National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tropical africa angola

  1. Tropical Africa: Land Use, Biomass, and Carbon Estimates for 1980 (NDP-055)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-04-16

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980. The biomass data and carbon estimates are associated with woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth's land surface and is comprised of countries that are located in tropical Africa (Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Burkina Faso (Upper Volta), Zaire, and Zambia). The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{trademark} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  2. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gaston, G.; Daniels, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  3. Angola: a great future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

  4. Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo Basin Jump to: navigation, search Name Angola-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) in the Congo...

  5. Angola: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Country Profile Name Angola Population 18,498,000 GDP 129,785,000,000 Energy Consumption 0.20 Quadrillion Btu 2-letter ISO code AO 3-letter ISO code AGO Numeric ISO...

  6. Angola, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Angola, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.6383925, -79.0278156 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  7. Angola on the Lake, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Angola on the Lake, New York: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 42.6547811, -79.0489273 Show Map Loading map......

  8. Africa: the emphasis is exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-15

    Individual country reports on drilling, oil and gas production, and petroleum exploration and reserves are given for Africa. Nigeria was the continent's largest oil producer in 1979, averaging 2.3 million bpd, followed closely by Libya with 2.07 million bpd. Algeria cut production of crude oil in 1979 to a level of 1,194,350 bpd, and increased gas production to 2031 mmcfd. In Egypt, the return of Israeli-occupied oil fields and a surge in productive capacity enabled production averaging 524,000 bpd. Brief country reports are included for Gabon, Angola, Republic of the Congo, Cameroun, Tunisia, Morocco, Zaire, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Niger, Chad, Republic of South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Equatorial Guinea, Seychelles Islands, Mauritania, Republic of Mali, Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Botswana, Gambia, Mozambique, and Senegal.

  9. Energy resources in southern Africa: a select bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavan, A.

    1981-01-01

    The aims, progress, and possibilities involved in Southern Africa's energy development are the subject of this 473-item bibliography. The primary items of information described in this document are relatively recent (1975-81), originate from both indigenous and international sources, and are mostly in English, although a few are in French and Portuguese. The presented information focuses on the African continent, the Southern African region, and the nations of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The energy source topics include alcohol, coal, gas, oil, solar, uranium, water, wind, and wood; as well as a general energy-development category.

  10. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  11. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. UPDATE: Tropical Storm Isaac

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Information on customer power outages and other impacts on the energy sector as Tropical Storm Isaac develops.

  13. Africa Adaptation Programme: Capacity Building Experiences-Improving...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa Language: English Africa Adaptation Programme: Capacity Building Experiences-Improving Access,...

  14. Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govSitesTropical Western Pacific TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Manus Island Nauru Island Darwin, AUS ES&H Guidance Statement Operations Science Field Campaigns Year of Tropical Convection Visiting the Site TWP Fact Sheet Images Information for Guest Scientists Tropical Western Pacific-Inactive Manus, Papua New Guinea: 2° 3' 39.64" S, 147° 25' 31.43" E Nauru Island: 0° 31' 15.6" S, 166° 54' 57.60" E Darwin, Australia: 12° 25' 28.56" S, 130° 53'

  15. Africa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Africa Jump to: navigation, search Select a country above to navigate to that country's page. Additional Categories Countries (53) Programs (286) Tools (31) Back to World Map...

  16. West Africa Emerges as Leading Region in Africa for Renewable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Africa Emerges as Leading Region in Africa for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Home > Groups > Clean and Renewable Energy Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor...

  17. Linkages of Remote Sea Surface Temperatures and Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Activity Mediated by the African Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taraphdar, Sourav; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Hagos, Samson M.

    2015-01-28

    Warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in North Atlantic and Mediterranean (NAMED) can influence tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the tropical East Atlantic by modulating summer convection over western Africa. Analysis of 30 years of observations show that the NAMED SST is linked to a strengthening of the Saharan heat low and enhancement of moisture and moist static energy in the lower atmosphere over West Africa, which favors a northward displacement of the monsoonal front. These processes also lead to a northward shift of the African easterly jet that introduces an anomalous positive vorticity from western Africa to the main development region (50W20E; 10N20N) of Atlantic TC. By modulating multiple processes associated with the African monsoon, this study demonstrates that warm NAMED SST explains 8% of interannual variability of Atlantic TC frequency. Thus NAME SST may provide useful predictability for Atlantic TC activity on seasonal-to-interannual time scale.

  18. AfricaAdapt | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Africa Adapt AgencyCompany Organization AfricaAdapt Resource Type Training materials, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.africa-adapt.netAA UN Region Eastern...

  19. Jatropha Africa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Africa Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jatropha Africa Place: Croydon, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: CR0 5LU Product: UK-based biodiesel feedstock company that is growing...

  20. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  1. USAID West Africa Climate Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Sao Tome and Principe, Cape Verde Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western Africa, Western...

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Tropical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Overlap Structure and Cloud Area Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Boer, Erwin LUEBEC The Tropical ...

  3. Internet Performance to Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cottrell, L

    2003-10-01

    We report the first results ever for real-time Internet performance to Africa using the PingER methodology. Multiple monitoring hosts were used to enable comparisons with performance from different parts of the world. From these preliminary measurements, we have found that Internet packet losses to some African sites in recent months range from very poor to bad (> 12%), some getting better, others are holding steady or getting worse. This, together with the average monthly Round Trip Times, imply end-to-end maximum TCP throughputs that are order of magnitudes different between countries in the region. Africa is shown to be far from the Internet performance in industrialized nations due to the poor infrastructure in place today. These monitoring efforts can provide valuable information to analyze the relative rates of future improvement and today they help us to quantify the digital divide and can provide quantitative information to policy makers.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Building Strong, Sustainable Energy Partnerships with Africa...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Strong, Sustainable Energy Partnerships with Africa Building Strong, Sustainable Energy Partnerships with Africa March 31, 2014 - 2:43pm Addthis Deputy Secretary Poneman joins with ...

  6. African Wind Energy Association - South Africa | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy Association - South Africa Jump to: navigation, search Name: African Wind Energy Association - South Africa Place: South Africa Website: www.afriwea.orgensouthafric...

  7. Central and southern Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Exploration in central and southern Africa continued to expand during 1980. The greatest concentration of activity was in Nigeria. However, there was considerable increase in the level of exploratory work in Cameroon and Congo. Significant new finds have been made in Ivory Coast. Geological and geophysical activity was carried out in 18 of the countries, with those in the western part having the largest share. Seismic work involved 225 party months of operation. Most of this time was spent on land, but marine operations accounted for 73,389 km of new control. Gravity and magnetic data were recorded during the marine surveys, and several large aeromagnetic projects were undertaken to obtain a total of 164,498 line km of data. Exploratory and development drilling accounted for a total of 304 wells and 2,605,044 ft (794,212 m) of hole. The 92 exploratory wells that were drilled resulted in 47 oil and gas discoveries. In development drilling 89% of the 212 wells were successful. At the end of the year, 27 exploratory wells were underway, and 34 development wells were being drilled for a total of 61. Oil production from the countries that this review covers was 918,747,009 bbl in 1980, a drop of about 9% from the previous year. Countries showing a decline in production were Nigeria, Gabon, Cabinda, and Zaire. Increases were recorded in Cameroon, Congo, and Ghana. A new country was added to the list of producers when production from the Belier field in Ivory Coast came on stream. 33 figures, 15 tables.

  8. Africa's Transport Infrastructure Mainstreaming Maintenance and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport Infrastructure Mainstreaming Maintenance and Management Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Africa's Transport Infrastructure Mainstreaming...

  9. Ecotoxicology of tropical marine ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, E.C.; Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C.; Richmond, R.H.; Power, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine ecosystems are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and currents transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal ecosystems. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of ecosystem management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three ecosystems, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine ecosystems in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.

  10. Tropical Forest Foundation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia. About "The Tropical Forest Foundation (TFF) is an international, non-profit, educational institution committed to advancing environmental stewardship, economic...

  11. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National ...

  12. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    wind marine shallow cumuli This content will become publicly available on November 13, 2016 Prev Next Title: Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind ...

  13. The Role of the Tropics in Abrupt Climate Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorov, Alexey

    2013-12-07

    Topics addressed include: abrupt climate changes and ocean circulation in the tropics; what controls the ocean thermal structure in the tropics; a permanent El Niño in paleoclimates; the energetics of the tropical ocean.

  14. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun, R.R.; Otto, K.W.; Whitley, S.C.

    1997-05-12

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region`s presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa`s participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa`s share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa`s overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa`s share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%).

  15. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Place: India Sector: Biofuels...

  16. Lunty Tropical Fish Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lunty Tropical Fish Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Lunty Tropical Fish Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  17. Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep Convection. Integrating Measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep Convection. Integrating Measurements and Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Arctic Stratus and Tropical Deep ...

  18. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Title: Tropical Cloud Properties ... in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. ...

  19. Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    amplify tropical North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: CLOUD AND DUST FEEDBACK AND AMO Title: Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North Atlantic ...

  20. Financing Clean Energy Infrastructure in Africa | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    growth for these countries requires access to reliable, affordable and sustainable energy. ... the private sector, to discuss ways to catalyze sustainable energy development in Africa. ...

  1. Africa - CCS capacity building | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Western Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia, Latin America and the Caribbean) for this property. References CCS Africa1 Funded by the...

  2. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries...

  3. South Africa-UNDP Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Urban Housing in South Africa (PIMS 856 CC MSP RE) South Africa National Capacity Self Assessment (PIMS 3115 EA NCSA) South Africa Wind Energy Programme (SAWEP) (PIMS 1637...

  4. Developing Energy Enterprises Programme in Africa | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Enterprises Programme in Africa Jump to: navigation, search Name Developing Energy Enterprises Programme in Africa AgencyCompany Organization Global Village Energy Partnership...

  5. Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security and Environmental Resilience Jump to: navigation, search Name Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food...

  6. Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Policy Options for Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy for Sustainable Development: Policy Options for Africa AgencyCompany Organization:...

  7. Johannesburg, South Africa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in South Africa. Registered Energy Companies in Johannesburg, South Africa Eskom SABRE Gen References http:www.geonames.org993800johannesburg.html Retrieved from "http:...

  8. South Africa-IAEA Energy Planning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agency Sector Energy Topics Background analysis Website http:www-tc.iaea.orgtcwebt Country South Africa Southern Africa References IAEA Project Database1 IAEA is working...

  9. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Africa: Carbon Finance...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Africa: Carbon Finance Guide Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Africa: Carbon Finance Guide AgencyCompany...

  10. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    on the theme of Catalyzing Sustainable Energy Growth in Africa and ... The U.S-Africa Energy Ministerial (USAEM) focused on the theme of "Catalyzing Sustainable ...

  11. Integrated Southern Africa Business Advisory INSABA | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southern Africa Business Advisory INSABA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Integrated Southern Africa Business Advisory (INSABA) Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 10785 Sector: Renewable...

  12. Deliverables from U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deliverables from U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial 2014 Deliverables from U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial 2014 This document outlines major deliverables and commitments from ...

  13. "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot, Department of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physics, Rutgers University OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN ...

  14. Partnering with Africa on Sustainable Energy Development | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Partnering with Africa on Sustainable Energy Development Christopher A. Smith Christopher A. Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Africa is the world's second most ...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  16. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Highlights of Deliverables and Commitments U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial June 3-4, 2014 Power Africa * Beyond the Grid. Power Africa announces Beyond the Grid (BTG), a new peri-urban and rural off-grid and mini-grid (200 watt [W] to 10 megawatt [MW]) strategy that is focused on fostering clean and hybrid energy solutions in partnership with investors and other organizations. BTG aims to (1) increase economic activity through the productive use of electricity by households and businesses; (2)

  17. NREL Researcher on Assignment in South Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Assignment in South Africa For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Oct. 20, 1997 -- A policy analyst with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is headed to South Africa for eight months of high-level economic research on the South African electricity supply industry. Principal Analyst Paul Galen in NREL's Center for Energy Analysis and Applications will be a visiting researcher with the South African Minerals and Energy

  18. Rural development update for South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arent, D.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  19. On the connection between continental-scale land surface processes and the tropical climate in a coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Hsi-Yen; Mechoso, C. R.; Xue, Yongkang; Xiao, Heng; Neelin, David; Ji, Xuan

    2013-11-15

    The impact of global tropical climate to perturbations in land surface processes (LSP) are evaluated using perturbations given by different LSP representations of continental-scale in a global climate model that includes atmosphere-ocean interactions. One representation is a simple land scheme, which specifies climatological albedos and soil moisture availability. The other representation is the more comprehensive Simplified Simple Biosphere Model, which allows for interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes. The results demonstrate that LSP processes such as interactive soil moisture and vegetation biophysical processes have strong impacts on the seasonal mean states and seasonal cycles of global precipitation, clouds, and surface air temperature. The impact is especially significant over the tropical Pacific. To explore the mechanisms for such impact, different LSP representations are confined to selected continental-scale regions where strong interactions of climate-vegetation biophysical processes are present. We find that the largest impact is mainly from LSP perturbations over the tropical African continent. The impact is through anomalous convective heating in tropical Africa due to changes in the surface heat fluxes, which in turn affect basinwide teleconnections in the Pacific through equatorial wave dynamics. The modifications in the equatorial Pacific climate are further enhanced by strong air-sea coupling between surface wind stress and upwelling, as well as effect of ocean memory. Our results further suggest that correct representations of land surface processes, land use change and the associated changes in the deep convection over tropical Africa are crucial to reducing the uncertainty when performing future climate projections under different climate change scenarios.

  20. Tropical BioEnergia SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BioEnergia SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tropical BioEnergia SA Place: Edeia, Goias, Brazil Product: Tropical BioEnergia SA is a joint venture which will build and operate...

  1. Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Tropical Forest Management Under the New Climate Change Agreement-A Case Study in Cambodia Jump to: navigation, search Name Benefits of Tropical Forest Management Under the New...

  2. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration National ... Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment United ... Daily meteorological measurments from the Momote station. ...

  3. Climate Science: Tropical Expansion by Ocean Swing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    The tropical belt has become wider over the past decades, but climate models fall short of capturing the full rate of the expansion. The latest analysis of the climate simulations suggests that a long-term swing of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation is the main missing cause.

  4. South Africa-GTZ Clean Energy Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clean Energy Project Jump to: navigation, search Logo: South Africa-GTZ Clean Energy Project Name South Africa-GTZ Clean Energy Project AgencyCompany Organization GTZ Partner...

  5. Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa Mobile Climate Monitoring Facility to Sample Skies in Africa January 18, 2006 - 10:47am Addthis WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is placing a new, portable atmospheric laboratory with sophisticated instruments and data systems in Niger, Africa, to gain a better understanding of the potential impacts of Saharan dust on global climate. Dust from Africa's

  6. Accelerating the Clean Energy Transition in South Africa | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy the Clean Energy Transition in South Africa Accelerating the Clean Energy Transition in South Africa May 28, 2015 - 9:45am Addthis New partnerships between U.S. and South African organizations were recognized during a signing ceremony at the Powering South Africa Conference. From left to right: Jaime Cruz, Millenium Solutions; Edwina Felix, Peer Africa; Carsten Larsen, Dow; Sheila Moynihan, EERE; Bipin Shah, WinBuild; Teresa Scheepers, Municipal Manger of !Khies; Minister Counselor

  7. South Africa-UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa and Ukraine." References "UNEP Green Economy Advisory Services" Retrieved from "http:...

  8. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs | Department of Energy House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global

  9. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  10. Properties of tropical convection observed by ARM millimeter-radars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of tropical convection observed by ARM millimeter-radars Haynes, John Colorado State University Stephens, Graeme Colorado State University Category: Cloud Properties The results of an analysis of tropical cloud systems observed from a variety of vertically pointing radar systems are described. In particular, observations taken during five years of operation of the ARM millimeter wavelength radar system (MMCR) at Manus Island in the Tropical West Pacific region are characterized into

  11. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment: Overview May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jakob,...

  12. A Decade of Atmospheric Research in the Tropical Western Pacific...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    cloud systems in climate models, long-term measurements of tropical clouds, the environment in which they reside, and their impact on radiation and water budgets are needed. ...

  13. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus ...

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM has three sites within the Tropical Western Pacific that were collecting data during this period: Manus, Papua New Guinea; Nauru Island; and Darwin, Australia. The ARM sites ...

  15. Clarence Strait Tidal Energy Project, Tenax Energy Tropical Tidal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clarence Strait Tidal Energy Project, Tenax Energy Tropical Tidal Test Centre, Jump to: navigation, search 1 Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleClarenceStrai...

  16. Ocean Barrier Layers Effect on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Chang, P.; Saravanan, R.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Xu, Zhao; Li, M.; Hsieh, J.

    2012-09-04

    Improving a tropical cyclone's forecast and mitigating its destructive potential requires knowledge of various environmental factors that influence the cyclone's path and intensity. Herein, using a combination of observations and model simulations, we systematically demonstrate that tropical cyclone intensification is significantly affected by salinity-induced barrier layers, which are 'quasi-permanent' features in the upper tropical oceans. When tropical cyclones pass over regions with barrier layers, the increased stratification and stability within the layer reduce storm-induced vertical mixing and sea surface temperature cooling. This causes an increase in enthalpy flux from the ocean to the atmosphere and, consequently, an intensification of tropical cyclones. On average, the tropical cyclone intensification rate is nearly 50% higher over regions with barrier layers, compared to regions without. Our finding, which underscores the importance of observing not only the upper-ocean thermal structure but also the salinity structure in deep tropical barrier layer regions, may be a key to more skillful predictions of tropical cyclone intensities through improved ocean state estimates and simulations of barrier layer processes. As the hydrological cycle responds to global warming, any associated changes in the barrier layer distribution must be considered in projecting future tropical cyclone activity.

  17. Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Differences Between Tropical and Trade-Wind Shallow Cumuli For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  18. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state: TROPICAL CYCLOGENESIS AND SHEAR Citation Details ...

  19. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  20. Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Modified Microgrid Concept for Rural Electrification in...

  1. Mobile Facility Records Annual Climate Cycle in Niger, Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Records Annual Climate Cycle in Niger, Africa Because dust can block incoming solar energy, and because solar energy drives weather and climate, scientists around the world...

  2. South Africa-Danish Government Baseline Workstream | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Baseline Workstream Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Danish Government Baseline Workstream AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for...

  3. South Africa-NREL Energy Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NREL Energy Activities Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-NREL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Renewable Energy Laboratory Topics Background analysis...

  4. South Africa-Danish Government Sector Programmes | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Programmes Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Danish Government Sector Programmes AgencyCompany Organization Danish Government Partner Danish Ministry for...

  5. South Africa-IEA Network of Expertise in Energy Technology |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    IEA Network of Expertise in Energy Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-IEA Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization International Energy Agency Sector Energy...

  6. Cape Town, South Africa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Registered Energy Companies in Cape Town, South Africa Atlantic Solar Genesis Eco Energy Mulilo Renewable Energy Pty Ltd SetSolar References http:www.geonames.org...

  7. South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in particular around the Copenhagen climate conference of December 2009. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea are responsible for about two thirds...

  8. Draft Agenda for U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Conference Agenda: Residential Energy ...

  9. File:NREL-africa-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description Africa - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation (PDF) Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-GHI,...

  10. Africa-European Union Energy Partnership | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Programme (RECP) that will open new linkages in the energy-economic sector for industrial trade and business cooperation between Africa and Europe reaffirm the commitment to...

  11. Characterizing wind power resource reliability in southern Africa...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE PAGES Search Results Published Article: Characterizing wind power resource reliability in southern Africa Title: Characterizing wind power resource reliability in southern...

  12. Successful Energy Policy Interventions in Africa | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSuccessfulEnergyPolicyInterventionsinAfrica&oldid329242" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference...

  13. South Africa-National Development Plan: Vision for 2030 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development Plan" Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSouthAfrica-NationalDevelopmentPlan:Visionfor2030&oldid391220" Feedback Contact needs...

  14. Energy, Environment and Development Network for Africa | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleEnergy,EnvironmentandDevelopmentNetworkforAfrica&oldid765802" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference...

  15. Forestry-based Carbon Sequestration Projects in Africa: Potential...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract "Carbon sequestration through forestry and agroforestry can help mitigate global warming. For Africa, carbon sequestration also represents an opportunity to fund...

  16. Africa-Economic Development Report 2010 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this property. Africa-Economic Development Report 2010 Screenshot References: African Economy1 "The key questions addressed in the report are as follows: What are the...

  17. South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name South Africa-Promoting Low Emission Urban Development Strategies in Emerging Economy Countries (URBAN-LEDS) AgencyCompany Organization ICLEI - Local Governments for...

  18. South Africa-Energy and Climate Change Research Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy and Climate Change Research Program Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa Energy and Climate Change Research Program AgencyCompany Organization France Agency of...

  19. South Africa - Climate Change Risks and Opportunities for the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Risks and Opportunities for the Economy Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Climate Change Risks and Opportunities for the Economy AgencyCompany...

  20. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International ...

  1. Africa Forum for Clean Energy Financing (AFRICEF) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from any African Country, and particularly targets projects from South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda. Applicants need to respond to the attached call for proposals by 16th...

  2. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  3. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  4. A tropical influence on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S.

    1997-05-15

    A potential influence of tropical sea surface temperature on the global climate response to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} concentration is tested using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The warming is significantly reduced when sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue region between latitudes 2.25{degrees}N and 2.25{degrees}S are held at the control simulation values. Warming of the global mean temperature outside of the cold tongue region is reduced from 2.4{degrees}C in the unconstrained case to 1.9{degrees}C when the sea surface temperature constraint is applied. The decrease in the warming results from a positive net heat flux into the ocean cold tongue region and implicit heat storage in the subsurface ocean, induced by horizontal atmospheric heat fluxes. The reduced surface temperature warming outside of the cold tongue region is due to reduction in the downward longwave radiative flux at the surface, caused in turn by reduced atmospheric temperature and moisture. The global mean surface temperature responds to the heat storage in the ocean as if the global mean radiative forcing due to the doubled CO{sub 2} (approximately 4 W m{sup {minus}2}) was reduced by the value of the global mean heat flux into the ocean. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed high correlation on interannual timescales between the global mean tropospheric temperature and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. The results emphasize the importance of correctly modeling the dynamical processes in the ocean and atmosphere that help determine the sea surface temperature in the equatorial eastern Pacific, in addition to the thermodynamical processes, in projecting global warming. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.sciencedirect.comsciencearticlepiiS0301421502000484 Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa...

  6. The Energy Department Prepares for Tropical Storm Karen | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy The Energy Department Prepares for Tropical Storm Karen The Energy Department Prepares for Tropical Storm Karen October 4, 2013 - 3:00pm Addthis Marissa Newhall Marissa Newhall Director of Digital Strategy and Communications What does this mean for me? Follow the latest news on Tropical Storm Karen by visiting the FEMA blog. Stay up-to-date on energy delivery impacts by reading twice-daily situation reports from the Energy Department. Visit ready.gov for more information about

  7. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... believe that this may be the result of a change in air-mass origin arriving at the site. ... 2014. "Rapid transport of East Asian pollution to the deep tropics," Atmospheric ...

  8. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  9. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind marine shallow cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-13

    In this study, marine nonprecipitating cumulus topped boundary layers (CTBLs) observed in a tropical and in a trade wind region are contrasted based on their cloud macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative structures. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observational site previously operating at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and data collected during the deployment of ARM Mobile Facility at the island of Graciosa, in the Azores, were used in this study. The tropical marine CTBLs were deeper, had higher surface fluxes and boundary layer radiative cooling, but lower wind speeds compared to their trade wind counterparts. The radiative velocity scale was 50%-70% of the surface convective velocity scale at both locations, highlighting the prominent role played by radiation in maintaining turbulence in marine CTBLs. Despite greater thicknesses, the chord lengths of tropical cumuli were on average lower than those of trade wind cumuli, and as a result of lower cloud cover, the hourly averaged (cloudy and clear) liquid water paths of tropical cumuli were lower than the trade wind cumuli. At both locations ~70% of the cloudy profiles were updrafts, while the average amount of updrafts near cloud base stronger than 1 m s–1 was ~22% in tropical cumuli and ~12% in the trade wind cumuli. The mean in-cloud radar reflectivity within updrafts and mean updraft velocity was higher in tropical cumuli than the trade wind cumuli. Despite stronger vertical velocities and a higher number of strong updrafts, due to lower cloud fraction, the updraft mass flux was lower in the tropical cumuli compared to the trade wind cumuli. The observations suggest that the tropical and trade wind marine cumulus clouds differ significantly in their macrophysical and dynamical structures

  10. Differences between nonprecipitating tropical and trade wind marine shallow cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghate, Virendra P.; Miller, Mark A.; Zhu, Ping

    2015-11-13

    In this study, marine nonprecipitating cumulus topped boundary layers (CTBLs) observed in a tropical and in a trade wind region are contrasted based on their cloud macrophysical, dynamical, and radiative structures. Data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) observational site previously operating at Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, and data collected during the deployment of ARM Mobile Facility at the island of Graciosa, in the Azores, were used in this study. The tropical marine CTBLs were deeper, had higher surface fluxes and boundary layer radiative cooling, but lower wind speeds compared to their trade wind counterparts. The radiative velocity scalemore » was 50%-70% of the surface convective velocity scale at both locations, highlighting the prominent role played by radiation in maintaining turbulence in marine CTBLs. Despite greater thicknesses, the chord lengths of tropical cumuli were on average lower than those of trade wind cumuli, and as a result of lower cloud cover, the hourly averaged (cloudy and clear) liquid water paths of tropical cumuli were lower than the trade wind cumuli. At both locations ~70% of the cloudy profiles were updrafts, while the average amount of updrafts near cloud base stronger than 1 m s–1 was ~22% in tropical cumuli and ~12% in the trade wind cumuli. The mean in-cloud radar reflectivity within updrafts and mean updraft velocity was higher in tropical cumuli than the trade wind cumuli. Despite stronger vertical velocities and a higher number of strong updrafts, due to lower cloud fraction, the updraft mass flux was lower in the tropical cumuli compared to the trade wind cumuli. The observations suggest that the tropical and trade wind marine cumulus clouds differ significantly in their macrophysical and dynamical structures« less

  11. Lagrangian Diagnostics of Tropical Cirrus over TWP CART Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagrangian Diagnostics of Tropical Cirrus over TWP CART Sites Horvath, Akos University of Miami Soden, Brian UM/RSMAS Category: Cloud Properties Cirrus clouds associated with tropical deep convection play an important role in regulating Earth's climate by influencing the radiative and moisture budgets of the upper troposphere. In this study, we sought to better understand the evolution of such clouds using geostationary satellite observations coupled with ground-based radar and lidar

  12. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics M. P. Jensen and A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies Columbia University New York, New York Introduction Populations of tropical convective clouds are mainly comprised of three types: shallow trade cumulus, mid-level cumulus congestus and deep convective clouds (Johnson et al. 1999). Each of these cloud types has different impacts on the local radiation and water budgets.

  13. ARM - PI Product - Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsTropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al.,

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment General Description The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) was a collaborative effort led by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Beginning January 21 and ending February 14, 2006, the experiment was conducted in the region near the ARM Climate Research Facility in Darwin, Northern Australia. This permanent facility is fully equipped

  15. Patterns of Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Patterns of Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Convection is ubiquitous throughout the maritime continent region. However, the frequency of convec- tion is not uniform. While much of this region does not experience seasons to the same degree as one finds in mid-latitudes, the annual cycle of the sun's passage does have a large impact on convection throughout the maritime continent and the tropical

  16. Energy-related pollution of semi-tropical and tropical nearshore ecosystems. Annual report, 1981-1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorhaug, A.; Marcus, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The major components of the nearshore marine ecosystems in the subtropics and tropics (seagrasses, mangroves, and corals) are examined and compound sublethal and lethal effects from extremes in some energy-related effects (temperature, salinity and light) are discussed.

  17. Global Threat Reduction Initiative Africa and Middle East Project Plan 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamison, Jeremy D.

    2012-02-01

    GTRI Africa and Middle East Project Plan submitted for school project to American Graduate University.

  18. eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, C.E.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Barry, B.; Chukwuma; Cottrell, R.L.; Kalim, U.; Mebrahtu, A.; Petitdidier, M.; Rabiu, B.; Reeves, C.; /Earthworks bv, Delft

    2010-06-16

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide - either as a direct policy

  19. eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, C. E.

    2010-05-25

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffer some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide either as a direct policy objective

  20. File:NREL-africa-dir.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Africa - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation (PDF) Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  1. File:NREL-africa-tilt.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    tilt.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Africa - Annual Flat Plate Tilted at Latitude (PDF) Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution...

  2. Solar Energy for Africa SEFA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Involved in the sales of solar and wind products, design installation and maintenance. References: Solar Energy for Africa (SEFA)1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  3. South Africa Long Term Mitigation Scenarios | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of each option. How, then, is South Africa to grow and develop in order to reduce poverty, while at the same time retooling its economy in order to reduce its greenhouse gas...

  4. Viridis Africa 2013 - investment in cleantech | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Viridis Africa 2013 - investment in cleantech Home > Groups > Clean and Renewable Energy SuzaAdam's picture Submitted by SuzaAdam(10) Member 3 March, 2013 - 10:32 On the 15th &...

  5. South Africa-REEEP EERE Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    database1 REEEP EERE Activities in South Africa Commercialisation of Large scale Solar Water Heating Systems - To establish a facility for Solar Water Heating (SWH) to scale-up...

  6. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations: TROPICAL CHANNEL REFINEMENT IN MPAS-A

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-01

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  7. Tropical cyclone motion and recurvature in TCM-90. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Rawinsonde and satellite data collected during the Tropical Cyclone Motion (TCM90) experiment, which was conducted during the summer of 1990 in the Western North pacific, is used to examine tropical cyclone steering motion and recurvature. TCM-90 composite results are compared with those found in a composite study using twenty-one years (1957-77) of Western North Pacific rawinsonde data during the same August-September period and also for all months during this same 21-year period. Both data sets indicate that the composite deep-layer-mean (850-300 mb) winds 5-7 deg from the cyclone center provide an important component of the steering flow for tropical cyclones. However, despite the rawinsonde data enhancements of the TCM-90 experiment, data limitations prevented an accurate observation of steering flow conditions at individual time periods or for the average of only 5-10 time periods when composited together.

  8. Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical forests Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical forests An expansive new project called Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Tropics aims to bring the future of tropical forests into much clearer focus May 1, 2015 Overhead view of Amazon forest, at risk

  9. Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests Climate change's effect on tropical forests Multi-institutional project to study climate change's effect on tropical forests An expansive new project called Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments-Tropics aims to bring the future of tropical forests into much clearer focus April 1, 2015 Overhead view of Amazon forest, at risk from a warming climate. Photo credit: Hugo Glendinning Overhead view of Amazon forest, at risk from a warming climate. Photo credit: Hugo Glendinning Contact Los

  10. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  11. Sustainable waste management in Africa through CDM projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a compendium on GHG reductions via improved waste strategies in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note provides a strategic framework for Local Authorities in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assists LAs to select Zero Waste scenarios and achieve sustained GHG reduction. - Abstract: Only few Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects (traditionally focussed on landfill gas combustion) have been registered in Africa if compared to similar developing countries. The waste hierarchy adopted by many African countries clearly shows that waste recycling and composting projects are generally the most sustainable. This paper undertakes a sustainability assessment for practical waste treatment and disposal scenarios for Africa and makes recommendations for consideration. The appraisal in this paper demonstrates that mechanical biological treatment of waste becomes more financially attractive if established through the CDM process. Waste will continue to be dumped in Africa with increasing greenhouse gas emissions produced, unless industrialised countries (Annex 1) fund carbon emission reduction schemes through a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol. Such a replacement should calculate all of the direct and indirect carbon emission savings and seek to promote public-private partnerships through a concerted support of the informal sector.

  12. U.S. and South Africa Hold Bilateral Discussion on Building a...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    South Africa Hold Bilateral Discussion on Building a More Sustainable Energy Future U.S. and South Africa Hold Bilateral Discussion on Building a More Sustainable Energy Future March ...

  13. The ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, W.E.; Barnes, F.J.; Ackerman, T.P.; Mather, J.H.

    1998-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific, and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean. This paper describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  14. A solar box cooker for mass production in East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, P.A.; Wilcke, W.F.

    1992-12-31

    A solar box cooker produced in Tanzania, East Africa with indigenous materials is described. When compared to a commercially produced glass and cardboard one, it was found to perform as well. Heat transfer through each major component of the cooker is presented. The smallest losses were through the walls of the box. The greatest losses were observed in the cover system.

  15. Deploying American-Made Clean Energy Technologies in South Africa

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works with American and international organizations to break down barriers to widely deploying U.S.-made clean energy technologies in countries throughout the world. Learn more about an Energy Department-supported project involving reflective “cool roof” surfaces, solar water heaters, and other technologies that are helping South Africa reduce energy use and carbon emissions.

  16. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  17. FACT SHEET U.S. Department of Energy Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Western Pacific The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility established its second research facility, the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) field measurement site, in 1996. This site consists of three research facilities: Manus (established in 1996), Nauru (1998), and Darwin (2002). The data collected at these sites help scientists better understand the role of the tropics in modulating or controlling significant aspects of the global climate and improve models

  18. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  19. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 6, 2004 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-09-06

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  20. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 6, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-09-06

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  1. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  2. Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem Processes Authors: Dubey, Manvendra Krishna 1 ; Parker, Harrison Alexander 1 ; Myers, Katherine ...

  3. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 6, 2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-06

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  4. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  5. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  6. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1987-10-01

    Licensed oil acreage in the 6 North Africa countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia) totaled 1,500,000 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1986, down 290,000 km/sup 2/ from 1985. About 50% of the relinquishments were in Libya. Most oil and gas discoveries were made in Egypt (16 oil and 2 gas). Several oil finds were reported in onshore Libya, and 1 was reported in Algeria in the southeastern Sahara. According to available statistics, development drilling decreased from 1985 levels, except in Tunisia. A 6.3% decline in oil production took place in 1986, falling below the 3 million bbl level (2,912,000 b/d). Only sparse data are released on the gas output in North Africa. 6 figures, 27 tables.

  7. ARM - Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links TWP-ICE Home Tropical Western Pacific Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Experiment Data Sets Weather Summary (pdf, 6M) New York Workshop Presentations Experiment Planning TWP-ICE Proposal Abstract Detailed Experiment Description Science Plan (pdf, 1M) Operations Plan (pdf, 321K) Maps Contact Info Related Links Daily Report Report Archives Press Media Coverage TWP-ICE Fact Sheet (pdf, 211K) Press Releases TWP-ICE Images ARM flickr site <="" li=""

  8. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  9. A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a number of sources at the tropical ARM sites at Manus and Nauru. It spans the years of 1999 and 2000. The data set contains information on downward surface radiation; surface meteorology, including precipitation; atmospheric water vapor and cloud liquid water content; hydrometeor cover as a function of height; and cloud cover, cloud optical thickness and cloud top pressure information provided by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP).

  10. Interaction of clouds, radiation, and the tropical warm pool sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, N.; Zhang, G.J.; Barnett, T.P.; Ramanathan, V.

    1996-04-01

    The primary focus of this study is the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). In this study, we combine in-situ observations Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere [TOGA]-Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment [COARE] and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment [CEPEX] with satellite cloud data.

  11. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  12. Autecology of Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in tropical waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, S.; Lugo, T.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    Water and shellfish samples collected from estuaries, mangroves, and beaches along the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. An array of water quality parameters were also measured simultaneous with bacteria sampling. Both species of vibrio were associated with estuary and mangrove locations, and neither was isolated from sandy beaches. Densities of V. vulnificus were negatively correlated with salinity, 10--15 ppt being optimal. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from sites with salinities between 20 and 35 ppt, the highest densities occurring at 20 ppt. Densities of Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus for a tropical estuary surpassed those reported for temperate estuaries by several orders of magnitude. Both densities of total Vibrio spp. and V. parahaemolyticus in the water were directly related to densities of fecal coliforms, unlike V. vulnificus. The incidence of ONPG(+) strains among sucrose({minus}) Vibrio spp. served as an indicator of the frequency of V. vulnificus in this group. More than 63% of the V. vulnificus isolated were pathogenic. V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus occupy clearly separate niches within the tropical estuarine-marine ecosystem.

  13. South Africa-Integrating Sub-national Actors into National Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Actors into National Mitigation Strategies Through Vertically Integrated NAMAs (V-NAMAs) Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Integrating Sub-national Actors...

  14. Energy Secretary Moniz to Deliver Keynote Remarks at Powering Africa Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz will deliver keynote remarks at the Powering Africa Summit in Washington, D.C.

  15. Ministers Meet in Addis Ababa for U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations Kamran Khan, and U.S. Africa Development Foundation Vice-Chairman of the Board John Agwunobi, and White House National Security Council Senior Director Gayle Smith. ...

  16. Product Quality Assurance for Off-Grid Lighting in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    World Bank; Mills, Evan; Mills, Evan

    2008-07-13

    Although the emergence of markets for high efficiency off-grid lighting technologies holds promise, realizing the potential of this opportunity on a long-term, sustainable basis requires careful attention to issues of product quality, consumer protection, and the potential for significant 'market spoiling', in anticipation of increases of sales of low cost, low performance off-grid lighting products. The goal of the Lighting Africa quality assurance workshop was to articulate strategies to mitigate the dangers of market spoiling and to explore ways to protect consumers from misleading advertising for sales of inferior, off-grid lighting products in the context of Lighting Africa's overarching objective to support the industry in developing a robust off-grid lighting market in Africa. The workshop resulted in the identification of two strategic approaches for meeting Lighting Africa quality assurance programmatic needs. The first strategy is intended to meet a short-term programmatic need for quality associated with requests for lighting products by bulk procurement agents, such as in a World Bank-financed project. The development of procurement specifications and test procedures that could be used in a quality/usability screening method in order to provide guidance for forthcoming large volume purchases emerged as the best solution to meet this need. Such approaches are used in World Bank-financed solar home systems (SHSs) projects in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China, among others. However, unlike the SHSs which have multiple balance-of-system (BOS) components warranting the need for an array of specifications for individual components, stand alone lighting systems require specifications that are amenable to individual light points. To test this approach, Lighting Africa elected to use the technical specifications issued by the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program for solar lanterns that use CFL bulbs (PVRS11A) as the basis of qualifying such products. A contract

  17. Management of Philippine tropical forests: Implications to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasco, R.D.

    1997-12-31

    The first part of the paper presents the massive changes in tropical land management in the Philippines as a result of a {open_quotes}paradigm shift{close_quotes} in forestry. The second part of the paper analyzes the impacts of the above management strategies on global warming, in general, preserved forests are neither sinks not sources of greenhouse gasses (GHG). Reforestation activities are primarily net sinks of carbon specially the use of fast growing reforestation species. Estimates are given for the carbon-sequestering ability of some commonly used species. The last part of the paper policy recommendations and possible courses of action by the government to maximize the role of forest lands in the mitigation of global warming. Private sector initiatives are also explored.

  18. Whistling in the dark - inside South Africa's power crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, S.

    2008-11-15

    State-owned Eskom has a near-monopoly on power generation in South Africa. Though one might think government control would make the business of managing power supplies easier, the story of Eskom's recent troubles shows that state ownership, in and of itself, is neither the problem nor the solution. More important than ownership structure are policy and planning decisions that take the long view. Eskom's cautionary tale should remind those involved in the power industry anywhere in the world that, to vary a disclosure from the financial sector that too few have paid attention to, past performance is not a guarantee of future success. 8 figs.

  19. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier

  20. Evaluation of Tropical Channel Refinement using MPAS-A Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po-Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configuration using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. The relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in earlier studies that

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics - CAST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsCo-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics - CAST Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics - CAST 2014.01.01 - 2014.02.28 Lead Scientist : Geraint Vaughan For data sets, see below. Abstract CAST (Co-ordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics) was a research project funded by the UK's Natural Environment

  2. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  3. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 8, 2004 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-08

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  4. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 8, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-08

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances n the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  5. Minimizing the environmental impact of oil and gas developments in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, A.B.; Gordon, D.L.; Guerin-McManus, M.

    1997-07-01

    The next big frontier for oil and gas development will be the humid tropics, where more than 80% of exploration and production is expected to take place in the next decade. The tropical areas targeted by these operations not only hold large stores of oil and gas, but are also frequently undeveloped and remote, located in or near important and sensitive ecosystems. Within the tropics the most heavily targeted area is the Latin American Neotropics (New World tropics), which include South America, Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. A regionwide move toward privatization of state oil industries, growing liberalization of markets, and contractual incentives for foreign investment make this region a prime target for oil exploration and development. Proper evaluation of available technologies and planning will help determine how and where mitigation efforts should be directed to prevent and control environmental impacts.

  6. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B.

    1996-04-01

    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  7. STOIC: An Assessment of Coupled Model Climatology and Variability in Tropical Ocean Regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, M.K.; Sperber, K.R.; Huddleston, M

    2000-08-30

    The tropics are regions of strong ocean-atmosphere interaction on seasonal and interannual timescales, so a good representation of observed tropical behavior is a desirable objective for coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models (CGCMs). To broaden and update previous assessments (Mechoso et al. 1995, Neelin et al. 1992), two complementary projects were initiated by the CLIVAR Working Group on Seasonal to Interannual Prediction (WGSIP): the El Nino Simulation Intercomparison Project (ENSIP, by Mojib Latif) and STOIC (Study of Tropical Oceans In Coupled models). The aim was to compare models against observations to identify common weaknesses and strengths. Results from ENSIP concentrating on the equatorial Pacific have been described by Latif et al. (2000), hereafter ENSIP2000. A detailed report on STOIC is available via anonymous ftp at email.meto.gov.uk/pub/cr/ ''stoic'' and is summarized in Davey et al. (2000). The STOIC analyses extend beyond the equatorial Pacific, to examine behavior in all three tropical ocean regions.

  8. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 7, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-07

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Tropical Storm Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, storm track, and county outage data are provided.

  9. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  10. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  11. DOE national user facility in the Tropical Western Pacific.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, L. A.; Porch, W. M.; Sisterson, Doug L.; Mather, J. H.; Long, C. N.

    2004-01-01

    In July 2003, the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research designated the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement sites as National User Facilities and renamed them the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF). As a result, the former ARM Cloud and Radiation Test bed (CART) sites are now collectively called Climate Research Sites. Part of the conditions associated with funding for ACRF is that the ARM program must attract new users. Located in Australia, and the island nations of Papua New Guinea and the Republic of Nauru, the three Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) research facilities offer unique scientific opportunities to prospective users. Although the locations of the facilities pose significant logistical challenges, particularly the two island sites, the TWP Office addresses these issues so that prospective users can focus on their research. The TWP Office oversees the operation of these sites by collaborating with the governments of Australia, Papua New Guinea, and the Republic of Nauru. Local observers are trained to effectively operate and maintain the facilities, and the state-side TWP Office offers supporting resources including daily instrument monitoring; equipment shipping, inventory tracking; customs coordination; and a readily deployable technical maintenance team at relatively minimal cost to prospective users. Satellite communications allow continuous, near-real time data from all three stations. The TWP Office also works diligently to maintain good local government and community relations with active outreach programs. This paper presents the TWP research facilities as the valuable resources they are to the scientific community.

  12. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  13. Holocene Paleohydrology of the tropical andes from lake records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, M. B., LLNL

    1997-03-03

    Two century-scale time series in northern Bolivia constrain the ages of abrupt changes in the physical, geochemical, and biological characteristics of sediments obtained from lakes that formed during deglaciation from the late Pleistocene glacial maximum. The watersheds of Laguna Viscachani (16{degrees}12`S, 68{degrees}07`W, 3780m) and Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota (16{degrees}13`S, 68{degrees}21`W, 4300m), located on the eastern and western slopes of the Cordillera Real, respectively, contain small cirque glaciers. A high-resolution chronology of the lake sediments is provided by 23 AMS {sup 14}C dates of discrete macro-fossils. Late Pleistocene glaciers retreated rapidly, exposing the lake basins between 10,700 and 9700 {sup 14}C yr B.P. The sedimentary facies suggest that after 8900 {sup 14}C B.P. glaciers were absent from the watersheds and remained so during the middle Holocene. An increase in the precipitation-evaporation balance is indicated above unconformities dated to about 2300 {sup 14}C yr B.P. in both Lago Taypi Chaka Kkota and Laguna Viscachani. An abrupt increase in sediment accumulation rated after 1400 {sup 14}C yr B.P. signals the onset of Neoglaciation. A possible link exists between the observed millennial-scale shifts in the regional precipitation- evaporation balance and seasonal shifts in tropical insolation.

  14. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1986-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,839,817 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1985, a decrease of 3% from the 1,896,446 km/sup 2/ held at the end of 1984. This decrease mainly is due to significant relinquishments made in Algeria, Egypt, and Tunisia. Morocco, however, had an increase of 18,087 km/sup 2/. Oil discoveries were reported in Algeria (possibly 5), Libya (at least 2), and Egypt (16). Only 1 gas find was made (in Morocco). According to sparse information, development drilling may have decreased markedly during 1985. Oil and condensate production increased by 3.1% to approximately 3,054,000 b/d compared to about 2,963,400 b/d in 1984. No statistics are currently available on gas production in North Africa. 8 figures, 27 tables.

  15. Latest Jurassic-early Cretaceous regressive facies, northeast Africa craton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Houten, F.B.

    1980-06-01

    Nonmarine to paralic detrital deposits accumulated in six large basins between Algeria and the Arabo-Nubian shield during major regression in latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. The Ghadames Sirte (north-central Libya), and Northern (Egypt) basins lay along the cratonic margin of northeastern Africa. The Murzuk, Kufra, and Southern (Egypt) basins lay in the south within the craton. Data for reconstructing distribution, facies, and thickness of relevant sequences are adequate for the three northern basins only. High detrital influx near the end of Jurassic time and in mid-Cretaceous time produced regressive nubian facies composed largely of low-sinuosity stream and fahdelta deposits. In the west and southwest the Ghadames, Murzuk, and Kufra basins were filled with a few hundred meters of detritus after long-continued earlier Mesozoic aggradation. In northern Egypt the regressive sequence succeeded earlier Mesozoic marine sedimentation; in the Sirte and Southern basins correlative deposits accumulated on Precambrian and Variscan terranes after earlier Mesozoic uplift and erosion. Waning of detrital influx into southern Tunisia and adjacent Libya in the west and into Israel in the east initiated an Albian to early Cenomanian transgression of Tethys. By late Cenomanian time it had flooded the entire cratonic margin, and spread southward into the Murzuk and Southern basins, as well as onto the Arabo-Nubian shield. Latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous transgressions across northeastern Africa recorded in these sequences may reflect worldwide eustatic sea-level rises. In contrast, renewed large supply of detritus during each regression and a comparable subsidence history of intracratonic and marginal basins imply regional tectonic control. 6 figures.

  16. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy Secretary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ernest Moniz and Ethiopian Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy Alemayehu Tegenu | Department of Energy -Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz and Ethiopian Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy Alemayehu Tegenu U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz and Ethiopian Minister of Water, Irrigation and Energy Alemayehu Tegenu June 6, 2014 - 11:15am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 The U.S.-Africa

  17. Evaluation of Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties and Dynamical Processes Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground Based Mea...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cirrus Cloud Properties and Dynamical Processes Derived from ECMWF Model Output and Ground-Based Measurements Over Nauru Island J. M. Comstock and J. H. Mather Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington C. Jakob Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, Australia Introduction Identifying the mechanisms responsible for the formation of cirrus clouds is important in understanding the role of cirrus in the tropical atmosphere. Thin cirrus clouds near the tropical

  18. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program. The role of tropical forests on the world carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A. E.; Liegel, B.

    1980-08-01

    Tropical forests constitute about half of the world's forest and are characterized by rapid rates of organic matter turnover and high storages of organic matter. Tropical forests are considered to be one of the most significant terrestrial elements in the equation that balances the carbon cycle of the world. As discussed in the paper by Tosi, tropical and subtropical latitudes are more complex in terms of climate and vegetation composition than temperate and boreal latitudes. The implications of the complexity of the tropics and the disregard of this complexity by many scientists is made evident in the paper by Brown and Lugo which shows that biomass estimates for tropical ecosystems have been overestimated by at least 100%. The paper by Brown shows that that rates of succession in the tropics are extremely rapid in terms of the ability of moist and wet forests to accumulate organic matter. Yet, in arid tropical Life Zones succession is slow. This leads to the idea that the question of whether tropical forests are sinks or sources of carbon must be analyzed in relation to Life Zones and to intensities of human activity in these Zones. The paper by Lugo presents conceptual models to illustrate this point and the paper by Tosi shows how land uses in the tropics also correspond to Life Zone characteristics. The ultimate significance of land use to the question of the carbon balance in a large region is addressed in the paper by Detwiler and Hall.

  19. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... and consumption of energy services if Africa is meant to be the next global growth pole, and to this end, he ... governments view electricity as a social benefit and ...

  20. U.S. and South Africa Hold Bilateral Discussion on Building a More Sustainable Energy Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pretoria — U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman and South African Minister of Energy Ben Martins met yesterday in Pretoria to follow up on the U.S.-South Africa Bilateral Energy Dialogue...

  1. United States and South Africa Sign Agreement on Cooperation in Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research and Development | Department of Energy South Africa Sign Agreement on Cooperation in Nuclear Energy Research and Development United States and South Africa Sign Agreement on Cooperation in Nuclear Energy Research and Development September 16, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Vienna, Austria - U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu and South African Minister of Energy Dipuo Peters signed a bilateral Agreement on Cooperation in Research and Development of Nuclear Energy on September 14 in

  2. "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physics, Rutgers University | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 7, 2012, 9:30am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium "OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS", Prof. Gyan Bhanot, Department of Molecular Biology, Biochemistry and Physics, Rutgers University OUT OF AFRICA: GENETICS AND HUMAN MIGRATIONS PPPL Entrance Procedures Visitor Information, Directions, Security at PPPL As a federal facility, the Princeton Plasma Physics

  3. Evaluation of tropical channel refinement using MPAS-A aquaplanet simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martini, Matus N.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; O'Brien, Travis A.; Ma, Po -Lun

    2015-09-13

    Climate models with variable-resolution grids offer a computationally less expensive way to provide more detailed information at regional scales and increased accuracy for processes that cannot be resolved by a coarser grid. This study uses the Model for Prediction Across Scales–Atmosphere (MPAS22A), consisting of a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and a subset of Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model atmospheric physics that have been modified to include the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) cloud fraction parameterization, to investigate the potential benefits of using increased resolution in an tropical channel. The simulations are performed with an idealized aquaplanet configurationmore » using two quasi-uniform grids, with 30 km and 240 km grid spacing, and two variable-resolution grids spanning the same grid spacing range; one with a narrow (20°S–20°N) and one with a wide (30°S–30°N) tropical channel refinement. Results show that increasing resolution in the tropics impacts both the tropical and extratropical circulation. Compared to the quasi-uniform coarse grid, the narrow-channel simulation exhibits stronger updrafts in the Ferrel cell as well as in the middle of the upward branch of the Hadley cell. The wider tropical channel has a closer correspondence to the 30 km quasi-uniform simulation. However, the total atmospheric poleward energy transports are similar in all simulations. The largest differences are in the low-level cloudiness. The refined channel simulations show improved tropical and extratropical precipitation relative to the global 240 km simulation when compared to the global 30 km simulation. All simulations have a single ITCZ. Furthermore, the relatively small differences in mean global and tropical precipitation rates among the simulations are a promising result, and the evidence points to the tropical channel being an effective method for avoiding the extraneous numerical artifacts seen in

  4. Land cover change and remote sensing: Examples of quantifying spatiotemporal dynamics in tropical forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krummel, J.R.; Su, Haiping; Fox, J.; Yarnasan, S.; Ekasingh, M.

    1995-06-01

    Research on human impacts or natural processes that operate over broad geographic areas must explicitly address issues of scale and spatial heterogeneity. While the tropical forests of Southeast Asia and Mexico have been occupied and used to meet human needs for thousands of years, traditional forest management systems are currently being transformed by rapid and far-reaching demographic, political, economic, and environmental changes. The dynamics of population growth, migration into the remaining frontiers, and responses to national and international market forces result in a demand for land to produce food and fiber. These results illustrate some of the mechanisms that drive current land use changes, especially in the tropical forest frontiers. By linking the outcome of individual land use decisions and measures of landscape fragmentation and change, the aggregated results shows the hierarchy of temporal and spatial events that in summation result in global changes to the most complex and sensitive biome -- tropical forests. By quantifying the spatial and temporal patterns of tropical forest change, researchers can assist policy makers by showing how landscape systems in these tropical forests are controlled by physical, biological, social, and economic parameters.

  5. LLNL Middle East and North Africa research database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge, D; Hauk, T; Moore, R M; O'Boyle, J; Ruppert, S

    1999-07-23

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Research and Development (CTBT R and D) program has made significant progress populating a comprehensive seismic research database (RDB) for seismic events and derived research products in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Our original ME/NA study region has enlarged and is now defined as an area including the Middle East, Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, the Former Soviet Union and the Scandinavian/Arctic region. The LLNL RDB will facilitate calibration of all International Monitoring System (IMS) stations (primary and auxiliary) or their surrogates (if not yet installed) as well as a variety of gamma stations. The RDB provides not only a coherent framework in which to store and organize large volumes of collected seismic waveforms and associated event parameter information, but also provides an efficient data processing/research environment for deriving location and discrimination correction sur faces and capabilities. In order to accommodate large volumes of data from many sources with diverse formats the RDB is designed to be flexible and extensible in addition to maintaining detailed quality control information and associated metadata. Station parameters, instrument responses, phase pick information, and event bulletins were compiled and made available through the RDB. For seismic events in the MENA region occurring between 1976 and 1999, we have systematically assembled, quality checked and organized event waveforms; continuous seismic data from 1990 to present are archived for many stations. Currently, over 11,400 seismic events and 1.2 million waveforms are maintained in the RDB and made readily available to researchers. In addition to open sources of seismic data, we have established collaborative relationships with several ME/NA countries that have yielded additional ground truth and broadband waveform data essential for regional calibration and capability

  6. Tropical Ocean Climate Study (TOCS) and Japan-United States Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) on the R/V KAIYO, 25 Jan to 2 March 1997, to the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean BNL component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, R.M.; Smith, S.

    1997-04-11

    The Japanese U.S. Tropical Ocean Study (JUSTOS) cruise on the R/V KAIYO in the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean was a collaborative effort with participants from the Japanese Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and Brookhaven National Laboratory BNL. This report is a summary of the instruments, measurements, and initial analysis of the BNL portion of the cruise only. It includes a brief description of the instrument system, calibration procedures, problems and resolutions, data collection, processing and data file descriptions. This is a working document, which is meant to provide both a good description of the work and as much information as possible in one place for future analysis.

  7. ARM - PI Product - A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsA Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : A Model Evaluation Data Set for the Tropical ARM Sites This data set has been derived from various ARM and external data sources with the main aim of providing modelers easy access to quality controlled data for model evaluation. The data set contains highly aggregated (in time) data from a

  8. Cirrus cloud-temperature interactions over a tropical station, Gadanki from lidar and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S, Motty G Satyanarayana, M. Krishnakumar, V. Dhaman, Reji k.

    2014-10-15

    The cirrus clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the earth's atmospheric system and are important to characterize their vertical structure and optical properties. LIDAR measurements are obtained from the tropical station Gadanki (13.5{sup 0} N, 79.2{sup 0} E), India, and meteorological indicators derived from Radiosonde data. Most of the cirrus clouds are observed near to the tropopause, which substantiates the strength of the tropical convective processes. The height and temperature dependencies of cloud height, optical depth, and depolarization ratio were investigated. Cirrus observations made using CALIPSO satellite are compared with lidar data for systematic statistical study of cirrus climatology.

  9. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.Ch.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984, an increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North Africa ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was up 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries.

  10. Radiative Energy Balance in the Tropical Tropopause Layer: An Investigation with ARM Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Qiang

    2013-10-22

    The overall objective of this project is to use the ARM observational data to improve our understanding of cloud-radiation effects in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which is crucial for improving the simulation and prediction of climate and climate change. In last four and half years, we have been concentrating on (i) performing the comparison of the ice cloud properties from the ground-based lidar observations with those from the satellite CALIPSO lidar observations at the ARM TWP sites; (ii) analyzing TTL cirrus and its relation to the tropical planetary waves; (iii) calculating the radiative heating rates using retrieved cloud microphysical properties by combining the ground-based lidar and radar observations at the ARM TWP sites and comparing the results with those using cloud properties retrieved from CloudSat and CALIPSO observations; (iv) comparing macrophysical properties of tropical cirrus clouds from the CALIPSO satellite and from ground-based micropulse and Raman lidar observations; (v) improving the parameterization of optical properties of cirrus clouds with small effective ice particle sizes; and (vi) evaluating the enhanced maximum warming in the tropical upper troposphere simulated by the GCMs. The main results of our research efforts are reported in the 12 referred journal publications that acknowledge the DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER64769.

  11. Linking the uncertainty of low frequency variability in tropical forcing in regional climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forest, Chris E.; Barsugli, Joseph J.; Li, Wei

    2015-02-20

    The project utilizes multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to examine the regional climate sensitivity to tropical sea surface temperature forcing through a series of ensemble experiments. The overall goal for this work is to use the global teleconnection operator (GTO) as a metric to assess the impact of model structural differences on the uncertainties in regional climate variability.

  12. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandham, Luke A. Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-05-15

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa.

  13. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2010-11-15

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  14. Hydrologic responses of a tropical catchment in Thailand and two temperate/cold catchments in north America to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, T.Y.; Ahmad, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The hydrologic impact or sensitivities of three medium-sized catchments to global warming, one of tropical climate in Northern Thailand and two of temperate climate in the Sacramento and San Joaquin River basins of California, were investigated.

  15. A Reassessment of the Integrated Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Surface Chlorophyll in the Western Subtropical North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, Gregory R.; Balaguru, Karthik; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-02-28

    The impact of tropical cyclones on surface chlorophyll concentration is assessed in the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean during 19982011. Previous studies in this area focused on individual cyclones and gave mixed results regarding the importance of tropical cyclone-induced mixing for changes in surface chlorophyll. Using a more integrated and comprehensive approach that includes quantification of cyclone-induced changes in mixed layer depth, here it is shown that accumulated cyclone energy explains 22% of the interannual variability in seasonally-averaged (JuneNovember) chlorophyll concentration in the western subtropical North Atlantic, after removing the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The variance explained by tropical cyclones is thus about 70% of that explained by the NAO, which has well-known impacts in this region. It is therefore likely that tropical cyclones contribute significantly to interannual variations of primary productivity in the western subtropical North Atlantic during the hurricane season.

  16. Increased use of Renewable Energy in Africa through a Program of Energy Enterprise Development and Investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christine Eibs Singer

    2005-03-11

    To provide training in enterprise development and technical applications, local partner capacity building, individualized enterprise development services and seed capital investment to catalyze the creation of sustainable renewable energy enterprises that deliver clean energy services to households and businesses in South Africa, Ethiopia and Tanzania.

  17. Tropical Western Pacific site science mission plan. Semiannual project report, January--June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T.; Mather, J.; Clements, W.; Barnes, F.

    1998-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was created in 1989 as part of the US Global Change Research Program to improve the treatment of atmospheric radiative and cloud processes in computer models used to predict climate change. The overall goal of the ARM program is to develop and test parameterizations of important atmospheric processes, particularly cloud and radiative processes, for use in atmospheric models. This goal is being achieved through a combination of field measurements and modeling studies. Three primary locales were chosen for extensive field measurement facilities. These are the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States, the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), and the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO). This Site Science Mission Plan [RPT(TWP)-010.000] describes the ARM program in the Tropical Western Pacific locale.

  18. Observations of tropical clouds from the upgraded MMCR at Darwin and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    comparisons with C-Pol and satellite observations Observations of tropical clouds from the upgraded MMCR at Darwin and comparisons with C-Pol and satellite observations Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National Laboratory Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory May, Peter Bureau or Meteorology Research Centre Category: Instruments The upgrade of the processor for the millimeter cloud radar

  19. Observed Regimes of Mid-Latitude.and Tropical Cirrus Microphysical Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observed Regimes of Mid-Latitude and Tropical Cirrus Microphysical Behavior A. D. Del Genio and A. B. Wolf National Aeronautics Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies New York, New York G. G. Mace University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado Introduction Little is known about the climatological microphysical properties of cirrus clouds. Thus, general circulation model (GCM) cirrus parameterizations often

  20. Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbase Cloud Products and Associated Heating Rates in the Tropical Western Pacific J. H. Mather and S. A. McFarlane Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The microbase value added product (Miller et al. 2003) provides a standardized framework for calculating and storing continuous retrievals of cloud microphysical properties including liquid water content (LWC), ice water content (IWC), and cloud droplet size. Microbase is part of the larger broadband heating

  1. "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones",

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab July 27, 2012, 12:00pm to 1:15pm Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Smagorinsky Seminar Room Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Princeton University Forrestal Campus 201 Forrestal Road Princeton, NJ 08540-6649 "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones", Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) Contact Information Website: Website

  2. Remote Sensing Observations from MTI Satellites and GMS Over Tropical Island of Nauru

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Remote Sensing Laboratory Department of Energy's chief risk officer visits Nevada National Security Site Earlier this month, Associate Deputy Secretary John MacWilliams visited the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) in his role as Chief Risk Officer for the Department of Energy. He reviewed the various ways the NNSS contributes to the department's and NNSA's missions, including radiological

    Remote Sensing Observations from MTI Satellites and GMS Over Tropical Island of Nauru W. M. Porch, P.

  3. Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Courtney

    2012-12-13

    Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

  4. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  5. Long-Term Operation Of Ground-Based Atmospheric Sensing Systems In The Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivey, Mark; Jones, Larry J.; Porch, W. M.; Apple, Monty L.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2004-10-14

    Three semi-autonomous atmospheric sensing systems were installed in the tropical western Pacific region. The first of these Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations (ARCS) began operation in 1996. Each ARCS is configured as a system-of-systems since it comprises an ensemble of independent instrument systems. The ARCS collect, process, and transmit large volumes of cloud, solar and thermal radiation, and meteorological data to support climate studies and climate-modeling improvements as part of the U.S Department of Energys Atmospheric and Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. Data from these tropical ARCS stations have been used for satellite ground-truth data comparisons and validations, including comparisons for MTI and AQUA satellite data. Our experiences with these systems in the tropics led to modifications in their design. An ongoing international logistics effort is required to keep gigabytes per day of quality-assured data flowing to the ARM programs archives. Design criteria, performance, communications methods, and the day-to-day logistics required to support long-term operations of ground-based remote atmospheric sensing systems are discussed. End-to-end data flow from the ARCS systems to the ARM Program archives is discussed.

  6. Deputy Secretary Poneman Statement on Second Meeting of the U.S. – South Africa Bilateral Energy Dialogue‬

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman and South African Minister of Energy Dipuo Peters held the second meeting of the U.S. – South Africa Bilateral Energy Dialogue on January 16, 2012.

  7. Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. Total Africa/Europe

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    peak kilowatts Country/Continent Total Percent of U.S. Total Africa/Europe 53,898 29% Asia/Australia 107,460 59% South/Central America 11,692 6% Canada 4,378 2% Mexico 5,556 3% Total 182,984 100% Table 8. Destination of photovoltaic module export shipments, 2014 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-63B, 'Annual Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report.'

  8. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1982-11-01

    Exploratory activity in central and southern Africa continued to grow during 1981. Geophysical operations reached nearly record levels and the number of wells increased markedly. Oil production suffered from the adverse conditions that existed throughout the world and dropped by a significant amount. New Concession acquisitions occurred in several of the countries in northeast Africa. Elsewhere, the operating companies negotiated new concessions and renewed those that were expiring. In several countries where production has been proven, the operators were assigned exploitation concessions. Seismic crews and marine geophysical vessels were active throughout the countries in this area. A total of 365 party-months of work was done to yield 98,035 km of new lines. A moderate amount of 3-D recording was carried out in connection with field development. Some aeromagnetic work was done, principally in northeast Africa and in Mozambique. Forty-four new fields or pools were discovered by drilling 115 new-field wildcat and exploratory wells. These wells accounted for 1,060,254 ft (323,248 m) of hole. Appraisal and development drilling resulted in 321 wells with a total of 2,533,305 ft (772,349 m) of hole drilled. At year end, 25 exploratory wells were under way or resting, and 49 rigs were active in development drilling. Oil production for the year was 691,995,939 bbl, a decrease of nearly 25% from 1980. Nigeria suffered the greatest drop in production; however, increases were achieved in Cameroon, Congo, and Zaire. The cumulative production from this part of Africa passed the 10 billion bbl mark.

  9. (Collection of data on tropical forest inventories, Rome, Italy, March 20--25, 1989): Foreign trip report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Gillespie, A.

    1989-04-06

    All forestry information in the library of FAO was organized into country ''boxes,'' and all boxes for countries in tropical Asia and tropical America were searched for data on forest inventories. Information on location and extent of inventories and resulting stand and stock tables were obtained for (1) converting to biomass by using methods that were already developed and (2) calculating expansion factors (commercial volume to total biomass). This work was conducted by the University of Illinois (Drs. Sandra Brown, Principal Investigator, and Andrew Gillespie, Research Associate) for the Department of Energy's Energy Systems Program managed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The travelers were successful in obtaining copies of some data for most countries in tropical Asia and tropical America. Most of the inventories for Asia were for only parts of countries, whereas most in America were national in scale. With the information gathered, the travelers will be able to make biomass estimates, geographically referenced, for many forest types representing thousands of hectares in most countries in these two tropical regions.

  10. Modeling tropical Pacific sea surface temperature with satellite-derived solar radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, R.; Blumenthal, M.B.

    1994-12-01

    Two independent datasets for the solar radiation at the surface derived from satellites are compared. The data derived from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is for the net solar radiation at the surface whereas the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data is for the downward flux only and was corrected with a space- and time-varying albedo. The ISCCP net flux is at all times higher than the ERBE flux. The difference can be divided into an offset that decreases with latitude and another component that correlates with high tropical cloud cover. With this latter exception the two datasets provide spatial patterns of solar flux that are very similar. A tropical Pacific Ocean model is forced with these two datasets and observed climatological winds. The upward heat flux is parameterized taking into account separately the longwave radiative, latent, and sensible heat fluxes. Best fit values for the uncertain parameters are found using an optimization procedure that seeks to minimize the difference between model and observed SST by varying the parameters within a reasonable range of uncertainty. The SST field the model produces with the best fit parameters is the best the model can do. If the differences between the model and data are larger than can be accounted for by remaining uncertainties in the heat flux parameterization and forcing data then the ocean model must be held to be at fault. Using this method of analysis, a fundamental model fault is identified. Inadequate treatment of mixed layer/entrainment processes in upwelling regions of the eastern tropical Pacific leads to a large and seasonally varying error in the model SST. Elsewhere the model SST is insufficiently different from observed to be able to identify model errors.

  11. Models of carbon flow in tropical ecosystems with emphasis on their role in the global carbon cycle. Final report, September 15, 1978-September 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.; Lugo, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The role of tropical forests on the carbon balance of the world is studied with four different approaches: (1) to quantify the area of tropical forests and the changes in forest cover; (2) to calculate the storage and production of organic carbon in tropical forests; (3) the modelling of land use changes in tropical countries using computer simulation models; and (4) the synthesis of information from many sources into conceptual schemes using Life Zone and energy use concepts. Results are not yet conclusive but indicate that tropical forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle, and they are likely to be small sources of carbon to the atmosphere. The basis for this statement is: (1) the large area of tropical forests do not appear to be changing as fast as suggested earlier; (2) the storage of carbon in the tropics is about one half as previously suggested; (3) the turnover of carbon in the tropics is very fast with large exports to the ocean via rivers; and (4) models of land use change using data from Bolivia show only a small net addition of carbon to the atmosphere.

  12. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  13. Coupled interactions of organized deep convection over the tropical western pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, X.; Raman, S.

    1996-04-01

    The relationship between sea surface temperature (SST) and deep convection is complex. In general, deep convection occurs more frequently and with more intensity as SSTs become higher. This theory assumes that the atmospheric stability is sufficiently reduced to allow the onset of moist convection. However, the amount and intensity of convection observed tends to decrease with increasing SST because very warm SSTs. A reason for such decrease is the enhancements to surface fluxes of heat and moisture out of the ocean surface because of the vertical overturning associated with deep convection. Early studies used the radiative-convective models of the atmosphere to examine the role of the convective exchange of heat and moisture in maintaining the vertical temperature profile. In this paper we use a Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to simulate a squall line over a tropical ocean global atmosphere/coupled ocean atmosphere response experiment (TOGA/COARE) area and to investigate how the ocean cooling mechanisms associated with organized deep convection act to limit tropical SSTs.

  14. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability of cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).

  15. Interannual variation of the surface temperature of tropical forests from satellite observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Huilin; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Rong; Li, Wenhong; Dickinson, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperatures (LSTs) within tropical forests contribute to climate variations. However, observational data are very limited in such regions. This study used passive microwave remote sensing data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS), providing observations under all weather conditions, to investigate the LST over the Amazon and Congo rainforests. The SSM/I and SSMIS data were collected from 1996 to 2012. The morning and afternoon observations from passive microwave remote sensing facilitate the investigation of the interannual changes of LST anomalies on a diurnal basis. As a result of the variability ofmore » cloud cover and the corresponding reduction of solar radiation, the afternoon LST anomalies tend to vary more than the morning LST anomalies. The dominant spatial and temporal patterns for interseasonal variations of the LST anomalies over the tropical rainforest were analyzed. The impacts of droughts and El Niños on this LST were also investigated. Lastly, the differences between early morning and late afternoon LST anomalies were identified by the remote sensing product, with the morning LST anomalies controlled by humidity (according to comparisons with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data).« less

  16. A coupled theory of tropical climatology: Warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhengyu Liu; Boyin Huang

    1997-07-01

    Based on results from analytic and general circulation models, the authors propose a theory for the coupled warm pool, cold tongue, and Walker circulation system. The intensity of the coupled system is determined by the coupling strength, the local equilibrium time, and latitudinal differential heating. Most importantly, this intensity is strongly regulated in the coupled system, with a saturation level that can be reached at a modest coupling strength. The saturation west-east sea surface temperature difference (and the associated Walker circulation) corresponds to about one-quarter of the latitudinal differential equilibrium temperature. This regulation is caused primarily by the decoupling of the SST gradient from a strong ocean current. The author`s estimate suggests that the present Pacific is near the saturation state. Furthermore, the much weaker Walker circulation system in the Atlantic Ocean is interpreted as being the result of the influence of the adjacent land, which is able to extend into the entire Atlantic to change the zonal distribution of the trade wind. The theory is also applied to understand the tropical climatology in coupled GCM simulations, in the Last Glacial Maximum climate, and in the global warming climate, as well as in the regulation of the tropical sea surface temperature. 41 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Survival and distribution of Vibrio cholerae in a tropical rain forest stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Rosas, N.; Hazen, T.C.

    1988-12-31

    For 12 months Vibrio cholerae and fecal coliforms were monitored along with 9 other water quality parameters at 12 sites in a rain forest watershed in Puerto Rico. Densities of V. cholerae and fecal coliforms were not significantly correlated even though the highest densities of both bacteria were found at a sewage outfall. High densities of V. cholerae were also found at pristine sites high in the watershed. V. cholerae and Escherichia coli were inoculated into membrane diffusion chambers, placed at two sites and monitored for 5 days on two different occasions. Two different direct count methods indicated that the density of E. coli and V. cholerae did not change significantly during the course of either study. Physiological activity, as measured by INT-reduction and relative nucleic acid composition declined for E. coli during the first 12 h then increased and remained variable during the remainder of the study. V. cholerae activity, as measured by relative nucleic acid concentrations, remained high and unchanged for the entire study. INT-reduction in V. cholerae declined initially but regained nearly all of it`s original activity within 48 h. This study suggests that V. cholerae is an indigenous organism in tropical freshwaters and that assays other than fecal coliforms or E. coli must be used for assessing public health risk in tropical waters.

  18. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2012-06-01

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are presented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices. Capsule: "Combining dynamical modeling of high-impact weather using traditional regional climate models with statistical techniques allows for comprehensive sampling of the full distribution, uncertainty estimation, direct assessment of impacts, and increased confidence in future changes."

  19. Modeling High-Impact Weather and Climate: Lessons From a Tropical Cyclone Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Done, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Suzuki-Parker, Asuka

    2013-10-19

    Although the societal impact of a weather event increases with the rarity of the event, our current ability to assess extreme events and their impacts is limited by not only rarity but also by current model fidelity and a lack of understanding of the underlying physical processes. This challenge is driving fresh approaches to assess high-impact weather and climate. Recent lessons learned in modeling high-impact weather and climate are presented using the case of tropical cyclones as an illustrative example. Through examples using the Nested Regional Climate Model to dynamically downscale large-scale climate data the need to treat bias in the driving data is illustrated. Domain size, location, and resolution are also shown to be critical and should be guided by the need to: include relevant regional climate physical processes; resolve key impact parameters; and to accurately simulate the response to changes in external forcing. The notion of sufficient model resolution is introduced together with the added value in combining dynamical and statistical assessments to fill out the parent distribution of high-impact parameters. Finally, through the example of a tropical cyclone damage index, direct impact assessments are resented as powerful tools that distill complex datasets into concise statements on likely impact, and as highly effective communication devices.

  20. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africa?s most successful mobile network operators, will talk about ?Mobile phones and Africa: a success story?. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves industrial R&D; challenges, will discuss ?Citizen Problem Solving?. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are open and free of charge. Participants from outside CERN must register by sending an email to Yasemin.Hauser@cern.ch BEFORE the 23rd october to be able to access CERN. THE LECTURES Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Abstract The introduction of mobile phones into Africa changed the continent, enabling business and the commercial sector, creating directly and indirectly, millions of jobs. It enriched the social lives of many people. Surprisingly, it supported the emerging civil society and advanced the course of democracy Bio Dr Mo Ibrahim is a global expert in mobile communications with a distinguished academic and business career. In 1998, Dr Ibrahim founded Celtel International to build and operate mobile networks in Africa. Celtel became one of Africa?s most successful companies with operations in 15 countries, covering more

  1. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  2. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment TWP-ICE Cloud and rain characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, P.T., Jakob, C., and Mather, J.H.

    2004-05-31

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them.

  3. Land use change and carbon exchange in the tropics. I. Detailed estimates for Costa Rice, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C.A.S.; Detwiler, R.P.; Bogdonoff, P.; Underhill, S.

    1985-01-01

    This group, composed of modelers working in conjunction with tropical ecologists, has produced a simulation model that quantifies the net carbon exchange between tropical vegetation and the atmosphere due to land use change. The model calculates this net exchange by combining estimates of land use change with several estimates of the carbon stored in tropical vegetation and general assumptions about the fate of cleared vegetation. In this report, the authors use estimates of land use and carbon of land use and carbon storage organized into six life zone (sensu Holdridge) categories to calculate the exchange between the atmosphere and the vegetation of four tropical countries. Their analyses of these countries indicate that this life zone approach has several advantages because (a) the carbon content of vegetation varies significantly among life zones, (b) much of the land use change occurs in life zones of only moderate carbon storage, and (c) the fate of cleared vegetation varies among life zones. Their analyses also emphasize the importance of distinguishing between temporary and permanent land use change, as the recovery of vegetation on abandoned areas decreases the net release of carbon due to clearing. They include sensitivity analysis of those factors that they found to be important but are difficult to quantify at present.

  4. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Lim, Young -Kwon; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Reed, Kevin A.; et al

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TCmore » frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.« less

  5. Characteristics of tropical cyclones in high-resolution models in the present climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaevitz, Daniel A.; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Jonas, Jeffrey A.; Kim, Daehyun; Kumar, Arun; Lim, Young -Kwon; Reed, Kevin A.; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming; Henderson, Naomi

    2014-12-05

    The global characteristics of tropical cyclones (TCs) simulated by several climate models are analyzed and compared with observations. The global climate models were forced by the same sea surface temperature (SST) fields in two types of experiments, using climatological SST and interannually varying SST. TC tracks and intensities are derived from each model's output fields by the group who ran that model, using their own preferred tracking scheme; the study considers the combination of model and tracking scheme as a single modeling system, and compares the properties derived from the different systems. Overall, the observed geographic distribution of global TC frequency was reasonably well reproduced. As expected, with the exception of one model, intensities of the simulated TC were lower than in observations, to a degree that varies considerably across models.

  6. Interactions between a tropical mixed boundary layer and cumulus convection in a radiative-convective model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, C.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report details a radiative-convective model, combining previously developed cumulus, stable cloud and radiation parameterizations with a boundary layer scheme, which was developed in the current study. The cloud model was modified to incorporate the effects of both small and large clouds. The boundary layer model was adapted from a mixed layer model was only slightly modified to couple it with the more sophisticated cloud model. The model was tested for a variety of imposed divergence profiles, which simulate the regions of the tropical ocean from approximately the intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to the subtropical high region. The sounding used to initialize the model for most of the runs is from the trade wind region of ATEX. For each experiment, the model was run with a timestep of 300 seconds for a period of 7 days.

  7. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  8. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  9. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marara, Madeleine; Okello, Nick; Kuhanwa, Zainab; Douven, Wim; Beevers, Lindsay Leentvaar, Jan

    2011-04-15

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  10. Upper Permian fluviolacustrine deposits of southern Africa and the late Permian climate southern Gondwana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Upper Permian-age fluviolacustrine deposits are widespread throughout southern Africa. In the southern part of the subcontinent, where deposition took place in foreland basin settings, the sequences are thicker and fluvial-dominated whereas, lacustrine-dominated deposits accumulated in settings of low relief, broad warping and mild faulting at the northern end. The geographic extent and lateral correlatability of these deposits suggest the existence of concurrent, perhaps interconnected, giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks throughout the subcontinent, thousands of miles inland from the sea. This period of major lake development within fluvial depositional settings suggests climatic conditions that sustained a uniquely wet continental environment, deep in the heart of the Gondwanan supercontinent. Simulations based on various general circulation and energy balance climate models predict extreme seasonal temperatures and aridity for Gondwana at the palaeolatitudes of southern Africa during the Late Permian. On the other hand, distribution of climate-sensitive rocks, palynologic and palaeobotanic data and vertebrate fossils, coroborate the temperature climate documented by sedimentologic studies. The erroneous modeling results may have arisen from the fact that the models do not employ palaeogeographies that accommodate the existence of the vast lakes and rivers of Gondwana. The Late Permian palaeogeography of series of giant lakes within major fluvial frameworks would have had considerable influences on the regional climate. This suggests that it is imperative that numerical modeling studies incorporate accurate palaeogeographies, constructed based on available geological data, in order to recreate past climates with acceptable degree of accuracy.

  11. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day∙km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by

  12. South Africa, a new perspective: How the coal industry of RSA looks to an observer from the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur, S.P.

    1994-09-01

    A microcosm of what was, what is, and hopefully what will be, is embodied in South Africa`s coal industry-the sixth largest in the world, the third largest in coal exports behind the United States and Australia, and the second largest in the world`s steam coal trade behind Australia. Mining is the international, economic life blood of South Africa. In total, the country exports 60 minerals to 80 countries, providing on a raw basis for 43% of the nation`s international trade, and as much as 60% when beneficiated products are included. The nation`s coal fields lie in the northeastern section of the country, running south from the Botswana-Zimbabwe-Mozambique borders, principally in the Transvaal, Natal, and Orange Free State provinces. The coal seams run in thickness from 2.5 to 8 m, with an average overburden thickness of 80 m. The coal industry provides 83% of the country`s commercial energy and 52% of all the electric power consumed on the entire continent. Seen from the air, the veld around Johannesburg is dotted with power plants-virtually all coal-fired. There is only one nuclear plant and two hydroelectric produced in South Africa comes from Eskom, the state-owned utility, and 90% total comes from coal-fired units.

  13. Two-station phase velocity determination for structure in North Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazler, S; Pasyanos, M; Sheehan, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-28

    The seismic structure of North Africa is poorly understood due to the relative paucity of stations and seismicity when compared to other continental regions of the world. A better understanding of the velocity structure in this area will allow improved models of travel times and regional phase amplitudes. Such models will improve location and identification capability in this region leading to more effective monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Using regional-to-teleseismic Rayleigh and Love waves that traverse the area we can obtain information about the region's seismic structure by examining phase velocity as a function of period. We utilize earthquakes from the tectonically active regions bounding North Africa (Mediterranean, Red Sea, East African Rift, and Mid-Atlantic Ridge) recorded at broadband seismic stations distributed throughout the region. A two-station method is utilized to determine phase velocity information along the interstation segment of the ray path. The two-station method provides particular advantage in this region as it dramatically increases the number of events available to provide pure North African sampling. Bandpass filters are applied to the seismograms so that peaks and troughs may be correlated. The phase is unwrapped and a difference curve computed. The difference curve is then converted to a phase velocity dispersion curve. Phase velocity curves are constructed in the range of 10 to 120 seconds. Rayleigh and Love waves in this period range are most sensitive to the shear velocity structure of the lithosphere and can be used in combination with additional independent seismic observations (e.g. Pn tomography, surface wave group velocity tomography, receiver functions, etc.) to construct reliable velocity models. We compare velocities computed in this study to those generated from well known models for similar tectonic regions throughout the world in order to better define the tectonic setting of North Africa

  14. The global climate for December 1990-February 1991: Strong temperature and precipitation contrasts over North America and Eurasia; mixed ENSO conditions in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelliah, M. )

    1993-07-01

    During most of the December 1990-February 1991 season sharp transcontinental temperature anomaly contrasts were evident in North America, Eurasia, and Australia. Large-scale atmospheric precipitations are more difficult to characterize. In the equatorial tropics there was some evidence of conditions similar to ENSO near the date line, but an almost complete failure of other ENSO components to appear in the east Pacific and in the tropical atmospheric circulation. 12 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-11-19

    Here, the impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapidmore » intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, Χb, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by Χm, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller Χm not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.« less

  16. The impact of vertical shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenyu

    2015-11-19

    Here, the impact of vertical wind shear on the sensitivity of tropical cyclogenesis to environmental rotation and thermodynamic state is investigated through idealized cloud-resolving simulations of the intensification of an incipient vortex. With vertical shear, tropical cyclones intensify faster with a higher Coriolis parameter, f, irrespective of the environmental thermodynamic state. The vertical shear develops a vertically tilted vortex, which undergoes a precession process with the midlevel vortices rotating cyclonically around the surface center. With a higher f, the midlevel vortices are able to rotate continuously against the vertical shear, leading to the realignment of the tilted vortex and rapid intensification. With a lower f, the rotation is too slow such that the midlevel vortices are advected away from the surface center and the intensification is suppressed. The parameter, Χb, measuring the effect from the low-entropy downdraft air on the boundary layer entropy, is found to be a good indicator of the environmental thermodynamic favorability for tropical cyclogenesis in vertical shear. Without vertical shear, tropical cyclones are found to intensify faster with a lower f by previous studies. We show this dependency on f is sensitive to the environmental thermodynamic state. The thermodynamical favorability for convection can be measured by Χm, which estimates the time it takes for surface fluxes to moisten the midtroposphere. A smaller Χm not only leads to a faster intensification due to a shorter period for moist preconditioning of the inner region but also neutralizes the faster intensification with a lower f due to enhanced peripheral convection.

  17. Cloud Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microphysical and Radiative Properties Derived from MODIS, VIRS, AVHRR, and GMS Data Over the Tropical Western Pacific G. D. Nowicki, M. L. Nordeen, P. W. Heck, D. R. Doelling, and M. M. Khaiyer Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. Hampton, Virginia P. Minnis National Aeronautics and Space Administration Atmospheric Sciences Division Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia S. Sun-Mack Science Applications International Corporation Hampton, Virginia Introduction Utilization of the

  18. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

  19. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  20. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures - 1) Mobile phones and Africa: a success story 2) Citizen Problem Solving

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-28

    Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Citizen Problem Solving Dr. Alpheus Bingham, InnoCentive The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are hosted by the partners of the Citizen Cyberscience Centre, CERN, The UN Institute of Training and Research and the University of Geneva. The goal of the Lectures is to provide an inspirational forum for participants from the various international organizations and academic institutions in Geneva to explore how information technology is enabling greater citizen participation in tackling global development challenges as well as global scientific research. The first Citizen Cyberscience Lectures will welcome two speakers who have both made major innovative contributions in this area. Dr. Mo Ibrahim, founder of Celtel International, one of Africa’s most successful mobile network operators, will talk about “Mobile phones and Africa: a success story”. Dr. Alpheus Bingham, founder of InnoCentive, a Web-based community that solves industrial R&D; challenges, will discuss “Citizen Problem Solving”. The Citizen Cyberscience Lectures are open and free of charge. Participants from outside CERN must register by sending an email to Yasemin.Hauser@cern.ch BEFORE the 23rd october to be able to access CERN. THE LECTURES Mobile phones and Africa: a success story Dr. Mo Ibrahim, Mo Ibrahim Foundation Abstract The introduction of mobile phones into Africa changed the continent, enabling business and the commercial sector, creating directly and indirectly, millions of jobs. It enriched the social lives of many people. Surprisingly, it supported the emerging civil society and advanced the course of democracy Bio Dr Mo Ibrahim is a global expert in mobile communications with a distinguished academic and business career. In 1998, Dr Ibrahim founded Celtel International to build and operate mobile networks in Africa. Celtel became one of Africa’s most successful companies with operations in 15 countries

  1. Radiative Heating Profiles in the Convective Tropics: A Comparison of Observations and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Mather, Jim H.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2005-01-10

    Radiative heating is one of the principal drivers of tropical circulation. While we have good knowledge of radiative fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere and at specific surface sites, observations of atmospheric profiles of radiative heating, particular in cloudy conditions, have been largely unavailable. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has begun a program to compute radiative heating profiles routinely at its observational sites at Nauru and Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, using observed and retrieved inputs of water vapor and condensed water phase, particle size, and mass. The accuracy of these profiles can be assessed by comparing the calculated TOA and surface fluxes with observations. We have computed radiative heating profiles every 20 minutes for several months at each of these two sites in the 1999-2000 time period, which represent a unique dataset for model comparison. Here, we compare this dataset to model output from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) analysis, the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 3.0) and the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework (MMF). These three models, all run using observed SST for this comparison, provide an interesting range of resolution from the 4 km cloud resolving model in the MMF to the approximately 280 km grid-scale of the CAM and a contrast between forecasting and climate models. In general, the model results fail to capture the structure of the observed heating in the upper troposphere because of their failure to simulate cirrus and stratiform cloud adequately.

  2. Validation and analysis of microwave-derived rainfall over the tropics. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleishauer, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A recently developed single channel microwave rain rate retrieval algorithm exists to measure global precipitation over the data-sparse tropical oceans. The objective of this study is to retrieve and validate rainfall using this algorithm, followed by an analysis of the derived rainfall fields. Retrieval consists of applying the algorithm technique to the extraction of four years worth of achieved data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) instrument flown aboard the NIMBUS 5 satellite. The Pacific Atoll Raingage Data Set is chosen as a ground truth measure to validate the ESMR-Derived rainfall data against, comparing slope, intercept and correlation between 5 deg x 5 deg area average. Despite limitations imposed by the comparison of point measurements to area-averaged rainfall, results show a 0.80 correlation. Monthly and quarterly climatological mean rainfall estimates are produced, with a consequent analysis of prominent signals, especially in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and the Indian monsoon. Latent heat flux is computed, using the ESMR-derived rainfall, and plotted to show qualitatively where seasonal latent thermodynamic energy sources and sinks exist in the atmosphere. A comparison of the summer and winter quarterly composites of the above products with previously compiled climatologies and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) showed only minor discrepancies in location and intensity, which are discussed in some detail.

  3. Using biodiversity methods to assess the impacts of oil and gas development in tropical rain forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, D.P.; Silva del Poso, X. |

    1995-06-01

    Oil and gas development in tropical rain forests has attracted international attention because of the potentially adverse effects on the forest ecosystems. Biodiversity is a topic of particular concern, but is difficult to assess for small areas of disturbance. In July 1992 we used light traps to compare insect diversity at canopy and ground level as a means of detecting the impacts of an exploratory well site and related facilities within mature Amazonian rain forest in the Oriente Province of Ecuador. Replicate samples were collected at the well site, in a nearby area of agricultural development, and in a reference site within mature forest. Species richness was determined, and diversity indices were calculated for each set of samples. Results indicated that changes in diversity could be detected in the canopy and at ground level at the well site, but that the reduction in diversity was small. Biological diversity was substantially reduced in the area of agricultural development. Limitations and possible applications of this approach are discussed.

  4. Global warming and climate change - predictive models for temperate and tropical regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malini, B.H.

    1997-12-31

    Based on the assumption of 4{degree}C increase of global temperature by the turn of 21st century due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases an attempt is made to study the possible variations in different climatic regimes. The predictive climatic water balance model for Hokkaido island of Japan (a temperate zone) indicates the possible occurrence of water deficit for two to three months, which is a unknown phenomenon in this region at present. Similarly, India which represents tropical region also will experience much drier climates with increased water deficit conditions. As a consequence, the thermal region of Hokkaido which at present is mostly Tundra and Micro thermal will change into a Meso thermal category. Similarly, the moisture regime which at present supports per humid (A2, A3 and A4) and Humid (B4) climates can support A1, B4, B3, B2 and B1 climates indicating a shift towards drier side of the climatic spectrum. Further, the predictive modes of both the regions have indicated increased evapotranspiration rates. Although there is not much of change in the overall thermal characteristics of the Indian region the moisture regime indicates a clear shift towards the aridity in the country.

  5. Impact of post-mining subsidence on nitrogen transformation in southern tropical dry deciduous forest, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, N.; Singh, R.S.; Singh, J.S.

    2009-04-15

    The goal of our research was to assess the impact of post-mining land subsidence, caused due to underground coal mining operations, on fine root biomass and root tips count; plant available nutrient status, microbial biomass N (MBN) and N-mineralization rates of a Southern tropical dry deciduous forest of Singareni Coalfields of India. The changes were quantified in all the three (rainy, winter and summer) seasons, in slope and depression microsites of the subsided land and an adjacent undamaged forest microsite. Physico-chemical characteristics were found to be altered after subsidence, showing a positive impact of subsidence on soil moisture, bulk density, water holding capacity, organic carbon content, total N and total P. The increase in all the parameters was found in depression microsites, while in slope microsites, the values were lower. Fine root biomass and root tips count increased in the subsided depression microsites, as demonstrated by increases of 62% and 45%, respectively. Soil nitrate-N and phosphate-P concentrations were also found to be higher in depression microsite, showing an increase of 35.68% and 24.74%, respectively. Depression microsite has also shown the higher MBN value with an increase over control. Net nitrification, net N-mineralization and MBN were increased in depression microsite by 29.77%, 25.72% and 34%, respectively. There was a positive relation of microbial N with organic C, fine root biomass and root tips.

  6. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. )

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is one of the four fixed sites. It consists of three climate research facilities; the Manus facility on Los Negros Island in Manus, Papua New Guinea (established in 1996); the Nauru facility on Nauru Island, Republic of Nauru (1998); and the Darwin facility in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (2002). The operations are supported by government agencies in each host country. Covering the area roughly between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S of the equator and from 130 degrees E to 167 degrees E, the TWP locale includes a region that plays a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. More than 250,000 TWP data sets from 1996 to the present reside in the ARM Archive. Begin at the TWP information page for links or access data directly from the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. Impact of surface coupling grids on tropical cyclone extremes in high-resolution atmospheric simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarzycki, Colin M.; Reed, Kevin A.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Craig, Anthony P.; Bates, Susan C.; Rosenbloom, Nan A.

    2016-02-25

    This article discusses the sensitivity of tropical cyclone climatology to surface coupling strategy in high-resolution configurations of the Community Earth System Model. Using two supported model setups, we demonstrate that the choice of grid on which the lowest model level wind stress and surface fluxes are computed may lead to differences in cyclone strength in multi-decadal climate simulations, particularly for the most intense cyclones. Using a deterministic framework, we show that when these surface quantities are calculated on an ocean grid that is coarser than the atmosphere, the computed frictional stress is misaligned with wind vectors in individual atmospheric gridmore » cells. This reduces the effective surface drag, and results in more intense cyclones when compared to a model configuration where the ocean and atmosphere are of equivalent resolution. Our results demonstrate that the choice of computation grid for atmosphere–ocean interactions is non-negligible when considering climate extremes at high horizontal resolution, especially when model components are on highly disparate grids.« less

  10. Environment and the Lifetime of Tropical Deep Convection in a Cloud-Permitting Regional Model Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-08-01

    By applying a cloud tracking algorithm to tropical convective systems simulated by a regional high resolution model, the study documents environmental conditions before and after convective systems are initiated over ocean and land by following them during their lifetime. The comparative roles of various environmental fields in affecting the lifetime of convection are also quantified. The statistics of lifetime, maximum area, propagation speed and direction of the simulated deep convection agrees well with geostationary satellite observations. Over ocean, convective systems enhance surface fluxes through the associated wind gusts as well as cooling and drying of the boundary layer. A significant relationship is found between the mean surface fluxes during their lifetime and the longevity of the systems which in turn is related to the initial intensity of the moist updraft and to a lesser extent upper level shear. Over land, on the other hand, convective activity suppresses surface fluxes through cloud cover and the lifetime of convection is related to the upper level shear during their lifetime and strength of the heat fluxes several hours before the initiation of convection. For systems of equal lifetime, those over land are significantly more intense than those over ocean especially during early stages of their lifetime.

  11. Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE): Cloud and Rain Characteristics in the Australian Monsoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PT May; C Jakob; JH Mather

    2004-05-30

    The impact of oceanic convection on its environment and the relationship between the characteristics of the convection and the resulting cirrus characteristics is still not understood. An intense airborne measurement campaign combined with an extensive network of ground-based observations is being planned for the region near Darwin, Northern Australia, during January-February, 2006, to address these questions. The Tropical Warm Pool – International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) will be the first field program in the tropics that attempts to describe the evolution of tropical convection, including the large scale heat, moisture, and momentum budgets, while at the same time obtaining detailed observations of cloud properties and the impact of the clouds on the environment. The emphasis will be on cirrus for the cloud properties component of the experiment. Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropics and have a large impact on their environment but the properties of these clouds are poorly understood. A crucial product from this experiment will be a dataset suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud-resolving models and parameterizations in global climate models. This dataset will provide the necessary link between cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the European Commission DG RTD-1.2, and several United States, Australian, Canadian, and European Universities. This experiment will be undertaken over a 4-week period in early 2006. January and February corresponds to the wet phase of the Australia monsoon. This season has been selected because, despite Darwin’s coastal location, the convection that occurs over and near Darwin at this time is largely of maritime origin with a large fetch over water

  12. The age of the martian meteorite Northwest Africa 1195 and the differentiation history of the shergottites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symes, S; Borg, L; Shearer, C; Irving, A

    2007-04-05

    Samarium-neodymium isotopic analyses of unleached and acid-leached mineral fractions from the recently identified olivine-bearing shergottite Northwest Africa 1195 yield a crystallization age of 348 {+-} 19 Ma and an {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of +40.1 {+-} 1.3. Maskelynite fractions do not lie on the Sm-Nd isochron and appear to contain a martian surface component with low {sup 147}Sm/{sup 144}Nd and {sup 143}Nd/{sup 144}Nd ratios that was added during shock. The Rb-Sr system is disturbed and does not yield an isochron. Terrestrial Sr appears to have affected all of the mineral fractions, although a maximum initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of 0.701614 {+-} 16 is estimated by passing a 348 Ma reference isochron through the maskelynite fraction that is least affected by contamination. The high initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value and the low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio, combined with the geologically young crystallization age, indicate that Northwest Africa 1195 is derived from a source region characterized by a long-term incompatible element depletion. The age and initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of Northwest Africa 1195 are very similar to those of Queen Alexandra Range 94201, indicating these samples were derived from source regions with nearly identical Sr-Nd isotopic systematics. These similarities suggest that these two meteorites share a close petrogenetic relationship and might have been erupted from a common volcano. The meteorites Yamato 980459, Dar al Gani 476, Sayh al Uhaymir 005/008, and Dhofar 019 also have relatively old ages between 474-575 Ma and trace element and/or isotopic systematics that are indicative of derivation from incompatible-element-depleted sources. This suggests that the oldest group of meteorites is more closely related to one another than they are to the younger meteorites that are derived from less incompatible-element-depleted sources. Closed-system fractional crystallization of this suite of

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site.

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) site is one of the four fixed sites. It consists of three climate research facilities; the Manus facility on Los Negros Island in Manus, Papua New Guinea (established in 1996); the Nauru facility on Nauru Island, Republic of Nauru (1998); and the Darwin facility in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (2002). The operations are supported by government agencies in each host country. Covering the area roughly between 10 degrees N and 10 degrees S of the equator and from 130 degrees E to 167 degrees E, the TWP locale includes a region that plays a large role in the interannual variability observed in the global climate system. More than 250,000 TWP data sets from 1996 to the present reside in the ARM Archive. Begin at the TWP information page for links or access data directly from the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  15. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  16. GHG Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - Relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  17. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  18. Fast pyrolysis of tropical biomass species and influence of water pretreatment on product distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Trevor James; Turn, Scott Q.; Sun, Ning; George, Anthe; Gupta, Vijai

    2016-03-15

    Here, the fast pyrolysis behaviour of pretreated banagrass was examined at four temperatures (between 400 and 600 C) and four residence times (between ~1.2 and 12 s). The pretreatment used water washing/leaching to reduce the inorganic content of the banagrass. Yields of bio-oil, permanent gases and char were determined at each reaction condition and compared to previously published results from untreated banagrass. Comparing the bio-oil yields from the untreated and pretreated banagrass shows that the yields were greater from the pretreated banagrass by 4 to 11 wt% (absolute) at all reaction conditions. The effect of pretreatment (i.e. reducing the amountmore » of ash, and alkali and alkali earth metals) on pyrolysis products is: 1) to increase the dry bio-oil yield, 2) to decrease the amount of undetected material, 3) to produce a slight increase in CO yield or no change, 4) to slightly decrease CO2 yield or no change, and 5) to produce a more stable bio-oil (less aging). Char yield and total gas yield were unaffected by feedstock pretreatment. Four other tropical biomass species were also pyrolyzed under one condition (450°C and 1.4 s residence time) for comparison to the banagrass results. The samples include two hardwoods: leucaena and eucalyptus, and two grasses: sugarcane bagasse and energy-cane. A sample of pretreated energy-cane was also pyrolyzed. Of the materials tested, the best feedstocks for fast pyrolysis were sugarcane bagasse, pretreated energy cane and eucalyptus based on the yields of 'dry bio-oil', CO and CO2. On the same basis, the least productive feedstocks are untreated banagrass followed by pretreated banagrass and leucaena.« less

  19. Muslim oil and gas periphery; the future of hydrocarbons in Africa, southeast Asia and the Caspian. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, B.D.

    1997-12-01

    This thesis is a study of the contemporary political, economic, and technical developments and future prospects of the Muslim hydrocarbon exporters of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian. The established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia has four members in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and is systemically increasing its production of natural gas. I analyze US government and corporate policies regarding the countries and the major dilemmas of the Muslim hydrocarbon periphery. The first chapter provides a selective overview of global energy source statistics; the policies, disposition and composition of the major hydrocarbon production and consumption players and communities; a selective background of OPEC and its impact on the globe; and a general portrait of how the Muslim periphery piece fits into the overall Muslim oil and gas puzzle. Chapter two analyzes the established Muslim oil and gas periphery of Africa and Southeast Asia asking the following questions: What are the major political, economic, and technical trends and dilemmas affecting these producer nations. And what are the United States` policies and relationships with these producers. Chapter three asks the same questions as chapter two, but with regard to the newly independent states of the Caspian Sea. I probe the regional petroleum exploration and transportation dilemmas in some detail.

  20. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2016-01-18

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3− and POx; representing the sum of PO43−, HPO42− and H2PO4−) and five potential competitors (plantmore » roots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus and NH4+ pools at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer–substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results also imply that under strong nutrient limitation, relative competitiveness depends strongly on the competitor functional traits (affinity and nutrient carrier enzyme abundance). We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in Hawaii and Puerto Rico) not used in model development or calibration. Under soil inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus elevated conditions, the model accurately replicated the experimentally observed

  1. Multiple soil nutrient competition between plants, microbes, and mineral surfaces: model development, parameterization, and example applications in several tropical forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Q.; Riley, W. J.; Tang, J.; Koven, C. D.

    2015-03-05

    Soil is a complex system where biotic (e.g., plant roots, micro-organisms) and abiotic (e.g., mineral surfaces) consumers compete for resources necessary for life (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus). This competition is ecologically significant, since it regulates the dynamics of soil nutrients and controls aboveground plant productivity. Here we develop, calibrate, and test a nutrient competition model that accounts for multiple soil nutrients interacting with multiple biotic and abiotic consumers. As applied here for tropical forests, the Nutrient COMpetition model (N-COM) includes three primary soil nutrients (NH4+, NO3?, and POx (representing the sum of PO43?, HPO42?, and H2PO4?)) and five potential competitors (plantmoreroots, decomposing microbes, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and mineral surfaces). The competition is formulated with a quasi-steady-state chemical equilibrium approximation to account for substrate (multiple substrates share one consumer) and consumer (multiple consumers compete for one substrate) effects. N-COM successfully reproduced observed soil heterotrophic respiration, N2O emissions, free phosphorus, sorbed phosphorus, and free NH4+ at a tropical forest site (Tapajos). The overall model posterior uncertainty was moderately well constrained. Our sensitivity analysis revealed that soil nutrient competition was primarily regulated by consumer-substrate affinity rather than environmental factors such as soil temperature or soil moisture. Our results imply that the competitiveness (from most to least competitive) followed this order: (1) for NH4+, nitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (2) for NO3?, denitrifiers ~ decomposing microbes > plant roots, (3) for POx, mineral surfaces > decomposing microbes ~ plant roots. Although smaller, plant relative competitiveness is of the same order of magnitude as microbes. We then applied the N-COM model to analyze field nitrogen and phosphorus perturbation experiments in two tropical forest sites (in

  2. Patterns of Practice of Palliative Radiotherapy in Africa, Part 1: Bone and Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vinay Gaye, Papa Macoumba M.Med.; Wahab, Sherif Abdel; Ndlovu, Ntokozo; Ngoma, Twalib; Vanderpuye, Verna; Sowunmi, Anthonia; Kigula-Mugambe, Joseph; Jeremic, Branislav

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To provide data on the pattern of practice of palliative radiotherapy (RT) on the African continent. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed to participants in a regional training course of the International Atomic Energy Agency in palliative cancer care and sent by e-mail to other institutions in Africa. Requested information included both infrastructure and human resources available and the pattern of RT practice for metastatic and locally advanced cancers. Results: Of 35 centers contacted, 24 (68%) completed the questionnaire. Although RT is used by most centers for most metastatic cancers, liver and lung metastases are treated with chemotherapy. Of 23 centers, 14 (61%) had a single RT regimen as an institutional policy for treating painful bone metastases, but only 5 centers (23%) of 23 used 8 Gy in 1 fraction. Brain metastases were being treated by RT to the whole brain to 30 Gy in 10 fractions, either exclusively (n = 13, 56%) or in addition to the use of 20 Gy in 5 fractions (n = 3, 14%). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is a major component of treatment of cancer patients in African countries. There is consensus among few centers for treatment schedules for almost all sites regarding time and dose-fractionation characteristics of RT regimens used and/or indications for the use of RT in this setting.

  3. Does enhanced regulation improve EIA report quality? Lessons from South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandham, L.A.; Heerden, A.J. van; Jones, C.E.; Retief, F.P.; Morrison-Saunders, A.N.

    2013-01-15

    Recently, various EIA systems have been subjected to system review processes with a view to improve performance. Many of these reviews resulted in some form of legislative reform. The South African Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) regulations were modified in 2006 with the express intent to improve EIA effectiveness. In order to evaluate to what extent the desired outcome was achieved, the quality of EIA reports produced under the 2006 regulations was investigated for comparative analysis with the preceding regime. A sample of EIA reports from the two legislative regimes was reviewed using an adapted version of a well established method known colloquially as the 'Lee and Colley' review package. Despite some improvements in certain aspects, overall report quality has decreased slightly from the 1997 EIA regime. It therefore appears that the modifications to the regulations, often heralded as the solution to improvements in performance have not resulted in improved quality of EIA reports. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA regulations in South Africa were revised and became more comprehensive in 2006. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The report quality of a sample of EIAs was reviewed using the Lee and Colley review package. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Report quality showed a slight decline from the previous regulatory regime. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EIA good practice needs flexibility rather than over-detailed regulation.

  4. Correlation between plate motions and tectonic subsidence of sedimentary basins in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssen, M.E. )

    1993-09-01

    From the early Mesozoic until the Holocene, the African continent was generally in a state of extension, based on plate tectonic reconstructions and sedimentary basin subsidence studies. Beginning with the breakup of Gondwana in the Permian-Triassic, this resulted in the formation of the present-day African continental margins and a series of intracontinental rift basins, located mainly on older (late Proterozoic) shear zones. Numerous wells from marginal, as well as intracontinental rift basins, have been backstripped to elucidate their Mesozoic and Tertiary tectonic histories. They show a generally consistent patterns of subsidence and uplift phases in all basins. During the evolution of these basins, the direction of African plate motion changed several times. This was related to the differential opening of the central and south Atlantic oceans, changes in spreading rates in both the Atlantic and Indian oceans, and the collision between Africa and Europe. Episodes of compressional deformation related to these plate tectonic changes are revealed in backstripped tectonic subsidence curves.

  5. Evaluation of stress experienced by soldiers wearing chemical protective clothing during varying work loads in desert or tropical environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudgens, G.A.; Banderet, L.E.; Cadarette, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    A stress evaluation was conducted in a laboratory test in which the physiological and psychological reactions of soldiers were monitored while they wore either the standard battle dress overgarment (MOPPI) or the full complement of chemical protective clothing with mask (MOPPIV) and worked at low, moderate, or high work loads in simulated desert (hot and dry) or tropic (hot and humid) environments. The psychological instruments indicated greater stress responses for soldiers wearing MOPPIV than wearing MOPPI and for soldiers working at a high work load than working at a low work load. Chemical protective clothing, MOPPIV, Tropics, Desert, Psychological stress, Work load, MOPPI, Stress evaluation.

  6. The impact of equilibrating hemispheric albedos on tropical performance in the HadGEM2-ES coupled climate model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haywood, Jim M.; Jones, Andy; Dunstone, Nick; Milton, Sean; Vellinga, Michael; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro; Hawcroft, Matt; Kravitz, Ben; Cole, Jason; Watanabe, Shingo; et al

    2016-01-14

    The Earth's hemispheric reflectances are equivalent to within ± 0.2 Wm–2, even though the Northern Hemisphere contains a greater proportion of higher reflectance land areas, because of greater cloud cover in the Southern Hemisphere. This equivalence is unlikely to be by chance, but the reasons are open to debate. Here we show that equilibrating hemispheric albedos in the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System coupled climate model significantly improves what have been considered longstanding and apparently intractable model biases. Monsoon precipitation biases over all continental land areas, the penetration of monsoon rainfall across the Sahel, the West Africanmore » monsoon “jump”, and indicators of hurricane frequency are all significantly improved. Mechanistically, equilibrating hemispheric albedos improves the atmospheric cross-equatorial energy transport and increases the supply of tropical atmospheric moisture to the Hadley cell. Furthermore, we conclude that an accurate representation of the cross-equatorial energy transport appears to be critical if tropical performance is to be improved.« less

  7. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrew, H.J.

    1984-10-01

    All exploratory activity in central and southern Africa decreased in 1983, reflecting world economic conditions and excess productive capacity. Seismic activity has declined sharply from its peak year of 1981. Land operations suffered the greatest drop in 1983, whereas party-months of marine work increased slightly. 3-D recording continued to be used but at a reduced rate compared with 1982. Large aeromagnetic surveys were made in several countries; however, the coverage was less than in 1982. Gravity continues to be used to supplement other geophysical work, but other exploratory techniques are being used infrequently. Total wells drilled dropped from 464 in 1982 to 387 in 1983. Most of the decline was in exploratory drilling, which dropped from 132 to 86 wells. This was reflected in the number of discoveries, which decreased from 48 to 27 while the success rate continued about the same. Development drilling continued at a high level in Cameroon and Congo, whereas in Nigeria the emphasis shifted to the drilling of appraisal wells. In all, 2,937,708 ft (895,643 m) of hole was drilled, a decrease of about 20% from 1982. Oil production of 673,075,667 bbl in 1983 was an increase of 1.7% over 1982's production, bringing cumulative production to over 12 billion bbl. Marked increases in production were recorded in Cabinda, Ivory Coast, and Congo. Production from Nigerian fields continued to dominate this part of the world as they contributed about 67% of the annual production and 75% of the cumulative production. 44 figures, 15 tables.

  8. Sedimentary basins on the connugate margins of South America and Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.T. )

    1990-05-01

    An Early Cretaceous spreading system formed the South Atlantic by separating South America from Africa along two subparallel major transform fault systems. The distribution of major sedimentary depocenters is controlled by the complex interplay of two factors: the late Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of sea-floor spreading and the legacy of a Precambrian collage of ancient cores that comprised western Gondwana. Three spreading modes created this configuration: rift, transform, and subduction. Each produces a different geometry and tectonic framework for the accumulation of sediment. Rifted margins (60%) contain basins that are elongate, form with their depocenter axes inboard of the ocean-continent transition, and rest on a tectonically complex, foundered basement. Transform margins have abrupt ocean-continent transitions. Such margins (30%) may be sediment starved or contain a thick sedimentary section controlled by the volcanic ridges of transform faults. Off Tierra del Fuego, Burdwood Bank is bounded on the north by a fossil (aseismic) subduction zone. The associated basin is an elongate, deformed accretionary prism of sediments on a gently dipping, faulted oceanic plate. The South Atlantic margins are divisible into 68 basins or segments that collectively contain over 33 {times} 106 km{sup 3} of syn- and postbreakup sediments. The South American margin contains 22 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 3} in 46 basins, and the African margin, 11 {times} 10{sup 6} km{sup 3} in 22 basins. Over 65% of the basins have a sediment column greater than 5 km with some depocenters that locally exceed 10 km. The source rock quality and character vary along both margins. The top of the oil generation window averages about 3.3 km; however, due to differing thermal histories, individual basins can depart significantly from this average.

  9. A passive margin-type submarine fan complex, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickens, H.D. ); Bouma, A.H. )

    1991-03-01

    A submarine fan complex, comprising five arenaceous fan systems separated by basinal shale units, occurs in the southwestern part of the intracratonic Karoo basin in South Africa. Although basin development is related to a subduction zone bordering the palaeo-Pacific ocean to the south of Gondwanaland and the evolution of the Cape Fold Belt, the entire Lower Permian Ecca Group basin-fill succession reflects depositional characteristics of a passive-margin setting. The submarine fan complex, 250 m thick, originated from sediments supplied by Mississippi-type deltas dominating the Ecca coastline. The fine grain-size and low sand/shale ratio of the submarine fan and deltaic deposits reflect the maturity of the ancient river systems. Outcrops of the fan complex are well exposed and cover an area of 650 km{sup 2}. The strata are not affected by folding, and deep erosion allows three-dimensional viewing of mid-fan to outer-fan deposits. Features of interest include stacked lobe deposits displayed along 2.5 km of a 60 m high cliff section, and a transverse cliff section through channel-fill deposits 500 m wide. Paleocurrent directions reveal that each sequence had its own main source area located to the northwest and south of its present geographic location. The cyclic nature of the fan complex is attributed to relative sea-level changes; deposition took place on the basin floor in water depths that do not exceed 500 m. Shoaling of the basin to wave base depths is reflected in the pro-delta and delta front deposits overlying the uppermost fan sequence. Major factors in controlling direction of fan progradation were delta switching and basin floor topography.

  10. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S

    2001-05-22

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFOTM exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer-coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas the other

  11. Geographical Distribution of Biomass Carbon in Tropical Southeast Asian Forests: A Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2002-02-07

    A database was generated of estimates of geographically referenced carbon densities of forest vegetation in tropical Southeast Asia for 1980. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to incorporate spatial databases of climatic, edaphic, and geomorphological indices and vegetation to estimate potential (i.e., in the absence of human intervention and natural disturbance) carbon densities of forests. The resulting map was then modified to estimate actual 1980 carbon density as a function of population density and climatic zone. The database covers the following 13 countries: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia (Campuchea), India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar (Burma), Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data sets within this database are provided in three file formats: ARC/INFO{trademark} exported integer grids, ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) files formatted for raster-based GIS software packages, and generic ASCII files with x, y coordinates for use with non-GIS software packages. This database includes ten ARC/INFO exported integer grid files (five with the pixel size 3.75 km x 3.75 km and five with the pixel size 0.25 degree longitude x 0.25 degree latitude) and 27 ASCII files. The first ASCII file contains the documentation associated with this database. Twenty-four of the ASCII files were generated by means of the ARC/INFO GRIDASCII command and can be used by most raster-based GIS software packages. The 24 files can be subdivided into two groups of 12 files each. These files contain real data values representing actual carbon and potential carbon density in Mg C/ha (1 megagram = 10{sup 6} grams) and integer- coded values for country name, Weck's Climatic Index, ecofloristic zone, elevation, forest or non-forest designation, population density, mean annual precipitation, slope, soil texture, and vegetation classification. One set of 12 files contains these data at a spatial resolution of 3.75 km, whereas

  12. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the

  13. Macrophysical Properties of Tropical Cirrus Clouds from the CALIPSO Satellite and from Ground-based Micropulse and Raman Lidars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsen, Tyler J.; Fu, Qiang; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, D.; Turner, David D.

    2013-08-27

    Lidar observations of cirrus cloud macrophysical properties over the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Darwin, Australia site are compared from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and In- frared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, the ground-based ARM micropulse lidar (MPL), and the ARM Raman lidar (RL). Comparisons are made using the subset of profiles where the lidar beam is not fully attenuated. Daytime measurements using the RL are shown to be relatively unaffected by the solar background and are therefore suited for checking the validity of diurnal cycles. RL and CALIPSO cloud fraction profiles show good agreement while the MPL detects significantly less cirrus, particularly during the daytime. Both MPL and CALIPSO observations show that cirrus clouds occur less frequently during the day than at night at all altitudes. In contrast, the RL diurnal cy- cle is significantly different than zero only below about 11 km; where it is the opposite sign (i.e. more clouds during the daytime). For cirrus geomet- rical thickness, the MPL and CALIPSO observations agree well and both datasets have signficantly thinner clouds during the daytime than the RL. From the examination of hourly MPL and RL cirrus cloud thickness and through the application of daytime detection limits to all CALIPSO data we find that the decreased MPL and CALIPSO cloud thickness during the daytime is very likely a result of increased daytime noise. This study highlights the vast im- provement the RL provides (compared to the MPL) in the ARM program's ability to observe tropical cirrus clouds as well as a valuable ground-based lidar dataset for the validation of CALIPSO observations and to help im- prove our understanding of tropical cirrus clouds.

  14. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  15. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOTmore » asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.« less

  16. Saharan dust as a causal factor of hemispheric asymmetry in aerosols and cloud cover over the tropical Atlantic Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Da Sliva, Arlindo; Starobinets, Boris; Long, Charles N.; Kalashnikova, Olga; Alpert, Pinhas

    2015-07-09

    Meridional distribution of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the tropical Atlantic Ocean (30°N – 30°S) was analyzed to assess seasonal variations of meridional AOT asymmetry. Ten-year MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) data (July 2002 – June 2012) confirms that the Sahara desert emits a significant amount of dust into the atmosphere over the Atlantic Ocean. Only over the Atlantic Ocean did MERRAero show that desert dust dominates other aerosol species and is responsible for meridional aerosol asymmetry between the tropical North and South Atlantic. Over the 10-year period under consideration, both MISR measurements and MERRAero data showed a pronounced meridional AOT asymmetry. The meridional AOT asymmetry, characterized by the hemispheric ratio (RAOT) of AOT averaged separately over the North and over the South Atlantic, was about 1.7. Seasonally, meridional AOT asymmetry over the Atlantic was the most pronounced between March and July, when dust presence is maximal (RAOT ranged from 2 to 2.4). There was no noticeable meridional aerosol asymmetry in total AOT from September to October. During this period the contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to total AOT in the South Atlantic was comparable to the contribution of dust aerosols to total AOT in the North Atlantic. During the same 10-year period, MODIS cloud fraction (CF) data showed that there was no noticeable asymmetry in meridional CF distribution in different seasons (the hemispheric ratio of CF ranged from 1.0 to 1.2). MODIS CF data illustrated significant cloud cover (CF of 0.7 – 0.9) with limited precipitation ability along the Saharan Air Layer.

  17. Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G

    2008-11-20

    The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.

  18. Improved Model of Isoprene Emissions in Africa using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Satellite Observations of Formaldehyde: Implications for Oxidants and Particulate Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marais, E. A.; Jacob, D.; Guenther, Alex B.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Murphy, J. G.; Reeves, C. E.; Pye, H.

    2014-08-01

    We use a 2005-2009 record of isoprene emissions over Africa derived from OMI satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) to better understand the factors controlling isoprene emission on the scale of the continent and evaluate the impact of isoprene emissions on atmospheric composition in Africa. OMI-derived isoprene emissions show large seasonality over savannas driven by temperature and leaf area index (LAI), and much weaker seasonality over equatorial forests driven by temperature. The commonly used MEGAN (version 2.1) global 31 isoprene emission model reproduces this seasonality but is biased high, particularly for 32 equatorial forests, when compared to OMI and relaxed-eddy accumulation measurements. 33 Isoprene emissions in MEGAN are computed as the product of an emission factor Eo, LAI, and 34 activity factors dependent on environmental variables. We use the OMI-derived emissions to 35 provide improved estimates of Eo that are in good agreement with direct leaf measurements from 36 field campaigns (r = 0.55, bias = -19%). The largest downward corrections to MEGAN Eo values are for equatorial forests and semi-arid environments, and this is consistent with latitudinal transects of isoprene over West Africa from the AMMA aircraft campaign. Total emission of isoprene in Africa is estimated to be 77 Tg C a-1, compared to 104 Tg C a-1 in MEGAN. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem oxidant-aerosol model suggest that isoprene emissions increase mean surface ozone in West Africa by up to 8 ppbv, and particulate matter by up to 1.5 42 μg m-3, due to coupling with anthropogenic influences.

  19. Seismicity in Central North Africa at low magnitudes: A first look at the TAM event detected data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harben, P.E.,

    1997-01-01

    Teleseismic observations of seismicity in the central North Africa region show that the region is aseismic. This is true for earthquakes with a body wave magnitude greater than about 4 or so. For earthquakes with body wave magnitudes substantially below about 4, the teleseismic observations of seismicity in the central Sahara are incomplete since smaller earthquakes would probably not be detected and located by the current teleseismic monitoring networks. Only one known open seismic station has been operating in the central Sahara. This is the Tamanrasset (TAM) seismic station in southern Algeria. A simple analysis of data records from this station can be used to determine if the central Sahara is also relatively aseismic at magnitudes substantially below 4. That is the primary purpose of this study.

  20. Evidence for island effects and diurnal signals in satellite images of clouds over the tropical western pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr-Kumarakulasinghe, S.A.; Reynolds, R.M.; Minnett, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Instruments to measure atmospheric radiation and ancillary meteorological variables will be set up on Manus Island as the first site of the tropical western pacific (TWP) locale of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program. Manus is in the {open_quotes}warm pool{close_quotes} region of the TWP. This region is critical in establishing global atmospheric circulation patterns and is a primary energy source for the Hadley and Walker cells. The myriad islands and enclosed seas in the immediate vicinity of Manus have been referred to as the {open_quotes}maritime continent{close_quotes}, which has the deepest convective activity in the world. Manus is in a region having a global impact on climate and where island effects on clouds are likely to be important. In this preliminary analysis we have sought evidence of island effects in the cloud fields around Manus and have studied the variability of the diurnal cycles of cloud cover over Manus and over other islands and areas of open sea in the region.

  1. Observations of tropical cirrus properties in the pilot radiation observation experiment using lidar and the CSIRO ARM filter radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.J.; Patterson, G.R.

    1995-04-01

    A narrow beam fast filter radiometer has been developed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. The radiometer is intended to operate alongside a lidar at ARM sites in a lidar/radiometer (LIRAD) configuration. The radiometer detects in three narrow bands at 8.62-, 10.86-, and 12.04-m central wavelengths in the atmospheric window. In addition, it has a variable field aperture that varies the radiance incident on the detector and also allows the field of view to be tailored to that of a lidar used in the LIRAD technique. The radiometer was deployed in the ARM Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) at Kavieng, Papua New Guinea in January-February 1993. The radiometer worked satisfactorily and appeared to be very stable. The radiometer was compared with a previous CSIRO radiometer and the improved performance of the ARM instrument was very evident. The ARM radiometer was also compared with a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratories (ETL) interferometer and gave closely equivalent radiances. The LIRAD method was used at Kavieng to obtain the optical properties of cirrus clouds. Continuous observations of water vapor path obtained by the NOAA ETL microwave radiometer were employed to allow for the strong tropical water vapor absorption and emission. Cirrus cells that developed on one morning, independent of other clouds, had measured infrared emittances varying from <0.1 to 1.0.

  2. The annual cycle in the tropical Pacific Ocean based on assimilated ocean data from 1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, T.M.; Chelliah, M.

    1995-06-01

    An analysis of the tropical Pacific Ocean from January 1983 to December 1992 is used to describe the annual cycle, with the main focus on subsurface temperature variations. Some analysis of ocean-current variations are also considered. Monthly mean fields are generated by assimilation of surface and subsurface temperature observations from ships and buoys. Comparisons with observations show that the analysis reasonably describes large-scale ocean thermal variations. Ocean currents are not assimilated and do not compare as well with observations. However, the ocean-current variations in the analysis are qualitatively similar to the known variations given by others. The authors use harmonic analysis to separate the mean annual cycle and estimate its contribution to total variance. The analysis shows that in most regions the annual cycle of subsurface thermal variations is larger than surface variations and that these variations are associated with changes in the depth of the thermocline. The annual cycle accounts for most of the total surface variance poleward of about 10{degrees} latitude but accounts for much less surface and subsurface total variance near the equator. Large subsurface annual cycles occur near 10{degrees}N associated with shifts of the intertropical convergence zone and along the equator associated with the annual cycle of equatorial wind stress. The hemispherically asymmetric depths of the 20{degrees}C isotherms indicate that the large Southern Hemisphere warm pool, which extends to near the equator, may play an important role in thermal variations on the equator. 51 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Assessing health impacts in complex eco-epidemiological settings in the humid tropics: Modular baseline health surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, Mirko S.; Divall, Mark J.; Krieger, Gary R.; Schmidlin, Sandro; Magassouba, Mohamed L.; Knoblauch, Astrid M.; Singer, Burton H.; Utzinger, Juerg

    2012-02-15

    The quantitative assessment of health impacts has been identified as a crucial feature for realising the full potential of health impact assessment (HIA). In settings where demographic and health data are notoriously scarce, but there is a broad range of ascertainable ecological, environmental, epidemiological and socioeconomic information, a diverse toolkit of data collection strategies becomes relevant for the mainly small-area impacts of interest. We present a modular, cross-sectional baseline health survey study design, which has been developed for HIA of industrial development projects in the humid tropics. The modular nature of our toolkit allows our methodology to be readily adapted to the prevailing eco-epidemiological characteristics of a given project setting. Central to our design is a broad set of key performance indicators, covering a multiplicity of health outcomes and determinants at different levels and scales. We present experience and key findings from our modular baseline health survey methodology employed in 14 selected sentinel sites within an iron ore mining project in the Republic of Guinea. We argue that our methodology is a generic example of rapid evidence assembly in difficult-to-reach localities, where improvement of the predictive validity of the assessment and establishment of a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of project impacts and mitigation efforts is needed.

  4. Belowground Response to Drought in a Tropical Forest Soil. I. Changes in Microbial Functional Potential and Metabolism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bouskill, Nicholas J.; Wood, Tana E.; Baran, Richard; Ye, Zaw; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Lim, HsiaoChien; Zhou, Jizhong; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Nico, Peter; Northen, Trent R.; et al

    2016-04-20

    We report that global climate models predict a future of increased severity of drought in many tropical forests. Soil microbes are central to the balance of these systems as sources or sinks of atmospheric carbon (C), yet how they respond metabolically to drought is not well-understood. We simulated drought in the typically aseasonal Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, by intercepting precipitation falling through the forest canopy. This approach reduced soil moisture by 13% and water potential by 0.14 MPa (from -0.2 to -0.34). Previous results from this experiment have demonstrated that the diversity and composition of these soil microbial communitiesmore » are sensitive to even small changes in soil water. Here, we show prolonged drought significantly alters the functional potential of the community and provokes a clear osmotic stress response, including the production of compatible solutes that increase intracellular C demand. Subsequently, a microbial population emerges with a greater capacity for extracellular enzyme production targeting macromolecular carbon. Significantly, some of these drought-induced functional shifts in the soil microbiota are attenuated by prior exposure to a short-term drought suggesting that acclimation may occur despite a lack of longer-term drought history.« less

  5. Teleconnections of the Southern Oscillation in the tropical Atlantic sector in the OSU coupled upper ocean-atomosphere GCM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hameed, S.; Meinster, A. ); Sperber, K.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The Oregon State University coupled upper ocean-atmosphere GCM has been shown to qualitatively simulate the Southern Oscillation. A composite analysis of the warm and cold events simulated in this 23-year integration has been performed. During the low phase of the Southern Oscillation, when warm anomalies occur in the eastern Pacific, the model simulates for the Atlantic region during March-May (1) a deficit of precipitation over the tropical South American continent, (2) Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico sea level pressure and sea surface temperature are in phase with the eastern Pacific anomalies, while those east of the Nordeste region are out of phase, and (3) northeast trade winds are anomalously weak and southwest trade winds are anomalously strong (as inferred from surface current anomalies). The anomalies in the oceanic processes are induced by perturbations in the atmospheric circulation over the Atlantic and are coupled to changes in the Walker circulation. During the high phase of the simulated Southern Oscillation, conditions in the atmosphere and ocean are essentially the reverse of the low phase. The model produces a response in the South American region during the opposing phases of the Southern Oscillation that is in general agreement with observations. The interannual variation of Nordeste rainfall is shown to be dominated by a few band-limited frequencies. These frequencies are found in the SST series of those regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans where strong correlations with Nordeste precipitation exist.

  6. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  7. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  8. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  9. Zero-phasing seismic data without wells in offshore West Africa: Reducing uncertainty and variability of the wavelet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, M.S.; Nunn, K.R.; Lewis, S.A.; Reynolds, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, many companies have zero-phased seismic data using operators based on wavelets estimated from well matching. However, in new areas of exploration, other methods must be used. A data example from deep-water West Africa is discussed in which the use of two independent methods of estimating the wavelet (physical modeling and statistical evaluation) allows for increased confidence in the resulting zero-phasing. The two methods are complimentary in that they compensate for the inadequacies of each other`s assumptions. The combination of the two to reduce uncertainty in wavelet estimation is the main objective. The acquisition and processing of the data are of great importance in ensuring wavelet stability in the section and allowing the wavelet estimation methods to be used reliably. Careful application of gapped deconvolutions in the processing sequence allows for wavelet compression and consistency over large areas of data that can then be zero-phased using a single operator, even though the data covers diverse geology and water depths.

  10. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Race, Caitlin; Steinbach, Michael; Ganguly, Auroop R; Semazzi, Fred; Kumar, Vipin

    2010-01-01

    The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

  11. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  12. Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Preface 5 Introduction 6 Science Goals 8 Siting Strategy 9 1.0 Manus Site (ARCS-1), Papua New Guinea 11 1.1 Manus Operations 12 1.1.1 Manus Operations Status 13 1.1.2 Manus ...

  13. Tropical Winds N

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industries such as steel factories and oil refineries also create a lot of air pollution. In other words, whenever you see smoke coming out of a factory's chimney, you are seeing ...

  14. South Africa and the 21st Century Power Partnership (Fact Sheet). 21st Century Power Partnership; 21st Century Power Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-04-16

    Established in 2012, the 21CPP South Africa Programme is a global initiative that connects South African stakeholders with an international community of expertise. The overall goal of this program is to support South Africa’s power system transformation by accelerating the transition to a reliable, financially robust, and low-carbon power system. 21CPP activities focus on achieving positive outcomes for all participants, especially addressing critical questions and challenges facing system planners, regulators, and operators. In support of this goal, 21CPP taps into deep networks of expertise among leading industry practitioners.

  15. Peer-to-Peer Consultations: Ancillary Services Peer Exchange with India: Experience from South Africa, Europe & the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    In support of national and subnational decision makers, the 21st Century Power Partnership regularly works with country partners to organize peer-to-peer consultations on critical issues. In March 2014, 21CPP collaborated with the Regulatory Assistance Project - India to host two peer-to-peer exchanges among experts from India, South Africa, Europe, and the United States to discuss the provision of ancillary services, particularly in the context of added variability and uncertainty from renewable energy. This factsheet provides a high level summary of the peer-to-peer consultation.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of biotic exchanges of CO sub 2 between the atmosphere and tropical landscapes and their role in the global carbon balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    At SUNY ESF, our overall objective for this year was to finish refining the methods used to convert our previous models of global carbon flux and land use change into a GIS-compatible format. We now have the ability to obtain, convert, and incorporate geographic data into spatial simulation models that describe past carbon exchange patterns, as well as predict future landuse change and carbon exchange. Our initial tests of this model in Peninsula Malaysia have been very promising, in that we are able to successfully predict land use from 1972 to 1982 and even from 1870 to 1970. In this context successful'' means that we classify in the model from 80 to 95 percent of the cells correctly, depending upon the number of land use types we try to predict. We are now preparing to apply this model to the entire continent of Africa and to Central America.

  17. Assistance Focus: Africa (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to African governments, including the benefits of that assistance.

  18. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  19. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-04-29

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore » large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (66 ± 2%) was rapid (11 to 26 years; mean and SE: 18 ± 3 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial–millennial turnover was typically much less abundant (34 ± 3%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral-associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were statistically similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–25% of annual litter production. Observed trends in mineral-associated Δ14C over time could not be fit using the single-pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and Δ14C as compared with a more realistic two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils documented here are supported by findings from paired 14C studies in other types of ecosystems, and

  20. Large fluxes and rapid turnover of mineral-associated carbon across topographic gradients in a humid tropical forest: insights from paired 14C analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hall, S. J.; McNicol, G.; Natake, T.; Silver, W. L.

    2015-01-16

    It has been proposed that the large soil carbon (C) stocks of humid tropical forests result predominantly from C stabilization by reactive minerals, whereas oxygen (O2) limitation of decomposition has received much less attention. We examined the importance of these factors in explaining patterns of C stocks and turnover in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, using radiocarbon (14C) measurements of contemporary and archived samples. Samples from ridge, slope, and valley positions spanned three soil orders (Ultisol, Oxisol, Inceptisol) representative of humid tropical forests, and differed in texture, reactive metal content, O2 availability, and root biomass. Mineral-associated C comprised themore » large majority (87 ± 2%, n = 30) of total soil C. Turnover of most mineral-associated C (74 ± 4%) was rapid (9 to 29 years, mean and SE 20 ± 2 years) in 25 of 30 soil samples across surface horizons (0–10 and 10–20 cm depths) and all topographic positions, independent of variation in reactive metal concentrations and clay content. Passive C with centennial – millennial turnover was much less abundant (26%), even at 10–20 cm depths. Carbon turnover times and concentrations significantly increased with concentrations of reduced iron (Fe(II)) across all samples, suggesting that O2 availability may have limited the decomposition of mineral associated C over decadal scales. Steady-state inputs of mineral-associated C were similar among the three topographic positions, and could represent 10–30% of annual litterfall production (estimated by doubling aboveground litterfall). Observed trends in mineral-associated Δ14C over time could not be fit using the single pool model used in many other studies, which generated contradictory relationships between turnover and Δ14C as compared with a more realistic constrained two-pool model. The large C fluxes in surface and near-surface soils implied by our data suggest that other studies using single-pool Δ14C

  1. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  2. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within the mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.

  3. Testing ice microphysics parameterizations in the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model Version 3 using Tropical Warm Pool-International Cloud Experiment data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, Jim; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2009-07-23

    Here, cloud properties have been simulated with a new double-moment microphysics scheme under the framework of the single-column version of NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 3 (CAM3). For comparison, the same simulation was made with the standard single-moment microphysics scheme of CAM3. Results from both simulations compared favorably with observations during the Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program in terms of the temporal variation and vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud condensate. Major differences between the two simulations are in the magnitude and distribution of ice water content within themore » mixed-phase cloud during the monsoon period, though the total frozen water (snow plus ice) contents are similar. The ice mass content in the mixed-phase cloud from the new scheme is larger than that from the standard scheme, and ice water content extends 2 km further downward, which is in better agreement with observations. The dependence of the frozen water mass fraction on temperature from the new scheme is also in better agreement with available observations. Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) from the simulation with the new scheme is, in general, larger than that with the standard scheme, while the surface downward longwave radiation is similar. Sensitivity tests suggest that different treatments of the ice crystal effective radius contribute significantly to the difference in the calculations of TOA OLR, in addition to cloud water path. Numerical experiments show that cloud properties in the new scheme can respond reasonably to changes in the concentration of aerosols and emphasize the importance of correctly simulating aerosol effects in climate models for aerosol-cloud interactions. Further evaluation, especially for ice cloud properties based on in-situ data, is needed.« less

  4. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CloudSat) Echo top (TRMM PR) TRMM PR anvil * Anvil occurs most frequently over the Maritime Continent and West Pacific, but covers the largest area over tropical Africa. * Anvil...

  5. Tropical Anvil Characteristics and Water Vapor of the Tropical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the nature of solute. 2) Heymsfield and Miloshevich (1993): J r depends on T. Depression of freezing point due to solute and curvature effects is considered but those...

  6. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Jardine, Angela B.; Souza, Vinicius F.; Carneiro, Vilany; Ceron, Joao V.; Gimenez, Bruno O.; Soares, Cilene P.; Durgante, Flavia M.; Higuchi, Niro; Manzi, Antonio O.; et al

    2016-05-26

    Isoprene (Is) emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1) under standard leaf temperature (30 °C), isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase inmore » isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn) resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn). Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1) resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C) from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C) with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv) were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  7. Opportunities for market-based programs worldwide that reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Initial Observations from Missions to the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanton-Hoyle, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    Globally, governments and industries are implementing innovative voluntary programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Often these programs encourage groups to use cost effective technologies that capture market-based forces. These programs are successful because they capitalize on existing opportunities where both the environment and the participants can benefit (i.e., win-win opportunities). This paper documents efforts to investigate these kinds of win-win opportunities in three developing countries: the Philippines, South Africa, and Mexico. Initial observations are provided as fresh information from the field, drawing on six missions during the last nine months. Utility costs, interest rates, and overall economic health appear to critically affect opportunities in each country. By contrast, details of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) design and local climate were often important differences between countries. These affect opportunities, for example, to achieve significant savings from cooling systems or not. Looking at the success of ESCOs was somewhat surprising. One might expect to see the most successful ESCO activity where utility costs are high and upgrade opportunities are plentiful (such as in the Philippines). This was not the case, however, as research in the Philippines did not reveal even one active ESCO contract yet. Design practices for new construction were in need of the same thing that helps US design teams do a better job of energy-efficient design, better communications between design team members. Finally, industrial firms were doing a variety of EE upgrades in each country, but this level of activity was relatively small compared to what should be cost effective.

  8. Tropical Western Pacific CART Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Contact: Douglas L. Sisterson Editor: Donna J. Holdridge CART sites in the TWP are in Manus Province in Papua New Guinea and on Nauru Island. The first site implemented ...

  9. ARM - Kiosks - Tropical Wester Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The scientific content is shared across all three TWP kiosks. Manus Island, Papua New Guinea The kiosk film crew goes out on the water to interview a fisherman from Manus Island. ...

  10. TROPICAL METEOROLOGY & Climate: Hadley Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-30

    The Hadley circulation, a prominent circulation feature characterized by rising air near the Equator and sinking air in the subtropics, defines the position of dry subtropical areas and is a fundamental regulator of the earth’s energy and momentum budgets. The character of the Hadley circulation, and its related precipitation regimes, exhibits variation and change in response to both climate variability and radiative forcing changes. The strength and position of the Hadley circulation change from year to year paced by El Niño and La Niña events. Over the last few decades of the twentieth century, the Hadley cell has expanded poleward in both hemispheres, with changes in atmospheric composition (including stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increases) thought to have contributed to its expansion. This article introduces the basic phenomenology and driving mechanism of the Hadley circulation and discusses its variations under both natural and anthropogenic climate forcings.

  11. Final Report for Research Conducted at The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego from 2/2002 to 8/2003 for ''Aerosol and Cloud-Field Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific: Analyses and General Circulation Model Parameterizations''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogelmann, A. M.

    2004-01-27

    OAK-B135 Final report from the University of California San Diego for an ongoing research project that was moved to Brookhaven National Laboratory where proposed work will be completed. The research uses measurements made by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to quantify the effects of aerosols and clouds on the Earth's energy balance in the climatically important Tropical Western Pacific.

  12. Spatial and temporal patterns of biotic exchanges of CO{sub 2} between the atmosphere and tropical landscapes and their role in the global carbon balance. Progress report of SUNY-ESF Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    At SUNY ESF, our overall objective for this year was to finish refining the methods used to convert our previous models of global carbon flux and land use change into a GIS-compatible format. We now have the ability to obtain, convert, and incorporate geographic data into spatial simulation models that describe past carbon exchange patterns, as well as predict future landuse change and carbon exchange. Our initial tests of this model in Peninsula Malaysia have been very promising, in that we are able to successfully predict land use from 1972 to 1982 and even from 1870 to 1970. In this context ``successful`` means that we classify in the model from 80 to 95 percent of the cells correctly, depending upon the number of land use types we try to predict. We are now preparing to apply this model to the entire continent of Africa and to Central America.

  13. Scientific Measure of Africa's Connectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zennaro, M.; Canessa, E.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Rehmatullah, A.A.; Cottrell, R.L.; /SLAC

    2006-04-24

    Data on Internet performance and the analysis of its trend can be useful for decision makers and scientists alike. Such performance measurements are possible using the PingER methodology. We use the data thus obtained to quantify the difference in performance between developed and developing countries, sometimes referred to as the Digital Divide. Motivated by the recent interest of G8 countries in African development, we particularly focus on the African countries.

  14. Erie County, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Places in Erie County, New York Akron, New York Alden, New York Amherst, New York Angola on the Lake, New York Angola, New York Billington Heights, New York Blasdell, New York...

  15. Property:KML URL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Andover, Massachusetts + http:finder.geocommons.comoverlaysdownload13475.kml + Angola + http:finder.geocommons.comoverlaysdownload7784.kml + Anguilla + http:...

  16. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Tropical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of ...

  17. Tropical Forest Trust | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Portland, Oregon. Overview "We focus on products and supply chains to bring about sustainable development. That's because we believe this is where the most concrete and powerful...

  18. Tropical Western Pacific: A Year in Darwin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the Australian BMRC (Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre) -University of Wales EMERALD-2 (Egrett Microphysics Experiment with RAdiation Lidar and Dynamics) aircraft...

  19. ARM - Lesson Plans: Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Solar Radiation on Land and Sea Environmental Changes Estimating Local Sea Level Expansion of Population and the Environment Global Warming Historical Climate Statistics ...

  20. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    August 6, 2009 [Facility News] Research Team Publishes Results from In-Depth Study of Sahel Climate System Bookmark and Share The Sahel region of West Africa has experienced long-term drought accompanied by profound socioeconomic consequences over the past 30 years. It is a favored location for the development of tropical easterly waves that may generate hurricanes. The Sahel region of West Africa has experienced long-term drought accompanied by profound socioeconomic consequences over the past

  1. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  2. AMF Deployment, Niamey, Niger, West Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plots and Baseline Instruments Rainfall Record (PDF) Publications List, (PDF) Experiment Planning RADAGAST Proposal Outreach Fact Sheets RADAGAST (PDF) Annual Climate Cycle in...

  3. IFC-Lighting Africa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    International Finance Corporation (IFC) Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Website http:www.lightingafrica.org...

  4. Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: Interactive...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the LEDS Global Partnership. When to Use This Tool While building a low emission strategy for your country's transportation system, this tool is most useful during these key...

  5. Africa Data Dissemination Service | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    used to monitor the vegetation condition (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI) and rainfall (RainFall Estimate, or RFE) across the entire African continent. The NDVI...

  6. U.S.-South Africa Energy Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South African Minister of Energy Benedict Martins and U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman met December 2, 2013, in Washington, DC, for the fourth U.S.-South African Energy Dialogue,...

  7. South Africa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MWhyear 23 2008 NREL Coal Reserves 33,241.30 Million Short Tons 9 2008 EIA Natural Gas Reserves 27,160,000 Cubic Meters (cu m) 102 2010 CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves...

  8. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    africa center (1) admin

  9. Fact #836: September 1, Non-OPEC Countries Supply Nearly Two...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Petroleum imports include crude oil and petroleum products. Other OPEC Countries include Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Qatar, and the ...

  10. Fact #887: August 24, 2015 The United States Supplies 15% of...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OPEC Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries. The OPEC countries are Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab ...

  11. Property:Iso3166Alpha2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Afghanistan + AF + Albania + AL + Algeria + DZ + American Samoa + AS + Andorra + AD + Angola + AO + Anguilla + AI + Antigua and Barbuda + AG + Argentina + AR + Armenia + AM +...

  12. Property:NumberOfPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 5 + Albania + 5 + Algeria + 6 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 1 + Antigua and Barbuda + 6 + Argentina + 12 + Armenia + 6 + Aruba +...

  13. Property:NumberOfDOELabPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 3 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 1 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 1 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 1...

  14. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attention. Arresting earlier declines, the region's top two producers, Nigeria and Angola, have each managed relatively robust production and export performances, helping...

  15. Property:Iso3166Numeric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + 004 + Albania + 008 + Algeria + 012 + American Samoa + 016 + Andorra + 020 + Angola + 024 + Anguilla + 660 + Antigua and Barbuda + 028 + Argentina + 032 + Armenia + 051 +...

  16. African Development Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    field and country offices across the continent." Shareholders Regional Members Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad...

  17. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPlanningPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 1 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 2 + Argentina + 5 + Armenia + 2 + Aruba + 0...

  18. Property:NumberOfResourceAssessmentsEnergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 1 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 1 + Aruba + 0...

  19. Property:NumberOfResourceAssessmentsLand | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  20. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  1. Property:NumberOfCLEANPrograms | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 0 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  2. Property:AdvancedEconomy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    false + Albania + false + Algeria + false + American Samoa + false + Andorra + false + Angola + false + Anguilla + false + Antigua and Barbuda + false + Argentina + false + Armenia...

  3. Steuben County, Indiana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steuben County, Indiana Steuben County Rural E M C Places in Steuben County, Indiana Angola, Indiana Ashley, Indiana Clear Lake, Indiana Fremont, Indiana Hamilton, Indiana...

  4. Property:NumberOfLowCarbonPlanningProgramsAgriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 0 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 0 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 1 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 1 + Argentina + 4 + Armenia + 2 + Aruba + 0...

  5. Property:Iso3166Alpha3 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + AFG + Albania + ALB + Algeria + DZA + American Samoa + ASM + Andorra + AND + Angola + AGO + Anguilla + AIA + Antigua and Barbuda + ATG + Argentina + ARG + Armenia + ARM +...

  6. MHK Projects/Raccourci Cut Off | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Label":"","visitedicon":"" Project Profile Project Start Date 112009 Project City Angola, LA Project StateProvince Louisiana Project Country United States Project Resource...

  7. Property:NumberOfSolarResources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    25) A Afghanistan + 1 + Albania + 0 + Algeria + 1 + American Samoa + 0 + Andorra + 0 + Angola + 0 + Anguilla + 0 + Antigua and Barbuda + 0 + Argentina + 1 + Armenia + 0 + Aruba + 0...

  8. Microsoft Word - TOC Section I Conformed thru Mod 274.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nicaragua, or Singapore); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African...

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of ...

  10. Improved atmosphere-ocean coupled modeling in the tropics for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These biases are caused by the responses of surface winds to SST bias and the thermocline structure to surface wind curls. We also showed that the warming biases in surface solar ...

  11. ARM Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Operations Management and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Partnerships All three TWP Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Stations (ARCS) are operated by indigenous staff. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), ARCS operations are performed ...

  12. Tropical Western Pacific T. Ackerman Pennsylvania Sate University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... conducted a Pilot Radiation Observation Experiment (PROBE) from November 1992 through February 1993 at a site in Kavieng, New Ireland Province, Papua New Guinea (2034'S, 150048'E). ...

  13. Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Manchester and Cambridge and the UK National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS). ... Research Council, University of Cambridge, UK National Centre for Atmospheric ...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is the largest global change research program supported ... physics in global climate models in order to improve ... and researchers around the world use continuous data ...

  15. A Lagrangian Interpretation of 3D Tropical Cloud Structure: ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrievals with Satellite Data A. M. Vogelmann, K. L. Johnson, M. P. Jensen, M. A. Miller, and M. J. Bartholomew Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York M. P. Jensen...

  16. ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Biak Order Data Bradley RV Franklin Order Data Tsukamoto RV Hakuho Order Data Miller R.V Kexue Sondes Order Data Miller RV Kexue Surface Meteorology Order Data Carter R...

  17. Aerosol Radiative Effects in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2001) found that during August to October 1997, such aerosols had a large impact on the surface radiative energy budget ... U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office ...

  18. Organic Solvent Tropical Report [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    2000-06-21

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an unmitigated organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines.

  19. ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was a data set suitable to provide the forcing and testing required by cloud resolving models and parameterizations in Global Climate Models (GCMs). This data set provided ...

  20. Impact of oil in the tropical marine environment. Technical pub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cintron, G.; Lugo, A.E.; Martinez, R.; Cintron, B.B.; Encarnacion, L.

    1981-11-01

    Oil spills have a devastating effect on biologically rich coastal environments. This report investigates this problem, covering damage by oil to biological systems, the use of dispersants (toxicity and considerations for dispersant use), impact of oil and dispersants on coral reefs, impact of oil on seagrass beds and sandy beaches, impact of oil on mangroves (seedling survival and tolerance, regeneration, forest type vulnerability, and cleanup and recovery activities in mangroves), conclusions, and recommendations. The study concludes that coral reefs and seagrass beds may escape significant spill damage if pollution is not chronic and if dispersants are not used. Sandy and rocky shores may be severely impacted but recover quickly. Mangroves are the most vulnerable coastal ecosystem. Recommendations are that oil spill contingency plans must be prepared for all areas, and that the necessary equipment for the plans must be in place.

  1. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  2. Radiative-dynamical consequences of dry tongues in the tropical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The authors hypothesize that radiation is responsible for the thermal structure of dry tongues. A composite-derived radiative heating perturbation, acting for 3.5 days in an ...

  3. Tropical anvil cirrus evolution from observations and numerical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 hours. Their cloud properties such as IWC and particle size decrease with the cirrus ages. While the mean ambient air motion changes very subtle after 6 hours old. Most...

  4. Power Outages Update: Post-Tropical Cyclone Sandy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hurricane Sandy has landed and the Energy Department is working closely to support state and local officials who are responsible for working with utilities.

  5. Smart and Just Grids: Opportunities for Sub-Saharan Africa |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentsmart-and-just-grids-opportunities-su Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives,Regulations" is not in...

  6. Current Status of Energy Efficiency in South Africa (Presentation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentspain-installed-wind-capacity-website Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: Feed-in Tariffs This website presents an...

  7. ORISE: Radiation Emergency Training for Iraq, South Africa and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Training REACTS Provides International Radiation Emergency Medical Response ... REACTS has conducted radiation emergency medical response training in Iraq, Kuwait, ...

  8. Carbon Market Opportunities for the Forestry Sector of Africa...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the United Nations, Winrock International Sector: Land Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type:...

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa-KITE Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Conventional Energy, Energy Efficiency, Renewable Energy Topics Finance, Co-benefits assessment, Implementation, Policiesdeployment programs,...

  10. ESMAP-Rural Electrification Strategies/Africa Electrification...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    World Bank, International Finance Corporation (IFC) Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy, Grid Assessment and Integration Topics Co-benefits assessment,...

  11. South Africa-Low Carbon Growth Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assistance Program of the World Bank Sector Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Transportation Topics GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Policies...

  12. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Ministerial Consultation known as "The Big Table" . Started in 2000, a small group of African Ministers of Finance gather with...

  13. South Africa-Capital Markets Climate Initiative | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Climate Initiative (CMCI) is a public-private initiative designed to support the scale up of private finance flows for low carbon technologies, solutions and...

  14. Africa - Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Technical Potential of Solar...

  15. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study: South Africa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Social impacts may include health (mortality and morbidity), poverty reduction, education, ... impacts and certain development impacts including GDP, employment, and povertywelfare. ...

  16. Sustainable Energy Society Southern Africa (SESSA) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    use of renewable energy and energy efficiencyincluding all solar-based energies such as photovoltaics, thermal heating and cooling, wind, biomass and hydro, to name a few. Other...

  17. Carbon Capture and Storage in Southern Africa | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assessment of the rationale, possibilities and capacity needs to enable CO2 capture and storage in Botswana, Mozambique and Namibia AgencyCompany Organization Energy Research...

  18. South Africa-GTZ Bus Rapid Transit Johannesburg | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and 20 stations, will be completed by June 2009 and shall be operational before the Soccer Confederation Cup in June 2009. Phase 1B (intended to bring the total busways to 63km...

  19. South Africa-Low Carbon Growth Strategy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The top mitigation priorities were identified as: industrial energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy, modal shift through improved public transportation, and improved...

  20. Oil and gas developments in North Africa in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel, R.C.

    1985-10-01

    Petroleum rights in the 6 North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia) covered in this paper were 1,906,065 km/sup 2/ at the end of 1984. An increase of 4.6% from the 1,821,966 km/sup 2/ in force at the end of 1983. This increase is due to large awards in the Sudan despite significant relinquishments elsewhere. Seismic surveys conducted during 1984 decreased to about 510.5 crew-months onshore and 29.5 crew-months offshore. However, exploration in and off Egypt was higher compared to 1983. Exploratory drilling was lower, with only 125 wells drilled compared to 179 tests completed in 1983. The main decrease was in Egypt and Sudan, but drilling in Libya resulted in 20 more completions. A significant oil discovery was made in the offshore part of the Sirte basin, off southwest Cyrenaica. The success rate in North America ranged from 19% to 50% (Libya). Development drilling increased during 1984, as higher activity appears to have taken place in 3 countries. Oil production, with an estimated daily rate of 2,952,570 bbl, was 2.8% from 1983 (2,871,460 BOPD). In Egypt, 7 fields located in the Gulf of Suez area went on stream during the year. Political unrest, which prevailed in southern Sudan during most of 1984, will likely delay the start-up of production in several fields. No statistics are available on gas production in North African countries. 9 figures, 27 tables.

  1. Solar electricity for Africa: The case of Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plas, R.J. van der

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.

  2. South Africa-World Bank Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of power generation, whereas renewable energy power generation is a substitute for fossil fuel power generation. As a result, solar water heating transactions are not linked to...

  3. South Africa-Developing Climate Policy Capacity within the South...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Affairs (DEA), Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Sector Energy Focus Area Energy Efficiency Topics Background analysis,...

  4. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from Buildings AgencyCompany Organization United Nations Environment Programme Sector Energy Focus Area Buildings Topics Baseline projection, GHG inventory, Pathways analysis,...

  5. Africa Climate Policy Centre (ACPC) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Centre (ACPC) is to become a credible knowledge hub, effectively contributing towards poverty reduction through successful adaptation to, and mitigation of climate change impacts...

  6. United States and South Africa Sign Agreement on Cooperation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This Agreement will facilitate cooperation in the areas of advanced nuclear energy systems and reactor technology. The two countries will collaborate in research and development of ...

  7. South Africa-Measurement and Performance Tracking (MAPT) Initiative...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    emission development planning, -NAMA Resource Type Case studiesexamples, Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices, Training materials, Workshop Website http:www.wri.org...

  8. Gender Mainstreaming Guide for the Africa Biogas Partnership...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Biomass Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.energia.orgfileadminfilesmediapubs...

  9. Making Africa's Power Sector Sustainable: An Analysis of Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Energy Access, - Environmental and Biodiversity Resource Type: Guidemanual, Lessons learnedbest practices Website: www.uneca.orgecaprogrammesnridpubspowersectorreport.pdf...

  10. Power Africa's Beyond the Grid Increasing Access through Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Acumen Fund Bamboo Finance BBOXX Capricorn Investment Group CrossBoundary d.light Embark Energy Energiya Global Fenix International Global Off-Grid Lighting Association Gray Ghost ...

  11. South Africa-Clean Technology Fund (CTF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4.85 billion from other sources, to accelerate global deployment of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). It will do so by investing in the CSP programs of five countries in the...

  12. DOE Hosts U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Ambassador Roundtable

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On March 9, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy and Secretary Moniz hosted over 35 ambassadors to the United States from across the African continent.

  13. South Africa-Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    illustrates the U.S. perspective on LEDS: Integrated development goals and objectives, national greenhouse gas inventory, and economic and resource data Long-term projections of...

  14. MHK Projects/South Africa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ocean Energy Ltd Project Technology *MHK TechnologiesAquaBuoy Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  15. South Africa-Facilitating Implementation and Readiness for Mitigation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    six to eight developing countries to strengthen their national low carbon development strategies and get a "quick start" on NAMAs. The focus will be on reducing emissions of...

  16. South Africa-The World Bank Partnership for Market Readiness...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Morocco Implement climate change mitigation policy as part of National Plan against Global Warming. PMR Support: Establish MRV framework. Identify and develop crediting NAMAs...

  17. South Africa-Mitigation Action Plans and Scenarios (MAPS) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in an effort to build best practice, share tools and research and to create a growing body of knowledge, from a developing country perspective, that is accessible to the...

  18. Africa's Infrastructure: A Time for Transformation | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Available Website: siteresources.worldbank.orgINTAFRICAResourcesaicdoverviewenglish This article provides an extensive knowledge base of the African infrastructure...

  19. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Sadie; Nawaz, Kathleen; Sandor, Debra

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  20. Implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism in Asia and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia, South-Eastern Asia, "Pacific" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  1. Energy Outlook in Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Central Asia, "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  2. IEA Implementing Agreements | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    this property., "Western & Eastern Europe" is not in the list of possible values (Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western Africa, Caribbean,...

  3. Microsoft PowerPoint - Session2_Rogers.pptx

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Equatorial Guinea Egypt B i Malaysia Nigeria ORD INSTITUT 200 Brunei Australia Angola Algeria Malaysia Indonesia Australia OXFO - Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 ...

  4. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...... 3.1 314 351 -37 31 912.9 0 - 198 81 144.9 Ecuador ...... 3.0 303 215 88 204 48.5 324 -6.5 - - - Angola ...

  5. Word Pro - S11

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Algeria Angola Ecuador Indo- nesia Iran Iraq Kuwait a Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia a ... For example, Ecuador rejoined OPEC in 2007 and is thus included in "Total OPEC" for all ...

  6. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    90.53 76.28 36.67 90.19 56.43 12.64 Ecuador 1 Oriente 30 ......2007, Angola became a member of OPEC. Ecuador rejoined OPEC effective November 2007. ...

  7. Measuring the Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence and the Benefits of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    exporters operating as OPEC." Prof. M. Adelman, MIT, 2004. Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia UAE Venezuela 0 20 40 60 80 100 120...

  8. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    consumers of African crude oil, primarily light sweet crude from Nigeria, Algeria, and Angola, with the United States taking 2 million bbld, or about one-quarter, of African crude...

  9. TABLE38.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    OPEC ... 72,086 1,138 9,203 1,472 417 19 404 571 0 74 Angola ... 1,474 0 80 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina...

  10. TABLE35.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 160,260 4,335 13,631 15,344 16,656 2,431 7,861 9,379 5 217 Angola ... 11,020 0 80 0 0 0 0 383 0 0 Argentina...

  11. Steuben County Rural E M C | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steuben County Rural E M C Address: 1212 S. Wayne Street Place: Angola, Indiana Zip: 46703 Phone Number: 260.665.3563 Website: www.remcsteuben.com Twitter: @steubencoremc...

  12. TABLE41.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 182,217 6,992 9,071 75,369 86,125 7,090 53,663 46,617 402 911 Angola ... 33,919 0 0 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Argentina...

  13. This Week In Petroleum Printer-Friendly Version

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    per day from a base production level of 27.5 million barrels per day (excluding Angola and Iraq), have firmed oil markets. Although OPEC did not achieve total compliance,...

  14. ETH Bioenergia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ethanol, sugar and power plant developer and producer, with projects in Brazil and Angola. References: ETH Bioenergia1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  15. TABLE44.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 89,852 349 4,995 9,344 4,244 10,635 2,403 6,068 0 0 Angola ... 2,803 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina...

  16. TABLE36.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 25,055 559 3,328 12,017 15,173 1,142 6,883 7,565 5 117 Angola ... 5,371 0 0 0 0 0 0 383 0 0 Argentina...

  17. Major marine source rocks and stratigraphic cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B.C.

    1995-11-01

    The identification of continental encroachment cycles and subcycles by using sequence stratigraphy can assist explorationists in locating source rocks. The continental encroachment cycles are associated with the breakup of the supercontinents and fit a smooth long-term eustatic curve. They are first order, with a duration greater than 50 m.y., and are composed of transgressive and regressive phases inducing major changes in shoreline. The limit between the transgressive and regressive phases corresponds to a major downlap surface, and major marine source rocks are often found in association with this surface, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Potential {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} source rock intervals can also be sought by sequence stratigraphy because each continental encroachment cycle is composed of several subcycles, and the same configuration of a regressive forestepping phase overlying a transgressive backstepping phase also creates a downlap surface that may correspond with organic-rich intervals. The stratigraphic distribution of source rocks and related reserves fits reasonably well with continental encroachment cycles and subcycles. For instance, source rocks of Silurian, Upper Jurassic, and Middle-Upper Cretaceous are associated with eustatic highs and bear witness to this relationship. The recognition and mapping of such downlap surfaces is therefore a useful step to help map source rocks. The interpretation of sequence stratigraphy from regional seismic lines, properly calibrated with geochernical data whenever possible, can be of considerable help in the process. Several examples from around the world illustrate the power of the method: off-shore of eastern Venezuela, coastal basin of Angola, western Africa, the North Sea, south Algeria, and the North Caucasian trough.

  18. Coupled land-ocean-atmosphere processes and South Asian monsoon variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meehl, G.A.

    1994-10-14

    Results from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model and a model with specified tropical convective heating anomalies show that the South Asian monsoon was an active part of the tropical biennial oscillation (TBO). Convective heating anomalies over Africa and the western Pacific Ocean associated with the TBO altered the simulated pattern of atmospheric circulation for the Northern Hemisphere winter mid-latitude over Asia. This alteration in the mid-latitude circulation maintained temperature anomalies over South Asia through winter and helped set up the land-sea temperature contrast for subsequent monsoon development. South Asian snow cover contributed to monsoon strength but was symptomatic of the larger scale alteration in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation pattern. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  19. OSIRIS-Country-by-Country Opportunity Cost Curves | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.conservation.orgosirisPagesoverview.aspx Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa, Middle Africa, Northern Africa, Southern Africa, Western...

  20. Tropical Storm Frances and Hurricane Ivan Situation Report, September 9, 2004 (10:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-09

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  1. Vertical air motions over the Tropical Western Pacific for validating cloud resolving and regional models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Christopher R.

    2015-03-16

    The objective of this project was to estimate the vertical air motion using Doppler velocity spectra from two side-by-side vertically pointing radars. The retrieval technique was applied to two different sets of radars. This first set was 50- and 920-MHz vertically pointing radars near Darwin, Australia. The second set was 449-MHz and 2.8-GHz vertically pointing radars deployed at SGP for MC3E. The retrieval technique uses the longer wavelength radar (50 or 449 MHz) to observe both the vertical air motion and precipitation motion while the shorter wavelength radar (920 MHz or 2.8 GHz) observes just the precipitation motion. By analyzing their Doppler velocity spectra, the precipitation signal in the 920 MHz or 2.8 GHz radar is used to mask-out the precipitation signal in the 50 or 449 MHz radar spectra, leaving just the vertical air motion signal.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodoo, D.K.; Essumang, D.K.; Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K.

    2012-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  3. Comparison of Simulated and Observed Continental Tropical Anvil Clouds and Their Radiative Heating Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Scott W.; Houze, R.; Kumar, Anil; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-06

    Vertically pointing millimeter-wavelength radar observations of anvil clouds extending from mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that pass over an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) field site in Niamey, Niger, are compared to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model using six different microphysical schemes. The radar data provide the statistical distribution of the radar reflectivity values as a function of height and anvil thickness. These statistics are compared to the statistics of the modeled anvil cloud reflectivity at all altitudes. Requiring the model to be statistically accurate at all altitudes is a stringent test of the model performance. The typical vertical profile of radiative heating in the anvil clouds is computed from the radar observations. Variability of anvil structures from the different microphysical schemes provides an estimate of the inherent uncertainty in anvil radiative heating profiles. All schemes underestimate the optical thickness of thin anvils and cirrus, resulting in a bias of excessive net anvil heating in all of the simulations.

  4. Tropical Soil Bacterium Frees Plant Sugars for Biofuels | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    As part of research to improve biofuel production processes, ... abundant, and nonfood energy source that could be used to make sustainable and economically feasible biofuels. ...

  5. Big Data Analaysis and Visualization: What Do LINACS and Tropical Storms Have In Common?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Byna, Suren; Chou, Jerry; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Howison, Mark; Li, Fuyu; Qiang, Ji; Ruebel, Oliver; Ryne, Rob D.; Wehner, Michael; Wu, Kesheng

    2012-08-28

    While there is wisdom in the old adage "the two constants in life are death and taxes,'' there are unavoidable truths facing modern experimental and computational science. First is the growing "impedance mismatch'' between our ability to collect and generate data, and our ability to store, manage, and gain understanding from it. The second is the fact that we cannot continue to rely on the same software technologies that have worked well for the past couple of decades for data management, analysis, and visualization. A third is that these complementary activities must be considered in a holistic, rather than Balkanized way. The inseparable interplay between data management, analysis, visualization, and high performance computational infrastructure, are best viewed through the lens of case studies from multiple scientific domains, where teams of computer and scientists combine forces to tackle challenging data understanding problems.

  6. ON THE INSTABILITY OF TROPICAL WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL DURING THE BOREAL WINTER AND SPRING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BARR-KUMARAKULASINGHE,S.A.

    1998-03-23

    A source of instability in the western Pacific warm pool is shown to be due to sea surface elevation variations caused by changes in the zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient and the changes in the Pacific Ocean basin length in relation to the warm pool latitudinal location. The variation of the sea-surface elevation is measured by using the thermocline depth response calculated from a two-layer ocean. The warm pool is shown to be barely at equilibrium during the boreal late winter and early spring by comparing the measured thermocline at 110{degree}W, 0{degree}E with the calculated thermocline depth. Based on this analysis, a failure or reversal of the climatological zonal winds are apparently not a necessary precursor for the instability of the warm pool and initiation of a warm event. A warm event can be initiated by an increase in the size of the warm pool and/or an increase in zonal SST differences during the boreal/winter spring. This mechanism could be an alternate mechanism for El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamics to that postulated by Bjeknes (1969).

  7. Improved atmosphere-ocean coupled modeling in the tropics for climate prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Minghua

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the initial development of the double ITCZ in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM Version 3) in the central Pacific. Starting from a resting initial condition of the ocean in January, the model developed a warm bias of sea-surface temperature (SST) in the central Pacific from 5oS to 10oS in the first three months. We found this initial bias to be caused by excessive surface shortwave radiation that is also present in the standalone atmospheric model. The initial bias is further amplified by biases in both surface latent heat flux and horizontal heat transport in the upper ocean. These biases are caused by the responses of surface winds to SST bias and the thermocline structure to surface wind curls. We also showed that the warming biases in surface solar radiation and latent heat fluxes are seasonally offset by cooling biases from reduced solar radiation after the austral summer due to cloud responses and in the austral fall due to enhanced evaporation when the maximum SST is closest to the equator. The warming biases from the dynamic heat transport by ocean currents however stay throughout all seasons once they are developed, which are eventually balanced by enhanced energy exchange and penetration of solar radiation below the mixed layer. Our results also showed that the equatorial cold tongue develops after the warm biases in the south central Pacific, and the overestimation of surface shortwave radiation recurs in the austral summer in each year.

  8. Managing nontechnical risks associated with seismic operations in the tropical rain forests of Ecuador

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, G.; Smith, G.R.; Vacas, F.J.; Swingholm, E.K.; Yuill, R.M.; Aleman, M.A.

    1997-04-21

    Companies operating in sensitive areas are being challenged to address the environmental and social issues while preserving these areas for future generations. This increased international attention on environmental and sociocultural issues has led Amoco to focus efforts on developing new ideas and strategies to facilitate environmental and cultural management. In Ecuador, the major oil producing region is the Ecuadorian portion of the Amazon Basin, referred to locally as the Oriente. Amoco Ecuador BV recently completed a seismic acquisition program in the Oriente with minimum impact to the environment and the communities within the project area. The goal of this article is to describe Amoco`s experience in managing environmental, social, and public perception issues associated with seismic operations in the rain forests of Ecuador.

  9. Tropical deforestation: Small farmers and land clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudel, T.K.; Horowitz, B.

    1993-01-01

    This book examines deforestation in Equador, focusing on a case study of the Rio Upano Valley of Morona-Santiago as representing the type of deforestation prevalent in Equador. The first chapter briefly described deforestation patterns while the second presents a theory of forest destruction with two models of class interactions between rich and poor populations. Presentation of the representative case follows. The book illustrates the problem of cummulative effects of many small farmers in deforestation.

  10. Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    This is a special analysis report on hurricanes and their effects on oil and natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico region.

  11. Hurricane/ Tropical Storm Ophelia Situation Report #3, September 16, 2005 (9:30 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-16

    Highlights and electricity information are provided reflecting the current status of the impacts of Hurricane Rita on outages.

  12. Baselines For Land-Use Change In The Tropics: Application ToAvoided Deforestation Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sandra; Hall, Myrna; Andrasko, Ken; Ruiz, Fernando; Marzoli, Walter; Guerrero, Gabriela; Masera, Omar; Dushku, Aaron; Dejong,Ben; Cornell, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Although forest conservation activities particularly in thetropics offer significant potential for mitigating carbon emissions,these types of activities have faced obstacles in the policy arena causedby the difficulty in determining key elements of the project cycle,particularly the baseline. A baseline for forest conservation has twomain components: the projected land-use change and the correspondingcarbon stocks in the applicable pools such as vegetation, detritus,products and soil, with land-use change being the most difficult toaddress analytically. In this paper we focus on developing and comparingthree models, ranging from relatively simple extrapolations of pasttrends in land use based on simple drivers such as population growth tomore complex extrapolations of past trends using spatially explicitmodels of land-use change driven by biophysical and socioeconomicfactors. The three models of the latter category used in the analysis atregional scale are The Forest Area Change (FAC) model, the Land Use andCarbon Sequestration (LUCS) model, and the Geographical Modeling (GEOMOD)model. The models were used to project deforestation in six tropicalregions that featured different ecological and socioeconomic conditions,population dynamics, and uses of the land: (1) northern Belize; (2) SantaCruz State, Bolivia; (3) Parana State in Brazil; (4) Campeche, Mexico;(5) Chiapas, Mexico; and (6) Michoacan, Mexico. A comparison of all modeloutputs across all six regions shows that each model produced quitedifferent deforestation baseline. In general, the simplest FAC model,applied at the national administrative-unit scale, projected the highestamount of forest loss (four out of six) and the LUCS model the leastamount of loss (four out of five). Based on simulations of GEOMOD, wefound that readily observable physical and biological factors as well asdistance to areas of past disturbance were each about twice as importantas either sociological/demographic or economic/infrastructure factors(less observable) in explaining empirical land-use patterns. We proposefrom the lessons learned, a methodology comprised of three main steps andsix tasks can be used to begin developing credible baselines. We alsopropose that the baselines be projected over a 10-year period because,although projections beyond 10 years are feasible, they are likely to beunrealistic for policy purposes. In the first step, an historic land-usechange and deforestation estimate is made by determining the analyticdomain (size of the region relative to the size of proposed project),obtaining historic data, analyzing candidate historic baseline drivers,and identifying three to four major drivers. In the second step, abaseline of where deforestation is likely to occur --a potential land-usechange (PLUC) map is produced using a spatial model such as GEOMOD thatuses the key drivers from step one. Then rates of deforestation areprojected over a 10-year baseline period using any of the three models.Using the PLUC maps, projected rates of deforestation, and carbon stockestimates, baselineprojections are developed that can be used for projectGHG accounting and crediting purposes: The final step proposes that, atagreed interval (eg, +10 years), the baseline assumptions about baselinedrivers be re-assessed. This step reviews the viability of the 10-yearbaseline in light of changes in one or more key baseline drivers (e.g.,new roads, new communities, new protected area, etc.). The potentialland-use change map and estimates of rates of deforestation could beredone at the agreed interval, allowing the rates and changes in spatialdrivers to be incorporated into a defense of the existing baseline, orderivation of a new baseline projection.

  13. Tropical Storm Frances/ Hurricane Ivan Situation Report, September 10, 2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none, none

    2004-09-10

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information and oil and gas information are provided.

  14. Tropical Storm Frances/ Hurricane Ivan Situation Report, September 10, 2014 (10:00 AM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-10

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, county outage data, and a table for restoration targets/status are provided.

  15. Tropical Storm Frances and Hurricane Ivan Situation Report, September 9, 2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-09

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Ivan in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, are provided.

  16. Tropical Storm Frances Situation Report, September 8,2004 (4:00 PM EDT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-08

    The report provides highlights related to impacts of Hurricane Frances in the Florida area. Sections on electric information, oil and gas information, and county outage data are provided.

  17. Tropical sea snail shells: Possible exotic sources for ceramic biomaterial synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oktar, F. N.; Kiyici, I. A.; Gke, H.; A?aogullar?, D.; Kayali, E. S.

    2013-12-16

    In this study, chemical and structural properties of sea snail shell based bioceramic materials (i.e. hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and other phases) are produced by using mechano-chemical (ultrasonic) conversion method. For this purpose, differential thermal and gravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction, infra-red (IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are performed.

  18. Study of Multi-Scale Cloud Processes Over the Tropical Western...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    However, a significant challenge in using CRMs in the TWP is that the region lacks conventional data, so large uncertainty exists in defining the large-scale environment for ...

  19. Amazon Column CO2 and CO Observations to Elucidate Tropical Ecosystem...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Dubey, Manvendra Krishna 1 ; Parker, Harrison Alexander 1 ; Myers, Katherine Elizabeth 1 ; Wennberg, P 2 ; Wunch, D 2 ; Allen, N 3 ; Blavier, J-F 4 ; ...

  20. Carbon Flux to the Atmosphere from Land-Use Changes: 1850 to 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.

    2001-02-22

    The database documented in this numeric data package, a revision to a database originally published by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) in 1995, consists of annual estimates, from 1850 through 1990, of the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere resulting from deliberate changes in land cover and land use, especially forest clearing for agriculture and the harvest of wood for wood products or energy. The data are provided on a year-by-year basis for nine regions (North America, South and Central America, Europe, North Africa and the Middle East, Tropical Africa, the Former Soviet Union, China, South and Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Developed Region) and the globe. Some data begin earlier than 1850 (e.g., for six regions, areas of different ecosystems are provided for the year 1700) or extend beyond 1990 (e.g., fuelwood harvest in South and Southeast Asia, by forest type, is provided through 1995). The global net flux during the period 1850 to 1990 was 124 Pg of carbon (1 petagram = 10{sup 15} grams). During this period, the greatest regional flux was from South and Southeast Asia (39 Pg of carbon), while the smallest regional flux was from North Africa and the Middle East (3 Pg of carbon). For the year 1990, the global total net flux was estimated to be 2.1 Pg of carbon.

  1. Analysis of Long-range Clean Energy Investment Scenarios forEritrea, East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Buskirk, Robert D.

    2004-05-07

    We discuss energy efficiency and renewable energy investments in Eritrea from the strategic long-term economic perspective of meeting Eritrea's sustainable development goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are potentially important contributors to national productive capital accumulation, enhancement of the environment, expansion of energy services, increases in household standard of living, and improvements in health. In this study we develop a spreadsheet model for calculating some of the national benefits and costs of different levels of investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy. We then present the results of the model in terms of investment demand and investment scenario curves. These curves express the contribution that efficiency and renewable energy projects can make in terms of reduced energy sector operating expenses, and reduced carbon emissions. We provide demand and supply curves that show the rate of return, the cost of carbon emissions reductions vs. supply, and the evolution of the marginal carbon emissions per dollar of GDP for different investment levels and different fuel-type subsectors.

  2. Oil and gas developments in South Africa, Central America, Caribbean Area, and Mexico in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    For the 25 countries described in the region, exploration activity continued to be centered in proven petroleum provinces in 1984. Exploration activity increased in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Important, successful exploration efforts continued in areas around Cano Limon field in Colombia, and Guafita and La Victoria fields in Venezuela. Notable discoveries in South America included the 42-46-1X San Martin Cretaceous discovery by Shell in the Ucayali basin in Peru, the significant oil and gas discovery at Palmar Largo ES-1 by YPF in Argentina, and the first offshore gas discovery, the Pecten 1-SPS-20 wildcat in the Santo basin in Brazil. Oil production increased in Barbados, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. A notable increase (40%) in oil production occurred in Brazil. Gas production increased in Argentina, Barbados, Colombia, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. 8 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Facies distributions within contrasting structural components of a rift lake: Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soreghan, M.J.; Cohen, A.S. )

    1991-03-01

    Lake Tanganyika is the most widely cited modern analog for interpreting ancient rift lakes; thus, understanding controls on its facies distribution is critical for refining stratigraphic models for rifts. Four recurrent margin types occur along the alternating half-graben structure of the lake: rift axes, platforms, escarpments, and accommodation zones. Data from study sites in the northern part of the lake suggest that predictable facies differences exist between these structural margin types. The rift axis site comprises a low-gradient, clastic (wave/current)-dominated deltaic system, with strong facies asymmetry and minor carbonate accumulations on raised benches. The platform margin site comprises a series of structurally controlled benches over which long, continuous facies tracts occur. Carbonate sands, muds, and shell gravel dominate; clastics are limited to moderate-sized silty deltas and long, narrow shoreface sands. The escarpment margin site is a steep-gradient system along which small ({lt}1 km{sup 2}) fan deltas alternate with cemented talus. The accommodation zone margin sites are also dominated by rugged structural relief, generally small fan deltas, and semicontinuous shoreface sand belts ({gt}5 km) onshore and poorly sorted silts offshore. TOC from fine-grained samples reflects the contrast in margin types. TOC values for the platform and rift axis range from 0.4 - 2.1 wt. % (avg. 1.3%), whereas accommodation zone and escarpment margin values range from 0.5-5.5% (avg. 3.0%). Acid insoluble sulfur shows a similar trend. Although all data are significantly correlated with depth, the relative area of the lake margin above and below the oxicline is directly controlled by the structural style of the lake margin.

  4. The sup 36 Cl ages of the brines in the Magadi-Natron basin, east Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, A.; Margaritz, M.A.; Hollos, G. ); Paul, M.; Boaretto, E. ); Hillaire-Marcel, C. ); Taieb, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The depression in the East African Rift which includes both Lake Magadi and Lake Natron forms a closed basin within which almost all the dissolved chloride originates in precipitation, since there is no important source of very ancient sedimentary chloride. This provides an ideal setting for the evaluation of the {sup 36}Cl methodology as a geochemical and hydrological tracer. The main source of recent water, as represented by the most dilute samples measured, is characterized by a {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio of 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}, in agreement with the calculated value expected in precipitation. Surface evaporation increases the chlorinity of the local freshwater inflow by about a factor of 110 without changing the isotopic ratio, indicating that little chloride enters the system in the form of sediment leachate. A second type of brine found in the basin occurs in a hot deep groundwater reservoir and is characterized by lower {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios (<1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}14}). By comparing this value with the 2.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} in recent recharge, one obtains an approximate salt accumulation age of 760 Ka which is consistent with thee time of the first appearance of the lake. These older brines also have lower {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H values which indicate that they were recharged during a climatically different era. The {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in the inflowing waters and in the accumulated brine, together with the known age of the Lake Magadi basin, may be used to estimate the importance of the hypogene and epigene, as opposed to the meteoric, mode of {sup 36}Cl production. Such a calculation shows that the hypogene and epigene processes together contribute less than 6% of the total {sup 36}Cl present in the lake.

  5. Secretary Moniz's Remarks at the Powering Africa Summit in Washington, D.C.

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Conference -- As Delivered | Department of Energy Thanks, Bill. I had not expected my Fall River heritage to feature in the introduction. But as most of you could just imagine, it was a great pleasure working with Bill over these last years, and our paths will cross more here I'm sure to Carnegie. But to be honest, they cross more often than I had thought still back in some of the old haunts, and Bill did a --did a great job, as you -- as you know. I know this conference is looking at a very

  6. U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial Co-Chairs' Summary from Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of Djibouti, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, the Gabonese Republic, the Republic of the Gambia,...

  7. Municipal solid waste management in Africa: Strategies and livelihoods in Yaounde, Cameroon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parrot, Laurent Sotamenou, Joel; Dia, Bernadette Kamgnia

    2009-02-15

    This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the capital of Cameroon, Yaounde, and suggests some possible solutions for its improvement. The institutional, financial, and physical aspects of MSW management, as well as the livelihoods of the population, were analyzed. Our study revealed that distances and lack of infrastructure have a major impact on waste collection. Garbage bins are systematically mentioned as the primary infrastructure needed by the population in all quarters, whether it be a high or low standard community. The construction of transfer stations and the installation of garbage bins are suggested as a solution to reduce distances between households and garbage bins, thus improving waste collection vehicle accessibility. Transfer stations and garbage bins would enable the official waste collection company to expand its range of services and significantly improve waste collection rates. Several transfer stations have already been set up by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), but they require technical, institutional and funding support. Research is needed on the quality and safety of community-made compost, as well as on soil fertility in urban and peri-urban areas. Most of the stakeholders, municipalities, the official waste collection company and households acknowledge the need for better monitoring and regulation of MSW management. The urban community of Yaounde also needs to maintain its support of MSW management and promote the sustainability of NGOs and CBOs operating in underserved areas not yet covered by adequate infrastructures. A major opportunity for implementation of such waste policy is the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) program dedicated to urban planning and good governance.

  8. Poverty and Energy in Africa - A Brief Review | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization: Stephen Karekezi - African Energy Research Policy Network Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource...

  9. Characteristics of some submarine fan channels, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouma, A.H. ); Dev Wickens, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The vary well exposed submarine fan complex in the southwestern part of the Karoo basin permits close examination of channel-fills and in places their associated overbank deposits. The complex comprises five arenaceous fan systems some of which attain 60 m in thickness. The fans are vertically stacked and separated by basinal shale deposits; each system with its own direction of growth. The association of channelized sandstone bodies and thin-bedded sandstone and shale packages in an updip position from predominantly stacked lobe deposits suggest preservation of middle fan settings. A 500 m wide, 20 m thick channel-fill consisting massive amalgamated sandstone beds occupying the channel thalweg occurs in a setting dominated by thin-bedded, ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Gradual thinning of the channel-fill beds toward the channel edges, lack of internal lateral accretion, and a high width to depth ratio suggests a low sinuous to straight channel. The channel-fill is capped by an abandonment facies characterized by ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Stacked, laterally offset channel-fill deposits with highly erosional contacts and typical well-bedded overbank deposits form channel-overbank complexes and characterize the mid-fan region of the uppermost fan system. Palaeocurrent directions and gradual diminishing of bed-thickness away from the generally massively bedded, amalgamated channel-fill sandstones confirm a simultaneous channel/overbank origin for these deposits. Levee morphology has not been recognized. Both examples of channel-fills cited reveal part of the complexity of the channelized portions of submarine fans and hence the implications thereof in exploring for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  10. Non-Economic Determinants of Energy Use in Rural Areas of South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annecke, W.

    1999-03-29

    This project will begin to determine the forces and dimensions in rural energy-use patterns and begin to address policy and implementation needs for the future. This entails: Forecasting the social and economic benefits that electrification is assumed to deliver regarding education and women's lives; Assessing negative perceptions of users, which have been established through the slow uptake of electricity; Making recommendations as to how these perceptions could be addressed in policy development and in the continuing electrification program; Making recommendations to policy makers on how to support and make optimal use of current energy-use practices where these are socio-economically sound; Identifying misinformation and wasteful practices; and Other recommendations, which will significantly improve the success of the rural electrification program in a socio-economically sound manner, as identified in the course of the work.

  11. Secretary Moniz to Lead Delegation to U.S.-Africa Energy Ministerial...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rajiv Shah, Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development; Fred Hochberg, Chairman of the Export-Import Bank of the U.S.; Gayle Smith, Special Assistant to the ...

  12. Total All Countries Exports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech

  13. Word Pro - S3

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Algeria a Angola b Ecuador c Iraq Kuwait d Libya e Nigeria f Saudi Arabia d Vene- zuela ... in "Total Non-OPEC" on Table 3.3d. c Ecuador was a member of OPEC from 1973-1992, and ...

  14. Weekly Preliminary Crude Imports by Top 10 Countries of Origin...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Kuwait 165 343 552 258 136 72 2010-2016 8- Nigeria 348 66 60 351 314 103 2010-2016 9- Ecuador 329 143 219 215 303 195 2010-2016 10-Angola 323 236 155 419 65 113 2010-2016 Algeria ...

  15. Total number of slots consumed in long_excl.q (exclusive nodes) will be

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Destination Destination: Total All Countries Afghanistan Albania Algeria Andora Angola Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bahama Islands Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Bermuda Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech

  16. Fact #733: June 25, 2012 World's Top Petroleum-Producing Countries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Iran 4.2 China 4.1 Canada 3.6 United Arab Emirates 3.1 Mexico 2.9 Kuwait 2.7 Brazil 2.6 Iraq 2.6 Nigeria 2.5 Venezuela 2.5 Norway 2.0 Algeria 1.9 Angola 1.8 Kazakhstan 1.6 Qatar ...

  17. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8.PDF Table 28. PAD District 2 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 1,552 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  18. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 June 2016 Table 42. PAD District 2 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 801 - - - - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  19. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Emirates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 1,042 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 38,164 55 4,512 0 0 94 94 Angola 950 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  20. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    32,182 276 57 993 905 708 1,613 Non OPEC 146,826 378 6,754 20,047 7,776 10,220 17,996 Angola 13,518 0 0 374 0 0 0 Argentina 1,437 0 0 202 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 3,914 0 0 0 Australia...

  1. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Emirates 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 1,098 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 36,529 43 2,659 0 0 22 22 Angola 479 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0...

  2. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    36,670 267 595 1,098 240 942 1,182 Non OPEC 163,069 81 8,967 13,895 5,736 9,208 14,944 Angola 13,189 0 0 300 0 0 0 Argentina 1,101 0 91 0 0 165 165 Aruba 0 0 0 3,407 0 0 0...

  3. TABLE43.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... 484,763 6,867 55,661 7,548 1,560 117 3,523 6,432 0 1,005 Angola ... 20,829 285 1,577 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina...

  4. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 33,726 267 595 724 0 0 0 Non OPEC 76,663 0 1,458 10,669 0 710 710 Angola 7,241 0 0 300 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 91 0 0 3 3 Aruba 0 0 0 2,659 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0...

  5. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 25,725 276 0 993 0 0 0 Non OPEC 59,194 322 2,858 14,288 60 540 600 Angola 5,113 0 0 374 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 1,846 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0...

  6. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 10,326 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 319,072 328 25,168 627 0 316 316 Angola 12,287 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 294 0 0 0 Australia 314 0 0 0...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Venezuela 5,359 0 57 0 905 708 1,613 Non OPEC 24,214 0 822 2,623 7,716 8,966 16,682 Angola 6,120 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 181 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 882 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0...

  8. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 13,880 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 435,408 483 39,774 627 0 877 877 Angola 14,731 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 294 0 0 0 Australia 314 0 0 0...

  9. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Venezuela 13,730 0 0 0 0 0 0 Non OPEC 428,008 483 36,692 627 0 877 877 Angola 14,726 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 Aruba 0 0 0 294 0 0 0 Australia 314 0 0 0...

  10. TABLE40.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,064,030 35,714 70,087 92,261 92,427 18,179 62,792 59,916 402 1,986 Angola ... 63,341 285 1,577 0 0 0 0 443 0 0 Argentina...

  11. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ... for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ...

  12. Reconstruction of deglacial sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific from selective analysis of a fossil coral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, N.; Finch, A.A.; Tudhope, A.W.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.R.; Ellam, R.M.

    2010-07-13

    The Sr/Ca of coral skeletons demonstrates potential as an indicator of sea surface temperatures (SSTs). However, the glacial-interglacial SST ranges predicted from Sr/Ca of fossil corals are usually higher than from other marine proxies. We observed infilling of secondary aragonite, characterized by high Sr/Ca ratios, along intraskeletal pores of a fossil coral from Papua New Guinea that grew during the penultimate deglaciation (130 {+-} 2 ka). Selective microanalysis of unaltered areas of the fossil coral indicates that SSTs at {approx}130 ka were {le} 1 C cooler than at present in contrast with bulk measurements (combining infilled and unaltered areas) which indicate a difference of 6-7 C. The analysis of unaltered areas of fossil skeletons by microprobe techniques may offer a route to more accurate reconstruction of past SSTs.

  13. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  14. Category:LEDS Global Partnership Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Use Maps (English version) Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents: ARCGIS Shape File, all Countries Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic Documents:...

  15. Technical and Political Assessment of Peaceful Nuclear Power Program Prospects in North Africa and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windsor, Lindsay K.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2007-09-11

    An exceptional number of Middle Eastern and North African nations have recently expressed interest in developing nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Many of these countries have explored nuclear research in limited ways in the past, but the current focused interest and application of resources towards developing nuclear-generated electricity and nuclear-powered desalination plants is unprecedented. Consequently, questions arise in response to this emerging trend: What instigated this interest? To what end(s) will a nuclear program be applied? Does the country have adequate technical, political, legislative, nonproliferation, and safety infrastructure required for the capability desired? If so, what are the next steps for a country in preparation for a future nuclear program? And if not, what collaboration efforts are possible with the United States or others? This report provides information on the capabilities and interests of 13 countries in the region in nuclear energy programs in light of safety, nonproliferation and security concerns. It also provides information useful for determining potential for offering technical collaboration, financial aid, and/or political support.

  16. Cassava Genomics: can genomic technology benefit smallholder farmers in Africa? (2014 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rounsley, Steve

    2014-03-20

    Steve Rounsley of the University of Arizona speaks at the 9th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 20, 2014 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  17. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  18. Sediment infill within rift basins: Facies distribution and effects of deformation: Examples from the Kenya and Tanganyika Rifts, East Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiercelin, J.J.; Lezzar, K.E. ); Richert, J.P. )

    1994-07-01

    Oil is known from lacustrine basins of the east African rift. The geology of such basins is complex and different depending on location in the eastern and western branches. The western branch has little volcanism, leading to long-lived basins, such as Lake Tanganyika, whereas a large quantity of volcanics results in the eastern branch characterized by ephemeral basins, as the Baringo-Bogoria basin in Kenya. The Baringo-Bogoria basin is a north-south half graben formed in the middle Pleistocene and presently occupied by the hypersaline Lake Bogoria and the freshwater Lake Baringo. Lake Bogoria is fed by hot springs and ephemeral streams controlled by grid faults bounding the basin to the west. The sedimentary fill is formed by cycles of organic oozes having a good petroleum potential and evaporites. On the other hand, and as a consequence of the grid faults, Lake Baringo is fed by permanent streams bringing into the basin large quantities of terrigenous sediments. Lake Tanganyika is a meromictic lake 1470 m deep and 700 km long, of middle Miocene age. It is subdivided into seven asymmetric half grabens separated by transverse ridges. The sedimentary fill is thick and formed by organic oozes having a very good petroleum potential. In contrast to Bogoria, the lateral distribution of organic matter is characterized by considerable heterogeneity due to the existence of structural blocks or to redepositional processes.

  19. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E

    2010-02-18

    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) is a major geologic feature that cuts across Cameroon from the south west to the north east. It is a unique volcanic lineament which has both an oceanic and a continental sector and consists of a chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline volcanoes stretching from the Atlantic island of Pagalu to the interior of the African continent. The oceanic sector includes the islands of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) and Sao Tome and Principe while the continental sector includes the Etinde, Cameroon, Manengouba, Bamboutos, Oku and Mandara mountains, as well as the Adamawa and Biu Plateaus. In addition to the CVL, three other major tectonic features characterize the region: the Benue Trough located northwest of the CVL, the Central African Shear Zone (CASZ), trending N70 degrees E, roughly parallel to the CVL, and the Congo Craton in southern Cameroon. The origin of the CVL is still the subject of considerable debate, with both plume and non-plume models invoked by many authors (e.g., Deruelle et al., 2007; Ngako et al, 2006; Ritsema and Allen, 2003; Burke, 2001; Ebinger and Sleep, 1998; Lee et al, 1994; Dorbath et al., 1986; Fairhead and Binks, 1991; King and Ritsema, 2000; Reusch et al., 2010). Crustal structure beneath Cameroon has been investigated previously using active (Stuart et al, 1985) and passive (Dorbath et al., 1986; Tabod, 1991; Tabod et al, 1992; Plomerova et al, 1993) source seismic data, revealing a crust about 33 km thick at the south-western end of the continental portion of the CVL (Tabod, 1991) and the Adamawa Plateau, and thinner crust (23 km thick) beneath the Garoua Rift in the north (Stuart et al, 1985) (Figure 1). Estimates of crustal thickness obtained using gravity data show similar variations between the Garoua rift, Adamawa Plateau, and southern part of the CVL (Poudjom et al., 1995; Nnange et al., 2000). In this study, we investigate further crustal structure beneath the CVL and the adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3b : Non-OPEC Petroleum and Other Liquids Supply (Million Barrels per Day) Either scripts and active content are not permitted to run or Adobe Flash Player version ${version_major}.${version_minor}.${version_revision} or greater is not installed. Get Adobe Flash Player - = no data available OPEC = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela. Notes: The

  1. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  2. Total Crude Oil and Products Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile China Colombia Congo (Brazzaville) Congo (Kinshasa) Cook Islands Costa Rica Croatia Curacao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Egypt

  3. Total Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the U.S.

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Country: Total All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Afghanistan Albania Andora Anguilla Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burma Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cayman Islands Chad Chile China Cocos

  4. U.S. Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: U.S. Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Brunei Bulgaria Burma Cameroon Canada Chad Chile

  5. International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

  6. Mega borg oil spill: Fate and effect studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-28

    The Mega Borg, a Norwegian tanker, released an estimated 5.1 million gallons (gal) of Palanca Angola crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico during a lightering accident and subsequent fire. The collection of reports was designed to provide a comprehensive overview of the spill chronology, the fate of the oil released, and subsequent studies that were conducted to assess the impacts of the oil spill on the environment and its biota.

  7. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study | Grid Modernization | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  8. International Services | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas, The

  9. East Coast (PADD 1) Imports from All Countries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Import Area: East Coast (PADD 1) Midwest (PADD 2) Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) West Coast (PADD 5) Period/Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Country: All Countries Persian Gulf OPEC Algeria Angola Ecuador Indonesia Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Non OPEC Albania Argentina Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belarus Belgium Bosnia

  10. Eia.gov BETA - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - U.S. Energy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration (EIA) Projects published on Beta are not final and may contain programming errors. They are for public testing and comment only. We welcome your feedback. For final products, please visit www.eia.gov. Read our feedback policy. Project Feedback Rea Give Us Your Feedback We welcome your feedback and insights on this project. Your Country: United States Afghanistan Albania Algeria American Samoa Angola Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia

  11. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.PDF Table 27. PAD District 1 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 5,672 - - - - - - - 1,652 1,652 Algeria ................................ - - - - - - - - - - Angola

  12. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.PDF Table 29. PAD District 3 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 69,917 - - 2,005 - - - - - - Algeria ................................ - - - 1,740 - - - - - - Angola

  13. Petroleum Supply Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3.PDF Table 33. Net Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products into the United States by Country, January 2014 (Thousand Barrels per Day) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 3,198 0 -27 60 - -36 -36 0 52 52 Algeria ................................ - - - 68 - - - - - - Angola

  14. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 June 2016 Table 41. PAD District 1 - Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Country of Origin, June 2016 (Thousand Barrels) Country of Origin Crude Oil 1,2 Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Unfinished Oils 1 Finished Motor Gasoline Motor Gasoline Blending Components Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total Reform- ulated Conven- tional Total OPEC ..................................... 13,026 - - 402 - - - - 522 522 Algeria ................................ - - - 402 - - - - - - Angola

  15. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    949 6,731 1,029 508 1,537 Non OPEC 926,975 3,672 21,367 123,756 710 10,270 10,980 Angola 79,399 10 1,979 1,426 0 0 0 Argentina 2,486 1 2,703 167 0 248 248 Aruba 0 0 0 23,145 0...

  16. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8,039 6,921 14,960 Non OPEC 1,932,132 4,376 78,202 165,474 79,551 123,093 202,644 Angola 164,183 10 1,979 1,526 0 0 0 Argentina 20,608 1 2,831 788 0 2,955 2,955 Aruba 0 0 0...

  17. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Venezuela 1,902 0 0 374 240 942 1,182 Non OPEC 19,630 0 2,479 1,958 5,736 8,371 14,107 Angola 4,219 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 0 0 0 162 162 Aruba 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Australia 0 0 0 0 0...

  18. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 57 0 5,851 5,134 10,985 Non OPEC 197,938 0 10,786 17,578 59,937 74,447 134,384 Angola 35,359 0 0 0 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 128 553 0 2,213 2,213 Aruba 0 0 0 1,163 0 0 0...

  19. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4,528 5,851 5,134 10,985 Non OPEC 1,444,745 3,761 54,586 121,039 60,051 87,331 147,382 Angola 116,243 6 347 1,126 0 0 0 Argentina 16,136 1 2,740 574 0 2,213 2,213 Aruba 0 0 0...

  20. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 175 374 7,010 6,413 13,423 Non OPEC 258,924 0 16,230 23,572 78,841 103,992 182,833 Angola 53,254 0 0 100 0 0 0 Argentina 0 0 128 621 0 2,707 2,707 Aruba 0 0 0 1,163 0 0 0...