fluid. Heat exchange means are coupled to said air passageway outlet of the solar energy collector for passage of heated air therethrough. The heat exchange means are also coupled to the circulation circuit of the building heating means and are arranged to permit heat transfer between said heated air and the heating fluid. A return air flow conduit is coupled between the heat exchange means and the inlet of the air passageway of the solar energy collector for returning heated air from the heat exchange means to the air passageway for recirculation.

  12. A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan

    2011-01-15

    Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

  13. Solar reflection panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W.; Reshetnik, Michael

    2006-07-18

    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  14. solar

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  15. SPI Solar and Trimark | Energy Systems Integration | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SPI Solar and Trimark SPI Solar, Trimark, and NREL are partnering to optimize the thermal and optical performance of parabolic trough receivers-critical components of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Photo of parabolic trough receiver equipment in a laboratory Photo by Dennis Schroeder Receivers in CSP plants take a lot of abuse, from dramatic temperature changes to numerous mechanical stresses. Finding ways to make the receivers more resilient and optimize their performance under these

  16. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  17. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, R.J.; Meek, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-11-08

    A separator plate is described for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced. 9 figs.

  18. Integrated main rail, feed rail, and current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Randy J.; Meek, John; Bachta, Robert P.; Marianowski, Leonard G.

    1994-01-01

    A separator plate for a fuel cell comprising an anode current collector, a cathode current collector and a main plate, the main plate disposed between the anode current collector and the cathode current collector. The anode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the anode side of the separator plate and the cathode current collector forms a flattened peripheral wet seal structure and manifold wet seal structure on the cathode side of the separator plate. In this manner, the number of components required to manufacture and assemble a fuel cell stack is reduced.

  19. Two New Reports on Utility-Scale Solar from NREL | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on First Solar projects). A full quarter of the 16,043 MW were from concentrated solar thermal power projects: 9% parabolic troughs and 16% tower systems. Tower technology...

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.8 Active Solar Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    Solar Collector Shipments, by Type and Market (Thousand SF, unless noted) (1) Type 1980 1990 2000 2009 Solar Thermal Collectors (2) Residential N.A. Commercial N.A. Industrial N.A. Utility N.A. Other N.A. (4) Photovoltaics (kW) (5) Note(s): Source(s): (6) 6,897 13,837 88,221 1,282,560 1) Shipments for 1980-2000 include imports and exports; 2008 shipments are domestic only. 2) Solar thermal collectors: receive solar radiation, convert it to thermal energy, and are typically used forspace

  1. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  2. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; et al

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers ofmore » the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.« less

  3. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs in DES Science Verification data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, D.; Friedrich, O.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Bonnett, C.; Hartley, W.; Jain, B.; M. Jarvis; Kavprzak, T.; Krause, E.; Mana, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miguel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nord, B.; Orgando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-11-29

    In this study, we measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. The prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. The lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  4. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruen, D.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  5. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  6. Pv-Thermal Solar Power Assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2001-10-02

    A flexible solar power assembly includes a flexible photovoltaic device attached to a flexible thermal solar collector. The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners.

  7. Solar absorption surface panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santala, Teuvo J.

    1978-01-01

    A composite metal of aluminum and nickel is used to form an economical solar absorption surface for a collector plate wherein an intermetallic compound of the aluminum and nickel provides a surface morphology with high absorptance and relatively low infrared emittance along with good durability.

  8. Stabilization of solar films against hi temperature deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jefferson, Clinton F.

    1984-03-20

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a solar absorptive film consisting essentially of copper oxide, cobalt oxide and manganese oxide; (2) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass or a stainless steel; and (3) an interlayer of platinum, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of platinum to obtain a stable conductor-dielectric tandem.

  9. Collector sealants and breathing. Final Report, 25 September 1978-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M A; Luck, R M; Yeoman, F A; Navish, Jr, F W

    1980-02-20

    The objectives of this program were: (1) to investigate the pertinent properties of a variety of possible sealants for solar collectors and identify the most promising candidates, and (2) to study the effect of breathing in flat-plate, thermal solar collector units. The study involved two types of sealants, Class PS which includes preformed seals or gaskets and Class SC which includes sealing compounds or caulks. It was the intent of the study to obtain data regarding initial properties of candidate elastomers from manufacturers and from the technical literature and to use those sources to provide data pertaining to endurance of these materials under environmental service conditions. Where necessary, these data were augmented by experimental measurements. Environmental stresses evaluated by these measurements included elevated temperatures, moisture, ultraviolet light, ozone and oxygen, and fungus. The second major area of the work involved a study of the effects of materials used and design on the durability of solar collectors. Factors such as design, fabrication, materials of construction, seals and sealing techniques and absorber plate coatings were observed on actual field units removed from service. Such phenomena as leakage, corrosion and formation of deposits on glazing and absorber plate were noted. An evaluation of the properties of several desiccants was made in order to providemeans to mitigate the deleterious effects of water on collector life. Adsorbents for organic degradation products of sealants were also investigated in order to protect the glazing and absorber plate from deposited coatings. Since adsorbents and desiccants in general tend to take up both water and organic decomposition products, relative affinities of a number of these agents for water and for organic compounds were determined . Results are presented in detail.

  10. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLAR 99 CONFERENCE Including Proceedings of ASES Annual Conference Proceedings of 24 th National Passive Solar Conference Portland, Maine June 12 -16, 1999 Editors: R. Campbell-Howe B. Wilkins-Crowder American Solar Energy Society American Institute of Architects Committee on the Environment Printed on recycled paper HIGH-RESOLUTION MAPS OF SOLAR COLLECTOR PERFORMANCE USING A CLIMATOLOGICAL SOLAR RADIATION MODEL Raymond L. George National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO

  11. SunLab: Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-24

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies, including parabolic troughs, power towers, and dish/engines, have the potential to provide the world with tens of thousands of megawatts of clean, renewable, cost-competitive power.

  12. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  13. Commercial Development of an Advanced, High-Temperature, Linear-Fresnel Based Concentrating Solar Power Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viljoen, Nolan; Schuknecht, Nathan

    2012-05-28

    Included herein is SkyFuel’s detailed assessment of the potential for a direct molten salt linear Fresnel collector. Linear Fresnel architecture is of interest because it has features that are well suited for use with molten salt as a heat transfer fluid: the receiver is fixed (only the mirrors track), the receiver diameter is large (reducing risk of freeze events), and the total linear feet of receiver can be reduced due to the large aperture area. Using molten salt as a heat transfer fluid increases the allowable operating temperature of a collector field, and the cost of thermal storage is reduced in proportion to that increase in temperature. At the conclusion of this project, SkyFuel determined that the cost goals set forth in the contract could not be reasonably met. The performance of a Linear Fresnel collector is significantly less than that of a parabolic trough, in particular due to linear Fresnel’s large optical cosine losses. On an annual basis, the performance is 20 to 30% below that of a parabolic trough per unit area. The linear Fresnel collector and balance of system costs resulted in an LCOE of approximately 9.9¢/kWhre. Recent work by SkyFuel has resulted in a large aperture trough design (DSP Trough) with an LCOE value of 8.9 ¢/kWhre calculated with comparative financial terms and balance of plant costs (White 2011). Thus, even though the optimized linear Fresnel collector of our design has a lower unit cost than our optimized trough, it cannot overcome the reduction in annual performance.

  14. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  15. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  16. Receiver for solar energy collector having improved aperture aspect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntire, William R.

    1984-01-01

    A secondary concentrator for use in receiver systems for linear focusing primary concentrators is provided with reflector wings at each end. The wings increase the capture of light rays reflected from areas adjacent the rim of a primary concentrator, increasing the apparent aperture size of the absorber as viewed from the rim of the primary concentrator. The length, tilt, and curvature of the wing reflectors can be adjusted to provide an absorber having a desired aperture aspect.

  17. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP- FY12 Q4

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document summarizes the progress of this 3M project, funded by SunShot, for the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2012.

  18. Next Generation Solar Collectors for CSP- FY13 Q1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document summarizes the progress of this 3M project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  19. Components Makeover Gives Concentrating Solar Power a Boost (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Parabolic trough technology is the most mature of the various concentrating solar power (CSP) options. But scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) continue to make advances on trough systems through innovative research on various components in industrial partnerships with Acciona Solar Power, SkyFuel, Schott Solar, and others. The results are leading to improved system efficiencies and lower costs for CSP plants.

  20. EIS-0434: Hualapai Valley Solar Interconnection Project, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hualapai Valley Solar, LLC, proposes to construct, operate and maintain a 340-megawatt, solar-powered generating facility in Mohave County, near Kingman, Ariz. The proposed project would use concentrating solar-power-trough technology to capture the sun's heat to make steam, which would power a traditional steam turbine generator.

  1. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  2. Progress in solar engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yogi Goswami, D.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents reviews of various areas of solar energy technology, including wind energy technology and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). It also identifies and suggests needs and future directions of research and development. The subjects covered in this book include solar thermal power technology, solar thermal storage, solar ponds, industrial process heat, solar water heating, active and passive solar cooling methods, low-cost collector development, photovoltaic research and applications, wind energy technology, and OTEC. Also covered are the status of the technology, basic and applied research, design and analysis methods, and performance and operational experiences of various systems. The book will thus be helpful as a review of various solar, wind, and OTEC technologies.

  3. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Image of a heat exchanger. | Photo from iStockphoto.com Solar water heating systems use heat exchangers to transfer solar energy absorbed in solar collectors to the liquid or air used to heat water or a space. Heat exchangers can be made of steel, copper, bronze, stainless steel, aluminum, or cast iron. Solar heating systems usually use copper,

  4. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  5. Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Water Heaters » Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Heat Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems Illustration of a solar water heater. Illustration of a solar water heater. Heat-transfer fluids carry heat through solar collectors and a heat exchanger to the heat storage tanks in solar water heating systems. When selecting a heat-transfer fluid, you and your solar heating contractor should consider the following criteria: Coefficient of expansion - the fractional

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Projects by Technology | Concentrating Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power | NREL Technology In this section, you can select a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology from the list below. You can then select a specific project and review a profile covering project basics, participating organizations, and power plant configuration data for the solar field, power block, and thermal energy storage. Parabolic Trough Systems-line-focus systems that use curved mirrors to focus sunlight on a receiver Linear Fresnel Reflector Systems-line-focus systems that use

  7. NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' - News Feature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Solar Technology Will Warm Air at 'Home' July 30, 2010 Photo of a building coved in ... to a wall at the RSF that uses their award-winning transpired air collector technology. ...

  8. Texas Gas Service- Residential Solar Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Only active systems with panels (or collectors) that are certified OG-100 by the Solar Rating Certification Corporation (SRCC) qualify for this rebate. Work must be completed by a licensed contra...

  9. Improved Concentrating Solar Power Systems - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Concentrating Solar Power Systems National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize solar energy to drive a thermal power cycle for the generation of electricity. CSP technologies include parabolic trough, linear Fresnel, central receiver or "power tower", and dish/engine systems.

  10. Flexible Assembly Solar Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Fact Sheet explains a 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award project led by a team from BrightSource Industries. They will design and deploy a prototype of FAST, which is an automated collector-assembly platform that can be used for rapid assembly and installation of heliostats at a solar power tower plant. FAST has the potential to decrease costs related to permitting, construction, maintenance, operation, storage, and demolition of the heliostat assembly building, aiming to achieve SunShot Initiative’s target installed solar field cost of $75/m2.

  11. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  12. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  13. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  14. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  15. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  16. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research Progress The space dust that was captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector landed in

  17. Solar water heating: FEMP fact sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clyne, R.

    1999-09-30

    Using the sun to heat domestic water makes sense in almost any climate. Solar water heaters typically provide 40 to 80{percent} of a building's annual water-heating needs. A solar water-heating system's performance depends primarily on the outdoor temperature, the temperature to which the water is heated, and the amount of sunlight striking the collector.

  18. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  19. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, R.J.; Littauer, E.L.

    1983-08-23

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application. 6 figs.

  20. Combined current collector and electrode separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerenser, Robert J.; Littauer, Ernest L.

    1983-01-01

    This relates to reactive metal cells wherein there is a cathode and a consumable anode. It is necessary to separate the cathode from the anode so that an electrolyte may constantly flow over the face of the anode opposing the cathode. It has been found that this separator may also beneficially function as a current collector. The combined current collector and separator includes a peripheral supporting frame of which a portion may function as a bus-bar. A plurality of bars or ribs extend in parallel relation across the opening defined by the supporting frame and are electrically connected to the bus-bar portion. It is preferred that each bar or rib have a pointed or line edge which will engage and slightly bite into the associated anode to maintain the bar or rib in electrical contact with the anode. This abstract forms no part of the specification of this application and is not to be construed as limiting the claims of the application.

  1. Low cost anti-soiling coatings for CSP collector mirrors and heliostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Barton Barton; Polyzos, Georgios; Schaeffer, Daniel A; Lee, Dominic F; Datskos, Panos G

    2014-01-01

    Most concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities in the USA are located in the desert southwest of the country where land and sunshine are abundant. But one of the significant maintenance problems and cost associated with operating CSP facilities in this region is the accumulation of dust, sand and other pollutants on the collector mirrors and heliostats. In this paper we describe the development of low cost, easy to apply anti-soiling coatings based on superhydrophobic (SH) functionalized nano silica materials and polymer binders that posses the key requirements necessary to inhibit particulate deposition on and sticking to CSP mirror surfaces, and thereby significantly reducing mirror cleaning costs and facility downtime.

  2. Performance evaluation of a low-temperature solar Rankine cycle system utilizing R245fa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X.D.; Zhao, L.; Wang, J.L.; Zhang, W.Z.; Zhao, X.Z.; Wu, W.

    2010-03-15

    A low-temperature solar Rankine system utilizing R245fa as the working fluid is proposed and an experimental system is designed, constructed and tested. Both the evacuated solar collectors and the flat plate solar collectors are used in the experimental system; meanwhile, a rolling-piston R245fa expander is also mounted in the system. The new designed R245fa expander works stably in the experiment, with an average expansion power output of 1.73 kW and an average isentropic efficiency of 45.2%. The overall power generation efficiency estimated is 4.2%, when the evacuated solar collector is utilized in the system, and with the condition of flat plate solar collector, it is about 3.2%. The experimental results show that using R245fa as working fluid in the low-temperature solar power Rankine cycle system is feasible and the performance is acceptable. (author)

  3. The DOE Solar Thermal Electric Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, T.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy`s Solar Thermal Electric Program is managed by the Solar thermal and biomass Power division which is part of the Office of utility Technologies. The focus of the Program is to commercialize solar electric technologies. In this regard, three major projects are currently being pursued in trough, central receiver, and dish/Stirling electric power generation. This paper describes these three projects and the activities at the National laboratories that support them.

  4. Solar Manufacturing Technology 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Technology 2 Solar Manufacturing Technology 2 The PV awards span the supply chain from novel methods to make silicon wafers, to advanced cell and metallization processes, to innovative module packaging and processing. The CSP award demonstrates manufacturability of an innovative CSP reflective-trough receiver. This second round of SolarMat, announced on October 22, 2014, funds nine photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) projects that focus on driving down the cost

  5. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Solana Generating Station |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power | NREL Solana Generating Station Abengoa Solar has built a 280-megawatt parabolic trough solar plant about 70 miles southwest of Phoenix, Arizona. The plant generates enough power to supply 70,000 homes under a 30-year power supply contract with Arizona Public Service (APS). The thermal energy storage system provides up to 6 hours of generating capacity after sunset. Status Date: August 19, 2015 Project Overview Project Name: Solana Generating Station (Solana)

  6. Use of economical off-shelf vacuumware bottles (hot soup type) as solar evacuated tubes. Final technical report, 1 January 1981-31 July 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novinger, H.E.

    1982-08-01

    Three air type solar collector modules using vacuum insulated bottles and three different absorbers were designed, built, and simultaneously tested for comparison of performance. One absorber was flat black paint on cylinders, one was black chrome on copper cylinders and one was ordinary dark brown house insulation known as rock wool. A liquid type solar collector was also designed, built, and tested, which employed similar components of the air type collectors except for painted cans inserted in the short vacuumware bottles serving as the evacuated-tubes. Similar tests were made of flat plate type solar collectors using similar absorbers. The results of these tests are presented.

  7. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  8. Comparative study of different solar cooling systems for buildings in subtropical city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fong, K.F.; Chow, T.T.; Lee, C.K.; Lin, Z.; Chan, L.S.

    2010-02-15

    In recent years, more and more attention has been paid on the application potential of solar cooling for buildings. Due to the fact that the efficiency of solar collectors is generally low at the time being, the effectiveness of solar cooling would be closely related to the availability of solar irradiation, climatic conditions and geographical location of a place. In this paper, five types of solar cooling systems were involved in a comparative study for subtropical city, which is commonly featured with long hot and humid summer. The solar cooling systems included the solar electric compression refrigeration, solar mechanical compression refrigeration, solar absorption refrigeration, solar adsorption refrigeration and solar solid desiccant cooling. Component-based simulation models of these systems were developed, and their performances were evaluated throughout a year. The key performance indicators are solar fraction, coefficient of performance, solar thermal gain, and primary energy consumption. In addition, different installation strategies and types of solar collectors were compared for each kind of solar cooling system. Through this comparative study, it was found that solar electric compression refrigeration and solar absorption refrigeration had the highest energy saving potential in the subtropical Hong Kong. The former is to make use of the solar electric gain, while the latter is to adopt the solar thermal gain. These two solar cooling systems would have even better performances through the continual advancement of the solar collectors. It will provide a promising application potential of solar cooling for buildings in the subtropical region. (author)

  9. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  10. Solar absorption cooling plant in Seville

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bermejo, Pablo; Pino, Francisco Javier; Rosa, Felipe

    2010-08-15

    A solar/gas cooling plant at the Engineering School of Seville (Spain) was tested during the period 2008-2009. The system is composed of a double-effect LiBr + water absorption chiller of 174 kW nominal cooling capacity, powered by: (1) a pressurized hot water flow delivered by mean of a 352 m{sup 2} solar field of a linear concentrating Fresnel collector and (2) a direct-fired natural gas burner. The objective of the project is to indentify design improvements for future plants and to serve as a guideline. We focused our attention on the solar collector size and dirtiness, climatology, piping heat losses, operation control and coupling between solar collector and chiller. The daily average Fresnel collector efficiency was 0.35 with a maximum of 0.4. The absorption chiller operated with a daily average coefficient of performance of 1.1-1.25, where the solar energy represented the 75% of generator's total heat input, and the solar cooling ratio (quotient between useful cooling and insolation incident on the solar field) was 0.44. (author)

  11. Conservation and solar: working together

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. A global optimum procedure is also described in which life-cycle cost is minimized. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  12. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Jason R; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A L

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  13. Passive-solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  14. Conductivity fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C.

    2002-01-01

    An improved method of manufacturing a PEM fuel cell collector plate is disclosed. During molding a highly conductive polymer composite is formed having a relatively high polymer concentration along its external surfaces. After molding the polymer rich layer is removed from the land areas by machining, grinding or similar process. This layer removal results in increased overall conductivity of the molded collector plate. The polymer rich surface remains in the collector plate channels, providing increased mechanical strength and other benefits to the channels. The improved method also permits greater mold cavity thickness providing a number of advantages during the molding process.

  15. Electron beam collector for a microwave power tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dandl, Raphael A.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a cylindrical, electron beam collector that efficiently couples the microwave energy out of a high power microwave source while stopping the attendant electron beam. The interior end walls of the collector are a pair of facing parabolic mirrors and the microwave energy from an input horn is radiated between the two mirrors and reassembled at the entrance to the output waveguide where the transmitted mode is reconstructed. The mode transmission through the collector of the present invention has an efficiency of at least 94%.

  16. Solar heat conversion panel and method of assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homsy, C.A.; Homsy, P.T.

    1981-01-06

    The panel for converting solar energy to sensible heat of a working fluid comprises a thermally-insulated and impervious base member overlayed with and spaced from a solar-collecting member or collector. The collector is in turn overlayed with and spaced from a pair of mutually spaced impervious films which are essentially transparent to incident solar radiation and substantially opaque to radiation emitted by the collector. The solar-collecting member consists of a thermally-insulating porous matrix substance and of a second substance affixed thereto. The second substance is in divided and substantially discrete form. The second substance exhibits a high degree of absorptivity for solar radiation and low emissivity for long wave radiation. The working fluid to be heated is admitted to a chamber underneath the solar-collecting member. The working fluid has a pressure sufficient to cause it to percolate through the collector. The percolated fluid is collected between the collector and the first overlaying film. The panel assembly is formed by connecting the solar panels in series and/or parallel arrays which carry the working fluid and allow it to absorb the desired quantity of heat.

  17. PV/thermal solar power assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ansley, Jeffrey H.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2004-01-13

    A flexible solar power assembly (2) includes a flexible photovoltaic device (16) attached to a flexible thermal solar collector (4). The solar power assembly can be rolled up for transport and then unrolled for installation on a surface, such as the roof (20, 25) or side wall of a building or other structure, by use of adhesive and/or other types of fasteners (23).

  18. Solar rocket plume-mirror interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.T.; Chang, C.L.; Merkle, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    The extent to which the plume from a solar thermal rocket will impinge on the solar collector is studied by flow field analysis. Such interaction can adversely affect collector performance through fouling, excessive heat loading, or pressure loads that deform the delicate structures. The geometrical shape of the collector is such that only the flow from the nozzle boundary layer can reach it, but the thrust levels of interest lead to very viscous nozzle flows with thick boundary layers. Reasonable accuracy in solving these flows requires a fully coupled viscous-inviscid procedure. Results show that the fraction of the plume that hits the collector can be well estimated by continuum theory, but that transitional and rarefied phenomena will have some impact on how it is distributed over the surface. Initial results for one representative condition show that approx. 4 percent of the total flow in the jet makes its way to the collector. The pressures on the collector, however, remain quite low because of its distance from the engine. Additional work is needed to document the effect of thrust scaling and wall cooling on impingement.

  19. Increasing the solar photovoltaic energy capture on sunny and cloudy days

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Nelson A.; Gibson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-15

    This report analyzes an extensive set of measurements of the solar irradiance made using four identical solar arrays and associated solar sensors (collectively referred to as solar collectors) with different tilt angles relative to the earth's surface, and thus the position of the sun, in order to determine an optimal tracking algorithm for capturing solar radiation. The study included a variety of ambient conditions including different seasons and both cloudy and cloud-free conditions. One set of solar collectors was always approximately pointed directly toward the sun (DTS) for a period around solar noon. These solar collectors thus captured the direct beam component of the solar radiation that predominates on sunny days. We found that on sunny days, solar collectors with a DTS configuration captured more solar energy in accordance with the well-known cosine dependence for the response of a flat-surfaced solar collector to the angle of incidence with direct beam radiation. In particular, a DTS orientation was found to capture up to twice as much solar energy as a horizontal (H) orientation in which the array is tilted toward the zenith. Another set of solar collectors always had an H orientation, and this best captured the diffuse component of the solar radiation that predominates on cloudy days. The dependence of the H/DTS ratio on the solar-collector tilt angle was in approximate agreement with the Isotropic Diffuse Model derived for heavily overcast conditions. During cloudy periods, we found that an H configuration increased the solar energy capture by nearly 40% compared to a DTS configuration during the same period, and we estimate the solar energy increase of an H configuration over a system that tracks the obscured solar disk could reach 50% over a whole heavily-overcast day. On an annual basis the increase is predicted to be much less, typically only about 1%, because the contribution of cloudy days to the total annual solar energy captured by a

  20. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  1. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  2. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A.; Milanovich, Fred P.; Willeke, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  3. Project Profile: Flexible Assembly Solar Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power » Project Profile: Flexible Assembly Solar Technology Project Profile: Flexible Assembly Solar Technology BrightSource Energy logo -- This project is inactive -- BrightSource Energy, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is designing and deploying an automated collector-assembly platform. The researchers are also developing a more efficient installation process that has the potential to drastically reduce construction time and cost for

  4. Commercializing solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, J.T.; Prairie, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a government-supported program to commercialize hydrogen production methods which use solar energy as the main source of energy. Current methods use hydrocarbons and generate large amounts of carbon dioxide. The paper describes results from a literature survey performed to identify technologies using direct solar energy that were likely to succeed on an industrial scale in the near term. Critical parameters included calculated efficiencies, measured efficiencies, and development status. The cost of solar collectors is cited as the reason most promising solar hydrogen research is not taken to the pilot plant stage. The author recommends use of existing DOE facilities already in operation for pilot plant testing. 14 refs. (CK)

  5. Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Project Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.J.

    1995-11-01

    As the consumption of energy increases, its impact on ambient air quality has become a significant concern. Recent studies indicate that fine particles from coal combustion cause health problems as well as atmospheric visibility impairment. These problems are further compounded by the concentration of hazardous trace elements such as mercury, cadmium, selenium, and arsenic in fine particles. Therefore, a current need exists to develop superior, but economical, methods to control emissions of fine particles. Since most of the toxic metals present in coal will be in particulate form, a high level of fine- particle collection appears to be the best method of overall air toxics control. However, over 50% of mercury and a portion of selenium emissions are in vapor form and cannot be collected in particulate control devices. Therefore, this project will focus on developing technology not only to provide ultrahigh collection efficiency of particulate air toxic emissions, but also to capture vapor- phase trace metals such as mercury and selenium. Currently, the primary state-of-the-art technologies for particulate control are fabric filters (baghouses) and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). However, they both have limitations that prevent them from achieving ultrahigh collection of fine particulate matter and vapor-phase trace metals. The objective of this project is to develop a highly reliable advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC) that can provide > 99.99 % particulate collection efficiency for all particle sizes between 0.01 and 50 14m, is applicable for use with all U.S. coals, and is cost-0443competitive with existing technologies. Phase I of the project is organized into three tasks: Task I - Project Management, Reporting, and Subcontract Consulting Task 2 - Modeling, Design, and Construction of 200-acfm AHPC Model Task 3 - Experimental Testing and Subcontract Consulting

  6. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. The elimination of the reverse circulation in thermosiphon solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prapas, D.E.; Sotiropoulos, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Thermosiphon solar water heaters (TSWH), employing either closed or open collector loops, are widely used today to cover a substantial part of the hot water needs, mostly in residential small scale applications. Their cost is lower in comparison to pumped systems, because no pumps, controls etc. are required. However, the storage tank has to be mounted above the collector in order to promote the thermosiphon flow; this could be a serious drawback in some applications. An undesirable characteristic of TSWH is the reverse circulation (RC) of the working liquid when the temperature of the collector is lower than that of the storage tank. The causes of reverse circulation in thermosyphon solar water heaters, the geometry of the systems, and the affects of nocturnal radiative cooling of the collector are discussed. A means of interconnecting collector and tank to drastically reduce reverse circulation is presented.

  8. Low cost solar energy collection for cooling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-06-01

    Solar energy collector designs utilizing thinfilm polymeric materials in the absorber and glazing are now under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective is dramatic cost reduction consistent with acceptable performance and life. Originally intended for low temperature applications (< 100/sup 0/F), these collectors now appear capable of high temperature applications including desiccant and absorption cooling (150/sup 0/ to 200/sup 0/ F). The performance and economics of the thin-film collector are compared with those of conventional flat-plate designs in cooling applications.

  9. Project Profile: High-Concentration, Low-Cost Parabolic Trough...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    additional advancements that substantially lower installed solar field costs. For example, the reflective film surfaces are being upgraded to improve reflectance and specularity. ...

  10. Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  11. Optimum mix of conservation and solar energy in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is developed for optimally allocating resources between conservation and solar strategies in building design. Formulas are presented for a constrained optimum in which the initial investment is limited. The procedure is amenable to hand analysis if tables are available which give the Solar Savings Fraction as a function of the Load Collector Ratio for the locality. A numerical example is given.

  12. Outdoor Outfitter Gets Greener With Solar Water Heater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Using Recovery Act funding, L.L. Bean, the popular outdoor apparel company, recently installed a 180-tube solar hot water collector array on the roof of their flagship store in Freeport, Maine. Find out some how much energy and money they're saving thanks to the new solar installation.

  13. Method of making a back contacted solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A back-contacted solar cell having laser-drilled vias connecting the front-surface carrier-collector junction to an electrode grid on the back surface. The structure may also include a rear surface carrier-collector junction connected to the same grid. The substrate is connected to a second grid which is interdigitated with the first. Both grids are configured for easy series connection with neighboring cells. Several processes are disclosed to produce the cell.

  14. Method of making a back contacted solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, J.M.

    1995-11-21

    A back-contacted solar cell is described having laser-drilled vias connecting the front-surface carrier-collector junction to an electrode grid on the back surface. The structure may also include a rear surface carrier-collector junction connected to the same grid. The substrate is connected to a second grid which is interdigitated with the first. Both grids are configured for easy series connection with neighboring cells. Several processes are disclosed to produce the cell. 2 figs.

  15. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  16. Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems with a Solar-Assisted Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kush, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    An outline of possibilities for effective use of PV/T collectors with a Solar Assisted Heat Pump is given. A quantitative analysis of the performance and cost of the various configurations as a function of regional climates, using up-to-date results from solar heat pump and PV/T collector studies, will be required for more definitive assessment; and it is recommended that these be undertaken in the PV/T Program. Particular attention should be paid to development of high performance PV/T collectors, matching of heat pump electrical system to PV array and power conditioning characteristics, and optimization of storage options for cost effectiveness and utility impact.

  17. Solar heating and cooling diode module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maloney, Timothy J.

    1986-01-01

    A high efficiency solar heating system comprising a plurality of hollow modular units each for receiving a thermal storage mass, the units being arranged in stacked relation in the exterior frame of a building, each of the units including a port for filling the unit with the mass, a collector region and a storage region, each region having inner and outer walls, the outer wall of the collector region being oriented for exposure to sunlight for heating the thermal storage mass; the storage region having an opening therein and the collector region having a corresponding opening, the openings being joined for communicating the thermal storage mass between the storage and collector regions by thermosiphoning; the collector region being disposed substantially below and in parallel relation to the storage region in the modular unit; and the inner wall of the collector region of each successive modular unit in the stacked relation extending over the outer wall of the storage region of the next lower modular unit in the stacked relation for reducing heat loss from the system. Various modifications and alternatives are disclosed for both heating and cooling applications.

  18. Gary Works No. 13 blast furnace: A new removable trough design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuett, K.J.; Pawlak, J.P.; Traina, L.; Brenneman, R.G.

    1995-12-01

    No. 13 Blast Furnace at US Steel`s Gary Works is a 35 tuyere furnace with a 36.5 ft. hearth capable of producing over 9,000 tons of hot metal per day. The current casthouse design was placed in service following the second reline in the fall of 1979. This design anticipated daily production rates averaging 7,500 tons of hot metal per day and provided for removable troughs at two of the three tapholes. At the time, the troughs were rammed with a high alumina/silicon carbide granular ramming material that provided the operators with trough campaign lives between 60,000--70,000 tons of hot metal produced. As refractory technology progressed, low cement/low moisture castables were introduced to the trough systems on No. 13 Blast Furnace. The immediate success of the castables was tempered by emergence of a new unexpected problem. That problem was the thermal expansion of the castable. The paper describes the problems that resulted in the need to modify the trough design, the new design of the trough, and its improvement in iron trough campaign life and reliability.

  19. Reflector Technology Development and System Design for Concentrating Solar Power Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Schaut Philip Smith

    2011-12-30

    performance. The target criteria for the concept development was to achieve a solar field cost savings of 25%-50% thereby meeting or exceeding the DOE solar field cost savings target of $350/m2. After evaluating various structural design approaches, Alcoa down-selected to a monocoque, dubbed Wing Box, design that utilizes the reflective surface as a structural, load carrying member. The cost and performance potential of the Wing Box concept was developed via initial finite element analysis (FEA) and cost modeling. The structural members were sized through material utilization modeling when subjected to representative loading conditions including wind loading. Cost modeling was utilized to refine potential manufacturing techniques that could be employed to manufacture the structural members. Alcoa concluded that an aluminum intensive collector design can achieve significant cost savings without sacrificing performance. Based on the cost saving potential of this Concept Feasibility study, Alcoa recommended further validation of this CSP approach through the execution of Phase II: Design and Prototype Development. Alcoa Phase II objective was to provide the DOE with a validated CSP trough design that demonstrates significant overall system cost savings without sacrificing performance. Phase II consisted of three major tasks; Detail System Design, Prototype Build, and System Validation. Additionally, the reflector surface development that began in Phase I was continued in Phase II. After further development work, Alcoa was unable to develop a reflective technology that demonstrated significant performance or cost benefits compared to commercially available CSP reflective products. After considering other commercially available reflective surfaces, Alcoa selected Alano's MIRO-SUN product for use on the full scale prototype. Although MIRO-SUN has a lower specular reflectivity compared to other options, its durability in terms of handling, cleaning, and long-term reflectivity was

  20. Fuel cell collector plate and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braun, James C.; Zabriskie, Jr., John E.; Neutzler, Jay K.; Fuchs, Michel; Gustafson, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved molding composition is provided for compression molding or injection molding a current collector plate for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The molding composition is comprised of a polymer resin combined with a low surface area, highly-conductive carbon and/or graphite powder filler. The low viscosity of the thermoplastic resin combined with the reduced filler particle surface area provide a moldable composition which can be fabricated into a current collector plate having improved current collecting capacity vis-a-vis comparable fluoropolymer molding compositions.

  1. SWERA_Final_Report

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    throughout the day such as trough collectors or dishes. The estimation for radiation on 3 Solar Energy Resources, Technical Report 3, CESEN 1986 2-2 tilted surface analysis used...

  2. President Obama Announces $1.45 Billion Conditional Commitment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    using parabolic trough solar collectors and an innovative six-hour thermal energy storage system-the first of its kind in the country. "After years of watching companies build ...

  3. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

  4. Become One In A Million: Partnership Updates. Million Solar Roofs and Interstate Renewable Energy Council Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tombari, C.

    2005-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Million Solar Roofs Initiative (MSR) is a unique public-private partnership aimed at overcoming market barriers for photovoltaics (PV), solar water heating, transpired solar collectors, solar space heating and cooling, and pool heating. This report contains annual progress reports from 866 partners across the United States.

  5. Inverse Marx modulators for self-biasing klystron depressed collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.

    2014-07-31

    A novel pulsed depressed collector biasing scheme is proposed. This topology feeds forward energy recovered during one RF pulse for use on the following RF pulse. The presented ''inverse'' Marx charges biasing capacitors in series, and discharges them in parallel. Simulations are shown along with experimental demonstration on a 62kW klystron.

  6. Solar Energy: The Chicago Connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, Roland

    2009-05-15

    Utilization of solar energy was significantly advanced with the invention of nonimaging solar concentrators. This has enabled practical uses of solar energy for such purposes as heating and cooling of buildings and power generation without the requirement for complicated tracking. What began as a method for efficiently collecting cerenkov light in high energy physics has become the means for producing from solar energy, high temperature for many societal applications as well as ultra-high temperature for research. This talk will describe the optical principles underlying the technology and illustrate with projects and laboratories from around the world. Examples will be drawn from a number of areas: cooling a commercial building in Sacramento, California, advanced collector development in China, NASA's plans for space propulsion by heating hydrogen, and from our own City of Chicago, a commitment to be a global leader in renewable energy production and manufacturing including solar power.

  7. Solar heating panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefe, R.A.

    1983-08-09

    A method of maintaining the temperature of a solar heating panel with glazing below about 220/sup 0/ utilizes convention cooling, where it is essential to the success of the method that the glazing be at least two inches above the upper surface of the collector. A panel of unitary construction of essentially the same plastic material which is an embodiment of the method can withstand the normal operating conditions to which such panels are subjected without thermal degradation of the plastic nor danger of rupture attending loss of physical integrity at excessive temperatures.

  8. Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Space Dust Analysis Could Provide Clues to Solar System Origins Print Thursday, 18 September 2014 12:34 New studies of space dust captured by NASA's Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector have shown that interstellar particles may be much more complex in structure and composition than previously thought. -The tiny particles could give scientists chemical clues about the origins of our solar system. Amateur Enthusiasts Key to Research

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at St. Louis, Missouri. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Information is provided on the solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao and Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri. The information consists of description, photos, maintenance and construction problems, final drawing, system requirements and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50% of the hot water requirements and 45% of the space heating needs for a 900 square foot office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 square foot of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  10. Subsurface basin analysis of fault-controlled turbidite system in Bradano trough, southern Adriatic foredeep, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casnedi, R.

    1988-11-01

    Subsurface data (seismic lines, wireline logs, cores, and drill cuttings) from intensive hydrocarbon exploration in the Pliocene-Pleistocene Bradano Trough were used in performing a three-dimensional basin analysis and in reconstructing the time-space evolution of the basin. A middle Pliocene sedimentary system characterizes the hydrocarbon-bearing sands of the major gas field of the Bradano Trough, the Candela field. This system includes two phases of deposition in a migrating basin. 9 figures.

  11. Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism in the Great Basin: The Dry Mountain trough and related basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, W.S.; Spinosa, C.; Gallegos, D.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Pennsylvanian-Permian tectonism affected the continental margin of western North America from the Yukon to the Mojave Desert. Specific signatures of this tectonism include local angular unconformities, regional disconformities, renewed outpouring of clastic debris from a reactivated Antler and related highlands, and development of deeper water basins with anoxic sediments deposited below wave base. The basins formed include Ishbel trough (Canada), the Wood River basin (Idaho), Cassia basin, Ferguson trough, Dry Mountain trough (all Nevada), and unnamed basins in Death Valley-Mojave Desert region. The Dry Mountain trough (DMT) was initiated during early Wolfcampian and received up to 1,200 m of sediment by the late Leonardian. The lower contact is a regional unconformity with the Ely Limestone, or locally with the Diamond Peak or Vinini formations. Thus, following a period of localized regional uplift that destroyed the Ely basin, portions of the uplifted and exposed shelf subsided creating the Dry Mountain trough. Evidence suggesting a tectonic origin for the DMT includes (1) high subsidence rates (60-140 m/m.y.); (2) renewed influx of coarse clastic debris from the Antler highlands: (3) possible pre-Early Permian folding, thrusting, and tilting within the highlands; and (4) differential subsidence within the Dry Mountain trough, suggesting the existence of independent fault blocks.

  12. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (CSP: COLLECTS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Illinois at Urbana Champaign (CSP: COLLECTS) PROJECT PROFILE: University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (CSP: COLLECTS) Project Name: Development of a Planar Focusing Collector for CSP Funding Opportunity: CSP: COLLECTS SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Urbana, IL SunShot Award Amount: $1,381,879 Awardee Cost Share: $345,879 The goal of this work is to develop a flat solar collector that acts like a conventional curved trough collector. The planar focusing collector

  14. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J A; Derickson, R G

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  15. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, A.; Ives, R.L.; Schumacher, R.V.; Mizuhara, Y.M.

    1998-07-14

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting. 9 figs.

  16. Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummarySteven Visco, Craig Jacobson, and Lutgard DeJonghe have designed a cost-efficient, structurally sound technology for current collection and cell-to-cell interconnection of high temperature (>600 C) planar electrochemical devices. Current collection is normally achieved using expensive metal oxides or metals such as platinum or nickel.

  17. Multi-stage depressed collector for small orbit gyrotrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Amarjit; Ives, R. Lawrence; Schumacher, Richard V.; Mizuhara, Yosuke M.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-stage depressed collector for receiving energy from a small orbit gyrating electron beam employs a plurality of electrodes at different potentials for sorting the individual electrons on the basis of their total energy level. Magnetic field generating coils, for producing magnetic fields and magnetic iron for magnetic field shaping produce adiabatic and controlled non-adiabatic transitions of the incident electron beam to further facilitate the sorting.

  18. Concentrating Solar Power SunShot Research and Development | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy SunShot Research and Development Concentrating Solar Power SunShot Research and Development Concentrating Solar Power SunShot Research and Development In June 2012, DOE announced the awardees of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) SunShot Research and Development (Program Fact Sheet) funding opportunity as follows (Summary of the projects and funding): 3M: Next-Generation Solar Collectors for CSP Argonne National Laboratory: Chemically Reactive Working Fluids Boston University:

  19. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  20. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

  1. SOLAR '97 CONFERENCE: MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA SOLANA PROJECT SUMMARY In December 2010, the Department of Energy issued a $1.45 billion loan guarantee to finance Solana, a 250-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant with an innovative thermal energy storage system. Solana represents the first deployment of this thermal energy storage technology in the United States and is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. It started commercial

  2. Thermal performance of packed-bed solar air heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.P.; Saini, J.S.; Varma, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the enhancement of thermal performance of solar iar heater having its duct packed with blackened wire-screen matrices. Tests were conducted to cover wide range of influencing parameters including geometry of wire screens, mass flow rates and input solar energy fluxes under actual outdoor conditions. Effect of these parameters on the thermal performance has been investigated and results have been compared with those of plane (flat-plate) collectors. These tests provide useful data for rating wire-screen matrices packed-bed collectors based on thermal performance. It is observed that the performance of plane collector improves appreciably by packing its duct with blackened wire-screen matrices and this improvement is a strong function of bed and operating parameters.

  3. Performance of a solar heating system on the LSU field house determined from test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maples, D.; Whitehouse, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data was collected and analyzed for a solar heating system installed on the Field House at Louisiana State University. The solar system performed as expected for periods that it operated. Problems encountered are discussed. Efficiency of flat-plate collectors used was determined. 2 refs.

  4. SOLAR POWERING OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ABSORPTION CHILLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randy C. Gee

    2004-11-15

    This is the Final Report for two solar cooling projects under this Cooperative Agreement. The first solar cooling project is a roof-integrated solar cooling and heating system, called the Power Roof{trademark}, which began operation in Raleigh, North Carolina in late July 2002. This system provides 176 kW (50 ton) of solar-driven space cooling using a unique nonimaging concentrating solar collector. The measured performance of the system during its first months of operation is reported here, along with a description of the design and operation of this system. The second solar cooling system, with a 20-ton capacity, is being retrofit to a commercial office building in Charleston, South Carolina but has not yet been completed.

  5. Solar Circuitry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Circuitry" with the Solar Powered Energy Kit Curriculum: Solar Power- (lightelectromagnetic radiation, electricity, circuitry, efficiency, energy transformation, subatomic ...

  6. Performance of the biose cascade-INEL manufactured solar home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, A S; Liebelt, K H; Scofield, M P; Shinn, N R

    1980-01-01

    Two manufactured active solar homes using air collectors and rock storage were designed, bult and are being tested. The cooperative, DOE-funded project involves. Boise Cascade Corporation and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The two primary goals of the project are to develop an active solar heating system that is cost-effective now, and to provide significant market penetration through the involvement of Boise Cascade, a major manufacturer of factory built houses. A brief discussion of the houses and solar systems is included, with more detailed discussion of the desktop-computer based data acquisition system and initial performance results. The 1979 cooling season data indicated a need for modifications to achieve adequate cooling system performance. Data from the heating season showed good agreement with calculations, especially the house heat loss coefficient. However, solar heating fractions were lower than predicted and an examination of the collector operating efficiency showed the collector losses to be approximately three times higher than predicted. Tests are underway to better understand the large collection losses. Comparison of the performance data and f-chart predictions shows significant differences, with predicted solar fractions being lower than actual. The solar domestic hot water preheating system performed reasonably well, with significant thermal losses noticed from the auxiliary hot water heater. Recommendations are made for the design of solar air-heating systems.

  7. Boston solar retrofits: studies of solar access and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, M.

    1980-11-01

    Studies of solar access and solar retrofit economics are described for residential applications in the City of Boston. The study of solar access was based upon a random sample of 94 buildings; the sample was stratified to ensure a broad geographic representation from the city's various sections. Using available data on the heights and orientations of the sampled structures and surrounding buildings, each building's hourly access to sunlight was computed separately for the roof and south facing walls. These data were then aggregated by broad structural classifications in order to provide general measures of solar access. The second study was a comparative analysis of the economics of several solar heating and hot water systems. An active hot water system, installed using pre-assembled, commercially purchased equipment, was selected as a reference technology. A variety of measures of economic performance were computed for this system, with and without existing tax credits and under various financing arrangements. Next, a number of alternative approaches for solar space and water heating were identified from interviews with individuals and groups involved in solar retrofit projects in the Boston area. The objective was to identify approaches that many of those interviewed believe to be low-cost means of applying solar energy in residential settings. The approaches selected include thermal window covers, wall collectors, bread box water heaters, and sun spaces. Preliminary estimates of the performance of several representative designs were developed and the economics of these designs evaluated.

  8. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed an innovative approach to improve the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. This nanotechnology directly addresses delamination of graphite anode material from the collectors, a common result of cyclical

  9. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  10. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  11. Linear Concentrator System Basics for Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Linear concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors capture the sun's energy with large mirrors that reflect and focus the sunlight onto a linear receiver tube. The receiver contains a fluid that is heated by the sunlight and then used to heat a traditional power cycle that spins a turbine that drives a generator to produce electricity.

  12. DESIGN AND TEST OF NON-EVACUATED SOLAR

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DESIGN AND TEST OF NON-EVACUATED SOLAR c COLLECTORS W I T H C O M P O U N D PARABOLIC ... a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d test procedure, w e have t a k e n c a r e t o ...

  13. Equivalencing the Collector System of a Large Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Ellis, A.; Mechenbier, J.; Hochheimer, J.; Young, R.; Miller, N.; Delmerico, R.; Zavadil, R.; Smith, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on our effort to develop an equivalent representation of a wind power plant collector system for power system planning studies.

  14. Grid collector: An event catalog with automated file management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kesheng; Zhang, Wei-Ming; Sim, Alexander; Gu, Junmin; Shoshani, Arie

    2003-10-17

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) experiments such as STAR at BNL and ATLAS at CERN produce large amounts of data that are stored as files on mass storage systems in computer centers. In these files, the basic unit of data is an event. Analysis is typically performed on a selected set of events. The files containing these events have to be located, copied from mass storage systems to disks before analysis, and removed when no longer needed. These file management tasks are tedious and time consuming. Typically, all events contained in the files are read into memory before a selection is made. Since the time to read the events dominate the overall execution time, reading the unwanted event needlessly increases the analysis time. The Grid Collector is a set of software modules that works together to address these two issues. It automates the file management tasks and provides ''direct'' access to the selected events for analyses. It is currently integrated with the STAR analysis framework. The users can select events based on tags, such as, ''production date between March 10 and 20, and the number of charged tracks > 100.'' The Grid Collector locates the files containing relevant events, transfers the files across the Grid if necessary, and delivers the events to the analysis code through the familiar iterators. There has been some research efforts to address the file management issues, the Grid Collector is unique in that it addresses the event access issue together with the file management issues. This makes it more useful to a large variety of users.

  15. Fuel cell collector plates with improved mass transfer channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurau, Vladimir; Barbir, Frano; Neutzler, Jay K.

    2003-04-22

    A fuel cell collector plate can be provided with one or more various channel constructions for the transport of reactants to the gas diffusion layer and the removal of water therefrom. The outlet channel can be arranged to have a reduced volume compared to the inlet channel, in both interdigitated and discontinuous spiral applications. The land width between an inlet channel and outlet channel can be reduced to improved mass flow rate in regions of deleted reactant concentrations. Additionally or alternatively, the depth of the inlet channel can be reduced in the direction of flow to reduce the diffusion path as the concentration of reactant is reduced.

  16. Community Shared Solar with Solarize | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Community Shared Solar with Solarize Community Shared Solar with Solarize

  17. Passive solar design handbook. Volume III. Passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; Balcomb, J.D.; Kosiewicz, C.E.; Lazarus, G.S.; McFarland, R.D.; Wray, W.O.

    1982-07-01

    Simple analytical methods concerning the design of passive solar heating systems are presented with an emphasis on the average annual heating energy consumption. Key terminology and methods are reviewed. The solar load ratio (SLR) is defined, and its relationship to analysis methods is reviewed. The annual calculation, or Load Collector Ratio (LCR) method, is outlined. Sensitivity data are discussed. Information is presented on balancing conservation and passive solar strategies in building design. Detailed analysis data are presented for direct gain and sunspace systems, and details of the systems are described. Key design parameters are discussed in terms of their impact on annual heating performance of the building. These are the sensitivity data. The SLR correlations for the respective system types are described. The monthly calculation, or SLR method, based on the SLR correlations, is reviewed. Performance data are given for 9 direct gain systems and 15 water wall and 42 Trombe wall systems. (LEW)

  18. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  19. Drilling investigations of crustal rifting processes in the Salton Trough, California. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Duba, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of CSDP activities in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) are briefly described, concentrating on a shallow heat flow survey, but also discussing preliminary results from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP). The hypothesis that localized thermal zones are the source of all the heat in the Salton Trough is examined. (ACR)

  20. Drilling investigations of crustal rifting processes in the Salton Trough, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.; Newmark, R.L.; Duba, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes the results of CSDP activities in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), concentrating on a shallow heat-flow survey, but also considering preliminary results from the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP). Whether the heat input rate to localized systems is high enough to account for the overall thermal budget of the Salton Trough is examined. (ACR)