Electromagnetic Wave Dynamics in
Kaiser, Robin
Mesoscopic Electromagnetic Wave Dynamics in Ultracold Atomic Gases Robin Kaiser and Mark D. Havey Mesoscopic Electromagnetic Wave Dynamics in Ultracold Atomic Gases #12;39 E xperimental developments permit in the transport proper- ties of electromagnetic radiation in strongly scattering random media. Even in weakly
Fractional Electromagnetic Waves
J. F. Gómez; J. J. Rosales; J. J. Bernal; V. I. Tkach; M. Guía
2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
In the present work we consider the electromagnetic wave equation in terms of the fractional derivative of the Caputo type. The order of the derivative being considered is 0 <\\gamma<1. A new parameter \\sigma, is introduced which characterizes the existence of the fractional components in the system. We analyze the fractional derivative with respect to time and space, for \\gamma = 1 and \\gamma = 1/2 cases.
Rutledge, Steven
Electromagnetic WavesElectromagnetic Waves In this chapter we will review selected properties of electromagnetic waves since radar involves the transmission, propagation and scattering of EM waves by various is the electrostatic force between two point charges. #12;Electromagnetic WavesElectromagnetic Waves Electric fields
Marine controlled-source elec-tromagnetic (CSEM) sounding is
Key, Kerry
to be a useful tool for geo- hazard mitigation via gas hydrate detection. The hydrate target occurs- lower hydrate section. Motivation. Marine gas hydrates can be a problem for development and production of a hydrate layer where solid hydrate exists above and free gas exists below. While seismic meth
Electromagnetic wave scattering by Schwarzschild black holes
Luís C. B. Crispino; Sam R. Dolan; Ednilton S. Oliveira
2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the scattering of a planar monochromatic electromagnetic wave incident upon a Schwarzschild black hole. We obtain accurate numerical results from the partial wave method for the electromagnetic scattering cross section, and show that they are in excellent agreement with analytical approximations. The scattering of electromagnetic waves is compared with the scattering of scalar, spinor and gravitational waves. We present a unified picture of the scattering of all massless fields for the first time.
An electromagnetic analog of gravitational wave memory
Lydia Bieri; David Garfinkle
2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present an electromagnetic analog of gravitational wave memory. That is, we consider what change has occurred to a detector of electromagnetic radiation after the wave has passed. Rather than a distortion in the detector, as occurs in the gravitational wave case, we find a residual velocity (a "kick") to the charges in the detector. In analogy with the two types of gravitational wave memory ("ordinary" and "nonlinear") we find two types of electromagnetic kick.
Some Wave Equations for Electromagnetism and Gravitation
Zi-Hua Weng
2010-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
The paper studies the inferences of wave equations for electromagnetic fields when there are gravitational fields at the same time. In the description with the algebra of octonions, the inferences of wave equations are identical with that in conventional electromagnetic theory with vector terminology. By means of the octonion exponential function, we can draw out that the electromagnetic waves are transverse waves in a vacuum, and rephrase the law of reflection, Snell's law, Fresnel formula, and total internal reflection etc. The study claims that the theoretical results of wave equations for electromagnetic strength keep unchanged in the case for coexistence of gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Meanwhile the electric and magnetic components of electromagnetic waves can not be determined simultaneously in electromagnetic fields.
Counting energy packets in the electromagnetic wave
Stefan Popescu; Bernhard Rothenstein
2007-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the concept of energy packets in respect to the energy transported by electromagnetic waves and we demonstrate that this physical quantity can be used in physical problems involving relativistic effects. This refined concept provides results compatible to those obtained by simpler definition of energy density when relativistic effects apply to the free electromagnetic waves. We found this concept further compatible to quantum theory perceptions and we show how it could be used to conciliate between different physical approaches including the classical electromagnetic wave theory, the special relativity and the quantum theories.
Detection of electromagnetic waves using MEMS antennas
Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL] [ORNL; Tobin, [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bowland, Landon T [ORNL] [ORNL
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the design, fabrication and characterization of simple micromechanical structures that are capable of sensing static electric time varying electromagnetic fields. Time varying electric field sensing is usually achieved using an electromagnetic antenna and a receiver. However, these antenna-based approaches do not exhibit high sensitivity over a broad frequency (or wavelength) range. An important aspect of the present work is that, in contrast to traditional antennas, the dimensions of these micromechanical oscillators can be much smaller than the wavelength of the electromagnetic wave. We characterized the fabricated micromechanical oscillators by measuring their responses to time varying electric and electromagnetic fields.
Electromagnetic waves, gravitational coupling and duality analysis
E. M. C. Abreu; C. Pinheiro; S. A. Diniz; F. C. Khanna
2005-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
In this letter we introduce a particular solution for parallel electric and magnetic fields, in a gravitational background, which satisfy free-wave equations and the phenomenology suggested by astrophysical plasma physics. These free-wave equations are computed such that the electric field does not induce the magnetic field and vice-versa. In a gravitational field, we analyze the Maxwell equations and the corresponding electromagnetic waves. A continuity equation is presented. A commutative and noncommutative analysis of the electromagnetic duality is described.
Emergent cosmological constant from colliding electromagnetic waves
Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Gurtug, O., E-mail: mustafa.halilsoy@emu.edu.tr, E-mail: habib.mazhari@emu.edu.tr, E-mail: ozay.gurtug@emu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimavgusa, north Cyprus, Mersin 10 (Turkey)
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this study we advocate the view that the cosmological constant is of electromagnetic (em) origin, which can be generated from the collision of em shock waves coupled with gravitational shock waves. The wave profiles that participate in the collision have different amplitudes. It is shown that, circular polarization with equal amplitude waves does not generate cosmological constant. We also prove that the generation of the cosmological constant is related to the linear polarization. The addition of cross polarization generates no cosmological constant. Depending on the value of the wave amplitudes, the generated cosmological constant can be positive or negative. We show additionally that, the collision of nonlinear em waves in a particular class of Born-Infeld theory also yields a cosmological constant.
Electromagnetic guided waves on linear arrays of spheres
Electromagnetic guided waves on linear arrays of spheres C M Linton, V Zalipaev, and I Thompson electromagnetic waves propagating along one-dimensional arrays of dielec- tric spheres are studied. The quasi. There have been previous studies of electromagnetic surface waves guided by periodic arrays, but these have
Cosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund*
Dunsby, Peter
show that this coupling leads to an initial pulse of electromagnetic waves whose width and amplitude to produce a pulse of gravitationally induced electromagnetic waves. In particular, because of the differentCosmological electromagnetic fields due to gravitational wave perturbations Mattias Marklund
Dissipative electromagnetic solitary waves in collisional plasmas
Borhanian, Jafar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O.Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The propagation of linearly polarized electromagnetic (EM) waves in a collisional plasma is studied using multiple scale perturbation technique in a weakly nonlinear regime. A complex linear dispersion relation and a complex group velocity are obtained for EM waves propagating in a plasma and their dependence on system parameters is investigated. It is shown that the amplitude of EM pulse is governed by an envelope equation similar to a cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. A traveling bright solitary wave solution for envelope equation is found, its existence condition in parameter space is explored and variation of its profile with system parameters is manipulated. Monitoring temporal evolution of traveling solitary wave solution provides more insight into the nature of this solution and ensures that depending on the parameters of the system, solitary wave solution may behave like a stationary soliton or may exhibit the behavior of a breathing soliton.
Electromagnetic wave scattering by small bodies
A. G. Ramm
2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
A reduction of the Maxwell's system to a Fredholm second-kind integral equation with weakly singular kernel is given for electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering by one and many small bodies. This equation is solved asymptotically as the characteristic size of the bodies tends to zero. The technique developed is used for solving the many-body EM wave scattering problem by rigorously reducing it to solving linear algebraic systems, completely bypassing the usage of integral equations. An equation is derived for the effective field in the medium, in which many small particles are embedded. A method for creating a desired refraction coefficient is outlined.
Mathematical Methods for Electromagnetic and Optical Waves1
Lu, Ya Yan
Mathematical Methods for Electromagnetic and Optical Waves1 Ya Yan Lu Department of Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6 The energy law of electromagnetic field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.5 Pulse propagation and temporal solitons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 2 #12;Chapter 1
Electromagnetic wave scattering by many small particles
A. G. Ramm
2006-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many small particles of arbitrary shapes is reduced rigorously to solving linear algebraic system of equations bypassing the usual usage of integral equations. The matrix elements of this linear algebraic system have physical meaning. They are expressed in terms of the electric and magnetic polarizability tensors. Analytical formulas are given for calculation of these tensors with any desired accuracy for homogeneous bodies of arbitrary shapes. An idea to create a "smart" material by embedding many small particles in a given region is formulated.
Electromagnetic wave scattering by many conducting small particles
A. G. Ramm
2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
A rigorous theory of electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering by small perfectly conducting particles is developed. The limiting case when the number of particles tends to infinity is discussed.
Direct visualization of terahertz electromagnetic waves in classic experimental geometries
Werley, Christopher Alan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We used newly developed experimental methods to collect educational video clips of electromagnetic waves propagating at the speed of light. The terahertz frequency waves were generated and detected in LiNbO3 crystals ...
Nonlinear Landau damping of transverse electromagnetic waves in dusty plasmas
Tsintsadze, N. L. [E. Andronikashvili Institute of Physics, Tbilisi 0171 (Georgia); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Chaudhary, Rozina [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)
2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
High-frequency transverse electromagnetic waves in a collisionless isotropic dusty plasma damp via nonlinear Landau damping. Taking into account the latter we have obtained a generalized set of Zakharov equations with local and nonlocal terms. Then from this coupled set of Zakharov equations a kinetic nonlinear Schroedinger equation with local and nonlocal nonlinearities is derived for special cases. It is shown that the modulation of the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves leads to the modulation instability through the nonlinear Landau damping term. The maximum growth rate is obtained for the special case when the group velocity of electromagnetic waves is close to the dust acoustic velocity.
Detection of electromagnetic waves using charged MEMS structures
Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Tobin, Jacob D [ORNL; Bowland, Landon T [ORNL
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe micromechanical structures that are capable of sensing both electrostatic fields and electromagnetic fields over a wide frequency range. Typically, sensing of electromagnetic waves is achieved with electrically conducting antennas, which despite the many advantages do not exhibit high sensitivity over a broad frequency range. An important aspect of our present work is that, in contrast to traditional antennas, the dimensions of micromechanical oscillators sensitive to electromagnetic waves can be much smaller than the wavelength. We characterized the micromechanical oscillators and measured responses to electric fields and estimated the performance limits by evaluating the signal-to-noise ratio theoretically and experimentally.
Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma
Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu, Zhengwei, E-mail: wuzw@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Low Temperature Plasma Application, Yunnan Aerospace Industry Company, Kunming, 650229 Yunnan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.
The modified electromagnetism and the emergent longitudinal wave
Arbab I Arbab; Mudhahir Al-Ajmi
2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z
The classical theory of electromagnetism has been revisited and the possibility of longitudinal photon wave is explored. It is shown that the emergence of longitudinal wave is a consequence of Lorenz gauge (condition) violation. Proca, Vlaenderen & Waser and Arbab theories are investigated.
Full-wave Electromagnetic Field Simulations of Lower Hybrid Waves in Tokamaks
Wright, John C.
Full-wave Electromagnetic Field Simulations of Lower Hybrid Waves in Tokamaks J. C. Wright , P. T, VA, USA Abstract. The most common method for treating wave propagation in tokamaks in the lower of 2D and 3D plasma inhomogeneity effects on wave propagation, the approach neglects important effects
Surfatron acceleration of a relativistic particle by electromagnetic plane wave
A. I. Neishtadt; A. A. Vasiliev; A. V. Artemyev
2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
We study motion of a relativistic charged particle in a plane slow electromagnetic wave and background uniform magnetic field. The wave propagates normally to the background field. Under certain conditions, the resonance between the wave and the Larmor motion of the particle is possible. Capture into this resonance results in acceleration of the particle along the wave front (surfatron acceleration). We analyse the phenomenon of capture and show that a captured particle never leaves the resonance and its energy infinitely grows. Scattering on the resonance is also studied. We find that this scattering results in diffusive growth of the particle energy. Finally, we estimate energy losses due to radiation by an accelerated particle.
Electromagnetic prompt response in an elastic wave cavity
A. M. Martínez-Argüello; M. Martínez-Mares; M. Cobián-Suárez; G. Báez; R. A. Méndez-Sánchez
2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
A rapid, or prompt response, of an electromagnetic nature, is found in an elastic wave scattering experiment. The experiment is performed with torsional elastic waves in a quasi-one-dimensional cavity with one port, formed by a notch grooved at a certain distance from the free end of a beam. The stationary patterns are diminished using a passive vibration isolation system at the other end of the beam. The measurement of the resonances is performed with non-contact electromagnetic-acoustic transducers outside the cavity. In the Argand plane, each resonance describes a circle over a base impedance curve which comes from the electromagnetic components of the equipment. A model, based on a variation of Poisson's kernel is developed. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.
Gradient instabilities of electromagnetic waves in Hall thruster plasma
Tomilin, Dmitry [Department of Electrophysics, Keldysh Research Centre, Moscow 125438 (Russian Federation)
2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a linear analysis of gradient plasma instabilities in Hall thrusters. The study obtains and analyzes the dispersion equation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves based on the two-fluid model of a cold plasma. The regions of parameters corresponding to unstable high frequency modes are determined and the dependence of the increments and intrinsic frequencies on plasma parameters is obtained. The obtained results agree with those of previously published studies.
Modulational instability of electromagnetic waves in a collisional quantum magnetoplasma
Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rastbood, E.; Bafandeh, F.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir [Physics Department of Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The modulational instability of right-hand circularly polarized electromagnetic electron cyclotron (CPEM-EC) wave in a magnetized quantum plasma is studied taking into account the collisional effects. Employing quantum hydrodynamic and nonlinear Schrödinger equations, the dispersion relation of modulated CPEM-EC wave in a collisional plasma has been derived. It is found that this wave is unstable in such a plasma system and the growth rate of the associated instability depends on various parameters such as electron Fermi temperature, plasma number density, collision frequency, and modulation wavenumber. It is shown that while the increase of collision frequency leads to increase of the growth rate of instability, especially at large wavenumber limit, the increase of plasma number density results in more stable modulated CPEM-EC wave. It is also found that in contrast to collisionless plasma in which modulational instability is restricted to small wavenumbers, in collisional plasma, the interval of instability occurrence can be extended to a large domain.
Radio Science, Volume ???, Number , Pages 110, Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Waves and
Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université
electromagnetic pulse at a central frequency of 2.45 GHz in a high-Q cavity. Another antenna records the stronglyRadio Science, Volume ???, Number , Pages 110, Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Waves demonstration of time-reversal focusing with electromagnetic waves in a SISO scheme. An antenna transmits a 1 µs
Resonance of relativistic electrons with electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Bortnik, J.
2015-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion cyclotron EMIC waves if the total density is large. We show that, for a particular EMIC mode, this dependence is weak due to the dependence of the wave frequency and wave vector on the density. A significant increase in relativistic electron minimum resonant energy might occur for the H band EMIC mode only for small density, but no changes in parameters significantly decrease the minimum resonant energy from a nominal value. The minimum resonant energy depends most strongly on the thermal velocity associated with the field line motionmore »of the hot ring current protons that drive the instability. High density due to a plasmasphere or plasmaspheric plume could possibly lead to lower minimum resonance energy by causing the He band EMIC mode to be dominant. We demonstrate these points using parameters from a ring current simulation.« less
Plane-Wave Propagation in Electromagnetic PQ Medium
Lindell, Ismo V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two basic classes of electromagnetic media, recently defined and labeled as those of P media and Q media, are generalized to define the class of PQ media. Plane wave propagation in the general PQ medium is studied and the quartic dispersion equation is derived in analytic form applying four-dimensional dyadic formalism. The result is verified by considering various special cases of PQ media for which the dispersion equation is known to decompose to two quadratic equations or be identically satisfied (media with no dispersion equation). As a numerical example, the dispersion surface of a PQ medium with non-decomposable dispersion equation is considered.
Bogdanov, O V
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The relations among the components of the exit momenta of ultrarelativistic electrons scattered on a strong electromagnetic wave of a low (optical) frequency and linear polarization are established using the exact solutions to the equations of motion with radiation reaction included (the Landau-Lifshitz equation). It is found that the momentum components of the electrons traversed the electromagnetic wave depend weakly on the initial values of the momenta. These electrons are mostly scattered at the small angles to the direction of propagation of the electromagnetic wave. The maximum Lorentz factor of the electrons crossed the electromagnetic wave is proportional to the work done by the electromagnetic field and is independent of the initial momenta. The momentum component parallel to the electric field strength vector of the electromagnetic wave is determined only by the diameter of the laser beam measured in the units of the classical electron radius. As for the reflected electrons, they for the most part l...
Ion acoustic wave generation by a standing electromagnetic field in a subcritical plasma
Boyer, Edmond
by the ponderomotive force [1] associated with a standing electromagnetic pulse. Be- cause of the nonlinear response of the plasma to the electromagnetic pulse, a zero frequency electron den- sity perturbation is created with a wave number twice the electromagnetic one. Then, after the pulse, the plasma relaxes towards
Electromagnetic Surface Wave Propagation Applicable to UltraHigh Energy Neutrino
Electromagnetic Surface Wave Propagation Applicable to UltraHigh Energy Neutrino Detection Peter ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECR), which would typically interact very close to the surface. Since of electromagnetic surface waves and their propagation is presented. The charged particle shower is modelled
Electromagnetically and Thermally Driven Flow Phenomena in Electroslag Welding
Eagar, Thomas W.
) Electromagnetically and Thermally Driven Flow Phenomena in Electroslag Welding A. H. DILAWARI, J for the Electroslag Welding Process. In the formulation, allowance has been made {or both etee- tromagnetic and b in the use of electroslag welding (ESW), particularly for the construction of thick walled pressure vessels
Electromagnetic Wave Power Observed Near the Moon during Terrestrial Bow Shock Crossings
Fillingim, Matthew
Electromagnetic Wave Power Observed Near the Moon during Terrestrial Bow Shock Crossings and Its (?) noise (cf. Nakagawa et al., 2011) 3. Large increase in magnetic field strength and wave power at the bow are evident in the plasma and magnetic field data Increase in wave power over a broad range of f i t h i p
THE BIANCHI IDENTITIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES, AND CHARGE CONSERVATION IN THE P(4) THEORY OF
Norris, Larry K.
OF GRAVITATION AND ELECTROMAGNETISM J. H. Chilton and K. S. Hammon Department of Physics North Carolina State, namely the affine geometry of the P(4) = O(1, 3) R4 theory of gravitation and electromag- netism (Norris) theory one obtains a conservation law and a wave equation for the electromagnetic field that parallels
Numerical methods for electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in complex media
Moss, Christopher D. Q. (Christopher Doniert Q.), 1973-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Numerical methods are developed to study various applications in electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering. Analytical methods are used where possible to enhance the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of the ...
Cole, Benjamin
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
PROPERTIES OF ICE CLOUDS AS INFERRED FROM THE POLARIZATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES A Thesis by BENJAMIN H. COLE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2011 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences On the Microphysical Properties of Ice Clouds as Inferred from the Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves Copyright 2011 Benjamin H...
Nakanishi, Toshihiro
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We performed experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observed asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.
Sridhar, Srinivas
Refraction of electromagnetic energy for wave packets incident on a negative-index medium is always, including the model of Valanju et al., the energy and mo- mentum of the wave refract negatively. Since February 2004 We analyze refraction of electromagnetic wave packets on passing from an isotropic positive
Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules
Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the ? and ? electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.
Second harmonic electromagnetic emission via Langmuir wave coalescence
Melrose, Don
S of the pri- mary Langmuir waves L into product Langmuir waves L and ion-sound waves S. The kinematic of Langmuir waves at low wavenumbers. The number of such repeated backscatter decays is limited by kinematic upsteam of the Earth's bowshock.1315 An alternative mechanism to produce fundamental and harmonic
Electromagnetic wave propagation in an active medium and the equivalent Schrödinger equation with an energy-dependent complex potential H. Bahlouli,* A. D. Alhaidari, and A. Al Zahrani Physics Department to provide an alternative, but equivalent, representation of plane electromagnetic em wave propagation
Electromagnetic Waves Propagation in 3D Plasma Configurations
is the optimisation of low-frequency plasma heating systems in stellarators. The aim is to develop a code that will allow for the calculation of the fields and energy deposition of a low-frequency wave propagating-wave interaction is modelled by a full cold-plasma dielectric tensor, including the parallel electric field term
Electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity in charged black strings
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Manzoor, R., E-mail: rubabmanzoor9@yahoo.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)
2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the propagation regions of electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity in the ergosphere of static charged black strings. For such a propagation, some conditions for negative phase velocity are established that depend on the metric components and the choice of the octant. We conclude that these conditions remain unaffected by the negative values of the cosmological constant.
Rahmani, Z., E-mail: z.rahmani@kashanu.ac.ir; Jazi, B. [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidari-Semiromi, E. [Department of Condense Matter, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The propagation of electromagnetic waves in an elliptical plasma waveguide including strongly magnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is investigated. The dispersion relation of guided hybrid electromagnetic waves is obtained. Excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam will be studied. The time growth rate of electromagnetic waves is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, radius of dielectric rod, accelerating voltage, and current density of the annular elliptical beam on the growth rate and the frequency spectra are numerically presented.
On electromagnetic waves with a negative group velocity
Makarov, V. P.; Rukhadze, A. A.; Samokhin, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)
2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recent publications devoted to the electrodynamics of media in which waves with a negative group velocity can exist are discussed. The properties of such waves have been studied from the beginning of the past century, and the most important results in this field were obtained by Soviet physicists in the 1940s-1950s. However, in most recent publications, this circumstance has not been taken into account.
Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere
Wong, Alfred Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)
1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.
2D modeling of electromagnetic waves in cold plasmas
Crombé, K. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM - Belgian State Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Renaissancelaan 30 Avenue de la Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium and Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41 B4, B (Belgium); Van Eester, D.; Koch, R.; Kyrytsya, V. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM - Belgian State Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Renaissancelaan 30 Avenue de la Renaissance, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
The consequences of sheath (rectified) electric fields, resulting from the different mobility of electrons and ions as a response to radio frequency (RF) fields, are a concern for RF antenna design as it can cause damage to antenna parts, limiters and other in-vessel components. As a first step to a more complete description, the usual cold plasma dielectric description has been adopted, and the density profile was assumed to be known as input. Ultimately, the relevant equations describing the wave-particle interaction both on the fast and slow timescale will need to be tackled but prior to doing so was felt as a necessity to get a feeling of the wave dynamics involved. Maxwell's equations are solved for a cold plasma in a 2D antenna box with strongly varying density profiles crossing also lower hybrid and ion-ion hybrid resonance layers. Numerical modelling quickly becomes demanding on computer power, since a fine grid spacing is required to capture the small wavelengths effects of strongly evanescent modes.
Shear driven electromagnetic drift-waves in a nonuniform dense magnetoplasma
Tariq, Sabeen; Mirza, Arshad M. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Masood, Waqas [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics (NCP), Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Linear characteristic properties of high- and low-frequency (in comparison with the cyclotron frequency) electromagnetic drift-waves are studied in a nonuniform, dense magnetoplasma (composed of electrons and ions), in the presence of parallel (magnetic field-aligned) velocity shear, by using quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. By applying the drift-approximation (viz., |{partial_derivative} {sub t}|<<{omega}{sub ci}<<{omega}{sub ce}) to the quantum momentum equations, together with the continuity equations and the Poisson equation, we derive the governing equations for electromagnetic drift-waves with the shear flow. These linear equations are then Fourier transformed to obtain the dispersion relation in both high-frequency and low-frequency regimes. The dispersion relations are then discussed under various limiting cases.
Electromagnetic wave propagation with negative phase velocity in regular black holes
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Manzoor, R., E-mail: rubabmanzoor9@yahoo.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)
2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the propagation of electromagnetic plane waves with negative phase velocity in regular black holes. For this purpose, we consider the Bardeen model as a nonlinear magnetic monopole and the Bardeen model coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics with a cosmological constant. It turns out that the region outside the event horizon of each regular black hole does not support negative phase velocity propagation, while its possibility in the region inside the event horizon is discussed.
Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice placed in magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in Faraday geometry with taking into account dissipation processes. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such superlattice have been calculated for different numbers of periods of the structure and different sizes of the periods with using a transfer matrix method. The possibility of efficient control of electrodynamic properties of graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene superlattice has been shown.
Norin, L.; Leyser, T. B.; Nordblad, E.; Thide, B.; McCarrick, M. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden); BAE Systems Advanced Technologies, Washington, D.C. (United States)
2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.
Mitchell Revalski; Will Rhodes; Thulsi Wickramasinghe
2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
We provide calculations and theoretical arguments supporting the emission of electromagnetic radiation from charged particles accelerated by gravitational waves (GWs). These waves have significant indirect evidence to support their existence, yet they interact weakly with ordinary matter. We show that the induced oscillations of charged particles interacting with a GW, which lead to the emission of electromagnetic radiation, will also result in wave attenuation. These ideas are supported by a small body of literature, as well as additional arguments for particle acceleration based on GW memory effects. We derive order of magnitude power calculations for various initial charge distributions accelerated by GWs. The resulting power emission is extremely small for all but very strong GWs interacting with large quantities of charge. If the results here are confirmed and supplemented, significant consequences such as attenuation of early universe GWs could result. Additionally, this effect could extend GW detection techniques into the electromagnetic regime. These explorations are worthy of study to determine the presence of such radiation, as it is extremely important to refine our theoretical framework in an era of active GW astrophysics.
Karsilayan, Nur
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
. Michalski Committee Members, Kai Chang Weiping Shi Mark E. Everett Head of Department, Costas N. Georghiades May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Full-Wave Surface Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic...-1 FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...
Karsilayan, Nur
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS...
THE ROLE OF SUPERLUMINAL ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN PULSAR WIND TERMINATION SHOCKS
Amano, Takanobu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kirk, John G., E-mail: amano@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
The dynamics of a standing shock front in a Poynting-flux-dominated relativistic flow is investigated by using a one-dimensional, relativistic, two-fluid simulation. An upstream flow containing a circularly polarized, sinusoidal magnetic shear wave is considered, mimicking a wave driven by an obliquely rotating pulsar. It is demonstrated that this wave is converted into large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase speeds by interacting with the shock when the shock-frame frequency of the wave exceeds the proper plasma frequency. The superluminal waves propagate in the upstream, modify the shock structure substantially, and form a well-developed precursor region ahead of a subshock. Dissipation of Poynting flux occurs in the precursor as well as in the downstream region through a parametric instability driven by the superluminal waves. The Poynting flux remaining in the downstream region is carried entirely by the superluminal waves. The downstream plasma is therefore an essentially unmagnetized, relativistically hot plasma with a non-relativistic flow speed, as suggested by observations of pulsar wind nebulae.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Stavroula Foteinopoulou
2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates with the observed negatively refractive phenomena. They found that in the PC system, negative refraction is neither a prerequisite nor guarantees left-handed behavior. They examined carefully the condition to obtain left-handed behavior in the PC. They proposed a wedge type of experiment, in accordance with the experiment performed on the traditional LHM, to test these conditions. They found that for certain frequencies the PC shows left-handed behavior and acts in some respects like a homogeneous medium with a negative refractive index. they used the realistic PC system for this case to show how negative refraction occurs at the interface between a material with a positive and a material with a negative refractive index. Their findings indicate that the formation of the negatively refracted beam is not instantaneous and involves a transient time. With this time-dependent analysis, they were able to address previous controversial issues about negative refraction concerning causality and the speed of light limit. Finally, they attempt a systematic study of anomalous refractive phenomena that can occur at the air-PC interface. They observe cases where only a single refracted beam (in the positive or negative direction) is present, as well as cases with birefringence. they classify these different effects according to their origin and type of propagation (left-handed or not). For a complete study of the system, they also obtain expressions for the energy and group velocities, and show their equality. For cases with very low index contrast, band folding becomes an artificiality. They discuss the validity of their findings when they move to the limit of photonic crystals with a low index modulation.
Khorashadizadeh, S. M.; Rastbood, E.; Zeinaddini Meymand, H. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear coupling between circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and acoustic-like waves in a magnetoactive electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasma is studied, taking into account the relativistic motion of electrons and positrons. The possibility of modulational instability and its growth rate as well as the envelope soliton formation and its characteristics in such plasmas are investigated. It is found that the growth rate of modulation instability increases in the case that ?{sub c}/?<1 (?{sub c} and ? are the electron gyrofrequency and the CPEM wave frequency, respectively) and decreases in the case that ?{sub c}/?>1. It is also shown that in a magnetoactive e-p-i plasma, the width of bright soliton increases/decreases in case of (?{sub c}/?)<1/(?{sub c}/?)>1 by increasing the magnetic field strength.
Xi Yanbin; Liu Yue [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Electron, and Ion Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Considering different typical electron density profiles, a multi slab approximation model is built up to study the power absorption of broadband (0.75-30 GHz) electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized nonuniform magnetized plasma layer. Based on the model, the power absorption spectra for six cases are numerically calculated and analyzed. It is shown that the absorption strongly depends on the electron density fluctuant profile, the background electron number density, and the collision frequency. A potential optimum profile is also analyzed and studied with some particular parameters.
8.07 Electromagnetism II, Fall 2002
Zwiebach, Barton
Survey of basic electromagnetic phenomena: electrostatics, magnetostatics; electromagnetic properties of matter. Time-dependent electromagnetic fields and Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic waves, emission, absorption, ...
Development and performance evaluation of an electromagnetic-type shock wave generator for lipolysis
Liang, S. M., E-mail: liangsm@cc.feu.edu.tw; Yang, Z. Y. [Department of Industrial Design, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Road, Xinshi District, Tainan City 744, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Industrial Design, Far East University, No. 49, Zhonghua Road, Xinshi District, Tainan City 744, Taiwan (China); Chang, M. H. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
This study aims at the design and development of electromagnetic-type intermittent shock wave generation in a liquid. The shock wave generated is focused at a focal point through an acoustic lens. This hardware device mainly consists of a full-wave bridge rectifier, 6 capacitors, a spark gap, and a flat coil. A metal disk is mounted in a liquid-filled tube and is placed in close proximity to the flat coil. Due to the repulsive force existing between the coil and disk shock waves are generated, while an eddy current is induced in the metal disk. Some components and materials associated with the device are also described. By increasing the capacitance content to enhance electric energy level, a highly focused pressure can be achieved at the focal point through an acoustic lens in order to lyse fat tissue. Focused pressures were measured at the focal point and its vicinity for different operation voltages. The designed shock wave generator with an energy intensity of 0.0016 mJ/mm{sup 2} (at 4 kV) and 2000 firings or higher energy intensities with 1000 firings is found to be able to disrupt pig fat tissue.
Isotropic-medium three-dimensional cloaks for acoustic and electromagnetic waves
Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Smith, David R; 10.1063/1.3691242
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a generalization of the two-dimensional eikonal-limit cloak derived from a conformal transformation to three dimensions. The proposed cloak is a spherical shell composed of only isotropic media; it operates in the transmission mode and requires no mirror or ground plane. Unlike the well-known omnidirectional spherical cloaks, it may reduce visibility of an arbitrary object only for a very limited range of observation angles. In the short-wavelength limit, this cloaking structure restores not only the trajectories of incident rays, but also their phase, which is a necessary ingredient to complete invisibility. Both scalar-wave (acoustic) and transverse vector-wave (electromagnetic) versions are presented.
Su, Zhenpeng, E-mail: szpe@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Zhu, Hui; Zheng, Huinan [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xiao, Fuliang [School of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha (China); Zhang, Min [Department of Mathematics and Physics, AnHui University of Architecture, Heifei (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Mengcheng National Geophysical Observatory, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Liu, Y. C.-M.; Shen, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can lead to the rapid decay (on a timescale of hours) of the terrestrial ring current. Such decay process is usually investigated in the framework of quasi-linear theory. Here, both theoretical analysis and test-particle simulation are performed to understand the nonlinear interaction between ring current ions and EMIC waves. In particular, the dependence of the nonlinear wave-particle interaction processes on the ion initial latitude is investigated in detail. These nonlinear processes are classified into the phase trapping and phase bunching, and the phase bunching is further divided into the channel and cluster effects. Compared to the prediction of the quasi-linear theory, the ring current decay rate can be reduced by the phase trapping, increased by the channel effect phase bunching, but non-deterministically influenced by the cluster effect phase bunching. The ion initial latitude changes the occurrence of the phase trapping, modulates the transport direction and strength of the cluster effect phase bunching, and only slightly affects the channel effect phase bunching. The current results suggest that the latitudinal dependence of these nonlinear processes should be considered in the evaluation of the ring current decay induced by EMIC waves.
Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Shavrov, Vladimir G
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electrodynamic properties of the graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure have been investigated theoretically with taking into account the dissipation processes. Influence of graphene layers on electromagnetic waves propagation in graphene - semi-infinte magnetic semiconductor and graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich-structure has been analyzed. Frequency and field dependences of the reflectance, transmittance and absorbtance of electromagnetic waves by such structure have been calculated. The size effects associated with the thickness of the structure have been analyzed. The possibility of efficient control of electrodynamic properties of graphene - magnetic semiconductor - graphene sandwich structure by an external magnetic field has been shown.
B. V. Gisin
2015-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
The field of a traveling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave and a constant magnetic field localizes fermions perpendicularly to propagation of the wave in the cross section of the order of the wavelength. Unusual exact solutions of the Dirac equation correspond to this localization. Except to routine use of thin fermion beams it can be suitable for alternative measurements of the g - factor. Details and peculiarities of the solutions in application to the measurements are considered in the paper.
Chu, Q; Rowlinson, A; Gao, H; Zhang, B; Tingay, S J; Boer, M; Wen, L
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the prospects for joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). Assuming BNS mergers are associated with short duration gamma ray bursts (SGRBs), we evaluate if rapid EM follow-ups can capture the prompt emission, early engine activity or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To examine the expected performance of low-latency search pipelines we simulate a population of coalescing BNSs using realistic distributions of source parameters to estimate the detectability and localisation efficiency at different times before merger. To determine what EM observations can be achieved, we consider a selection of facilities with GW follow-up agreements in place, from low-frequency radio to high energy $\\gamma$-ray; we assess the performance of each using observational SGRB flux data corrected to the range of the advanced GW interferometric detectors LIGO and Virgo. We ...
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by many thin cylinders: theory and computational modeling
Ramm, A G
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering by many parallel infinite cylinders is studied asymptotically as a tends to 0, where a is the radius of the cylinders. It is assumed that the centres of the cylinders are distributed so that their numbers is determined by some positive function N(x). The function N(x) >= 0 is a given continuous function. An equation for the self-consistent (limiting) field is derived as a tends to 0. The cylinders are assumed perfectly conducting. Formula for the effective refraction coefficient of the new medium, obtained by embedding many thin cylinders into a given region, is derived. The numerical results presented demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach and its efficiency for solving the many-body scattering problems, as well as the possibility to create media with negative refraction coefficients.
Alexander G. Ramm; Martin Schechter
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
A new proof is given of the existence of the solution to electromagnetic (EM) wave scattering problem for an impedance body of an arbitrary shape. The proof is based on the elliptic systems theory and elliptic estimates for the solutions of such systems.
Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Kalamboli Highway, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Echer, E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida Astronautas, 1758, P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Glassmeier, K.-H., E-mail: remyaphysics@gmail.com [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP), Mendelssohnstr.3, D-38106, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ?14 nT (peak to peak) in a ?55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (?55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (?{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ?}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma ? (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-? plasma.
T. P. Sotiriou; T. A. Apostolatos
2004-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
The geometry around a rotating massive body, which carries charge and electrical currents, could be described by its multipole moments (mass moments, mass-current moments, electric moments, and magnetic moments). When a small body is orbiting this massive body, it will move on geodesics, at least for a time interval that is short with respect to the characteristic time of the binary due to gravitational radiation. By monitoring the waves emitted by the small body we are actually tracing the geometry of the central object, and hence, in principle, we can infer all its multipole moments. This paper is a generalization of previous similar results by Ryan. The fact that the electromagnetic moments of spacetime can be measured demonstrates that one can obtain information about the electromagnetic field purely from gravitational wave analysis. Additionally, these measurements could be used as a test of the no-hair theorem for black holes.
Zhang, Xingyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Wang, Shiyi; Zhan, Qiwen; Luo, Jingdong; Jen, Alex K -Y; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Pan, Zeyu; Nelson, Robert L; Lee, Charles Y -C; Chen, Ray T
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we design, fabricate and characterize a compact, broadband and highly sensitive integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on a silicon-organic hybrid modulator driven by a bowtie antenna. The large electro-optic (EO) coefficient of organic polymer, the slow-light effects in the silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide (PCW), and the broadband field enhancement provided by the bowtie antenna, are all combined to enhance the interaction of microwaves and optical waves, enabling a high EO modulation efficiency and thus a high sensitivity. The modulator is experimentally demonstrated with a record-high effective in-device EO modulation efficiency of r33=1230pm/V. Modulation response up to 40GHz is measured, with a 3-dB bandwidth of 11GHz. The slot PCW has an interaction length of 300um, and the bowtie antenna has an area smaller than 1cm2. The bowtie antenna in the device is experimentally demonstrated to have a broadband characteristics with a central resonance frequency of 10GHz, as we...
Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G S; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Behnke, B; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brummit, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet--Castell, J; Burmeister, O; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cain, J; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhillon, V; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Díaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Dorsher, S; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endr?czi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Farr, W; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fridriksson, J K; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Ganija, M R; Garcia, J; Garofoli, J A; Garufi, F; Gáspár, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, C; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Homan, J; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamaretsos, I; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinsey, M; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Laas-Bourez, M; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lang, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec 17 2009 to Jan 8 2010 and Sep 2 to Oct 20 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability...
Ehud Nakar; Tsvi Piran
2011-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
The question "what is the observable electromagnetic (EM) signature of a compact binary merger?" is an intriguing one with crucial consequences to the quest for gravitational waves (GW). Compact binary mergers are prime sources of GW, targeted by current and next generation detectors. Numerical simulations have demonstrated that these mergers eject energetic sub-relativistic (or even relativistic) outflows. This is certainly the case if the mergers produce short GRBs, but even if not, significant outflows are expected. The interaction of such outflows with the surround matter inevitably leads to a long lasting radio signal. We calculate the expected signal from these outflows (our calculations are also applicable to short GRB orphan afterglows) and we discuss their detectability. We show that the optimal search for such signal should, conveniently, take place around 1.4 GHz. Realistic estimates of the outflow parameters yield signals of a few hundred $\\mu$Jy, lasting a few weeks, from sources at the detection horizon of advanced GW detectors. Followup radio observations, triggered by GW detection, could reveal the radio remnant even under unfavorable conditions. Upcoming all sky surveys can detect a few dozen, and possibly even thousands, merger remnants at any give time, thereby providing robust merger rate estimates even before the advanced GW detectors become operational. In fact, the radio transient RT 19870422 fits well the overall properties predicted by our model and we suggest that its most probable origin is a compact binary merger radio remnant.
Gillani, S. S. A.; Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Tsintsadze, N. L. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Institute of Physics, Tbilisi 380077 (Georgia); Razzaq, M. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)
2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that the interaction of the superstrong laser radiation with an isotropic plasma leads to the generation of low frequency electromagnetic (EM) waves and in particular a quasistationary magnetic field. When the relativistic circularly polarized transverse EM wave propagates along z-axis, it creates a ponderomotive force, which affects the motion of particles along the direction of its propagation. On the other hand, motion of the particles across the direction of propagation is defined by the ponderomotive potential. The dispersion relation for the transverse EM wave using a special distribution function, which has an anisotropic form, is derived. The dispersion relation is subsequently investigated for a number of special cases. In general, it is shown that the growth rate of the EM wave strongly depends upon its intensity.
Q. Chu; E. J. Howell; A. Rowlinson; H. Gao; B. Zhang; S. J. Tingay; M. Boer; L. Wen
2015-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the prospects for joint low-latency gravitational wave (GW) detection and prompt electromagnetic (EM) follow-up observations of coalescing binary neutron stars (BNSs). Assuming BNS mergers are associated with short duration gamma ray bursts (SGRBs), we evaluate if rapid EM follow-ups can capture the prompt emission, early engine activity or reveal any potential by-products such as magnetars or fast radio bursts. To examine the expected performance of low-latency search pipelines we simulate a population of coalescing BNSs using realistic distributions of source parameters to estimate the detectability and localisation efficiency at different times before merger. To determine what EM observations can be achieved, we consider a selection of facilities with GW follow-up agreements in place, from low-frequency radio to high energy $\\gamma$-ray; we assess the performance of each using observational SGRB flux data corrected to the range of the advanced GW interferometric detectors LIGO and Virgo. We show that while challenging, breakthrough multimessenger science is possible to achieve with a range of follow-up facilities using low latency pipelines. To catch the prompt stage ($India and Japanese KAGRA, will improve the angular resolution by a factor of 2. Using this network with an almost instantaneous GW triggering latency, we show that if wide field-of-view X-ray instruments such as the proposed ISS-Lobster can employ fast triggering mechanisms, one could obtain almost complete temporal and multiwavelength coverage of the prompt and early activity of SGRBs.
Sainath, Kamalesh
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a full-wave pseudo-analytical numerical electromagnetic (EM) algorithm to model subsurface induction sensors, traversing planar-layered geological formations of arbitrary EM material anisotropy and loss, which are used, for example, in the exploration of hydrocarbon reserves. Unlike past pseudo-analytical planar-layered modeling algorithms that impose parallelism between the formation's bed junctions however, our method involves judicious employment of Transformation Optics techniques to address challenges related to modeling arbitrarily-oriented, relative slope (i.e., tilting) between said junctions. The algorithm exhibits this flexibility, both with respect to anisotropy in the formation layers as well as junction tilting, via employing special planar slabs that coat each "flattened" (i.e., originally tilted) planar interface, locally redirecting the incident wave within the coating slabs to cause wave fronts to interact with the flattened interfaces as if they were still tilted with a specific, ...
J. Geng; G. T. Campbell; J. Bernu; D. Higginbottom; B. M. Sparkes; S. M. Assad; W. P. Zhang; N. P. Robins; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler
2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
We report on the delay of optical pulses using electromagnetically induced transparency in an ensemble of cold atoms with an optical depth exceeding 500. To identify the regimes in which four-wave mixing impacts on EIT behaviour, we conduct the experiment in both rubidium 85 and rubidium 87. Comparison with theory shows excellent agreement in both isotopes. In rubidium 87, negligible four-wave mixing was observed and we obtained one pulse-width of delay with 50% efficiency. In rubidium 85, four-wave-mixing contributes to the output. In this regime we achieve a delay-bandwidth product of 3.7 at 50% efficiency, allowing temporally multimode delay, which we demonstrate by compressing two pulses into the memory medium.
O. Skjaeraasen; A. Melatos; A. Spitkovsky
2005-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
A 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to investigate the propagation of a large-amplitude, superluminal, nearly transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave in a relativistically streaming electron-positron plasma with and without a shock. In the freestreaming, unshocked case, the analytic TEM dispersion relation is verified, and the streaming is shown to stabilize the wave against parametric instabilities. In the confined, shocked case, the wave induces strong, coherent particle oscillations, heats the plasma, and modifies the shock density profile via ponderomotive effects. The wave decays over $\\gtrsim 10^2$ skin depths; the decay length scale depends primarily on the ratio between the wave frequency and the effective plasma frequency, and on the wave amplitude. The results are applied to the termination shock of the Crab pulsar wind, where the decay length-scale (at least 0.05") might be comparable to the thickness of filamentary, variable substructure observed in the optical and X-ray wisps and knots.
Denton, R. E. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Jordanova, V. K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fraser, B. J. [Univ. of Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia)
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We simulate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave growth and evolution within three regions, the plasmasphere (or plasmaspheric plume), the plasmapause, and the low-density plasmatrough outside the plasmapause. First, we use a ring current simulation with a plasmasphere model to model the particle populations that give rise to the instability for conditions observed on 9 June 2001. Then, using two different models for the cold ion composition, we do a full scale hybrid code simulation in dipole coordinates of the EMIC waves on a meridional plane at MLT = 18 and at 1900 UT within a range of L shell from L = 4.9 to 6.7. EMIC waves were observed during June 9, 2001 by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) spacecraft. While an exact comparison between observed and simulated spectra is not possible here, we do find significant similarities between the two, at least at one location within the region of largest wave growth. We find that the plasmapause is not a preferred region for EMIC wave growth, though waves can grow in that region. The density gradient within the plasmapause does, however, affect the orientation of wave fronts and wave vector both within the plasmapause and in adjacent regions. There is a preference for EMIC waves to be driven in the He+ band (frequencies between the O+ and He+ gyrofrequencies) within the plasmasphere, although they can also grow in the plasmatrough. If present, H+ band waves are more likely to grow in the plasmatrough. This fact, plus L dependence of the frequency and possible time evolution toward lower frequency waves, can be explained by a simple model. Large O+ concentration limits the frequency range of or even totally quenches EMIC waves. This is more likely to occur in the plasmatrough at solar maximum. Such large O+ concentration significantly affects the H+ cutoff frequency and hence the width in frequency of the stop band above the He+ gyrofrequency. EMIC wave surfaces predicted by cold plasma theory are altered by the finite temperature of the ring current H+.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Denton, R. E.; Jordanova, V. K.; Fraser, B. J.
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
We simulate electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave growth and evolution within three regions, the plasmasphere (or plasmaspheric plume), the plasmapause, and the low-density plasmatrough outside the plasmapause. First, we use a ring current simulation with a plasmasphere model to model the particle populations that give rise to the instability for conditions observed on 9 June 2001. Then, using two different models for the cold ion composition, we do a full scale hybrid code simulation in dipole coordinates of the EMIC waves on a meridional plane at MLT = 18 and at 1900 UT within a range of L shell frommore »L = 4.9 to 6.7. EMIC waves were observed during June 9, 2001 by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) spacecraft. While an exact comparison between observed and simulated spectra is not possible here, we do find significant similarities between the two, at least at one location within the region of largest wave growth. We find that the plasmapause is not a preferred region for EMIC wave growth, though waves can grow in that region. The density gradient within the plasmapause does, however, affect the orientation of wave fronts and wave vector both within the plasmapause and in adjacent regions. There is a preference for EMIC waves to be driven in the He+ band (frequencies between the O+ and He+ gyrofrequencies) within the plasmasphere, although they can also grow in the plasmatrough. If present, H+ band waves are more likely to grow in the plasmatrough. This fact, plus L dependence of the frequency and possible time evolution toward lower frequency waves, can be explained by a simple model. Large O+ concentration limits the frequency range of or even totally quenches EMIC waves. This is more likely to occur in the plasmatrough at solar maximum. Such large O+ concentration significantly affects the H+ cutoff frequency and hence the width in frequency of the stop band above the He+ gyrofrequency. EMIC wave surfaces predicted by cold plasma theory are altered by the finite temperature of the ring current H+.« less
ECE 342: Electromagnetic Fields II -Knows how to express a wave propagating in a
Schumacher, Russ
model the frequency response of transmission lines - Understands transmission line matching - Can use - Optical fibers Electrodynamics Transmission lines EM waves - Understand fundamentals of energy storage theory and electrical engineering as a whole EM waves and Energy Maxwell's Equations Concepts
Henning, F. D., E-mail: farranalfonso@gmail.com; Mace, R. L., E-mail: macer@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in multi-ion species plasmas propagate in branches. Except for the branch corresponding to the heaviest ion species, which has only a resonance at its gyrofrequency, these branches are bounded below by a cutoff frequency and above by a resonant gyrofrequency. The condition for wave growth is determined by the thermal anisotropies of each ion species, j, which sets an upper bound, ?{sub j}{sup ?}, on the wave frequency below which that ion species contributes positively to the growth rate. It follows that the relative positions of the cutoffs and the critical frequencies ?{sub j}{sup ?} play a crucial role in determining whether a particular wave branch will be unstable. The effect of the magnetospheric ion abundances on the growth rate of each branch of the EMIC instability in a model where all the ion species have kappa velocity distributions is investigated by appealing to the above ideas. Using the variation of the cutoff frequencies predicted by cold plasma theory as a guide, optimal ion abundances that maximise the EMIC instability growth rate are sought. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of H{sup +} ions, all branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the proton branch having the maximum growth rate. When the O{sup +} ion abundance in the ring current is increased, a decrease in the growth rate of the proton branch and cyclotron damping of the helium branch are observed. The oxygen branch, on the other hand, experiences an increase in the maximum growth rate with an increase in the O{sup +} ion abundance. When the ring current is comprised predominantly of He{sup +} ions, only the helium and oxygen branches of the EMIC wave are destabilised, with the helium branch having the maximum growth rate.
Hammond, R.T. [Physics Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States)] [Physics Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105 (United States); Davis, J.; Bobb, L. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Code 4556, Mail Stop 2, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)] [Naval Air Warfare Center, Code 4556, Mail Stop 2, Patuxent River, Maryland 20670 (United States)
1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The reflection, transmission, and absorption coefficients are derived for long-wavelength electromagnetic radiation propagating through a medium that exhibits a Gaussian conductivity. It is shown that, under certain circumstances, this applies to the ionosphere. The effects of different peak conductivities and Gaussian widths are examined, and a useful form for calculating transmission and reflection coefficients is presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Khan, Kishwar, E-mail: kknano@hotmail.com; Rehman, Sarish
2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Highlights: • Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. • Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. • Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the Zr–Mn. • Higher the Zr–Mn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. • The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zr–Mn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2?2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1–0.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz–3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on Zr–Mn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of Zr–Mn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.
Jikang Chen
2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The carrier or medium of electromagnetic waves has been vainly searched for many years, and now it has been caught after the establishment of the dynamic equations in photon gas. The photon's rest mass has been estimated from the cosmic background temperature in space where the photon gas is at an open state of thermal equilibrium, and the photon's proper magnetic moment is calculated from the dynamic equations of photon gas too. As the carrier of electromagnetic waves, the photon gas is a discrete medium at very high frequency, and then the Bohr's electron is hardly to emit energy in wave form and can be stably rounding the nuclei in discrete orbits at lower temperature.
Scattering of electromagnetic waves by small impedance particles of an arbitrary shape
Ramm, Alexander G
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An explicit formula is derived for the electromagnetic (EM) field scattered by one small impedance particle $D$ of an arbitrary shape. If $a$ is the characteristic size of the particle, $\\lambda$ is the wavelength, $a> O(a^3)$ as $a\\to 0$ when $\\lambda$ is fixed and $\\zeta$ does not depend on $a$. Thus, $|E_{sc}|$ is much larger than the classical value $O(a^3)$ for the field scattered by a small particle. It is proved that the effective field in the medium, in which many small particles are embedded, has a limit as $a\\to 0$ and the number $M=M(a)$ of the particles tends to $\\infty$ at a suitable rate. Thislimit solves a linear integral equation. The refraction coefficient of the limiting medium is calculated analytically. This yields a recipe for creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient.
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional Maxwellian plasmas is used. Collision integral of BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) type is applied. From Vlasov equation we find distribution function of electrons in square-law approximation on size of transversal electric field. The formula for electric current calculation is deduced. This formula contains an one-dimensional quadrature. It is shown, that nonlinearity leads to revealing of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is perpendicular to known so-called transversal classical current. The classical current turns out at the linear analysis. The longitudinal current in case of small values of wave numbers is calculated. When frequency of collisions tends to zero, all received formulas for collisional plasmas pass in the known corresponding results for collisionless plasmas. Graphic research of dimensionless density of a current is carried out.
Spin and orbital angular momenta of electromagnetic waves in free space
Mansuripur, Masud [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)
2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We derive exact expressions, in the form of Fourier integrals over the (k,{omega}) domain, for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum of a light pulse propagating in free space. The angular momentum is seen to split naturally into two parts. The spin contribution of each plane-wave constituent of the pulse, representing the difference between its right- and left-circular polarization content, is aligned with the corresponding k-vector. In contrast, the orbital angular momentum associated with each plane-wave is orthogonal to its k-vector. In general, the orbital angular momentum content of the wavepacket is the sum of an intrinsic part, due, for example, to phase vorticity, and an extrinsic part, r{sub CM} x p, produced by the linear motion of the center-of-mass r{sub CM} of the light pulse in the direction of its linear momentum p.
Sheng-Jun Yang; Xiao-Hui Bao; Jian-Wei Pan
2015-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent manipulation of single-photon wave packets is essentially important for optical quantum communication and quantum information processing. In this paper, we realize controllable splitting and modulation of single-photon-level pulses by using a tripod-type atomic medium. The adoption of two control beams enable us to store one signal pulse into superposition of two distinct atomic collective excitations. By controlling the time delay between the two control pulses, we observe splitting of a stored wave packet into two temporally-distinct modes. By controlling the frequency detuning of the control beams, we observe both temporal and frequency-domain interference of the retrieval signal pulses, which provides a method for pulse modulation and multi-splitting of the signal photons.
Florida, University of
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 47, NO. 3, AUGUST 2005 521 Abstract--It is known from both theory and numerical simula- tions that a current pulse suffers apparent electromagnetic field structure is non-transverse electromagnetic (TEM), particu- larly near the source region
Electromagnetic and physical properties of sea ice formed in the presence of wave action
Onstott, R. G.; Gogineni, Sivaprasad; Gow, A. J.; Grenfell, T. C.; Jezek, K. C.; Perovich, D. K.; Swift, C. T.
1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
of an outdoor reinforced concrete tank filled with seawater. Its physical dimensions are 18 7.5 2 m (length, width, and ONSTOTT et al.: PROPERTIES OF SEA ICE FORMED UNDER WAVE ACTION 1767 Fig. 2. Diagram of the GRF and sensor position. Sensor labels... by mixing the constituent components of seawater. Sodium chloride and six secondary or trace components were added to the sea water mixture to replicate the properties of standard polar ocean water. The target salinity of the body of saline water was 29...
Relativistic electron precipitation events driven by electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves
Khazanov, G., E-mail: george.v.khazanov@nasa.gov; Sibeck, D. [NASA Goddard Space FlightCenter, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Tel'nikhin, A.; Kronberg, T. [Department of Physics and Technology, Altai State University, Barnaul (Russian Federation)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We adopt a canonical approach to describe the stochastic motion of relativistic belt electrons and their scattering into the loss cone by nonlinear EMIC waves. The estimated rate of scattering is sufficient to account for the rate and intensity of bursty electron precipitation. This interaction is shown to result in particle scattering into the loss cone, forming ?10?s microbursts of precipitating electrons. These dynamics can account for the statistical correlations between processes of energization, pitch angle scattering, and relativistic electron precipitation events, that are manifested on large temporal scales of the order of the diffusion time ?tens of minutes.
Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States) [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington DC, District of Columbia 20064 (United States); Navarro, Roberto [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the ?{sub e} increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron–proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.
Francesco Pannarale; Frank Ohme
2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z
Coalescing neutron-star-black-hole (NS-BH) binaries are a promising source of gravitational-wave (GW) signals detectable with large-scale laser interferometers such as Advanced LIGO and Virgo. They are also one of the main short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) progenitor candidates. If the BH tidally disrupts its companion, an SGRB may be ignited when a sufficiently massive accretion disk forms around the remnant BH. Detecting an NS-BH coalescence both in the GW and electromagnetic (EM) spectrum offers a wealth of information about the nature of the source. How much can actually be inferred from a joint detection is unclear, however, as a mass/spin degeneracy may reduce the GW measurement accuracy. To shed light on this problem and on the potential of joint EM+GW observations, we here combine recent semi-analytical predictions for the remnant disk mass with estimates of the parameter-space portion that is selected by a GW detection. We identify cases in which an SGRB ignition is supported, others in which it can be excluded, and finally others in which the outcome depends on the chosen model for the currently unknown NS equation of state. We pinpoint a range of systems that would allow us to place lower bounds on the equation of state stiffness if both the GW emission and its EM counterpart are observed. The methods we develop can broaden the scope of existing GW detection and parameter-estimation algorithms and could allow us to disregard about half of the templates in an NS-BH search following an SGRB trigger, increasing its speed and sensitivity.
Florida, University of
discharge, lightning electromagnetic (EM) pulse, trav- eling wave, wave reflections. I. INTRODUCTION466 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 51, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 Electromagnetic Pulses Produced by Bouncing-Wave-Type Lightning Discharges Amitabh Nag, Member, IEEE, and Vladimir A
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 5
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 5 (1) Consider the expression for the electric field due · dS over a spherical surface that encloses the moving charge. (2a) Consider an electromagnetic wave density and the Poynting vector. (2c) Repeat the steps in (2a) and (2b) for an electromagnetic wave
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 6
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 6 (1) A small test particle (mass m and positive charge q of the orbit. (2a) Consider an electromagnetic wave for which the electric field is given by E = E0 sin t (sin in (2a) and (2b) for an electromagnetic wave for which the electric field is E = E0 cos z (cos t, - sin
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 6
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 6 (1) Consider the expression for the electric field due · dS over a spherical surface that encloses the moving charge. (2a) Consider an electromagnetic wave density and the Poynting vector. (2c) Repeat the steps in (2a) and (2b) for an electromagnetic wave
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Communications Commission (FCC) for wireless communications and automotive radar [14]. The 77-GHz band has been transceivers for communication and radar systems at millimeter-wave frequencies. 1. INTRODUCTION Using on their applications. There are several frequency bands in the mm-wave range which have been approved by the Federal
Electromagnetic Light in Medium of Polarized Atoms $^3$He
V. N. Minasyan
2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
First, it is predicted that polarized atoms $^3$He increase a value of speed electromagnetic waves. This reasoning implies that the velocity of electromagnetic waves into gas consisting of polarized atoms $^3$He is rather than one in vacuum.
Ming LI
2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.
Why Study Electromagnetics: The First Unit in an Undergraduate Electromagnetics Course
Taflove, Allen
1 Why Study Electromagnetics: The First Unit in an Undergraduate Electromagnetics Course Allen unification of electric and magnetic fields predicting electromagnetic wave phenomena which Nobel Laureate: "Of what relevance is the study of electromagnetics to our modern society?" The goal of this unit
STIMULATED ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS BY HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMPING OF THE
STIMULATED ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS BY HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMPING OF THE IONOSPHERIC.S.A. Abstract. A high frequency electromagnetic pump wave transmitted into the ionospheric plasma from the ground can stimulate electromagnetic radiation with frequencies around that of the ionospher- ically
Ida, Nathan
Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium 2004, Pisa, Italy, March 28 - 31 461 Use;Progress in Electromagnetic Research Symposium 2004, Pisa, Italy, March 28 - 31 462 where [ ]r lV and [ ]i
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 7
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 7 (1) Consider the non-relativistic motion of a particle momentum of the particle about the centre of the force at r = 0.) (2a) Consider an electromagnetic wave the energy density and the Poynting vector. (2c) Repeat the steps in (2a) and (2b) for an electromagnetic
Kepler, Grace Martinelli
Reduced Order Computational Methods for Electromagnetic Material Interrogation Using Pulsed Signals of a pulsed planar electromagnetic wave of a dielectric slab with a supraconductive backing. Previous work
Electromagnetic Theory 1 /56 Electromagnetic Theory
Bicknell, Geoff
Electromagnetic Theory 1 /56 Electromagnetic Theory Summary: · Maxwell's equations · EM Potentials · Equations of motion of particles in electromagnetic fields · Green's functions · Lienard-Weichert potentials · Spectral distribution of electromagnetic energy from an arbitrarily moving charge #12;Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic effects on geodesic acoustic modes
Bashir, M. F., E-mail: frazbashir@yahoo.com [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G. C. University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Smolyakov, A. I. [University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon S7N 5E2 (Canada); Institute of Tokamak Physics, NRC “Kurchatov Institute,” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Elfimov, A. G. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Melnikov, A. V. [Institute of Tokamak Physics, NRC “Kurchatov Institute,” 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Murtaza, G. [Visiting Professor, Department of Physics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
By using the full electromagnetic drift kinetic equations for electrons and ions, the general dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) is derived incorporating the electromagnetic effects. It is shown that m?=?1 harmonic of the GAM mode has a finite electromagnetic component. The electromagnetic corrections appear for finite values of the radial wave numbers and modify the GAM frequency. The effects of plasma pressure ?{sub e}, the safety factor q, and the temperature ratio ? on GAM dispersion are analyzed.
LaCure, Mari Mae
2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
Waves is the supporting document to the Master of Fine Arts thesis exhibition of the same title. Exhibited March 7-12 2010 in the Art and Design Gallery at the University of Kansas, Waves was comprised of a series of mixed media drawings...
Electromagnetic field with constraints and Papapetrou equation
Z. Ya. Turakulov; A. T. Muminov
2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that geometric optical description of electromagnetic wave with account of its polarization in curved space-time can be obtained straightforwardly from the classical variational principle for electromagnetic field. For this end the entire functional space of electromagnetic fields must be reduced to its subspace of locally plane monochromatic waves. We have formulated the constraints under which the entire functional space of electromagnetic fields reduces to its subspace of locally plane monochromatic waves. These constraints introduce variables of another kind which specify a field of local frames associated to the wave and contain some congruence of null-curves. The Lagrangian for constrained electromagnetic field contains variables of two kinds, namely, a congruence of null-curves and the field itself. This yields two kinds of Euler-Lagrange equations. Equations of first kind are trivial due to the constraints imposed. Variation of the curves yields the Papapetrou equations for a classical massless particle with helicity 1.
Electromagnetic space-time crystals. III. Dispersion relations for partial solutions
G. N. Borzdov
2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Partial solutions of the Dirac equation describing an electron motion in electromagnetic crystals created by plane waves with linear and circular polarizations are treated. It is shown that the electromagnetic crystal formed by circularly polarized waves possesses the spin birefringence.
Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.
1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.
Crane, Randolph W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Marts, Donna J. (Idaho Falls, ID)
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.
Localization of fremions in rotating electromagnetic fields
B. V. Gisin
2015-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Parameters of localization are defined in the lab and rotating frame for solutions of the Dirac equation in the field of a traveling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave and constant magnetic field. The radius of localization is of the order of the electromagnetic wavelength and lesser.
Advances in non-planar electromagnetic prototyping
Ehrenberg, Isaac M
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The advent of metamaterials has introduced new ways to manipulate how electromagnetic waves reflect, refract and radiate in systems where the range of available material properties now includes negative permittivity, ...
M. Novello; F. T. Falciano; E. Goulart
2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z
We show that Maxwell's electromagnetism can be mapped into the Born-Infeld theory in a curved space-time, which depends only on the electromagnetic field in a specific way. This map is valid for any value of the two lorentz invariants $F$ and $G$ confirming that we have included all possible solutions of Maxwell's equations. Our result seems to show that specifying the dynamics and the space-time structure of a given theory can be viewed merely as a choice of representation to describe the physical system.
Aldridge, David F.
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories and now a geophysical consultant ) and Dr. Chester J. Weiss (recently rejoined with Sandia National Laboratories) for many stimulating (and reciprocal!) discussions regar ding the topic at hand.
Electromagnetic Radiations as a Fluid Flow
Daniele Funaro
2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
We combine Maxwell's equations with Eulers's equation, related to a velocity field of an immaterial fluid, where the density of mass is replaced by a charge density. We come out with a differential system able to describe a relevant quantity of electromagnetic phenomena, ranging from classical dipole waves to solitary wave-packets with compact support. The clue is the construction of an energy tensor summing up both the electromagnetic stress and a suitable mass tensor. With this right-hand side, explicit solutions of the full Einstein's equation are computed for a wide class of wave phenomena. Since our electromagnetic waves may behave and interact exactly as a material fluid, they can create vortex structures. We then explicitly analyze some vortex ring configurations and examine the possibility to build a model for the electron.
Degasperis, Antonio; Aceves, Alejandro B
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We derive the rogue wave solution of the classical massive Thirring model, that describes nonlinear optical pulse propagation in Bragg gratings. Combining electromagnetically induced transparency with Bragg scattering four-wave mixing, may lead to extreme waves at extremely low powers.
Electromagnetic or other directed energy pulse launcher
Ziolkowski, Richard W. (Livermore, CA)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The physical realization of new solutions of wave propagation equations, such as Maxwell's equations and the scaler wave equation, produces localized pulses of wave energy such as electromagnetic or acoustic energy which propagate over long distances without divergence. The pulses are produced by driving each element of an array of radiating sources with a particular drive function so that the resultant localized packet of energy closely approximates the exact solutions and behaves the same.
On the Axioms of Topological Electromagnetism
D. H. Delphenich
2003-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
The axioms of topological electromagnetism are refined by the introduction of the de Rham homology of k-vector fields on orientable manifolds and the use of Poincare duality in place of Hodge duality. The central problem of defining the electromagnetic constitutive law is elaborated upon in the linear and nonlinear cases. The manner by which the spacetime metric might follow from the constitutive law is examined in the linear case. The possibility that the intersection form of the spacetime manifold might play a role in defining a topological basis for the constitutive law is explored. The manner by which wave motion might follow from the electromagnetic structure is also discussed.
Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope
Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wei, Tao (Sunnyvale, CA)
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.
Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope
Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Alameda, CA)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.
Wave-wave interactions in solar type III radio bursts
Thejappa, G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); MacDowall, R. J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States)
2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
The high time resolution observations from the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in type III radio bursts, the Langmuir waves often occur as localized magnetic field aligned coherent wave packets with durations of a few ms and with peak intensities well exceeding the strong turbulence thresholds. Some of these wave packets show spectral signatures of beam-resonant Langmuir waves, down- and up-shifted sidebands, and ion sound waves, with frequencies, wave numbers, and tricoherences satisfying the resonance conditions of the oscillating two stream instability (four wave interaction). The spectra of a few of these wave packets also contain peaks at f{sub pe}, 2f{sub pe} and 3 f{sub pe} (f{sub pe} is the electron plasma frequency), with frequencies, wave numbers and bicoherences (computed using the wavelet based bispectral analysis techniques) satisfying the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: (1) excitation of second harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves, and (2) excitation of third harmonic electromagnetic waves as a result of coalescence of Langmuir waves with second harmonic electromagnetic waves. The implication of these findings is that the strong turbulence processes play major roles in beam stabilization as well as conversion of Langmuir waves into escaping radiation in type III radio bursts.
Geometrical vs wave optics under gravitational waves
Raymond Angélil; Prasenjit Saha
2015-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present some new derivations of the effect of a plane gravitational wave on a light ray. A simple interpretation of the results is that a gravitational wave causes a phase modulation of electromagnetic waves. We arrive at this picture from two contrasting directions, namely null geodesics and Maxwell's equations, or, geometric and wave optics. Under geometric optics, we express the geodesic equations in Hamiltonian form and solve perturbatively for the effect of gravitational waves. We find that the well-known time-delay formula for light generalizes trivially to massive particles. We also recover, by way of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation, the phase modulation obtained under wave optics. Turning then to wave optics - rather than solving Maxwell's equations directly for the fields, as in most previous approaches - we derive a perturbed wave equation (perturbed by the gravitational wave) for the electromagnetic four-potential. From this wave equation it follows that the four-potential and the electric and magnetic fields all experience the same phase modulation. Applying such a phase modulation to a superposition of plane waves corresponding to a Gaussian wave packet leads to time delays.
Electromagnetic space-time crystals. II. Fractal computational approach
G. N. Borzdov
2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
A fractal approach to numerical analysis of electromagnetic space-time crystals, created by three standing plane harmonic waves with mutually orthogonal phase planes and the same frequency, is presented. Finite models of electromagnetic crystals are introduced, which make possible to obtain various approximate solutions of the Dirac equation. A criterion for evaluating accuracy of these approximate solutions is suggested.
Line geometry and electromagnetism III: groups of transformations
D. H. Delphenich
2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
The role of linear and projective groups of transformations in line geometry and electromagnetism is examined in accordance with Klein's Erlanger Programm for geometries. The group of collineations of real projective space is chosen as the most general group, and reductions to some of its various subgroups are then detailed according to their relevance to electromagnetic fields, and especially wave-like ones.
Gary, N E; Westerdahl, B B
1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system for small animal exposure was developed for treating honey bees, Apis mellifera L., in brood and adult stages, with 2.45 GHz continuous wave microwaves at selected power densities and exposure times. Post-treatment brood development was normal and teratological effects were not detected at exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment survival, longevity, orientation, navigation, and memory of adult bees were also normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 30 minutes. Post-treatment longevity of confined bees in the laboratory was normal after exposures of 3 to 50 mw/cm/sup 2/ for 24 hours. Thermoregulation of brood nest, foraging activity, brood rearing, and social interaction were not affected by chronic exposure to 1 mw/cm/sup 2/ during 28 days. In dynamic behavioral bioassays the frequency of entry and duration of activity of unrestrained, foraging adult bees was identical in microwave-exposed (5 to 40 mw/cm/sup 2/) areas versus control areas.
ON MIMO CHANNEL CAPACITY, SPATIAL SAMPLING AND THE LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM
Loyka, Sergey
ON MIMO CHANNEL CAPACITY, SPATIAL SAMPLING AND THE LAWS OF ELECTROMAGNETISM Sergey Loyka School by the laws of electromagnetism on achievable MIMO channel capacity in its general form. Our approach is a two expansion of a generic electromagnetic wave combined with Nyquist sampling theorem in the spatial domain, we
Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals
Sridhar, Srinivas
Negative Refraction and Left-Handed Electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals P.V. Parimi,1 W refraction observed corresponds to left-handed electromagnetism that arises due to the dispersion properties of materials that are transparent to electromagnetic (EM) waves can be characterized by an index
Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos
Carlo Giunti; Alexander Studenikin
2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
A short review on electromagnetic properties of neutrinos is presented. In spite of many efforts in the theoretical and experimental studies of neutrino electromagnetic properties, they still remain one of the main puzzles related to neutrinos.
Investigation of electromagnetic welding
Pressl, Daniel G. (Daniel Gerd)
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose several methodologies to study and optimize the electromagnetic process for Electromagnetic Forming (EMF) and Welding (EMW), thereby lowering the necessary process energy up to a factor of three and lengthening ...
Electromagnetic Abdulaziz Hanif
Masoudi, Husain M.
Electromagnetic Propulsion Abdulaziz Hanif Electrical Engineering Department King Fahd University of spacecraft, which would be jolted through space by electromagnets, could take us farther than any of these other methods. When cooled to extremely low temperatures, electromagnets demonstrate an unusual behavior
Electromagnetic Measurements at RHIC
Hamagaki, Hideki
Electromagnetic Measurements at RHIC Hideki Hamagaki Center for Nuclear Study Graduate School of Science the University of Tokyo #12;2006/06/29 "Electromagnetic measurements at RHIC"@ATHIC 2006 Hideki;2006/06/29 "Electromagnetic measurements at RHIC"@ATHIC 2006 Hideki Hamagaki 3 Prologue scope of EM measurements · EM
Electromagnetic Measurements at RHIC
Hamagaki, Hideki
Electromagnetic Measurements at RHIC Hideki Hamagaki Center for Nuclear Study University of Tokyo #12;2/10/2005 "Electromagnetic measurements at RHIC"@ICPAQGP 05 Hideki Hamagaki 2 Prologue · EM probe and where they are produced; #12;2/10/2005 "Electromagnetic measurements at RHIC"@ICPAQGP 05 Hideki Hamagaki
The electromagnetic spike solutions
Ernesto Nungesser; Woei Chet Lim
2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this paper is to use the existing relation between polarized electromagnetic Gowdy spacetimes and vacuum Gowdy spacetimes to find explicit solutions for electromagnetic spikes by a procedure which has been developed by one of the authors for gravitational spikes. We present new inhomogeneous solutions which we call the EME and MEM electromagnetic spike solutions.
Inferring black hole charge from backscattered electromagnetic radiation
Luís C. B. Crispino; Sam R. Dolan; Atsushi Higuchi; Ednilton S. de Oliveira
2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z
We compute the scattering cross section of Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes for the case of an incident electromagnetic wave. We describe how scattering is affected by both the conversion of electromagnetic to gravitational radiation, and the parity-dependence of phase shifts induced by the black hole charge. The latter effect creates a helicity-reversed scattering amplitude that is non-zero in the backward direction. We show that from the character of the electromagnetic wave scattered in the backward direction it is possible, in principle, to infer if a static black hole is charged.
A Full Review of the Theory of Electromagnetism
D. Funaro
2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z
We will provide detailed arguments showing that the set of Maxwell equations, and the corresponding wave equations, do not properly describe the evolution of electromagnetic wave-fronts. We propose a nonlinear corrected version that is proven to be far more appropriate for the modellization of electromagnetic phenomena. The suitability of this approach will soon be evident to the reader, through a sequence of astonishing congruences, making the model as elegant as Maxwell's, but with increased chances of development. Actually, the new set of equations will allow us to explain many open questions, and find links between electromagnetism and other theories that have been searched for a long time, or not even imagined.
Electromagnetic energy dispersion in a 5D universe
Hartnett, John G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009 WA Australia (Australia)
2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetism is analyzed in a 5D expanding universe. Compared to the usual 4D description of electrodynamics it can be viewed as adding effective charge and current densities to the universe that are static in time. These lead to effective polarization and magnetization of the vacuum, which is most significant at high redshift. Electromagnetic waves propagate but group and phase velocities are dispersive. This introduces a new energy scale to the cosmos. And as a result electromagnetic waves propagate with superluminal speeds but no energy is transmitted faster than the canonical speed of light c.
Electromagnetic Media with no Dispersion Equation
Ismo V. Lindell; Alberto Favaro
2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
It has been known through some examples that parameters of an electromagnetic medium can be so defined that there is no dispersion equation (Fresnel equation) to restrict the choice of the wave vector of a plane wave in such a medium, i.e., that the dispersion equation is satisfied identically for any wave vector. In the present paper, a more systematic study to define classes of media with no dispersion equation is attempted. The analysis makes use of coordinate-free four-dimensional formalism in terms of multivectors, multiforms and dyadics.
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Interferometric electromagnetic of a direct pulse-echo ex- periment in a three-dimensional configuration. The con- dition-dimensional media. Wave propagation invariants have been used in acoustic, elastic and electromagnetic wave
L. Montagnier; J. Aissa; E. Del Giudice; C. Lavallee; A. Tedeschi; G. Vitiello
2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z
Some bacterial and viral DNA sequences have been found to induce low frequency electromagnetic waves in high aqueous dilutions. This phenomenon appears to be triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency. We discuss this phenomenon in the framework of quantum field theory. A scheme able to account for the observations is proposed. The reported phenomenon could allow to develop highly sensitive detection systems for chronic bacterial and viral infections.
Chaos Experiments Wave Chaos and Electromagnetic
Anlage, Steven
- Quantum Chaos · 1-port S and Z measurements in the 6 12 GHz range. · Ensemble average through 100 Model Results Q #12;EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Eigen mode Image at 12.57GHz 8.5" 17" 0
Complex geometry and pre-metric electromagnetism
D. H. Delphenich
2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
The intimate link between complex geometry and the problem of the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism is explored. In particular, the relationship between 3+1 decompositions of R4 and the decompositions of the vector space of bivectors over R4 into real and imaginary subspaces relative to a choice of complex structure is emphasized. The role of the various scalar products on the space of bivectors that are defined in terms of a volume element on R4 and a complex structure on the space of bivectors that makes it C-linear isomorphic to C3 is discussed in the context of formulation of a theory of electromagnetism in which the Lorentzian metric on spacetime follows as a consequence of the existence of electromagnetic waves, not a prior assumption.
Reducible Quantum Electrodynamics. I. The Quantum Dimension of the Electromagnetic Field
Jan Naudts
2015-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
In absence of currents and charges the quantized electromagnetic field can be described by wave functions which for each individual wave vector are normalized to one. The resulting formalism involves reducible representations of the Canonical Commutation Relations. The corresponding paradigm is a space-time filled with two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillators. Mathematically, this is equivalent with two additional dimensions penetrated by the electromagnetic waves.
NISTHB 150-11 NVLAP Electromagnetic Compatibility and Telecommunications Bethany Hackett Bradley. #12;NISTHB 150-11 NVLAP Electromagnetic Compatibility and Telecommunications Bethany Hackett Bradley Programs Dennis Camell Electromagnetics Division Physical Measurement Laboratory http://dx.doi.org/10
Electromagnetic Siegert states for periodic dielectric structures
Friends R. Ndangali; Sergei V. Shabanov
2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
The formalism of Siegert states to describe the resonant scattering in quantum theory is extended to the resonant scattering of electromagnetic waves on periodic dielectric arrays. The excitation of electromagnetic Siegert states by an incident wave packet and their decay is studied. The formalism is applied to develop a theory of coupled electromagnetic resonances arising in the electromagnetic scattering problem for two such arrays separated by a distance 2h (or, generally, when the physical properties of the scattering array depend on a real coupling parameter h). Analytic properties of Siegert states as functions of the coupling parameter h are established by the Regular Perturbation Theorem which is an extension the Kato-Rellich theorem to the present case. By means of this theorem, it is proved that if the scattering structure admits a bound state in the radiation continuum at a certain value of the coupling parameter h, then there always exist regions within the structure in which the near field can be amplified as much as desired by adjusting the value of h. This establishes a rather general mechanism to control and amplify optical nonlinear effects in periodically structured planar structures possessing a nonlinear dielectric susceptibility.
Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler
Schlueter, Ross D. (Albany, CA); Deis, Gary A. (Livermore, CA)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.
Loyka, Sergey
Abstract-- In this paper, we study the limitations imposed by the laws of electromagnetism electromagnetic wave combined with Nyquist sampling theorem in the spatial domain, we show that the laws of electromagnetism limit the minimum antenna spacing to half a wavelength, /2 , (in the case of 1-D antenna apertures
Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles
Allan Greenleaf; Yaroslav Kurylev; Matti Lassas; Gunther Uhlmann
2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
We describe new configurations of electromagnetic (EM) material parameters, the electric permittivity $\\epsilon$ and magnetic permeability $\\mu$, that allow one to construct from metamaterials objects that function as invisible tunnels. These allow EM wave propagation between two points, but the tunnels and the regions they enclose are not detectable to EM observations. Such devices function as wormholes with respect to Maxwell's equations and effectively change the topology of space vis-a-vis EM wave propagation. We suggest several applications, including devices behaving as virtual magnetic monopoles.
General Polarization Matrix of Electromagnetic Radiation
Muhammet Ali Can; Alexander S. Shumovsky
2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A general form of the polarization matrix valid for any type of electromagnetic radiation (plane waves, multipole radiation etc.) is defined in terms of a certain bilinear form in the field-strength tensor. The quantum counterpart is determined as an operator matrix with normal-ordered elements with respect to the creation and annihilation operators. The zero-point oscillations (ZPO) of polarization are defined via difference between the anti-normal and normal ordered operator polarization matrices. It is shown that ZPO of the multipole field are stronger than those described by the model of plane waves and are concentrated in a certain neighborhood of a local source.
Does the Poynting vector always represent electromagnetic power flow?
Changbiao Wang
2015-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
Poynting vector as electromagnetic power flow has prevailed over one hundred years in the community. However in this paper, it is shown from Maxwell equations that the Poynting vector may not represent the electromagnetic power flow for a plane wave in a non-dispersive, lossless, non-conducting, anisotropic uniform medium; this important conclusion revises the conventional understanding of Poynting vector. It is also shown that this conclusion is clearly supported by Fermat's principle and special theory of relativity.
Does the Poynting vector always represent electromagnetic power flow?
Wang, Changbiao
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Poynting vector as electromagnetic power flow has prevailed over one hundred years in the community. However in this paper, it is shown from Maxwell equations that the Poynting vector may not represent the electromagnetic power flow for a plane wave in a non-dispersive, lossless, non-conducting, anisotropic uniform medium; this important conclusion revises the conventional understanding of Poynting vector. It is also shown that this conclusion is clearly supported by Fermat's principle and special theory of relativity.
Electromagnetic partner of the gravitational signal during accretion onto black holes
Juan Carlos Degollado; Victor Gualajara; Claudia Moreno; Darío Núñez
2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the generation of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in the vicinity of a perturbed Schwarzschild black hole. The gravitational perturbations and the electromagnetic field are studied by solving the Teukolsky master equation with sources, which we take to be locally charged, radially infalling, matter. Our results show that, in addition to the gravitational wave generated as the matter falls into the black hole, there is also a burst of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic field has a characteristic set of quasinormal frequencies, and the gravitational radiation has the quasinormal frequencies of a Schwarzschild black hole. This scenario allows us to compare the gravitational and electromagnetic signals that are generated by a common source.
Purely electromagnetic spacetimes
B. V. Ivanov
2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Electrovacuum solutions devoid of usual mass sources are classified in the case of one, two and three commuting Killing vectors. Three branches of solutions exist. Electromagnetically induced mass terms appear in some of them.
Reduced Order Computational Methods for Electromagnetic Material Interrogation Using Pulsed Signals consider the interrogation by means of a pulsed planar electromagnetic wave of a dielectric slab properties by means of a non-invasive probes such as low energy electromag- netic pulses is desirable
ARTICULATORY SPACE CALIBRATION IN 3D ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ARTICULOGRAPHY
Johnson, Michael T.
articulatory space. A bite plate record for a target subject is used to define the maxillary occlusal collected using NDI Wave Speech Research System for one pilot subject, and calibration results of articulatory kinematics and relationship to acoustics. Index Terms-- Electro-Magnetic Articulography
Hydrodynamic construction of the electromagnetic field
Peter Holland
2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We present an alternative Eulerian hydrodynamic model for the electromagnetic field in which the discrete vector indices in Maxwell\\s equations are replaced by continuous angular freedoms, and develop the corresponding Lagrangian picture in which the fluid particles have rotational and translational freedoms. This enables us to extend to the electromagnetic field the exact method of state construction proposed previously for spin 0 systems, in which the time-dependent wavefunction is computed from a single-valued continuum of deterministic trajectories where two spacetime points are linked by at most a single orbit. The deduction of Maxwell\\s equations from continuum mechanics is achieved by generalizing the spin 0 theory to a general Riemannian manifold from which the electromagnetic construction is extracted as a special case. In particular, the flat-space Maxwell equations are represented as a curved-space Schr\\"odinger equation for a massive system. The Lorentz covariance of the Eulerian field theory is obtained from the non-covariant Lagrangian-coordinate model as a kind of collective effect. The method makes manifest the electromagnetic analogue of the quantum potential that is tacit in Maxwell\\s equations. This implies a novel definition of the \\classical limit\\ of Maxwell\\s equations that differs from geometrical optics. It is shown that Maxwell\\s equations may be obtained by canonical quantization of the classical model. Using the classical trajectories a novel expression is derived for the propagator of the electromagnetic field in the Eulerian picture. The trajectory and propagator methods of solution are illustrated for the case of a light wave.
Millimeter Wave Sensor For On-Line Inspection Of Thin Sheet Dielectrics
Bakhtiari, Sasan (Westmont, IL); Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)
1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z
A millimeter wave sensor is provided for non-destructive inspection of thin sheet dielectric materials. The millimeter wave sensor includes a Gunn diode oscillator (GDO) source generating a mill meter wave electromagnetic energy signal having a single frequency. A heater is coupled to the GDO source for stabilizing the single frequency. A small size antenna is coupled to the GDO source for transmitting the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal to a sample material and for receiving a reflected millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal from the sample material. Ferrite circulator isolators coupled between the GDO source and the antenna separate the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal into transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components and a detector detects change in both amplitude and phase of the transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components. A millimeter wave sensor is provided for non-destructive inspection of thin sheet dielectric materials. The millimeter wave sensor includes a Gunn diode oscillator (GDO) source generating a mill meter wave electromagnetic energy signal having a single frequency. A heater is coupled to the GDO source for stabilizing the single frequency. A small size antenna is coupled to the GDO source for transmitting the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal to a sample material and for receiving a reflected millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal from the sample material. Ferrite circulator isolators coupled between the GDO source and the antenna separate the millimeter wave electromagnetic energy signal into transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components and a detector detects change in both amplitude and phase of the transmitted and received electromagnetic energy signal components.
Electromagnetic Radiation REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of
Gilbes, Fernando
1 CHAPTER 2: Electromagnetic Radiation Principles REFERENCE: Remote Sensing of the Environment John;2 Electromagnetic Energy Interactions Energy recorded by remote sensing systems undergoes fundamental interactions, creating convectional currents in the atmosphere. c) Electromagnetic energy in the form of electromagnetic
Electromagnetically Induced Flows Michiel de Reus
Vuik, Kees
Electromagnetically Induced Flows in Water Michiel de Reus 8 maart 2013 () Electromagnetically Conclusion and future research () Electromagnetically Induced Flows 2 / 56 #12;1 Introduction 2 Maxwell Navier Stokes equations 5 Simulations 6 Conclusion and future research () Electromagnetically Induced
8.07 Electromagnetism II, Fall 2005
Bertschinger, Edmund
This course is the second in a series on Electromagnetism beginning with Electromagnetism I (8.02 or 8.022). It is a survey of basic electromagnetic phenomena: electrostatics; magnetostatics; electromagnetic properties of ...
Electromagnetism and Gravitation
Kenneth Dalton
1997-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
The classical concept of "mass density" is not fundamental to the quantum theory of matter. Therefore, mass density cannot be the source of gravitation. Here, we treat electromagnetic energy, momentum, and stress as its source. The resulting theory predicts that the gravitational potential near any charged elementary particle is many orders of magnitude greater than the Newtonian value.
Electromagnetic pulsar spindown
I. Contopoulos
2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z
We evaluate the result of the recent pioneering numerical simulations in Spitkovsky~2006 on the spindown of an oblique relativistic magnetic dipole rotator. Our discussion is based on our experience from two idealized cases, that of an aligned dipole rotator, and that of an oblique split-monopole rotator. We conclude that the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown may not have been resolved yet.
Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection
Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks #3; and M. L. Joyner Wincheski and W.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA #3; Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 1819, 20001 #12; Electromagnetic Interrogation
Electromagnetic structure of light nuclei
Saori Pastore
2015-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
The present understanding of nuclear electromagnetic properties including electromagnetic moments, form factors and transitions in nuclei with A $\\le$ 10 is reviewed. Emphasis is on calculations based on nuclear Hamiltonians that include two- and three-nucleon realistic potentials, along with one- and two-body electromagnetic currents derived from a chiral effective field theory with pions and nucleons.
Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques Damage Detection
Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques for Damage Detection H. T. Banks and M. L. Joyner Center.P. Winfree Nasa Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Plenary Lecture, Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation 2001 (ENDE 2001), Kobe, Japan, May 18-19, 20001 #12;Electromagnetic Interrogation Techniques
Electromagnetic simulations of coaxial type HOM coupler
Genfa Wu; Haipeng Wang; Robert Rimmer; Charles Reece
2005-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
DESY-type coaxial high order mode (HOM) coupler was used in many superconducting cavities. The electric probe tip is located at the maximum B-field inside the coupler can. For continuous wave (CW) high current application, the heating of this tip can be severe to degrade the cavity performance. Electromagnetic (EM) simulation was done to estimate the tip heating. The geometric remedies and detuning effect were discussed. The effect to HOM external quality factor (Qext) was also estimated due to these remedies. The HOM probe tip heating power was provided for CEBAF 12-GeV cavities and AES injector cavities.
J. -B. Gros; U. Kuhl; O. Legrand; F. Mortessagne
2015-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
The effective Hamiltonian formalism is extended to vectorial electromagnetic waves in order to describe statistical properties of the field in reverberation chambers. The latter are commonly used in electromagnetic compatibility tests. As a first step, the distribution of wave intensities in chaotic systems with varying opening in the weak coupling limit for scalar quantum waves is derived by means of random matrix theory. In this limit the only parameters are the modal overlap and the number of open channels. Using the extended effective Hamiltonian, we describe the intensity statistics of the vectorial electromagnetic eigenmodes of lossy reverberation chambers. Finally, the typical quantity of interest in such chambers, namely, the distribution of the electromagnetic response, is discussed. By determining the distribution of the phase rigidity - describing the coupling to the environment - using random matrix numerical data, we find good agreement between the theoretical prediction and numerical calculations of the response.
DEF: The Physical Basis of Electromagnetic Propulsion
Pinheiro, Mario J
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The very existence of the physical vacuum provides a framework to propose a general mechanism for propelling bodies through an agency of electromagnetic fields, that seat in that medium. When two sub-systems of a general closed device interact via nonlocal and retarded electromagnetic pulses, it is easily shown that they give a nonzero force, and that only tend to comply with the action-to-reaction force in the limit of instantaneous interactions. The arrangement of sub-systems provide a handy way to optimize the unbalanced EM force with the concept of impedance matching. The general properties of the differential electromagnetic force (DEF) are the following: i) it is proportional to the square of the intensity and to the angular wave frequency $\\omega$; ii) to the space between the sub-systems (although in a non-linear manner); iii) it is inversely proportional to the speed of interaction; iv) when the two sub-systems are out-of-phase, DEF is null. The approach is of interest to practical engineering princi...
Electromagnetically Induced Entanglement
Xihua Yang; Min Xiao
2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We present a novel quantum phenomenon named electromagnetically induced entanglement in the conventional Lambda-type three-level atomic system driven by a strong pump field and a relatively weak probe field. Nearly perfect entanglement between the pump and probe fields can be achieved with a low coherence decay rate between the two lower levels, high pump-field intensity, and large optical depth of the atomic ensemble. The physical origin is quantum coherence between the lower doublet produced by the pump and probe fields, similar to the well-known electromagnetically induced transparency. This method would greatly facilitate the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band continuous-variable entanglement between bright light beams by using only coherent laser fields, and may find potential and broad applications in realistic quantum information processing.
Quaternion Gravi-Electromagnetism
A. S. Rawat; O. P. S. Negi
2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z
Defining the generalized charge, potential, current and generalized fields as complex quantities where real and imaginary parts represent gravitation and electromagnetism respectively, corresponding field equation, equation of motion and other quantum equations are derived in manifestly covariant manner. It has been shown that the field equations are invariant under Lorentz as well as duality transformations. It has been shown that the quaternionic formulation presented here remains invariant under quaternion transformations.
Gravitation and Electromagnetism
B. G. Sidharth
2001-06-16T23:59:59.000Z
The realms of gravitation, belonging to Classical Physics, and Electromagnetism, belonging to the Theory of the Electron and Quantum Mechanics have remained apart as two separate pillars, inspite of a century of effort by Physicists to reconcile them. In this paper it is argued that if we extend ideas of Classical spacetime to include in addition to non integrability non commutavity also, then such a reconcilation is possible.
Banded electromagnetic stator core
Fanning, A.W.; Gonzales, A.A.; Patel, M.R.; Olich, E.E.
1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially adjoining groups of flat laminations disposed about a common centerline axis and collectively defining a central bore and a discontinuous outer perimeter, with adjacent groups diverging radially outwardly to form V-shaped gaps. An annular band surrounds the groups and is predeterminedly tensioned to clamp together the laminations, and has a predetermined flexibility in a radial direction to form substantially straight bridge sections between the adjacent groups. 5 figures.
J X Zheng-Johansson; P-I Johansson
2006-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
The electromagnetic component waves, comprising together with their generating oscillatory massless charge a material particle, will be Doppler shifted when the charge hence particle is in motion, with a velocity $v$, as a mere mechanical consequence of the source motion. We illustrate here that two such component waves generated in opposite directions and propagating at speed $c$ between walls in a one-dimensional box, superpose into a traveling beat wave of wavelength ${\\mit\\Lambda}_d$$=(\\frac{v}{c}){\\mit\\Lambda}$ and phase velocity $c^2/v+v$ which resembles directly L. de Broglie's hypothetic phase wave. This phase wave in terms of transporting the particle mass at the speed $v$ and angular frequency ${\\mit\\Omega}_d=2\\pi v /{\\mit\\Lambda}_d$, with ${\\mit\\Lambda}_d$ and ${\\mit\\Omega}_d$ obeying the de Broglie relations, represents a de Broglie wave. The standing-wave function of the de Broglie (phase) wave and its variables for particle dynamics in small geometries are equivalent to the eigen-state solutions to Schr\\"odinger equation of an identical system.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
for the SEAREV wave energy converter (WEC) followed by the design methodology applied to electromagnetic with the SEAREV WEC before discussing the two conversion technologies intended to transform wave energy, including one featuring power leveling. Index Terms wave energy conversion - electromagnetic generator
Electromagnetic field quantization in a linear dielectric medium
F. Kheirandish; M. Amooshahi
2005-11-13T23:59:59.000Z
By modeling a dielectric medium with two independent reservoirs, i.e., electric and magnetic reservoirs, the electromagnetic field is quantized in a linear dielectric medium consistently. A Hamiltonian is proposed from which using the Heisenberg equations, not only the Maxwell equations but also the structural equations can be obtained. Using the Laplace transformation, the wave equation for the electromagnetic vector potential is solved in the case of a homogeneous dielectric medium. Some examples are considered showing the applicability of the model to both absorptive and nonabsorptive dielectrics.
Electromagnetic nucleon form factors in instant and point form
T. Melde; K. Berger; L. Canton; W. Plessas; R. F. Wagenbrunn
2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
We present a study of the electromagnetic structure of the nucleons with constituent quark models in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics. In particular, we address the construction of spectator-model currents in the instant and point forms. Corresponding results for the elastic nucleon electromagnetic form factors as well as charge radii and magnetic moments are presented. We also compare results obtained by different realistic nucleon wave functions stemming from alternative constituent quark models. Finally, we discuss the theoretical uncertainties that reside in the construction of spectator-model transition operators.
Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging
Cooke, Bradly J. (Jemez Springs, NM); Guenther, David C. (Los Alamos, NM)
2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.
Stable operating regime for traveling wave devices
Carlsten, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Autophase stability is provided for a traveling wave device (TWD) electron beam for amplifying an RF electromagnetic wave in walls defining a waveguide for said electromagnetic wave. An off-axis electron beam is generated at a selected energy and has an energy noise inherently arising from electron gun. The off-axis electron beam is introduced into the waveguide. The off-axis electron beam is introduced into the waveguide at a second radius. The waveguide structure is designed to obtain a selected detuning of the electron beam. The off-axis electron beam has a velocity and the second radius to place the electron beam at a selected distance from the walls defining the waveguide, wherein changes in a density of the electron beam due to the RF electromagnetic wave are independent of the energy of the electron beam to provide a concomitant stable operating regime relative to the energy noise.
Particle acceleration in superluminal strong waves
Teraki, Yuto; Nagataki, Shigehiro
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate the electron acceleration in random superluminal strong waves (SLSWs) and radiation from them by using numerical methods in the context of the termination shock of the pulsar wind nebulae. We pursue the electrons by solving the equation of motion in the analytically expressed electromagnetic turbulences. These consist of primary SLSW and isotropically distributed secondary electromagnetic waves. Under the dominance of the secondary waves, all electrons gain nearly equal energy. On the other hand, when the primary wave is dominant, selective acceleration occurs. The phase of the primary wave felt by the electrons moving nearly along the wavevector changes very slowly compared to the oscillation of the wave, which is called "phase locked", and such electrons are continuously accelerated. This acceleration by SLSWs may play a crucial role in the pre-acceleration for the shock acceleration. In general, the radiation from the phase-locked population is different from the synchro-Compton radiation. How...
Shock wave in Euler - Heisenberg - Köckel nonlinear vacuum
Lubomir M. Kovachev; Daniela A. Georgieva; Kamen L. Kovachev
2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z
An analytical approach to the theory of electromagnetic waves in nonlinear vacuum is developed. The evolution of the pulse is governed by a system of nonlinear wave vector equations. Exact solution with own angular momentum in form of a shock wave is obtained.
Vibration Harvesting using Electromagnetic Transduction
Waterbury, Andrew
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Puers, “Harvesting Energy from Vibrations by a Micromachinedsignal processing using vibration-based power generation,”electromagnetic generator for vibration energy harvesting,”
Electromagnetism on Anisotropic Fractals
Martin Ostoja-Starzewski
2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
We derive basic equations of electromagnetic fields in fractal media which are specified by three indepedent fractal dimensions {\\alpha}_{i} in the respective directions x_{i} (i=1,2,3) of the Cartesian space in which the fractal is embedded. To grasp the generally anisotropic structure of a fractal, we employ the product measure, so that the global forms of governing equations may be cast in forms involving conventional (integer-order) integrals, while the local forms are expressed through partial differential equations with derivatives of integer order but containing coefficients involving the {\\alpha}_{i}'s. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Amp\\`ere laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting the dimensions to integers.
Electromagnetic Probes in PHENIX
Gabor David
2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic probes are arguably the most universal tools to study the different physics processes in high energy hadron and heavy ion collisions. In this paper we summarize recent measurements of real and virtual direct photons at central rapidity by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC in p+p, d+Au and Au+Au collisions. We also discuss the impact of the results and the constraints they put on theoretical models. At the end we report on the immediate as well as on the mid-term future of photon measurements at RHIC.
Gravitation and electromagnetism
V. P. Dmitriyev
2002-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
Maxwell's equations comprise both electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The transverse part of the vector potential belongs to magnetism, the longitudinal one is concerned with gravitation. The Coulomb gauge indicates that longitudinal components of the fields propagate instantaneously. The delta-function singularity of the field of the divergence of the vector potential, referred to as the dilatation center, represents an elementary agent of gravitation. Viewing a particle as a source or a scattering center of the point dilatation, the Newton's gravitation law can be reproduced.
Electromagnetic pump stator coil
Fanning, Alan W. (San Jose, CA); Dahl, Leslie R. (Livermore, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom.
Electromagnetic pump stator coil
Fanning, A.W.; Dahl, L.R.
1996-06-25T23:59:59.000Z
An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom. 9 figs.
Resonant circuit which provides dual-frequency excitation for rapid cycling of an electromagnet
Praeg, W.F.
1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed is a novel ring-magnet control circuit that permits synchrotron repetition rates much higher than the frequency of the sinusoidal guide field of the ring magnet during particle acceleration. The control circuit generates sinusoidal excitation currents of different frequencies in the half waves. During radio-frequency acceleration of the synchrotron, the control circuit operates with a lower frequency sine wave and, thereafter, the electromagnets are reset with a higher-frequency half sine wave.
Lucas, Timothy S. (4614 River Mill Ct., Glen Allen, VA 23060)
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.
Electromagnetic acoustic transducer
Alers, George A. (Albuquerque, NM); Burns, Jr., Leigh R. (Albuquerque, NM); MacLauchlan, Daniel T. (Sandia Park, NM)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A noncontact ultrasonic transducer for studying the acoustic properties of a metal workpiece includes a generally planar magnetizing coil positioned above the surface of the workpiece, and a generally planar eddy current coil between the magnetizing coil and the workpiece. When a large current is passed through the magnetizing coil, a large magnetic field is applied to the near-surface regions of the workpiece. The eddy current coil can then be operated as a transmitter by passing an alternating current therethrough to excite ultrasonic waves in the surface of the workpiece, or operated as a passive receiver to sense ultrasonic waves in the surface by measuring the output signal. The geometries of the two coils can be varied widely to be effective for different types of ultrasonic waves. The coils are preferably packaged in a housing which does not interfere with their operation, but protects them from a variety of adverse environmental conditions.
"Millikan oil drops" as quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation
Raymond Y. Chiao
2007-02-25T23:59:59.000Z
Pairs of Planck-mass-scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.
Electromagnetic neutrino: a short review
Alexander I. Studenikin
2014-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
A short review on selected issues related to the problem of neutrino electromagnetic properties is given. After a flash look at the theoretical basis of neutrino electromagnetic form factors, constraints on neutrino magnetic moments and electric millicharge from terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations are discussed. We also focus on some recent studies of the problem and on perspectives.
Geometric and Electromagnetic Aspects of Fusion Pore Making
Darya Apushkinskaya; Evgeny Apushkinsky; Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek; Martin Koch
2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
For regulated exocytosis, we model the morphology and dynamics of the making of the fusion pore or porosome as a cup-shaped lipoprotein structure (a dimple or pit) on the cytosol side of the plasma membrane. We describe the forming of the dimple by a free boundary problem. We discuss the various forces acting and analyze the magnetic character of the wandering electromagnetic field wave produced by intracellular spatially distributed pulsating (and well observed) release and binding of calcium ions anteceding the bilayer membrane vesicle fusion of exocytosis. Our approach explains the energy efficiency of the observed dimple forming prior to hemifusion and fusion pore, and the observed flickering in secretion. It provides a frame to relate characteristic time length of exocytosis to the frequency, amplitude and direction of propagation of the underlying electromagnetic field wave.
Loyka, Sergey
, Boca Raton, 2006. 20-Jul-05 Chapter 3: Information Theory and Electromagnetism: Are They Related? 1(37) INFORMATION THEORY AND ELECTROMAGNETISM: ARE THEY RELATED? Sergey Loyka1 , Juan Mosig2 1 School of Information [9-14]. Electromagnetic waves are used as the primary carrier of information. The basic
Electromagnetic deuteron form factors in point form relativistic quantum mechanics
N. A. Khokhlov
2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
A study of electromagnetic structure of the deuteron in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics is presented. The deuteron form factors dependencies on the transferred 4-momentum Q are calculated. We compare results obtained with different realistic deuteron wave functions stemming from Nijmegen-I, Nijmegen-II, JISP16, CD-Bonn, Paris and Moscow (with forbidden states) potentials. A nucleon form factor parametrization consistent with modern experimental analysis was used as an input data.
Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability
Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.
Electromagnetic Solitons in Degenerate Relativistic Electron-Positron Plasma
Berezhiani, V I; Tsintsadze, N L
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The existence of soliton-like electromagnetic (EM) distributions in a fully degenerate electron-positron plasma is studied applying relativistic hydrodynamic and Maxwell equations. For circularly polarized wave it is found that the soliton solutions exist both in relativistic as well as nonrelativistic degenerate plasmas. Plasma density in the region of soliton pulse localization is reduced considerably. The possibility of plasma cavitation is also shown.
The parametric decay of Alfven waves into shear Alfven waves and dust lower hybrid waves
Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Crescent Model School Shadman, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A.; Zubia, K.; Zeba, I.; Uzma, Ch. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salimullah, M. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342 (Bangladesh)
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
The parametric decay instability of Alfven wave into low-frequency electrostatic dust-lower-hybrid and electromagnetic shear Alfven waves has been investigated in detail in a dusty plasma in the presence of external/ambient uniform magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic fluid equations of plasmas have been employed to find the linear and nonlinear response of the plasma particles for this three-wave nonlinear coupling in a dusty magnetoplasma. Here, relatively high frequency electromagnetic Alfven wave has been taken as the pump wave. It couples with other two low-frequency internal possible modes of the dusty magnetoplasma, viz., the dust-lower-hybrid and shear Alfven waves. The nonlinear dispersion relation of the dust-lower-hybrid wave has been solved to obtain the growth rate of the parametric decay instability. The growth rate is maximum for small value of external magnetic field B{sub s}. It is noticed that the growth rate is proportional to the unperturbed electron number density n{sub oe}.
Gravitational waves and gamma-ray bursts
Alessandra Corsi; for the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; for the Virgo Collaboration
2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
Gamma-Ray Bursts are likely associated with a catastrophic energy release in stellar mass objects. Electromagnetic observations provide important, but indirect information on the progenitor. On the other hand, gravitational waves emitted from the central source, carry direct information on its nature. In this context, I give an overview of the multi-messenger study of gamma-ray bursts that can be carried out by using electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations. I also underline the importance of joint electromagnetic and gravitational wave searches, in the absence of a gamma-ray trigger. Finally, I discuss how multi-messenger observations may probe alternative gamma-ray burst progenitor models, such as the magnetar scenario.
van Manen, Dirk-Jan
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In exploration seismics and non-destructive evaluation, acoustic, elastic and electro-magnetic waves sensitive to inhomogeneities in the medium under investigation are used to probe its interior. Waves multiply scattered ...
Electromagnetic neutrinos in terrestrial experiments and astrophysics
Carlo Giunti; Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Yu-Feng Li; Alexey V. Lokhov; Alexander I. Studenikin; Shun Zhou
2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
An overview of neutrino electromagnetic properties, which open a door to the new physics beyond the Standard Model, is given. The effects of neutrino electromagnetic interactions both in terrestrial experiments and in astrophysical environments are discussed. The experimental bounds on neutrino electromagnetic characteristics are summarized. Future astrophysical probes of electromagnetic neutrinos are outlined.
Frank G. Borg; Ismo Hakala; Jukka Määttälä
2007-12-24T23:59:59.000Z
We present a summary of the basic properties of the radio wave generation, propagation and reception, with a special attention to the gigahertz bandwidth region which is of interest for wireless sensor networks. We also present some measurement results which use the so-called RSSI indicator in order to track how the field strength varies with position and distance of the transceivers. We hope the paper may be useful to anyone who looks for a quick review of the fundamentals of electromagnetic theory with application to antennas.
Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA
A. Widom; J. Swain; Y. N. Srivastava; S. Sivasubramanian
2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a "wireless" version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by "nanowires". The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.
Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES
W. Czyzycki; E. Epple; L. Fabbietti; M. Golubeva; F. Guber; A. Ivashkin; M. Kajetanowicz; A. Krasa; F. Krizek; A. Kugler; K. Lapidus; E. Lisowski; J. Pietraszko; A. Reshetin; P. Salabura; Y. Sobolev; J. Stanislav; P. Tlusty; T. Torrieri; M. Traxler
2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
We propose to build the Electromagnetic calorimeter for the HADES di-lepton spectrometer. It will enable to measure the data on neutral meson production from nucleus-nucleus collisions, which are essential for interpretation of dilepton data, but are unknown in the energy range of planned experiments (2-10 GeV per nucleon). The calorimeter will improve the electron-hadron separation, and will be used for detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and HI reactions. Detailed description of the detector layout, the support structure, the electronic readout and its performance studied via Monte Carlo simulations and series of dedicated test experiments is presented. The device will cover the total area of about 8 m^2 at polar angles between 12 and 45 degrees with almost full azimuthal coverage. The photon and electron energy resolution achieved in test experiments amounts to 5-6%/sqrt(E[GeV]) which is sufficient for the eta meson reconstruction with S/B ratio of 0.4% in Ni+Ni collisions at 8 AGeV. A purity of the identified leptons after the hadron rejection, resulting from simulations based on the test measurements, is better than 80% at momenta above 500 MeV/c, where time-of-flight cannot be used.
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism
Burra G. Sidharth
2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.
Interaction of gravitational waves with matter
A. Cetoli; C. J. Pethick
2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a unified formalism for describing the interaction of gravitational waves with matter that clearly separates the effects of general relativity from those due to interactions in the matter. Using it, we derive a general expression for the dispersion of gravitational waves in matter in terms of correlation functions for the matter in flat spacetime. The self energy of a gravitational wave is shown to have contributions analogous to the paramagnetic and diamagnetic contributions to the self energy of an electromagnetic wave. We apply the formalism to some simple systems - free particles, an interacting scalar field, and a fermionic superfluid.
Spacetime algebra as a powerful tool for electromagnetism
Justin Dressel; Konstantin Y. Bliokh; Franco Nori
2015-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present a comprehensive introduction to spacetime algebra that emphasizes its practicality and power as a tool for the study of electromagnetism. We carefully develop this natural (Clifford) algebra of the Minkowski spacetime geometry, with a particular focus on its intrinsic (and often overlooked) complex structure. Notably, the scalar imaginary that appears throughout the electromagnetic theory properly corresponds to the unit 4-volume of spacetime itself, and thus has physical meaning. The electric and magnetic fields are combined into a single complex and frame-independent bivector field, which generalizes the Riemann-Silberstein complex vector that has recently resurfaced in studies of the single photon wavefunction. The complex structure of spacetime also underpins the emergence of electromagnetic waves, circular polarizations, the normal variables for canonical quantization, the distinction between electric and magnetic charge, complex spinor representations of Lorentz transformations, and the dual (electric-magnetic field exchange) symmetry that produces helicity conservation in vacuum fields. This latter symmetry manifests as an arbitrary global phase of the complex field, motivating the use of a complex vector potential, along with an associated transverse and gauge-invariant bivector potential, as well as complex (bivector and scalar) Hertz potentials. Our detailed treatment aims to encourage the use of spacetime algebra as a readily available and mature extension to existing vector calculus and tensor methods that can greatly simplify the analysis of fundamentally relativistic objects like the electromagnetic field.
Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air
Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Center for Applied Electromagnetics, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.
Waves in Nature, Lasers to Tsumanis and Beyond
LLNL - University of California Television
2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Waves are everywhere. Microwaves, laser beams, music, tsunamis. Electromagnetic waves emanating from the Big Bang fill the universe. Learn about the similarities and difference in all of these wavy phenomena with Ed Moses and Rick Sawicki, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory scientists Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Science] [Show ID: 11541
Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.
Efficient regime of electromagnetic emission in a plasma with counterstreaming electron beams
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Efficiency of electromagnetic emission produced in a magnetized plasma with counterstreaming electron beams was investigated using both the linear kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations. We calculated the growth rate of the beam-plasma instability taking into account both kinetic and relativistic effects and showed that there exists a regime in which transversely propagating electromagnetic waves can be generated by the coupling of the most unstable oblique beam-driven modes. It was confirmed by numerical simulations that such a tune-up of system parameters for a specific nonlinear process can lead to a substantial increase in electromagnetic emission efficiency. It was found that electromagnetic radiation emerging from the plasma in such a regime is generated near the harmonics of the pump frequency that is determined by the typical eigenfrequency of the beam-driven modes. It was also shown that the peak emission power can reach 5% of the maximal power lost by beam electrons.
Electromagnetic radiation by gravitating bodies
Iwo Bialynicki-Birula; Zofia Bialynicka-Birula
2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
Gravitating bodies in motion, regardless of their constitution, always produce electromagnetic radiation in the form of photon pairs. This phenomenon is an analog of the radiation caused by the motion of dielectric (or magnetic) bodies. It is a member of a wide class of phenomena named dynamical Casimir effects, and it may be viewed as the squeezing of the electromagnetic vacuum. Production of photon pairs is a purely quantum-mechanical effect. Unfortunately, as we show, the emitted radiation is extremely weak as compared to radiation produced by other mechanisms.
Role of Higher Multipole Excitations in the Electromagnetic Dissociation of One Neutron Halo Nuclei
R. Chatterjee; L. Fortunato; A. Vitturi
2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the role of higher multipole excitations in the electromagnetic dissociation of one-neutron halo nuclei within two different theoretical models -- a finite range distorted wave Born approximation and another in a more analytical method with a finite range potential. We also show, within a simple picture, how the presence of a weakly bound state affects the breakup cross section.
Well-posedness for Systems Representing Electromagnetic/Acoustic Wavefront Interaction
interrogation.) In one such class of electromagnetic interrogation techniques, one uses a superconductive (also and applications for techniques which employ superconductive metal backings and standing acoustic waves as re are absorbing on the left (z = 0) and superconductive on the right (z = 1). We use general initial conditions
Electromagnetic formation flight dipole solution planning
Schweighart, Samuel A. (Samuel Adam), 1977-
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) describes the concept of using electromagnets (coupled with reaction wheels) to provide all of the necessary forces and torques needed to maintain a satellite's relative position and ...
Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves
Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA); Ng, Lawrence C. (Danville, CA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.
Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves
Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.
1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z
The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.
Coherent THz electromagnetic radiation emission as a shock wave diagnostic
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23TribalInformationConference: Catalytic Nanomotorsexperiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcpCogeneration
Coherent THz electromagnetic radiation emission as a shock wave diagnostic
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23TribalInformationConference: Catalytic Nanomotorsexperiment: Revisiting the bcc-hcpCogenerationand
Coherent THz electromagnetic radiation emission as a shock wave...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Nashville, TN, United States, Jun 28 - Jul 03,...
Subluminal and Superluminal Electromagnetic Waves and the Lepton Mass Spectrum
Rodríguez, W A
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Maxwell equation $\\dirac F = 0$ for $F \\in \\sec \\bwe^2 M \\subset \\sec \\clif (M)$, where $\\clif (M)$ is the Clifford bundle of differential forms, have subluminal and superluminal solutions characterized by $F^2 \
Self-Duality in Nonlinear Electromagnetism
Mary K. Gaillard; Bruno Zumino
1997-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss duality invariant interactions between electromagnetic fields and matter. The case of scalar fields is treated in some detail.
Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays
Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays Daniel W. Kwon and David W. Miller February 2005 SSL # 2-05 #12;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays By DANIEL W. KWON S;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays by DANIEL W. KWON Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics
Electromagnetics from Simulation to Optimal Design
Grohs, Philipp
1 Electromagnetics from Simulation to Optimal Design Christian Hafner Laboratory for Electromagnetic Fields and Microwave Electronics (IFH) ETH Zurich (Switzerland) Lab: http://www.ifh.ee.ethz.ch COG 23, 2013 #12;2 IFH courses · Advanced engineering electromagnetics (Leuchtmann, start spring 2014
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 5
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 5 (1a) The Null Energy Condition on an energy = (k, 0, 0, k), show that the energy-momentum tensor Tµ = 1 4 Fµ F - 1 4µ F F (1) for electromagnetism if the equality kµ k Tµ = 0 is attained. (2) Show that the energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetism can
Electromagnetic Corrections in Staggered Chiral Perturbation Theory
Bernard, Claude
Electromagnetic Corrections in Staggered Chiral Perturbation Theory C. Bernard and E.D. Freeland perturbation theory including electromagnetism, and discuss the extent to which quenched-photon simulations can-lat]17Nov2010 #12;Electromagnetic Corrections in Staggered Chiral Perturbation Theory E.D. Freeland 1
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 5
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 5 (1a) Show that the energy-momentum tensor for the electromagnetic field is tracefree, i.e. Tµ µ = 0. What would happen, in a spacetime dimension d = 4? (Assume) Show that the energy-momentum tensor for the electromagnetic field can be written as Tµ = 1 8 (Fµ F
Electromagnetic Interrogation of Dielectric Materials 1
Electromagnetic Interrogation of Dielectric Materials 1 H.T. Banks M.W. Buksas Center for Research grant P200A40730. #12; Abstract We investigate time domain based electromagnetic inverse problems electromagnetic phenomenon. For our purposes, we categorize the materials and the models employed to describe them
Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation
Changbiao Wang
2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z
The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity and break Fermat's principle in a non-dispersive, lossless, non-conducting, anisotropic uniform medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity for a plane wave in a moving isotropic uniform medium. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.
Electromagnetic pulses which have a zero momentum frame
John Lekner
2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z
One set of the Ziolkowski family of exact solutions of the wave equation are shown to represent pulses propagating with momentum smaller than energy/c. This is explicitly demonstrated for special cases by calculating the total electromagnetic momentum and energy. Since the ratio of momentum to energy is a constant smaller than 1/c, there exists a Lorentz transformation to a frame in which the total momentum is zero. In the zero-momentum frame the fields are those of an annular pulse converging onto or diverging from a focal region.
Vibration Harvesting using Electromagnetic Transduction
Waterbury, Andrew
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
radio waves, and mechanical vibrations can also bethis research is mechanical vibrations, particularly thoseand machine tools. Mechanical vibrations can be converted to
Spin effect on parametric interactions of waves in magnetoplasmas
Shahid, M. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 (Pakistan); Melrose, D. B. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore-54000 (Pakistan)
2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The parametric decay instability of upper hybrid wave into low-frequency electromagnetic Shear Alfven wave and Ordinary mode radiation (O-mode) has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma immersed in the uniform external magnetic field. Incorporating quantum effect due to electron spin, the fluid model has been used to investigate the linear and nonlinear response of the plasma species for three-wave coupling in a magnetoplasma. It is shown that the spin of electrons has considerable effect on the parametric decay of upper hybrid wave into Ordinary mode radiation (O-mode) and Shear Alfven wave even in classical regime.
An Obliquely Propagating Electromagnetic Drift Instability in the Lower Hybrid Frequency Range
Hantao Ji; Russell Kulsrud; William Fox; Masaaki Yamada
2005-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
By employing a local two-fluid theory, we investigate an obliquely propagating electromagnetic instability in the lower hybrid frequency range driven by cross-field current or relative drifts between electrons and ions. The theory self-consistently takes into account local cross-field current and accompanying pressure gradients. It is found that the instability is caused by reactive coupling between the backward propagating whistler (fast) waves in the moving electron frame, and the forward propagating sound (slow) waves in the ion frame when the relative drifts are large. The unstable waves we consider propagate obliquely to the unperturbed magnetic field and have mixed polarization with significant electromagnetic components. A physical picture of the instability emerges in the limit of large wave number characteristic of the local approximation. The primary positive feedback mechanism is based on reinforcement of initial electron density perturbations by compression of electron fluid via induced Lorentz force. The resultant waves are qualitatively consistent with the measured electromagnetic fluctuations in reconnecting current sheet in a laboratory plasma.
Plasma-wave generation in a dynamic spacetime
Yang, Huan
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new electromagnetic-emission mechanism in magnetized, force-free plasma, which is driven by the evolution of the underlying dynamical spacetime. With this radiation-generation process, gravitational energy is converted into electromagnetic energy, which is then carried away by both fast-magnetosonic and Alfven waves of the plasma. As an immediate demonstration, we consider compact binary mergers occurring within magnetized plasma, which have been shown by previous numerical studies to produce copious amounts of electromagnetic radiation. The emission power and angular distribution of the two classes of waves are separately determined. When the new process is combined with previously understood mechanisms such as the Blandford-Znajek process and kinetic-motion-driven radiation, one can classify different components of electromagnetic emissions seen in the inspiral stage of compact-binary coalescence.
Wave propagation in complex coordinates
Horsley, S A R; Philbin, T G
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the analytic continuation of wave equations into the complex position plane. For the particular case of electromagnetic waves we provide a physical meaning for such an analytic continuation in terms of a family of closely related inhomogeneous media. For bounded permittivity profiles we find the phenomenon of reflection can be related to branch cuts in the wave that originate from poles of the permittivity at complex positions. Demanding that these branch cuts disappear, we derive a large family of inhomogeneous media that are reflectionless for a single angle of incidence. Extending this property to all angles of incidence leads us to a generalized form of the Poschl Teller potentials. We conclude by analyzing our findings within the phase integral (WKB) method.
Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ayub, M. K. [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyunbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Ahmad, Ali [National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum plasma oscillations are studied in a strongly magnetized, ultra-dense plasma with degenerate electrons and positrons. The dispersive role of electron and positron quantum effects on low frequency (in comparison to electron cyclotron frequency) shear electromagnetic wave is investigated by employing hydrodynamic formulation. In the presence of ions, the density balance changes, and the electromagnetic wave (with frequency lower than the ion cyclotron frequency) is shown to couple with electrostatic ion mode under certain conditions. For such low frequency waves, it is also seen that the contribution of electron and positron degeneracy pressure is dominant as compared to their diffraction effects. The results are analyzed numerically for illustrative purpose pointing out their relevance to the dense laboratory (e.g., super-intense laser-dense matter interactions) and astrophysical plasmas.
Comment on 'Kinetic theory of surface waves in plasma jets' [Phys. Plasmas 9, 701 (2002)
Lee, Hee J. [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)
2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that the dispersion relation of electromagnetic surface waves propagating on the interface between a vacuum and drifting Maxwellian plasmas derived in recent work [Phys. Plasmas 9, 701 (2002)] is incorrect. Correct electromagnetic and electrostatic dispersion relations are obtained.
Crozier, Richard Carson
2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
Combined electrical and structural models of five types of permanent magnet linear electrical machines suitable for direct-drive power take-off on wave energy applications are presented. Electromagnetic models were ...
The wave impedance of an atomically thin crystal
Merano, Michele
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
I propose an expression for the electromagnetic wave impedance of a two-dimensional atomic crystal, and I deduce the Fresnel coefficients in terms of this quantity. It is widely known that a two-dimensional crystal can absorb light, if its conductivity is different from zero. It is less emphasized that they can also store a certain amount of electromagnetic energy. The concept of impedance is useful to quantify this point.
Compression of laser radiation in plasmas via electromagnetic cascading
Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, One University Station C1500, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
A train of few-laser-cycle relativistically intense radiation spikes with a terahertz repetition rate can be organized self-consistently in plasma from two frequency detuned co-propagating laser beams of low intensity. Large frequency bandwidth for the compression of spikes is produced via laser-induced periodic modulation of the plasma refractive index. The beat-wave-driven electron plasma wave downshifted from the plasma frequency creates a moving index grating thus inducing a periodic phase modulation of the driving laser (in spectral terms, electromagnetic cascading). The group velocity dispersion compresses the chirped laser beat notes to a few-cycle duration and relativistic intensity either concurrently in the same, or sequentially in different plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the effect persists in a realistic three-dimensional axisymmetric geometry.
Chaotic Emission from Electromagnetic Systems Considering Self-Interaction
Fernando Kokubun; Vilson T. Zanchin
2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z
The emission of electromagnetic waves from a system described by the H\\'enon-Heiles potential is studied in this work. The main aim being to analyze the behavior of the system when the damping term is included explicitly into the equations of motion. Energy losses at the chaotic regime and at the regular regime are compared. The results obtained here are similar to the case of gravitational waves emission, as long we consider only the energy loss. The main difference being that in the present work the energy emitted is explicitly calculated solving the equation of motion without further approximations. It is expected that the present analysis may be useful when studying the analogous problem of dissipation in gravitational systems.
Breit-Wheeler process in very short electromagnetic pulses
A. I. Titov; B. Kampfer; H. Takabe; A. Hosaka
2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z
The generalized Breit-Wheeler process, i.e. the emission of $e^+e^-$ pairs off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g.\\ laser) wave field, is analyzed. We show that the production probability is determined by the interplay of two dynamical effects. The first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is the non-linear dynamics of the interaction of $e^\\pm$ with the strong electromagnetic field. The first effect manifests itself most clearly in the weak-field regime, where the small field intensity is compensated by the rapid variation of the electromagnetic field in a limited space-time region, which intensifies the few-photon events and can enhance the production probability by orders of magnitude compared to an infinitely long pulse. Therefore, short pulses may be considered as a powerful amplifier. The non-linear dynamics in the multi-photon Breit-Wheeler regime plays a decisive role at large field intensities, where effects of the pulse shape and duration are less important. In the transition regime, both effects must be taken into account simultaneously. We provide suitable expressions for the $e^+e^-$ production probability for kinematic regions which can be used in transport codes.
Dark Energy, Gravitation and Electromagnetism
B. G. Sidharth
2004-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
In the context of the fact that the existence of dark energy causing the accelerated expansion of the universe has been confirmed by the WMAP and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we re-examine gravitation itself, starting with the formulation of Sakharov and show that it is possible to obtain gravitation in terms of the electromagnetic charge of elementary particles, once the ZPF and its effects at the Compton scale are taken into account.
Laminated electromagnetic pump stator core
Fanning, A.W.
1995-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
A stator core for an electromagnetic pump includes a plurality of circumferentially abutting tapered laminations extending radially outwardly from a centerline axis to collectively define a radially inner bore and a radially outer circumference. Each of the laminations includes radially inner and outer edges and has a thickness increasing from the inner edge toward the outer edge to provide a substantially continuous path adjacent the circumference. This pump is used in nuclear fission reactors. 19 figs.
Electromagnetism Tutorial (Tutorial de Eletromagnetismo)
Dantas, Christine C
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The present tutorial aims at covering the fundamentals of electromagnetism, in a condensed and clear manner. Some solved and proposed exercises have been included. The reader is assumed to have knowledge of basic electricity, partial derivatives and multiple integrals. ----- O presente tutorial visa cobrir os fundamentos do eletromagnetismo, de forma condensada e clara. Alguns exercicios resolvidos e propostos foram incluidos. Assume-se conhecimento de eletricidade basica, derivadas parciais e integrais multiplas.
The nature of electromagnetic energy
Jerrold Franklin
2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
The nature of the electromagnetic (EM) energy for general charge and current distributions is analyzed. There are two well known forms for calculating EM energy as the integral over all space of either the electromagnetic fields: $u_{\\bf EB}=({\\bf E\\bcdot D+B\\bcdot H})/8\\pi$, or the electromagnetic potentials and charge-current densities: $u_{\\rho{\\bf A}}=1/2(\\rho\\phi+{\\bf j\\bcdot A})$. We discuss the appropriate use of each of these forms in calculating the total EM energy and the EM energy within a limited volume. We conclude that only the form $u_{\\bf EB}$ can be considered as a suitable EM energy density, while either form can be integrated to find the total EM energy. However, bounding surface integrals (if they don't vanish) must be included when using the $u_{\\bf EB}$ form. Including these surface integrals resolves some seeming paradoxes in the energy of electric or magnetic dipoles in uniform fields
Poynting-vector based method for determining the bearing and location of electromagnetic sources
Simons, David J. (Modesto, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA); Harben, Philip E. (Livermore, CA); Kirkendall, Barry A. (Golden, CO); Schultz, Craig A. (Danville, CA)
2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
A method and apparatus is utilized to determine the bearing and/or location of sources, such as, alternating current (A.C.) generators and loads, power lines, transformers and/or radio-frequency (RF) transmitters, emitting electromagnetic-wave energy for which a Poynting-Vector can be defined. When both a source and field sensors (electric and magnetic) are static, a bearing to the electromagnetic source can be obtained. If a single set of electric (E) and magnetic (B) sensors are in motion, multiple measurements permit location of the source. The method can be extended to networks of sensors allowing determination of the location of both stationary and moving sources.
Compression of Laser Radiation in Plasmas Using Electromagnetic Cascading
Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, One University Station C1500, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2005-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
Compressing high-power laser beams in plasmas via generation of a coherent cascade of electromagnetic sidebands is described. The technique requires two copropagating beams detuned by a near-resonant frequency {omega} < or approx. {omega}{sub p}. The ponderomotive force of the laser beat wave drives an electron plasma wave which modifies the refractive index of plasma so as to produce a periodic phase modulation of the laser field with the beat period {tau}{sub b}=2{pi}/{omega}. A train of chirped laser beat notes (each of duration {tau}{sub b}) is thus created. The group velocity dispersion of radiation in plasma can then compress each beat note to a few-laser-cycle duration. As a result, a train of sharp electromagnetic spikes separated in time by {tau}{sub b} is formed. Depending on the plasma and laser parameters, chirping and compression can be implemented either concurrently in the same plasma or sequentially in different plasmas.
Electromagnetic Wavelets as Hertzian Pulsed Beams in Complex Spacetime
Gerald Kaiser
2002-09-12T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic wavelets are a family of 3x3 matrix fields W_z(x') parameterized by complex spacetime points z=x+iy with y timelike. They are translates of a \\sl basic \\rm wavelet W(z) holomorphic in the future-oriented union T of the forward and backward tubes. Applied to a complex polarization vector p (representing electric and magnetic dipole moments), W(z) gives an anti-selfdual solution W(z)p of Maxwell's equations derived from a selfdual Hertz potential Z(z)=-iS(z)p, where S is the \\sl Synge function \\rm acting as a Whittaker-like scalar Hertz potential. Resolutions of unity exist giving representations of sourceless electromagnetic fields as superpositions of wavelets. With the choice of a branch cut, S(z) splits into a difference of retarded and advanced \\sl pulsed beams \\rm whose limits as y\\to 0 give the propagators of the wave equation. This yields a similar splitting of the wavelets and leads to their complete physical interpretation as EM pulsed beams absorbed and emitted by a \\sl disk source \\rm D(y) representing the branch cut. The choice of y determines the beam's orientation, collimation and duration, giving beams as sharp and pulses as short as desired. The sources are computed as spacetime distributions of electric and magnetic dipoles supported on D(y). The wavelet representation of sourceless electromagnetic fields now splits into representations with advanced and retarded sources. These representations are the electromagnetic counterpart of relativistic coherent-state representations previously derived for massive Klein-Gordon and Dirac particles.
Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions
Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L
2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from straightforward, since there are a number of open questions. Thus the main aim of the feasibility tests is to find - if possible - a simple and reliable method that can be used as a diagnostic tool for electro-magnetic effects. SDF charges with a 0.5-g PETN booster and a filling of 1 g aluminum flakes have been investigated in three barometric bomb calorimeters with volumes ranging from 6.3 l to of 6.6 l. Though similar in volume, the barometric bombs differed in the length-to-diameter ratio. The tests were carried out with the bombs filled with either air or nitrogen at ambient pressure. The comparison of the test in air to those in nitrogen shows that the combustion of TNT detonation products or aluminum generates a substantial increase of the quasi-steady overpressure in the bombs. Repeated tests in the same configuration resulted in some scatter of the experimental results. The most likely reason is that the aluminum combustion in most or all cases is incomplete and that the amount of aluminum actually burned varies from test to test. The mass fraction burned apparently decreases with increasing aspect ratio L/D. Thus an L/D-ratio of about 1 is optimal for the performance of shock-dispersed-fuel combustion. However, at an L/D-ratio of about 5 the combustion still yields appreciable overpressure in excess of the detonation. For a multi-burst scenario in a tunnel environment with a number of SDF charges distributed along a tunnel section a spacing of 5 tunnel diameter and a fuel-specific volume of around 7 l/g might provide an acceptable compromise between optimizing the combustion performance and keeping the number of elementary charges low. Further tests in a barometric bomb calorimeter of 21.2 l volume were performed with four types of aluminum. The mass fraction burned in this case appeared to depend on the morphology of the aluminum particles. Flake aluminum exhibited a better performance than granulated aluminum with particle sizes ranging from below 25 {micro}m to 125 {micro}m for the coarsest material. In addition, a feasibility study on electro-magnetic effects from SDF charges detonated in a tunnel has been performed. A method was developed to measure the local, unsteady electro-conductivity in the detonation/combustion products cloud. This method proved to yield reproducible results. A variety of methods were tested with regard to probing electro-magnetic pulses from the detonation of SDF charges. The results showed little reproducibility and were small compared to the effect from pulsed high voltage discharges of comparatively small energy (around 32 J). Thus either no significant electromagnetic pulse is generated in our small-scale tests or the tested techniques have to be discarded as too insensitive or too limited in bandwidth to detect possibly very high frequency electro-magnetic disturbances.
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 4
Pope, Christopher
611: Electromagnetic Theory Problem Sheet 4 (1a) The angular momentum 3-vector L is defined by Li) Prove from the above that for the electromagnetic field, L = 1 4 r × (E × B) d3 x (b) Prove that dR dt = P E where R is the centre of mass of the electromagnetic field, defined by R Wd3x = rWd3x
Electromagnetic interactions at RHIC and LHC
M. C. Guclu
2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
At LHC energies the Lorentz factor will be 3400 for the Pb + Pb collisions and the electromagnetic interactions will play important roles. Cross sections for the electromagnetic particle productions are very large and can not be ignored for the lifetimes of the beams and background. In this article, we are going to study some of the electromagnetic processes at RHIC and LHC and show the cross section calculations of the electron-positron pair production with the giant dipole resonance of the ions.
22.105 Electromagnetic Interactions, Fall 1998
Hutchinson, I. H. (Ian H.)
Principles and applications of electromagnetism, starting from Maxwell's equations, with emphasis on phenomena important to nuclear engineering and radiation sciences. Solution methods for electrostatic and magnetostatic ...
Study of nucleon resonances with electromagnetic interactions
T. -S. H. Lee; L. C. Smith
2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
Recent developments in using electromagnetic meson production reactions to study the structure of nucleon resonances are reviewed. Possible future works are discussed.
6.630 Electromagnetic Theory, Fall 2002
Kong, Jin Au, 1942-
6.630 is an introductory subject on electromagnetics, emphasizing fundamental concepts and applications of Maxwell equations. Topics covered include: polarization, dipole antennas, wireless communications, forces and energy, ...
Y-12 electromagnetic separation process wins approval
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
work immediately. Just like what we know of Groves, huh. The gaseous diffusion, reactor pile and electromagnetic separation approaches were reviewed with each group attempting to...
Airborne electromagnetic surveys as a reconnaissance technique...
geothermal exploration Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Airborne electromagnetic surveys as a reconnaissance technique for...
Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants
Cabayan, H.S.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect. Wave Motion .... The mudstone layers are fully saturated with water and their properties are frequency independent.
Quantum modulation against electromagnetic interference
Juan Carlos Garcia-Escartin
2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z
Periodic signals in electrical and electronic equipment can cause interference in nearby devices. Randomized modulation of those signals spreads their energy through the frequency spectrum and can help to mitigate electromagnetic interference problems. The inherently random nature of quantum phenomena makes them a good control signal. I present a quantum modulation method based on the random statistics of quantum light. The paper describes pulse width modulation schemes where a Poissonian light source acts as a random control that spreads the energy of the potential interfering signals. I give an example application for switching-mode power supplies and comment the further possibilities of the method.
Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos
Dobrynina, A. A., E-mail: aleksandradobrynina@rambler.ru; Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N. [Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)] [Demidov Yaroslavl State University (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.
Melamed, Timor
Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 114, 317332, 2011 PULSED BEAM EXPANSION-based pulsed-beams expansion of planar aperture time- dependent electromagnetic fields. The propagating field-beam waveobjects over the frame spectral lattice. Explicit asymptotic expressions for the electromagnetic pulsed
Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams
Skender, M.; Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, 327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Particle-in-cell code, EPOCH, is used for studying features of the wave component evident to propagate backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile. According to recent findings presented in Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011)], Schmitz and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013)], and Pechhacker and Tsiklauri [Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012)], in a 1.5-dimensional magnetised plasma system, the non-gyrotropic beam generates freely escaping electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to the Type-III solar radio bursts. In this study, the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the electromagnetic field in such a system is presented for the first time. Background magnetic field strength in the system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave's frequency, prescribed by the whistler wave dispersion relation, is proportional to the specified magnetic field. Moreover, the identified whistlers are shown to be generated by the normal Doppler-shifted relativistic resonance. Large fraction of the energy of the perpendicular electromagnetic field components is found to be carried away by the whistler waves, while a small but sufficient fraction is going into L- and R-electromagnetic modes.
Connecting Numerical Relativity and Data Analysis of Gravitational Wave Detectors
Deirdre Shoemaker; Karan Jani; Lionel London; Larne Pekowsky
2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
Gravitational waves deliver information in exquisite detail about astrophysical phenomena, among them the collision of two black holes, a system completely invisible to the eyes of electromagnetic telescopes. Models that predict gravitational wave signals from likely sources are crucial for the success of this endeavor. Modeling binary black hole sources of gravitational radiation requires solving the Eintein equations of General Relativity using powerful computer hardware and sophisticated numerical algorithms. This proceeding presents where we are in understanding ground-based gravitational waves resulting from the merger of black holes and the implications of these sources for the advent of gravitational-wave astronomy.
Paul S. Wesson
2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z
As an example of the unification of gravitation and particle physics, an exact solution of the five-dimensional field equations is studied which describes waves in the classical Einstein vacuum. While the solution is essentially 5D in nature, the waves exist in ordinary 3D space, and may provide a way to test for an extra dimension.
Electromagnetic Signatures of Massive Black Hole Binaries
Tamara Bogdanovic; Britton D. Smith; Michael Eracleous; Steinn Sigurdsson
2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z
We model the electromagnetic emission signatures of massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) with an associated gas component. The method comprises numerical simulations of relativistic binaries and gas coupled with calculations of the physical properties of the emitting gas. We calculate the accretion powered UV/X-ray and Halpha light curves and the Halpha emission line profiles. The simulations have been carried out with a modified version of the parallel tree SPH code Gadget. The heating, cooling, and radiative processes for the solar metallicity gas have been calculated with the photoionization code Cloudy. We investigate gravitationally bound, sub-parsec binaries which have not yet entered the gravitational radiation phase. The results from the first set of calculations, carried out for a coplanar binary and gas disk, suggest that the outbursts in the X-ray light curve are pronounced during pericentric passages and can serve as a fingerprint for this type of binaries if periodic outbursts are a long lived signature of the binary. The Halpha emission-line profiles also offer strong indications of a binary presence and may be used as a criterion for selection of MBHB candidates for further monitoring from existing archival data. The orbital period and mass ratio of a binary could be determined from the Halpha light curves and profiles of carefully monitored candidates. Although systems with the orbital periods studied here are not within the frequency band of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), their discovery is important for understanding of the merger rates of MBHBs and the evolution of such binaries through the last parsec and towards the detectable gravitational wave window.
Electromagnetic Eavesdropping Risks of Flat-Panel Displays
Kuhn, Markus
Electromagnetic Eavesdropping Risks of Flat-Panel Displays Markus G. Kuhn University of Cambridge/ Abstract. Electromagnetic eavesdropping of computer displays first demonstrated to the general public shielded against such compromising electromagnetic emanations. The exact "TEMPEST" emis- sion limits
Electromagnetic corrections to light hadron masses
A. Portelli; S. Dürr; Z. Fodor; J. Frison; C. Hoelbling; S. D. Katz; S. Krieg; T. Kurth; L. Lellouch; T. Lippert; K. K. Szabó; A. Ramos
2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
At the precision reached in current lattice QCD calculations, electromagnetic effects are becoming numerically relevant. We will present preliminary results for electromagnetic corrections to light hadron masses, based on simulations in which a $\\mathrm{U}(1)$ degree of freedom is superimposed on $N_f=2+1$ QCD configurations from the BMW collaboration.
Space-time Curvature of Classical Electromagnetism
R. W. M. Woodside
2004-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
The space-time curvature carried by electromagnetic fields is discovered and a new unification of geometry and electromagnetism is found. Curvature is invariant under charge reversal symmetry. Electromagnetic field equations are examined with De Rham co homology theory. Radiative electromagnetic fields must be exact and co exact to preclude unobserved massless topological charges. Weyl's conformal tensor, here called ``the gravitational field'', is decomposed into a divergence-free non-local piece with support everywhere and a local piece with the same support as the matter. By tuning a local gravitational field to a Maxwell field the electromagnetic field's local gravitational field is discovered. This gravitational field carries the electromagnetic field's polarization or phase information, unlike Maxwell's stress-energy tensor. The unification assumes Einstein's equations and derives Maxwell's equations from curvature assumptions. Gravity forbids magnetic monopoles! This unification is stronger than the Einstein-Maxwell equations alone, as those equations must produce the electromagnetic field's local gravitational field and not just any conformal tensor. Charged black holes are examples. Curvature of radiative null electromagnetic fields is characterized.
Ultimate Energy Densities for Electromagnetic Pulses
Mankei Tsang
2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z
The ultimate electric and magnetic energy densities that can be attained by bandlimited electromagnetic pulses in free space are calculated using an ab initio quantized treatment, and the quantum states of electromagnetic fields that achieve the ultimate energy densities are derived. The ultimate energy densities also provide an experimentally accessible metric for the degree of localization of polychromatic photons.
Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method
McEwan, T.E.
1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z
A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.
Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method
McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.
Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field
Eissenberg, David M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Casada, Donald A. (Knoxville, TN)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.
Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field
Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.
1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.
Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma
Krasovitskiy, V. B., E-mail: krasovit@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Turikov, V. A. [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)] [Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.
Mead, Carver
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Gravitational coupling of the propagation four-vectors of matter wave functions is formulated in flat space-time. Coupling at the momentum level rather than at the "force-law" level greatly simplifies many calculations. This locally Lorentz-invariant approach (G4v) treats electromagnetic and gravitational coupling on an equal footing. Classical mechanics emerges from the incoherent aggregation of matter wave functions. The theory reproduces, to first order beyond Newton, the standard GR results for Gravity-Probe B, deflection of light by massive bodies, precession of orbits, gravitational red shift, and total gravitational-wave energy radiated by a circular binary system. Its predictions of total radiated energy from highly eccentric Kepler systems are slightly larger than those of similar GR treatments. G4v predictions differ markedly from those of GR for the gravitational-wave radiation patterns from rotating massive systems, and for the LIGO antenna pattern. The predicted antenna patterns have been shown t...
Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Absorption and scattering of electromagnetic waves by dielectric media are of fundamental importance in many branches of physics. In this Letter we analytically derived the ultimate upper limits for the absorbed and scattered powers by any system of optical resonators in mutual interaction. We show that these bounds depend only on the geometric configuration given an incident field. We give the conditions to fullfill to reach these limits paving so a way for a rational design of optimal metamaterials.
Gravitational Hertz experiment with electromagnetic radiation in a strong magnetic field
N. I. Kolosnitsyn; V. N. Rudenko
2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z
Brief review of principal ideas in respect of the high frequency gravitational radiation generated and detected in the laboratory condition is presented. Interaction of electro-magnetic and gravitational waves into a strong magnetic field is considered as a more promising variant of the laboratory GW-Hertz experiment. The formulae of the direct and inverse Gertsenshtein-Zeldovich effect are derived. Numerical estimates are given and a discussion of a possibility of observation of these effects in a lab is carried out.
Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Salih, Hyder A. [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Baghdad, Baghdad (Iraq)
2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Second harmonic generation of a right circularly polarized Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The beam causes Ohmic heating of electrons and subsequent redistribution of the plasma, leading to self-defocusing. The radial density gradient, in conjunction with the oscillatory electron velocity, produces density oscillation at the wave frequency. The density oscillation beats with the oscillatory velocity to produce second harmonic current density, giving rise to resonant second harmonic radiation when the wave frequency is one-third of electron cyclotron frequency. The second harmonic field has azimuthal dependence as exp(i{theta}). The self-defocusing causes a reduction in the efficiency of harmonic generation.
Radiative Reactions and Coherence Modeling in the High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse
Charles N. Vittitoe; Mario Rabinowitz
2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
A high altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with a peak field intensity of 5 x 10^4 V/m carries momentum that results in a retarding force on the average Compton electron (radiating coherently to produce the waveform) with magnitude near that of the geomagnetic force responsible for the coherent radiation. The retarding force results from a self field effect. The Compton electron interaction with the self generated magnetic field due to the other electrons accounts for the momentum density in the propagating wave; interaction with the self generated electric field accounts for the energy flux density in the propagating wave. Coherent addition of radiation is also quantitatively modeled.
Annales Geophysicae (2005) 23: 277290 SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2005-23-277
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the world, using multiple stations to lo- cate the source of lightning electromagnetic radiation pulses), high altitude dis- charges (Rodger, 1999), global warming (Williams, 1992; Schlegel et al., 2001- tromagnetic energy over a wide bandwidth (well beyond the optical), with significant radiated electromagnetic
Einstein's coefficients and the wave-particle duality in the theory of thermal radiation
Fedor V. Prigara
2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that the concept of elementary resonator in the theory of thermal radiation implies the indivisible connection between particles (photons) and electromagnetic waves. This wave-particle duality covers both the Wien and Rayleigh-Jeans regions of spectrum.
Determination of electromagnetic medium from the Fresnel surface
Matias F. Dahl
2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is described by an antisymmetric $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. In this setting, the Tamm-Rubilar tensor density determines a polynomial surface of fourth order in each cotangent space. This surface is called the Fresnel surface and acts as a generalisation of the light-cone determined by a Lorentz metric; the Fresnel surface parameterises electromagnetic wave-speed as a function of direction. Favaro and Bergamin have recently proven that if $\\kappa$ has only a principal part and if the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ coincides with the light cone for a Lorentz metric $g$, then $\\kappa$ is proportional to the Hodge star operator of $g$. That is, under additional assumptions, the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ determines the conformal class of $\\kappa$. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a new proof of this result using Gr\\"obner bases. Second, we describe a number of cases where the Fresnel surface does not determine the conformal class of the original $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. For example, if $\\kappa$ is invertible we show that $\\kappa$ and $\\kappa^{-1}$ have the same Fresnel surfaces.
Numerical Methods of Computational Electromagnetics for Complex Inhomogeneous Systems
Cai, Wei
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Understanding electromagnetic phenomena is the key in many scientific investigation and engineering designs such as solar cell designs, studying biological ion channels for diseases, and creating clean fusion energies, among other things. The objectives of the project are to develop high order numerical methods to simulate evanescent electromagnetic waves occurring in plasmon solar cells and biological ion-channels, where local field enhancement within random media in the former and long range electrostatic interactions in the latter are of major challenges for accurate and efficient numerical computations. We have accomplished these objectives by developing high order numerical methods for solving Maxwell equations such as high order finite element basis for discontinuous Galerkin methods, well-conditioned Nedelec edge element method, divergence free finite element basis for MHD, and fast integral equation methods for layered media. These methods can be used to model the complex local field enhancement in plasmon solar cells. On the other hand, to treat long range electrostatic interaction in ion channels, we have developed image charge based method for a hybrid model in combining atomistic electrostatics and continuum Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics. Such a hybrid model will speed up the molecular dynamics simulation of transport in biological ion-channels.
High frequency electromagnetic burn monitoring for underground coal gasification
Deadrick, F.J.; Hill, R.W.; Laine, E.F.
1981-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes the use of high frequency electromagnetic waves to monitor an in-situ coal gasification burn process, and presents some recent results obtained with the method. Both the technique, called HFEM (high frequency electromagnetic) probing, the HFEM hardware used are described, and some of the data obtained from the LLNL Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment conducted near Gillette, Wyoming are presented. HFEM was found to be very useful for monitoring the burn activity found in underground coal gasification. The technique, being a remote sensing method which does not require direct physical contact, does not suffer from burnout problems as found with thermocouples, and can continue to function even as the burn progresses on through the region of interest. While HFEM does not replace more conventional instrumentation such as thermocouples, the method does serve to provide data which is unobtainable by other means, and in so doing it complements the other data to help form a picture of what cannot be seen underground.
Cosmic Electromagnetic Fields due to Perturbations in the Gravitational Field
Bishop Mongwane; Peter K. S. Dunsby; Bob Osano
2012-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
We use non-linear gauge-invariant perturbation theory to study the interaction of an inflation produced seed magnetic field with density and gravitational wave perturbations in an almost Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime. We compare the effects of this coupling under the assumptions of poor conductivity, infinite conductivity and the case where the electric field is sourced via the coupling of velocity perturbations to the seed field in the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime, thus generalizing, improving on and correcting previous results. We solve our equations for long wavelength limits and numerically integrate the resulting equations to generate power spectra for the electromagnetic field variables, showing where the modes cross the horizon. We find that the rotation of the electric field dominates the power spectrum on small scales, in agreement with previous arguments.
From Photons to Atoms - The Electromagnetic Nature of Matter
Daniele Funaro
2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
Motivated by a revision of the classical equations of electromagnetism that allow for the inclusion of solitary waves in the solution space, the material collected in these notes examine the consequences of adopting the modified model in the description of atomic structures. The possibility of handling "photons" in a deterministic way opens indeed a chance for reviewing the foundations of quantum physics. Atoms and molecules are described as aggregations of nuclei and electrons joined through organized photon layers resonating at various frequencies, explaining how matter can absorb or emit light quanta. Some established viewpoints are subverted, offering an alternative scenario. The analysis seeks to provide an answer to many technical problems in physical chemistry and, at the same time, to raise epistemological questions.
Spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in turbulent plasmas
Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701, South Korea and University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Simões, F. J. R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)] [Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Instituto de Física e Matemática, UFPel, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Known radiation emission mechanisms in plasmas include bremmstrahlung (or free-free emission), gyro- and synchrotron radiation, cyclotron maser, and plasma emission. For unmagnetized plasmas, only bremmstrahlung and plasma emissions are viable. Of these, bremmstrahlung becomes inoperative in the absence of collisions, and the plasma emission requires the presence of electron beam, followed by various scattering and conversion processes. The present Letter proposes a new type of radiation emission process for plasmas in a state of thermodynamic quasi-equilibrium between particles and enhanced Langmuir turbulence. The radiation emission mechanism proposed in the present Letter is not predicted by the linear theory of thermal plasmas, but it relies on nonlinear wave-particle resonance processes. The electromagnetic particle-in-cell numerical simulation supports the new mechanism.
Variational Principles for Constrained Electromagnetic Field and Papapetrou Equation
A. T. Muminov
2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z
In our previous article [4] an approach to derive Papapetrou equations for constrained electromagnetic field was demonstrated by use of field variational principles. The aim of current work is to present more universal technique of deduction of the equations which could be applied to another types of non-scalar fields. It is based on Noether theorem formulated in terms of Cartan' formalism of orthonormal frames. Under infinitesimal coordinate transformation the one leads to equation which includes volume force of spin-gravitational interaction. Papapetrou equation for vector of propagation of the wave is derived on base of the equation. Such manner of deduction allows to formulate more accurately the constraints and clarify equations for the potential and for spin.
Spinors and pre-metric electromagnetism
David Delphenich
2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
The basic concepts of the formulation of Maxwellian electromagnetism in the absence of a Minkowski scalar product on spacetime are summarized, with particular emphasis on the way that the electromagnetic constitutive law on the space of bivectors over spacetime supplants the role of the Minkowski scalar product on spacetime itself. The complex geometry of the space of bivectors is summarized, with the intent of showing how an isomorphic copy of the Lorentz group appears in that context. The use of complex 3-spinors to represent electromagnetic fields is then discussed, as well as the expansion of scope that the more general complex projective geometry of the space of bivectors suggests.
Alternative expression for the electromagnetic Lagrangian
Saldanha, Pablo L
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose an alternative expression for the Lagrangian density that governs the interaction of a charged particle with external electromagnetic fields. The proposed Lagrangian is written in terms of the local superposition of the particle fields with the applied electromagnetic fields, not in terms of the particle charge and of the electromagnetic potentials as is usual. The total Lagrangian for a set of charged particles assumes a simple elegant form with the alternative formulation, giving an aesthetic support for it. The proposed Lagrangian is equivalent to the traditional one in their domain of validity and provides an interesting description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Wave represents displacement Wave represents pressure Source -Sound Waves
Colorado at Boulder, University of
Wave represents displacement Wave represents pressure Source - Sound Waves Distance between crests is wavelength Number of crests passing a point in 1 second is frequency Wave represents pressure Target - Radio Waves Distance between crests is wavelength Number of crests passing a point in 1 second is frequency
Cédric Lorcé
2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
In a set of two papers, we propose to study an old-standing problem, namely the electromagnetic interaction for particles of arbitrary spin. Based on the assumption that light-cone helicity at tree level and $Q^2=0$ should be conserved non-trivially by the electromagnetic interaction, we are able to derive \\emph{all} the natural electromagnetic moments for a pointlike particle of \\emph{any} spin. In this first paper, we propose a transparent decomposition of the electromagnetic current in terms of covariant vertex functions. We also define in a general way the electromagnetic multipole form factors, and show their relation with the electromagnetic moments. Finally, by considering the Breit frame, we relate the covariant vertex functions to multipole form factors.
Shock Wave Polarizations and Optical Metrics in the Born and the Born-Infeld Electrodynamics
Christoph Minz; Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski; Thoralf Chrobok; Gerold Schellstede
2015-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the behavior of shock waves in nonlinear theories of electrodynamics. For this, by use of generalized Hadamard step functions of increasing order, the electromagnetic potential is developed in a series expansion near the shock wave front. This brings about a corresponding expansion of the respective electromagnetic field equations what allows for deriving relations that determine the jump coefficients in the expansion series of the potential. The solution of the first-order jump relations shows that, in contrast to linear Maxwell's electrodynamics, in general the propagation of shock waves in nonlinear theories is governed by optical metrics and polarization conditions describing the propagation of two differently polarized waves (leading to a possible appearance of birefringence). In detail, shock waves are analyzed in the Born and Born-Infeld theories. The obtained results are compared to those ones found in literature. New results for the polarization of the two different waves are derived.
Electromagnetic Side Channels of an FPGA Implementation of AES
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Electromagnetic Side Channels of an FPGA Implementation of AES Vincent Carlier, Hervâ??e Chabanne processed. Another side channel is the one that exploits the Electromagnetic (EM) emanations. Indeed references. In [QS01, GMO01], Simple Electromagnetic Analysis (SEMA) and Di#erential Electromagnetic Analysis
Electromagnetic Side Channels of an FPGA Implementation of AES
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Electromagnetic Side Channels of an FPGA Implementation of AES Vincent Carlier, HervÂ´e Chabanne processed. Another side channel is the one that exploits the Electromagnetic (EM) emanations. Indeed references. In [QS01, GMO01], Simple Electromagnetic Analysis (SEMA) and Differential Electromagnetic
Wave Propagation in Multiferroic Materials
Keller, Scott Macklin
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
130 SAW Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .QuasiStatic MEE Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .General MEE Wave Solution . . . . . . . . . . . .
A pulsed electromagnet controller for prepolarized MRI
Nam, Hyokwon
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fundamental measure of scanner performance. To enable PMRI experiments, a pulsed electromagnet controller has been designed and built. In this thesis, the theory of the controller is presented and results are discussed....
Least-squares methods for computational electromagnetics
Kolev, Tzanio Valentinov
2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The modeling of electromagnetic phenomena described by the Maxwell's equations is of critical importance in many practical applications. The numerical simulation of these equations is challenging and much more involved than initially believed...
The classical geometrization of the electromagnetism
Celso de Araujo Duarte
2015-08-13T23:59:59.000Z
Following the line of the history, if by one side the electromagnetic theory was consolidated on the 19th century, the emergence of the special and the general relativity theories on the 20th century opened possibilities of further developments, with the search for the unification of the gravitation and the electromagnetism on a single unified theory. Some attempts to the geometrization of the electromagnetism emerged in this context, where these first models resided strictly on a classical basis. Posteriorly, they were followed by more complete and embracing quantum field theories. The present work reconsiders the classical viewpoint, with the purpose of showing that at first order of approximation the electromagnetism constitutes a geometric structure aside other phenomena as gravitation, and that magnetic monopoles do not exist at least up to this order of approximation. Even though being limited, the model is consistent and offers the possibility of an experimental test of validity.
Dynamic programming applied to electromagnetic satellite actuation
Eslinger, Gregory John
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic formation flight (EMFF) is an enabling technology for a number of space mission architectures. While much work has been done for EMFF control for large separation distances, little work has been done for ...
Electromagnetic Characterization of MIMO Communication Systems
Heath Jr., - Robert W.
Electromagnetic Characterization of MIMO Communication Systems Kapil R. Dandekar, Sumant Kawale) wireless communication links [1, 2]. Systems with MIMO communication links use multiple antenna arrays, one generation mobile cellular systems [9]. The theoretical capabilities of MIMO communication links have been
A pulsed electromagnet controller for prepolarized MRI
Nam, Hyokwon
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
fundamental measure of scanner performance. To enable PMRI experiments, a pulsed electromagnet controller has been designed and built. In this thesis, the theory of the controller is presented and results are discussed....
Electromagnetic and spin polarisabilities in lattice QCD
W. Detmold; B. C. Tiburzi; A. Walker-Loud
2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the extraction of the electromagnetic and spin polarisabilities of nucleons from lattice QCD. We show that the external field method can be used to measure all the electromagnetic and spin polarisabilities including those of charged particles. We then turn to the extrapolations required to connect such calculations to experiment in the context of chiral perturbation theory, finding a strong dependence on the lattice volume and quark masses.
Electromagnetic Corrections in Staggered Chiral Perturbation Theory
C. Bernard; E. D. Freeland
2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z
To reduce errors in light-quark mass determinations, it is now necessary to consider electromagnetic contributions to light-meson masses. Calculations using staggered quarks and quenched photons are currently underway. Suitably-extended chiral perturbation theory is necessary to extrapolate the lattice data to the physical limit. Here we give (preliminary) results for light-meson masses using staggered chiral perturbation theory including electromagnetism, and discuss the extent to which quenched-photon simulations can improve quark-mass calculations.
Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves
Hereman, Willy
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.
On The Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Magnetic and Electric Fields
C. Barrabes; P. A. Hogan
2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
The existence of large--scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a `spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein--Maxwell vacuum field equations.
Michel Zamboni-Rached; Erasmo Recami; Hugo E. Harnandez-Figueroa
2002-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
By a generalized bidirectional decomposition method, we obtain many new Superluminal localized solutions to the wave equation (for the electromagnetic case, in particular) which are suitable for arbitrary frequency bands; various of them being endowed with finite total energy. We construct, among the others, an infinite family of generalizations of the so-called "X-shaped" waves. [PACS nos.: 03.50.De; 41.20;Jb; 83.50.Vr; 62.30.+d; 43.60.+d; 91.30.Fn; 04.30.Nk; 42.25.Bs; 46.40.Cd; 52.35.Lv. Keywords: Wave equations; Wave propagation; Localized beams; Superluminal waves; Bidirectional decomposition; Bessel beams; X-shaped waves; Microwaves; Optics; Special relativity; Acoustics; Seismology; Mechanical waves; Elastic waves; Gravitational waves; Elementary particle physics].
New directions for gravity-wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"
Raymond Y. Chiao
2007-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
Pairs of Planck-mass--scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the CMB from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.
Proposed observations of gravity waves from the early Universe via "Millikan oil drops"
R. Y. Chiao
2006-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Pairs of Planck-mass drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., ``Millikan oil drops''), when levitated in a superconducting magnetic trap, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. This leads to the possibility of a Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves. Detection of the gravity-wave analog of the cosmic microwave background using these drops can discriminate between various theories of the early Universe.
Perpendicular propagating electromagnetic envelope solitons in electron-positron-ion plasma
Jehan, Nusrat [Department of Physics, Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 1114, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Salahuddin, M. [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 1114, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mirza, Arshad M. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Plasma Physics Group, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear amplitude modulation of electromagnetic waves propagating perpendicular to the direction of ambient magnetic field in a uniform collisionless magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma is studied. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky perturbation method is employed to derive nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which describes the amplitude dynamics of perturbed magnetic field. The modulation instability criterion reveals that the low frequency mode is always stable, whereas the high frequency mode becomes modulationally unstable for certain ranges of wave number and positron-to-electron density ratio. Furthermore, the positron-to-electron density ratio as well as the strength of ambient magnetic field is found to have significant effect on the solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, namely, dark and bright envelope solitons.
Electromagnetic time reversal algorithms and source localization in lossy dielectric media
Abdul Wahab; Amer Rasheed; Tasawar Hayat; Rab Nawaz
2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of reconstructing the spatial support of an extended radiating electric current source density in a lossy dielectric medium from transient boundary measurements of the electric fields is studied. A time reversal algorithm is proposed to localize a source density from loss-less wave-field measurements. Further, in order to recover source densities in a lossy medium, we first build attenuation operators thereby relating loss-less waves with lossy ones. Then based on asymptotic expansions of attenuation operators with respect to attenuation parameter, we propose two time reversal strategies for localization. The losses in electromagnetic wave propagation are incorporated using the Debye's complex permittivity, which is well-adopted for low frequencies (radio and microwave) associated with polarization in dielectrics.
Glenn, Timothy Scott, 1971-
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In recognition of the growing consideration of piezoelectric traveling-wave motors as suitable replacements for small-scale electromagnetic motors, the present work addresses two parallel objectives: (1) to develop an ...
Gedney, S.D.
1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) produced by a high-altitude nuclear blast presents a severe threat to electronic systems due to its extreme characteristics. To test the vulnerability of large systems, such as airplanes, missiles, or satellites, they must be subjected to a simulated EMP environment. One type of simulator that has been used to approximate the EMP environment is the Large Parallel-Plate Bounded-Wave Simulator. It is a guided-wave simulator which has properties of a transmission line and supports a single TEM model at sufficiently low frequencies. This type of simulator consists of finite-width parallel-plate waveguides, which are excited by a wave launcher and terminated by a wave receptor. This study addresses the field distribution within a finite-width parallel-plate waveguide that is matched to a conical tapered waveguide at either end. Characteristics of a parallel-plate bounded-wave EMP simulator were developed using scattering theory, thin-wire mesh approximation of the conducting surfaces, and the Numerical Electronics Code (NEC). Background is provided for readers to use the NEC as a tool in solving thin-wire scattering problems.
Discussion on the Mechanism of Electromigration from the Perspective of Electromagnetism
Zhou, Peng; Johnson, William C.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
from the Perspective of Electromagnetism PENG ZHOU 1,3 andthe perspective of electromagnetism, rather than from thecharge, electromigration, electromagnetism INTRODUCTION
O. V. Veko; N. D Vlasii; Yu. A. Sitenko; E. M. Ovsiyuk; V. M. Red'kov
2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
Tetrad-based generalized complex formalism by Majorana--Oppenheimer is applied to treat electromagnetic field in extending de Sitter Universe in on-static spherically-symmetric coordinates. With the help of Wigner D-functions, we separate angular dependence in the complex vector field E_{j}(t,r)+i B_{j}(t,r) from (t,r)-dependence. The separation parameter arising here instead of frequency \\omega in Minkowski space-time is quantized, non-static geometry of the de Sitter model leads to definite dependence of electromagnetic modes on the time variable. Relation of 3-vector complex approach to 10-dimensional Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau formalism is considered. On this base, the electromagnetic waves of magnetic and electric type have been constructed in both approaches. In Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau approach, there are constructed gradient-type solutions in Lorentz gauge.
Zhukov, Alexander V., E-mail: alex-zhukov@sutd.edu.sg; Bouffanais, Roland [Singapore University of Technology and Design, 20 Dover Drive, Singapore 138682 (Singapore); Fedorov, E. G. [Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 400074 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Belonenko, Mikhail B. [Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Volgograd Institute of Business, 400048 Volgograd (Russian Federation)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through various nano-objects has recently became an attractive topic for both theoretical and experimental studies due to its promising perspectives in a variety of problems of modern nanoelectronics. Here, we study the propagation of extremely short two-dimensional bipolar electromagnetic pulses in a heterogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. Heterogeneity is defined as a region of enhanced electron density. The electromagnetic field in an array of nanotubes is described by Maxwell's equations, reduced to a multidimensional wave equation. Our numerical analysis shows the possibility of stable propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in a heterogeneous array of nanotubes. Furthermore, we establish that, depending on its speed of propagation, the pulse can pass through the area of increased electron concentration or be reflected therefrom.
Anlage, Steven
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 86, 046204 (2012) Impedance and power fluctuations in linear chains of coupled wave chaotic cavities Gabriele Gradoni,* Thomas M. Antonsen, Jr., and Edward Ott Institute for Research of electromagnetic wave energy through a chain of coupled cavities is considered. The cavities are assumed
Simple Scalings for Various Regimes of Electron Acceleration in Surface Plasma Waves
Riconda, C; Vialis, T; Grech, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Different electron acceleration regimes in the evanescent field of a surface plasma wave are studied by considering the interaction of a test electron with the high-frequency electromagnetic field of a surface wave. The non-relativistic and relativistic limits are investigated. Simple scalings are found demonstrating the possibility to achieve an efficient conversion of the surface wave field energy into electron kinetic energy. This mechanism of electron acceleration can provide a high-frequency pulsed source of relativistic electrons with a well defined energy. In the relativistic limit, the most energetic electrons are obtained in the so-called electromagnetic regime for surface waves. In this regime the particles are accelerated to velocities larger than the wave phase velocity, mainly in the direction parallel to the plasma-vacuum interface.
Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide
Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V. [Radiophysics Department of St. Petersburg University, 1 Ulyanovskaya, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)
2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.
Massless Dirac Fermions in Electromagnetic Field
Ahmed Jellal; Abderrahim El Mouhafid; Mohammed Daoud
2012-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
We study the relations between massless Dirac fermions in an electromagnetic field and atoms in quantum optics. After getting the solutions of the energy spectrum, we show that it is possible to reproduce the 2D Dirac Hamiltonian, with all its quantum relativistic effects, in a controllable system as a single trapped ion through the Jaynes--Cummings and anti-Jaynes--Cummings models. Also we show that under certain conditions the evolution of the Dirac Hamiltonian provides us with Rashba spin-orbit and linear Dresselhaus couplings. Considering the multimode multiphoton Jaynes-Cummings model interacting with N modes of electromagnetic field prepared in general pure quantum states, we analyze the Rabi oscillation. Evaluating time evolution of the Dirac position operator, we determine the Zitterbewegung frequency and the corresponding oscillating term as function of the electromagnetic field.
Duality in Off-Shell Electromagnetism
Martin Land
2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we examine the Dirac monopole in the framework of Off-Shell Electromagnetism, the five dimensional U(1) gauge theory associated with Stueckelberg-Schrodinger relativistic quantum theory. After reviewing the Dirac model in four dimensions, we show that the structure of the five dimensional theory prevents a natural generalization of the Dirac monopole, since the theory is not symmetric under duality transformations. It is shown that the duality symmetry can be restored by generalizing the electromagnetic field strength to an element of a Clifford algebra. Nevertheless, the generalized framework does not permit us to recover the phenomenological (or conventional) absence of magnetic monopoles.
Electromagnetic Observables in Few-Nucleon Systems
Sonia Bacca
2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
The electromagnetic probe is a very valuable tool to study the dynamics of few nucleons. It can be very helpful in shedding light on the not yet fully understood three-nucleon forces. We present an update on the theoretical studies of electromagnetic induced reactions, such as photo-disintegration and electron scattering off 4He. We will show that they potentially represent a tool to discriminate among three-nucleon forces. Then, we will discuss the charge radius and the nuclear electric polarizability of the 6He halo nucleus.
Electromagnetic continuous casting project: Final report
Battles, J.E.; Rote, D.M.; Misra, B.; Praeg, W.F.; Hull, J.R.; Turner, L.R.; Shah, V.L.; Lari, R.J.; Gopalsami, N.; Wiencek, T.
1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes the work on development of an electromagnetic casting process for steel, which was carried out at Argonne National Laboratory between January 1985 and December 1987. This effort was concerned principally with analysis and design work on magnet technology, liquid metal feed system, coolant system, and sensors and process controllers. Experimentation primarily involved (1) electromagnetic studies to determine the conditions and controlling parameters for stable levitation and (2) feed-system studies to establish important parameters that control and influence fluid flow from the liquid metal source to the caster. 73 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.
Bioelectromagnetic effects of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP)
Patrick, E.L.; Vault, W.L.
1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
The public has expressed concern about the biological effects and hazards of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields produced by the electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) simulators that simulate the EMP emanating from a high-altitude nuclear explosion. This paper provides a summary of the bioelectromagnetic effects literature up through the present, describes current occupational standards for workers exposed to the EMP environment, and discusses the use of medical surveillance as it relates to the potential human health hazards associated with exposure to the EMP environment.
Coda wave interferometry 1 Coda wave interferometry
Snieder, Roel
Coda wave interferometry 1 Coda wave interferometry An interferometer is an instrument that is sensitive to the interference of two or more waves (optical or acoustic). For example, an optical interferometer uses two interfering light beams to measure small length changes. Coda wave interferometry
Center for Wave Phenomena Wave Phenomena
CWP Center for Wave Phenomena Center for Wave Phenomena Dave Hale CWP Director dhale in pursu- ing a focused and high- quality program in geo- physics." "The Center for Wave Phenomena for Wave Phenomena (CWP) at the Colorado School of Mines supports a graduate- level interdisciplinary
Ernest Valeo, Jay R. Johnson, Eun-Hwa and Cynthia Phillips
2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
A wide variety of plasma waves play an important role in the energization and loss of particles in the inner magnetosphere. Our ability to understand and model wave-particle interactions in this region requires improved knowledge of the spatial distribution and properties of these waves as well as improved understanding of how the waves depend on changes in solar wind forcing and/or geomagnetic activity. To this end, we have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code describes three-dimensional wave structure including mode conversion when ULF, EMIC, and whistler waves are launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. We illustrate the capabilities of the code by examining the role of plasmaspheric plumes on magnetosonic wave propagation; mode conversion at the ion-ion and Alfven resonances resulting from external, solar wind compressions; and wave structure and mode conversion of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves launched in the equatorial magnetosphere, which propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere. We also discuss advantages of the finite element method for resolving resonant structures, and how the model may be adapted to include nonlocal kinetic effects.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Saikin, A. A.; Zhang, J. -C.; Allen, R. C.; Smith, C. W.; Kistler, L. M.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Kletzing, C. A.; Jordanova, Vania K.
2015-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
We perform a statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves detected by the Van Allen Probes mission to investigate the spatial distribution of their occurrence, wave power, ellipticity, and normal angle. The Van Allen Probes have been used which allow us to explore the inner magnetosphere (1.1 to 5.8 RE). Magnetic field measurements from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science on board the Van Allen Probes are used to identify EMIC wave events for the first 22 months of the mission operation (8 September 2012 to 30 June 2014). EMIC waves are examined in H?-,more »He?-, and O?-bands. Over 700 EMIC wave events have been identified over the three different wave bands (265 H?-band events, 438 He?-band events, and 68 O?-band events). EMIC wave events are observed between L = 2 – 8, with over 140 EMIC wave events observed below L = 4. The results show that H?-band EMIC waves have two peak magnetic local time (MLT) occurrence regions: pre-noon (09:00 0.1 nT²/Hz), especially in the afternoon sector. Ellipticity observations reveal that linearly polarized EMIC waves dominate in lower L shells.« less
Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics
Enrico Barausse; Vitor Cardoso; Paolo Pani
2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors -- the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals -- and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, "firewalls" and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy.
Fractional Diffusion Modeling of Electromagnetic Induction in Fractured Rocks
Ge, Jianchao
2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
The controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) technique is well-established for non-invasive geophysical survey. Due to the strong attenuation of earth materials to electromagnetic signals, the effective depth of most CSEM surveys is restricted to 1...
The Eyjafjallajkull volcanic system, Iceland: insights from electromagnetic measurements
Jones, Alan G.
The Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system, Iceland: insights from electromagnetic measurements Journal; Iceland Geosurvey, Vilhjálmsson, Arnar; Iceland Geosurvey, Keywords: Magnetotellurics system, Iceland: insights from1 electromagnetic measurements2 Marion P. Miensopust1,2, , Alan G. Jones1
Passive electromagnetic damping device for motion control of building structures
Palomera-Arias, Rogelio, 1972-
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The research presented in this thesis develops a new device for the passive control of motion in building structures: an electromagnetic damper. The electromagnetic damper is a self-excited device that provides a reaction ...
Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered
Oughstun, Kurt
Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered Biological Media- cally rigorous, physically correct description of the propagation of pulsed electromagnetic fields pulses through multilayered biological media consisting of three biological tissue layers rep- resenting
Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses D. D. Yavuz
Yavuz, Deniz
Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses D. D. Yavuz Department pulses inside an atomic medium using electromag- netically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion.65. k Over the last decade, counterintuitive optical effects using electromagnetically induced
Dr. S. Cruz-Pol, INEL 4152-Electromagnetics
Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.
field density [VF/m2] ØH = magnetic field intensity, [A/m] ØB = magnetic field density, [Teslas] Take JdlH Cruz-Pol, Electromagnetics UPRM Electromagnetics Ø This is the principle of motors, hydro
Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Kuwahata, Akihiro [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo,7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Collaboration: TS Group
2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations of ion-cyclotron-frequency range are detected in a laboratory experiment inside the diffusion region of a magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The fluctuations have properties similar to kinetic Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the guide field. Temporary enhancement of the reconnection rate is observed during the occurrence of the fluctuations, suggesting a relationship between the modification in the local magnetic structure given by these fluctuations and the intermittent fast magnetic reconnection.
Motor Packaging with Consideration of Electromagnetic and Material...
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More Documents & Publications Alnico and Ferrite Hybrid Excitation Electric Machines Motor Packaging with Consideration of Electromagnetic and Material Characteristics Electric...
Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and Far-field Electromagnetic Sensors...
waveguide-based ultrasonic and farfield electromagnetic sensors to measure key Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoir parameters, including directional temperature,...
Electromagnetic Composites at the Compton Scale
Frederick J. Mayer; John R. Reitz
2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
A new class of electromagnetic composite particles is proposed. The composites are very small (the Compton scale), potentially long-lived, would have unique interactions with atomic and nuclear systems, and, if they exist, could explain a number of otherwise anomalous and conflicting observations in diverse research areas.
Line geometry and electromagnetism I: basic structures
D. H. Delphenich
2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
Some key notions of line geometry are recalled, along with their application to mechanics. It is then shown that most of the basic structures that one introduces in the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism can be interpreted directly in terms of corresponding concepts in line geometry. The results are summarized in a table.
Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle
Jozef Klacka
2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.
Theory of electromagnetic reactions in light nuclei
Xu, Tianrui; Bacca, Sonia; Hagen, Gaute
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly review the theory for electromagnetic reactions in light nuclei based on the coupled-cluster formulation of the Lorentz integral transform method. Results on photodisintegration reactions of 22O and 40Ca are reported on and preliminary calculations on the Coulomb sum rule for 4He are discussed.
Theory of electromagnetic reactions in light nuclei
Tianrui Xu; Mirko Miorelli; Sonia Bacca; Gaute Hagen
2015-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly review the theory for electromagnetic reactions in light nuclei based on the coupled-cluster formulation of the Lorentz integral transform method. Results on photodisintegration reactions of 22O and 40Ca are reported on and preliminary calculations on the Coulomb sum rule for 4He are discussed.
Optimizing Electromagnetic Hotspots in Plasmonic Bowtie Nanoantennae
Xiong, Qihua
Optimizing Electromagnetic Hotspots in Plasmonic Bowtie Nanoantennae Stephanie Dodson, Mohamed: Sensitivity is a key factor in the improvement of nanoparticle-based biosensors. Bowtie nanoantennae have resonance (LSPR)-based biosensing. In this work, optical bowtie nanoantennae with varying geometries were
Slave Electromagnetic studies Alan G. Jones1
Jones, Alan G.
and Jessica Spratt1,5 1 Geological Survey of Canada, 615 Booth St., Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E9, Canada. Email-probing electromagnetic surveys, using the nautral-source magnetotelluric (MT) technique, have recently been carried out. The former ensured low resistance ground contact for electric field measurements, and the latter avoided
ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGES OF THE TINTINA FAULT (NORTHERN CANADIAN CORDILLERA)
Jones, Alan G.
ELECTROMAGNETIC IMAGES OF THE TINTINA FAULT (NORTHERN CANADIAN CORDILLERA) Juanjo Ledo1 , Alan G to obtain a crustal scale electromagnetic image of the fault. A short, higher station density profile-dimensional (2- D) electromagnetic behavior of the fault. Distortion decomposition of the responses corroborated
Electromagnetics, 26:335, 2006 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Anlage, Steven
Electromagnetics, 26:335, 2006 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC ISSN: 0272-6343 print/1532 the statistical properties of the impedance (Z) and scattering (S) matrices of open electromagnetic cavities. Introduction The problem of the coupling of electromagnetic radiation in and out of structures is a general one
Matched slow pulses using double electromagnetically induced transparency
Lvovsky, Alexander
Matched slow pulses using double electromagnetically induced transparency Andrew MacRae,* Geoff, 2008 We implement double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in rubidium vapor using Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 270.1670, 270.5585, 190.5530. Electromagnetically induced
Saleem, H. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmad, Ali [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, S. A. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College Bagh AJK (Pakistan)
2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
A coupled linear dispersion relation for the basic electrostatic and electromagnetic waves in the ultracold nonuniform magnetized dense plasmas has been obtained which interestingly is analogous to the classical case. The scales of macroscopic phenomena and the interparticle quantum interactions are discussed. It is important to point out that hydrodynamic models cannot take into account strong quantum effects and they are not applicable to very dense plasmas. The analysis is presented with applications to dense plasmas which are relevant to both laboratory and astrophysical environments.
Carver Mead
2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
Gravitational coupling of the propagation four-vectors of matter wave functions is formulated in flat space-time. Coupling at the momentum level rather than at the "force-law" level greatly simplifies many calculations. This locally Lorentz-invariant approach (G4v) treats electromagnetic and gravitational coupling on an equal footing. Classical mechanics emerges from the incoherent aggregation of matter wave functions. The theory reproduces, to first order beyond Newton, the standard GR results for Gravity-Probe B, deflection of light by massive bodies, precession of orbits, gravitational red shift, and total gravitational-wave energy radiated by a circular binary system. Its predictions of total radiated energy from highly eccentric Kepler systems are slightly larger than those of similar GR treatments. G4v predictions differ markedly from those of GR for the gravitational-wave radiation patterns from rotating massive systems, and for the LIGO antenna pattern. The predicted antenna patterns have been shown to be highly distinguishable in the case of continuous gravitational-wave sources, and should therefore be testable as data from Advanced LIGO becomes available over the next few years.
Diffraction of surface wave on conducting rectangular wedge
Igor A. Kotelnikov; Vasily V. Gerasimov; Boris A. Knyazev
2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
Diffraction of a surface wave on a rectangular wedge with impedance faces is studied using the Sommerfeld-Malyuzhinets technique. An analog of Landau's bypass rule in the theory of plasma waves is introduced for selection of a correct branch of the Sommerfeld integral, and the exact solution is given in terms of imaginary error function. The formula derived is valid both in the near-field and far-wave zones. It is shown that a diffracted surface wave is completely scattered into freely propagating electromagnetic waves and neither reflected nor transmitted surface waves are generated in case of bare metals which have positive real part of surface impedance. The scattered waves propagate predominantly at a grazing angle along the direction of propagation of the incident surface wave and mainly in the upper hemisphere regarding the wedge face. The profile of radiated intensity is nonmonotonic and does not resemble the surface wave profile which exponentially evanesces with the distance from the wedge face. Comparison with experiments carried out in the terahertz spectral range at Novosibirsk free electron laser has shown a good agreement of the theory and the experiments.
Florida, University of
of both the incident lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) and the effects of coupling of this field- mental validation using: 1) reduced-scale setups with LEMP and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP532 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, VOL. 51, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 Lightning
Wave guide impedance matching method and apparatus
Kronberg, James W. (Beech Island, SC)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A technique for modifying the end portion of a wave guide, whether hollow or solid, carrying electromagnetic, acoustic or optical energy, to produce a gradual impedance change over the length of the end portion, comprising the cutting of longitudinal, V-shaped grooves that increase in width and depth from beginning of the end portion of the wave guide to the end of the guide so that, at the end of the guide, no guide material remains and no surfaces of the guide as modified are perpendicular to the direction of energy flow. For hollow guides, the grooves are cut beginning on the interior surface; for solid guides, the grooves are cut beginning on the exterior surface. One or more resistive, partially conductive or nonconductive sleeves can be placed over the exterior of the guide and through which the grooves are cut to smooth the transition to free space.
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Wave energy technologies extract energy directly from surface waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface. Renewable energy analysts believe there is enough energy in ocean waves to provide up to 2 terawatts of electricity.
Kinetic Alfven waves in a homogeneous dusty magnetoplasma with dust charge fluctuation effects
Zubia, K.; Rubab, N.; Shah, H. A.; Salimullah, M.; Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan and Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan and Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)
2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Kinetic Alfven waves with finite Larmor radius effects have been examined rigorously in a uniform dusty plasma in the presence of an external/ambient magnetic field. Two-potential theory has been applied for these electromagnetic waves and the dispersion relation is derived which shows a cutoff frequency at the dust-lower-hybrid frequency due to the hybrid motion of magnetized ions and cold and unmagnetized dust dynamics. The dust charge fluctuation effect was analyzed for finding the damping of the electromagnetic kinetic Alfven waves, which arises on account of the electrostatic parallel component of the waves. The dust charge fluctuation damping is seen to be contributed dominantly by the perpendicular motion of electrons and ions in the dusty magnetoplasma.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Compressible Electromagnetic Turbulence in High-? Plasmas
Lin, Zhihong
2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
Supported by this award, the PI and his research group at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have carried out computational and theoretical studies of instability, turbulence, and transport in laboratory and space plasmas. Several massively parallel, gyrokinetic particle simulation codes have been developed to study electromagnetic turbulence in space and laboratory plasmas. In space plasma projects, the simulation codes have been successfully applied to study the spectral cascade and plasma heating in kinetic Alfven wave turbulence, the linear and nonlinear properties of compressible modes including mirror instability and drift compressional mode, and the stability of the current sheet instabilities with finite guide field in the context of collisionless magnetic reconnection. The research results have been published in 25 journal papers and presented at many national and international conferences. Reprints of publications, source codes, and other research-related information are also available to general public on the PI’s webpage (http://phoenix.ps.uci.edu/zlin/). Two PhD theses in space plasma physics are highlighted in this report.
Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption
Tilchin, E.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Firstenberg, O. [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan IL-52900 (Israel); Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa IL-32000 (Israel)
2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the effect of thermal motion and buffer-gas collisions on a four-level closed N system interacting with strong pump(s) and a weak probe. This is the simplest system that experiences electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) due to transfer of coherence via spontaneous emission from the excited state to the ground state. We investigate the influence of Doppler broadening, velocity-changing collisions (VCC), and phase-changing collisions (PCC) with a buffer gas on the EIA spectrum of optically active atoms. In addition to exact expressions, we present an approximate solution for the probe absorption spectrum, which provides physical insight into the behavior of the EIA peak due to VCC, PCC, and the wave-vector difference between the pump and probe beams. VCC are shown to produce a wide pedestal at the base of the EIA peak, which is scarcely affected by the pump-probe angular deviation, whereas the sharp central EIA peak becomes weaker and broader due to the residual Doppler-Dicke effect. Using diffusionlike equations for the atomic coherences and populations, we construct a spatial-frequency filter for a spatially structured probe beam and show that Ramsey narrowing of the EIA peak is obtained for beams of finite width.
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
From kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional plasmas distribution function is received in square-law approximation on size of electromagnetic field. The formula for calculation electric current is deduced at any temperature (any degree of degeneration electronic gas). This formula contains one-dimension quadrature. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is perpendicular to the known transversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. When frequency of collisions tends to zero, all received results for collisional plasma pass in known corresponding formulas for collisionless plasma. The case of small values of wave number is considered. It is shown, that the received quantity of longitudinal current at tendency of frequency of collisions to zero also passes in known corresponding expression of current for collisionless plasmas. Graphic comparison of dimensionless size of current is spen...
Radiative reactions and coherence modeling in the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse
Vittitoe, C.N.; Rabinowitz, M.
1988-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
A high-altitude nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with a peak field intensity of 5 x 10/sup 4/ V/m carries momentum that results in a retarding force on the average Compton electron (radiating coherently to produce the waveform) with magnitude near that of the geomagnetic force responsible for the coherent radiation. The retarding force results from a self-field effect. The Compton electron interaction with the self-generated magnetic field due to the other electrons accounts for the momentum density in the propagating wave; interaction with the self-generated electric field accounts for the energy-flux density in the propagating wave. Coherent addition of radiation is also quantitatively modeled.
Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma
Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song, E-mail: bsxie@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, and College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, and College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.
Joshua S. Bloom; Daniel E. Holz; Scott A. Hughes; Kristen Menou; Allan Adams; Scott F. Anderson; Andy Becker; Geoffrey C. Bower; Niel Brandt; Bethany Cobb; Kem Cook; Alessandra Corsi; Stefano Covino; Derek Fox; Andrew Fruchter; Chris Fryer; Jonathan Grindlay; Dieter Hartmann; Zoltan Haiman; Bence Kocsis; Lynne Jones; Abraham Loeb; Szabolcs Marka; Brian Metzger; Ehud Nakar; Samaya Nissanke; Daniel A. Perley; Tsvi Piran; Dovi Poznanski; Tom Prince; Jeremy Schnittman; Alicia Soderberg; Michael Strauss; Peter S. Shawhan; David H. Shoemaker; Jonathan Sievers; Christopher Stubbs; Gianpiero Tagliaferri; Pietro Ubertini; Przemyslaw Wozniak
2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z
It is widely expected that the coming decade will witness the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs). The ground-based LIGO and Virgo GW observatories are being upgraded to advanced sensitivity, and are expected to observe a significant binary merger rate. The launch of The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) would extend the GW window to low frequencies, opening new vistas on dynamical processes involving massive (M >~ 10^5 M_Sun) black holes. GW events are likely to be accompanied by electromagnetic (EM) counterparts and, since information carried electromagnetically is complementary to that carried gravitationally, a great deal can be learned about an event and its environment if it becomes possible to measure both forms of radiation in concert. Measurements of this kind will mark the dawn of trans-spectral astrophysics, bridging two distinct spectral bands of information. The aim of this whitepaper is to articulate future directions in both theory and observation that are likely to impact broad astrophysical inquiries of general interest. What will EM observations reflect on the nature and diversity of GW sources? Can GW sources be exploited as complementary probes of cosmology? What cross-facility coordination will expand the science returns of gravitational and electromagnetic observations?
A Connection between Gravitation and Electromagnetism
D. M. Snyder
2000-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
It is argued that there is a connection between the fundamental forces of electromagnetism and gravitation. This connection occurs because of: 1) the fundamental significance of the finite and invariant velocity of light in inertial reference frames in the special theory, and 2) the reliance of the general theory of relativity upon the special theory of relativity locally in spacetime. The connection between the fundamental forces of electromagnetism and gravitation follows immediately from these two points. A brief review is provided of: 1) the role of the finite and invariant velocity of light in inertial reference frames in the special theory, and 2) certain fundamental concepts of the general theory, including its reliance on the special theory locally.
Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion
Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J. [Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa, Portugal 351.1.21.841.92.43 (Portugal); Department of Physics and Institute for Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion and Instituto Superior Tecnico Lisboa, Portugal 351.1.21.841.93.22 (Portugal)
2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.
Electromagnetic Pulse from Final Gravitational Stellar Collapse
P. D. Morley; Ivan Schmidt
2002-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
We employ an effective gravitational stellar final collapse model which contains the relevant physics involved in this complex phenomena: spherical radical infall in the Schwarzschild metric of the homogeneous core of an advanced star, giant magnetic dipole moment, magnetohydrodynamic material response and realistic equations of state (EOS). The electromagnetic pulse is computed both for medium size cores undergoing hydrodynamic bounce and large size cores undergoing black hole formation. We clearly show that there must exist two classes of neutron stars, separated by maximum allowable masses: those that collapsed as solitary stars (dynamical mass limit) and those that collapsed in binary systems allowing mass accretion (static neutron star mass). Our results show that the electromagnetic pulse spectrum associated with black hole formation is a universal signature, independent of the nuclear EOS. Our results also predict that there must exist black holes whose masses are less than the static neutron star stability limit.
J. G. Cardoso
2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
The inner structure of the {\\gamma}{\\epsilon}-formalisms of Infeld and van der Waerden admits the occurrence of spin-tensor electromagnetic fields which bear invariance under the action of the generalized Weyl gauge group. A concise derivation of the wave equations for such fields is carried out explicitly along with the construction of a set of torsionless covariant-derivative expressions. It is emphatically pointed out that the integration of the wave equations arising herein may under certain circumstances produce significant insights into the situation concerning the description of some physical properties of the cosmic microwave background.
Velocity damper for electromagnetically levitated materials
Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system for damping oscillatory and spinning motions induced in an electromagnetically levitated material. Two opposed field magnets are located orthogonally to the existing levitation coils for providing a DC quadrupole field (cusp field) around the material. The material used for generating the DC quadrupole field must be nonconducting to avoid eddy-current heating and of low magnetic permeability to avoid distorting the induction fields providing the levitation.
Electromagnetic radiation from relativistic nuclear collisions
Charles Gale; Kevin L. Haglin
2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z
We review some of the results obtained in the study of the production of electromagnetic radiation in relativistic nuclear collisions. We concentrate on the emission of real photons and dileptons from the hot and dense strongly interacting phases of the reaction. We examine the contributions from the partonic sector, as well as those from the nonperturbative hadronic sector. We examine the current data, some of the predictions for future measurements, and comment on what has been learnt so far.
Velocity damper for electromagnetically levitated materials
Fox, R.J.
1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
A system for damping oscillatory and spinning motions induced in an electromagnetically levitated material is disclosed. Two opposed field magnets are located orthogonally to the existing levitation coils for providing a DC quadrupole field (cusp field) around the material. The material used for generating the DC quadrupole field must be nonconducting to avoid eddy-current heating and of low magnetic permeability to avoid distorting the induction fields providing the levitation. 1 fig.
Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a g eWorksVillagesource History(RedirectedEl Segundo, California: EnergyElectricElectromagnetic
Electromagnetic Dark Energy and Gravitoelectrodynamics of Superconductors
Clovis Jacinto de Matos
2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of dark energy in superconductors can account for the non-classical inertial properties of superconductors, which have been conjectured by the author to explain the Cooper pair's mass excess reported by Cabrera and Tate. A new Einstein-Planck regime for gravitation in condensed matter is proposed as a natural scale to host the gravitoelectrodynamic properties of superconductors.
The electromagnetic model of Gamma Ray Bursts
Maxim Lyutikov
2005-12-13T23:59:59.000Z
I describe electromagnetic model of gamma ray bursts and contrast its main properties and predictions with hydrodynamic fireball model and its magnetohydrodynamical extension. The electromagnetic model assumes that rotational energy of a relativistic, stellar-mass central source (black-hole--accretion disk system or fast rotating neutron star) is converted into magnetic energy through unipolar dynamo mechanism, propagated to large distances in a form of relativistic, subsonic, Poynting flux-dominated wind and is dissipated directly into emitting particles through current-driven instabilities. Thus, there is no conversion back and forth between internal and bulk energies as in the case of fireball model. Collimating effects of magnetic hoop stresses lead to strongly non-spherical expansion and formation of jets. Long and short GRBs may develop in a qualitatively similar way, except that in case of long bursts ejecta expansion has a relatively short, non-relativistic, strongly dissipative stage inside the star. Electromagnetic and fireball models (as well as strongly and weakly magnetized fireballs) lead to different early afterglow dynamics, before deceleration time. Finally, I discuss the models in view of latest observational data in the Swift era.
Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants
Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.
1999-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.
Superconductors as quantum transducers and antennas for gravitational and electromagnetic radiation
Raymond Y. Chiao
2002-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
Superconductors will be considered as macroscopic quantum gravitational antennas and transducers, which can directly convert upon reflection a beam of quadrupolar electromagnetic radiation into gravitational radiation, and vice versa, and thus serve as practical laboratory sources and receivers of microwave and other radio-frequency gravitational waves. An estimate of the transducer conversion efficiency on the order of unity comes out of the Ginzburg-Landau theory for an extreme type II, dissipationless superconductor with minimal coupling to weak gravitational and electromagnetic radiation fields, whose frequency is smaller than the BCS gap frequency, thus satisfying the quantum adiabatic theorem. The concept of ``the impedance of free space for gravitational plane waves'' is introduced, and leads to a natural impedance-matching process, in which the two kinds of radiation fields are impedance-matched to each other around a hundred coherence lengths beneath the surface of the superconductor. A simple, Hertz-like experiment has been performed to test these ideas, and preliminary results will be reported. (PACS nos.: 03.65.Ud, 04.30.Db, 04.30.Nk, 04.80.Nn, 74.60-w, 74.72.Bk)
Scattering of Magnetic Mirror Trapped Fast Electrons by a Shear Alfven Wave Yuhou Wang,1
California at Los Angles, University of
processes, such as Megastorms [15] as well as accidental or deliberate high altitude nuclear explosions can by L-mode electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (EMIC) with a frequency below the cyclotron frequency in Fig. 1. The plasma is produced with a pulsed dc (direct current) discharge between a heated cathode
Solar Eclipse Anomalies and Wave Refraction
Alasdair Macleod
2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z
There is some inconclusive evidence that measurement devices sensitive to local gravitation exhibit anomalous behaviour during solar eclipses. We investigate if these findings can be incorporated into the standard general relativistic model of gravitation. The General Theory of Relativity (GTR) describes gravitation as the response of an object to local spacetime curvature. Gravitational waves travelling at the speed of light are then a necessary mechanism to maintain the required consistency between local curvature and distant gravitating mass. Gravitational waves will certainly be subject to refraction by bodies such as the moon and we explore if such an effect can result in an error in the apparent position of the sources and thereby give rise to the characteristic pattern of response associated with the eclipse anomaly. It is found there are phenomenological similarities, but only if gravitational waves are considered not merely to respond to spacetime curvature but are also significantly affected by the presence of mass, perhaps in a manner analogous to electromagnetic waves propagating through matter.
California at Santa Barbara, University of
Verdes, Campus Point, Coal Oil Point (Sands) Waves propagate perpendicular to isobaths (lines of constant
Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid
L. G. Hill; R. L. Gustavsen; R. R. Alcon; S. A. Sheffield
1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
We have used an embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauge technique to measure the shock initiation behavior in PBX 9501 explosive. Up to twelve separate particle velocity wave profile measurements have been made at different depths in a single experiment. These detail the growth from an input shock to a detonation. In addition, another gauge element called a ''shock tracker'' has been used to monitor the progress of the shock front as a function of time and position as it moves through the explosive sample. This provides data similar to that obtained in a traditional explosively driven wedge test and is used to determine the position and time that the wave attains detonation. Run distance-to-detonation vs. input pressure (Pop-plot) data and particle velocity wave profile data have been obtained on new PBX 9501 pressed to densities of 1.826, 1.830, and 1.837 g/cm{sup 3}. In addition, the same measurements were performed on aged material recovered from dismantled W76 and W78 weapons. The input pressure range covered was 3.0 to 5.2 GPa. All results to date show shock sensitivity to be a function only of the initial density and not of age. PBX 9501 shock initiates the same after 17 years in stockpile as it does on the day it is pressed. Particle velocity wave profiles show mixed heterogeneous initiation (growth in the front) and homogeneous initiation (growth behind the front).
Gauge Theory of the Gravitational-Electromagnetic Field
Robert D. Bock
2015-05-26T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a gauge theory of the combined gravitational-electromagnetic field by expanding the Poincar\\'e group to include clock synchronization transformations. We show that the electromagnetic field can be interpreted as a local gauge theory of the synchrony group. According to this interpretation, the electromagnetic field equations possess nonlinear terms and electromagnetic gauge transformations acquire a space-time interpretation as local synchrony transformations. The free Lagrangian for the fields leads to the usual Einstein-Maxwell field equations with additional gravitational-electromagnetic coupling terms. The connection between the electromagnetic field and the invariance properties of the Lagrangian under clock synchronization transformations provides a strong theoretical argument in favor of the thesis of the conventionality of simultaneity. This suggests that clock synchronization invariance (or equivalently, invariance under transformations of the one-way speed of light) is a fundamental invariance principle of physics.
Relativistic electromagnetic mass models in spherically symmetric spacetime
S. K. Maurya; Y. K. Gupta; Saibal Ray; Vikram Chatterjee
2015-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
Under the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Maxwell spacetime of embedding class one we explore possibility of electromagnetic mass model where mass and other physical parameters have purely electromagnetic origin (Tiwari 1984, Gautreau 1985, Gron 1985). This work is in continuation of our earlier investigation (Maurya 2015a) where we developed an algorithm and found out three new solutions of electromagnetic mass models. In the present letter we consider different metric potentials $\
the wave model A traveling wave is an organized disturbance
Winokur, Michael
1 waves the wave model A traveling wave is an organized disturbance propagating at a well-defined wave speed v. · In transverse waves the particles of the medium move perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. · In longitudinal waves the particles of the medium move parallel to the direction
Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism II A Geometric Theory
Partha Ghose
2015-02-11T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that unification of gravity and electromagnetism can be achieved using an affine non-symmetric connection $\\Gamma^\\lambda_{\\mu\
Spherically symmetric electromagnetic mass models of embedding class one
S. K. Maurya; Y. K. Gupta; Saibal Ray; Sourav Roy Chowdhury
2015-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric spacetime metric of embedding class one. Specifically three new electromagnetic mass models are derived where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We have analyzed schematically all these three sets of solutions related to electromagnetic mass models by plotting graphs and shown that they can pass through all the physical tests performed by us. To validate these special type of solutions related to electromagnetic mass models a comparison has been done with that of compact stars and shown exclusively the feasibility of the models.
Electromagnetically induced transparency controlled by a microwave field
Li, Hebin; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Scully, Marlan O.
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
interferences in electromagnetically induced transparency. A simple theoretical model and a numerical simulation have been developed to explain the observed experimental results....
Optical beam steering based on electromagnetically induced transparency
Sun, Qingqing; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Zubairy, M. Suhail
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, and the limits set by residual absorption of the medium under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Implementation of another scheme for ultrashort pulses is also discussed....
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...
Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain...
Frequency-Domain Electromagnetics Survey At Kilauea East Rift...
FURUMOTO, 1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Frequency-Domain Electromagnetics Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area...
Ground Electromagnetic Survey At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...
Area Exploration Technique Ground Electromagnetic Survey Activity Date 1973 - 1976 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis This study was conducted to...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming...
GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass...
Electromagnetic Soundings At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Mallan...
Mallan, Et Al., 2001) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Electromagnetic Soundings At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Mallan, Et Al.,...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea Southwest Rift And South...
Details Location Kilauea Southwest Rift And South Flank Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area...
Activity Details Location Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...
74) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Skokan, 1974) Exploration...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal...
Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date 1978 - 1987 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...
Activity Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date - 1986 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown...
Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area...
Activity Details Location Hualalai Northwest Rift Area Exploration Technique Time-Domain Electromagnetics Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Three...
6.013 Electromagnetics and Applications, Fall 2002
Staelin, David H.
Electromagnetic phenomena are explored in modern applications including wireless communications, circuits, computer interconnects and peripherals, optical fiber links and components, microwave communications and radar, ...
Vlf Electromagnetic Investigations Of The Crater And Central...
Helens, Washington Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Vlf Electromagnetic Investigations Of The Crater And Central Dome Of Mount...
Electromagnetic Evidence For An Ancient Avalanche Caldera Rim...
Merapi, Indonesia Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Electromagnetic Evidence For An Ancient Avalanche Caldera Rim On The South...
Motor Packaging with Consideration of Electromagnetic and Material...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape035miller2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Packaging with Consideration of Electromagnetic and Material Characteristics Alnico...
Novel resonance-assisted electromagnetic-transport phenomena
Kurs, André B
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We first demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that electromagnetic resonators with high quality factors (Q) can be used to transfer power efficiently over distances substantially larger than the characteristic ...
6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003
Zahn, Markus, 1946-
Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...
Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and Far-field Electromagnetic Sensors...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
waveguide-based ultrasonic and far- field electromagnetic sensors to measure key Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoir parameters, including directional temperature,...
Analysis Of Factors Affecting Natural Source Slf Electromagnetic...
At Geothermal Wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Analysis Of Factors Affecting Natural Source Slf Electromagnetic...
D. V. Brazhnikov; A. V. Taichenachev; V. I. Yudin
2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z
The method for observing the high-contrast and narrow-width resonances of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the Hanle configuration under counterpropagating light waves is proposed. We theoretically analyze the absorption of a probe light wave in presence of counterpropagating one with the same frequency as the function of a static magnetic field applied along the vectors of light waves, propagating in a vapour cell. Here, as an example, we study a "dark" type of atomic dipole transition Fg=1-->Fe=1 in D1 line of 87Rb, where usually the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be observed. To obtain the EIA signal one should proper chose the polarizations of light waves and intensities. In contrast of regular schemes for observing EIA signals (in a single travelling light wave in the Hanle configuration or in a bichromatic light field consisted of two travelling waves), the proposed scheme allows one to use buffer gas to significantly enhance properties of the resonance. Also the dramatic influence of atomic transition openness on contrast of the resonance is revealed, that gives great advantage in comparison with cyclic atomic transitions. The obtained results can be interesting in high-resolution spectroscopy, nonlinear and magneto-optics.
Electron-cyclotron damping of helicon waves in low diverging magnetic fields
Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Particle-in-cell simulations are performed to investigate wave propagation and absorption behavior of low-field (B{sub 0}<5 mT) helicon waves in the presence of a diverging magnetic field. The 1D electromagnetic simulations, which include experimental external magnetic field profiles, provide strong evidence for electron-cyclotron damping of helicon waves in the spatially decaying nonuniform magnetic field. For a dipole-type magnetic field configuration, the helicon waves are absence in the downstream (lower field) region of the plasma and are observed to be completely absorbed. As the magnetic field is changed slightly however, wave damping decreases, and waves are able to propagate freely downstream, confirming previous experimental measurements of this phenomenon.
Electromagnetic Properties of the Early Universe
Keitaro Takahashi; Kiyotomo Ichiki; Naoshi Sugiyama
2008-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
Detailed physical processes of magnetic field generation from density fluctuations in the pre-recombination era are studied. Solving Maxwell equations and the generalized Ohm's law, the evolutions of the net charge density, the electric current and the electromagnetic field are solved. Unlike most of previous works, we treat electrons and photons as separate components under the assumption of tight coupling. We find that generation of the magnetic field due to density fluctuations takes place only from the second order of both perturbation theory and the tight coupling approximation.
Electromagnetic corrections to pseudoscalar decay constants
Benjamin Glaessle; Gunnar S. Bali
2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z
The effects of electromagnetic interactions on pseudoscalar decay constants are investigated. Using a compact QED and QCD action we are able to resolve differences of about 0.1 MeV. We obtain the preliminary results f_pi^0-f_pi^+/- =0.09(3) MeV and f_D^0-f_D^+/- =0.79(11) MeV for light and charmed pseudoscalar decay constants on a N_f=2 nonperturbatively improved Sheikholeslami-Wohlert ensemble.
Electromagnetic Dipole Strength in Transitional Nuclei
S. Q. Zhang; I. Bentley; S. Brant; F. Dönau; S. Frauendorf; B. Kämpfer; R. Schwengner; A. Wagner
2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetic dipole absorption cross-sections of transitional nuclei with large-amplitude shape fluctuations are calculated in a microscopic way by introducing the concept of Instantaneous Shape Sampling. The concept bases on the slow shape dynamics as compared to the fast dipole vibrations. The elctromagnetic dipole strength is calculated by means of RPA for the instantaneous shapes, the probability of which is obtained by means of IBA. Very good agreement with the experimental absorption cross sections near the nucleon emission threshold is obtained.
Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness of Diamond Detectors
T. Behnke; M. Doucet; N. Ghodbane; A. Imhof; C. Martinez; W. Zeuner
2001-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
The behavior of artificially grown CVD diamond films under intense electromagnetic radiation has been studied. The properties of irradiated diamond samples have been investigated using the method of thermally stimulated current and by studying their charge collection properties. Diamonds have been found to remain unaffected after doses of 6.8 MGy of 10 keV photons and 10 MGy of MeV-range photons. This observation makes diamond an attractive detector material for a calorimeter in the very forward region of the proposed TESLA detector.
Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation
Bambi, Cosimo
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is currently no direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, I review the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.
Physics with the ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter
Rene Bellwied; for the ALICE Collaboration
2009-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
I will present physics measurements which are achievable in the ALICE experiment at the LHC through the inclusion of a new electromagnetic calorimeter. I will focus on jet measurements in proton proton and heavy ion collisions. Detailed simulations have been performed on jet reconstruction, jet triggering, heavy flavor jet reconstruction through electron identification, gamma-jet reconstruction and the measurements of identified hadrons and resonances in jets. I will show the physics capabilities which are made possible through the combination of calorimeter information with the other detector components in ALICE.
Artificial Retina Project: Electromagnetic and Thermal Effects
Lazzi, Gianluca
2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
This award supported the investigation on electromagnetic and thermal effects associated with the artificial retina, designed in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, and private companies. Our work over the two years of support under this award has focused mainly on 1) Design of new telemetry coils for optimal power and data transfer between the implant and the external device while achieving a significant size reduction with respect to currently used coils; 2) feasibility study of the virtual electrode configuration 3) study the effect of pulse shape and duration on the stimulation efficacy.
Electromagnetic Sounding Techniques | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a g eWorksVillagesource History(RedirectedEl Segundo, California: EnergyElectricElectromagneticPage
Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP aCentrothermDepew, NewAl., 2012) |GreenBrillianceGreenwood,Griggs County,Ground Electromagnetic
Electromagnetic fields: Biological and clinical aspects
Tabrah, F.L.; Batkin, S. (Department of Physiology, University of Hawaii School of Medicine, Honolulu (USA))
1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Our entire biosphere is immersed in a sea of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). Occupational and public health data suggest that these fields may be a health hazard, possibly involving cancer and fetal loss. This paper reviews the history and pertinent physics of electromagnetic fields and presents evidence from the authors' work, and that of others, of biological interaction with living systems. Epidemiological data suggesting EMF hazards are reviewed including a discussion of possible risks associated with Hawaii's Lualualei transmitter site, TV and FM antennas in high-density population areas, fields surrounding electric power transmission and computer terminals, and the plan to route a major highway through the near-field of an operating Omega signal-source. In the face of current public fear and controversial research reports about long-term EMF exposure, suggestions are presented for public policy about these local sources of concern, as well as for the EMF risks common to any similarly developed areas. 30 refs.
Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Kwok Wing CHOW*(1)
1 Rogue Wave Modes for the Long Wave-Short Wave Resonance Model Kwok Wing CHOW*(1) , Hiu Ning CHAN.45.Yv; 47.35.Fg ABSTRACT The long wave-short wave resonance model arises physically when the phase velocity of a long wave matches the group velocity of a short wave. It is a system of nonlinear evolution
Projectile transverse motion and stability in electromagnetic induction launchers
Shokair, I.R.
1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The transverse motion of a projectile in an electromagnetic induction launcher is considered. The equations of motion for translation and rotation are derived assuming a rigid projectile and a flyway restoring force per unit length that is proportional to the local displacement. Linearized transverse forces and torques due to energized coils are derived for displaced or tilted armature elements based on a first order perturbation method. The resulting equations of motion for a rigid projectile composed of multiple elements in a multi-coil launcher are analyzed as a coupled oscillator system of equations and a simple linear stability condition is derived. The equations of motion are incorporated into the 2-D Slingshot circuit code and numerical solutions for the transverse motion are obtained. For a launcher with a 10 cm bore radius with a 40 cm long solid armature, we find that stability is achieved with a restoring force (per unit length) constant of k {approx} 1 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2}. For k = 1.5 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m{sup 2} and sample coil misalignment modeled as a sine wave of 1 mm amplitude at wavelengths of one or two meters, the projectile displacement grows to a maximum of 4 mm. This growth is due to resonance between the natural frequency of the projectile transverse motion and the coil displacement wavelength. This resonance does not persist because of the changing axial velocity. Random coil displacement is also found to cause roughly the same projectile displacement. For the maximum displacement a rough estimate of the transverse pressure is 50 bars. Results for a wound armature with uniform current density throughout show very similar displacements.
Scattering of radio frequency waves by blobs in tokamak plasmas
Ram, Abhay K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Kominis, Yannis [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, Athens, GR-15773 (Greece)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, Athens, GR-15773 (Greece)
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The density fluctuations and blobs present in the edge region of magnetic fusion devices can scatter radio frequency (RF) waves through refraction, reflection, diffraction, and coupling to other plasma waves. This, in turn, affects the spectrum of the RF waves and the electromagnetic power that reaches the core of the plasma. The usual geometric optics analysis of RF scattering by density blobs accounts for only refractive effects. It is valid when the amplitude of the fluctuations is small, of the order of 10%, compared to the background density. In experiments, density fluctuations with much larger amplitudes are routinely observed, so that a more general treatment of the scattering process is needed. In this paper, a full-wave model for the scattering of RF waves by a blob is developed. The full-wave approach extends the range of validity well beyond that of geometric optics; however, it is theoretically and computationally much more challenging. The theoretical procedure, although similar to that followed for the Mie solution of Maxwell's equations, is generalized to plasmas in a magnetic field. Besides diffraction and reflection, the model includes coupling to a different plasma wave than the one imposed by the external antenna structure. In the model, it is assumed that the RF waves interact with a spherical blob. The plasma inside and around the blob is cold, homogeneous, and imbedded in a uniform magnetic field. After formulating the complete analytical theory, the effect of the blob on short wavelength electron cyclotron waves and longer wavelength lower hybrid waves is studied numerically.
Hur, Min Sup
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
813 Guiding of an electromagnetic pulse in a plasma immersedGuiding of an electromagnetic pulse in a plasma immersed inof guiding an electromagnetic pulse. The scheme consists of
Nondestructive millimeter wave imaging and spectroscopy using dielectric focusing probes
Hejase, Jose A.; Shane, Steven S.; Park, Kyoung Y.; Chahal, Premjeet [Terahertz Systems Laboratory (TeSLa) - Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States)
2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
A tool for interrogating objects over a wide band of frequencies with subwavelength resolution at small standoff distances (near field region) in the transmission mode using a single source and detector measurement setup in the millimeter wave band is presented. The design utilizes optics like principles for guiding electromagnetic millimeter waves from large cross-sectional areas to considerably smaller sub-wavelength areas. While plano-convex lenses can be used to focus waves to a fine resolution, they usually require a large stand-off distance thus resulting in alignment and spacing issues. The design procedure and simulation analysis of the focusing probes are presented in this study along with experimental verification of performance and imaging and spectroscopy examples. Nondestructive evaluation will find benefit from such an apparatus including biological tissue imaging, electronic package integrity testing, composite dielectric structure evaluation for defects and microfluidic sensing.
Electromagnetic Field Creation During EWPT Nucleation With Lepton Currents
Leonard S. Kisslinger; Sameer Walawalkar; Ernest M. Henley; Mikkel B. Johnson
2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
We include the electromagnetic currents from fermion degrees of freedom in the equations of motion for electroweak MSSM with a right-handed Stop that we have recently investigated. It is found that near the surface of the bubble walls there are important effects on the electromagnetic fields produced during bubble nucleation.
Electromagnetic field at Finite Temperature: A first order approach
R. Casana; B. M. Pimentel; J. S. Valverde
2007-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we study the electromagnetic field at Finite Temperature via the massless DKP formalism. The constraint analysis is performed and the partition function for the theory is constructed and computed. When it is specialized to the spin 1 sector we obtain the well-known result for the thermodynamic equilibrium of the electromagnetic field.
Particle Acceleration by a Short-Intense Elliptically Polarized Electromagnetic
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Particle Acceleration by a Short-Intense Elliptically Polarized Electromagnetic Pulse Propagating to plasma physics and particle accelerators. The interaction physics of fields with particles has also been, Colchester CO4 3SQ, U.K. Abstract. The motion of a charged particle driven by an electromagnetic pulse
Time-spatial drift of decelerating electromagnetic pulses
Nerukh, Dmitry
Time-spatial drift of decelerating electromagnetic pulses Alexander G. Nerukh1* and Dmitry A dependent electromagnetic pulse generated by a current running laterally to the direction of the pulse propagation is considered in paraxial approximation. It is shown that the pulse envelope moves in the time
Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration
Braslavsky, Julio H.
Errors-in-variables problems in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration K. Lau, J. H in transient electromagnetic mineral exploration. A specific sub-problem of interest in this area geological surveys, dia- mond drilling, and airborne mineral exploration. Our interest here is with ground
Mathur, Manikandan S.
Internal waves are a ubiquitous and significant means of momentum and energy transport in the oceans, atmosphere, and astrophysical bodies. Here, we show that internal wave propagation in nonuniform density stratifications, ...
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
the Oscillating Water Column (OWC) device with wind turbine a new device with a more direct energy conversion? #12 & safety offshore structures Pyramidal rogue wave (Faulkner 2001): #12;Wave Control Onno Bokhove
Mercier, Matthieu J.
We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical study of the generation of internal waves using the novel internal wave generator design of Gostiaux et al. (Exp. Fluids, vol. 42, 2007, pp. 123–130). This ...
Cosmological inference using gravitational wave observations alone
Walter Del Pozzo; Tjonnie G. F. Li; Chris Messenger
2015-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
Gravitational waves emitted during the coalescence of binary neutron star systems are self-calibrating signals. As such they can provide a direct measurement of the luminosity distance to a source without the need for a cosmic distance scale ladder. In general, however, the corresponding redshift measurement needs to be obtained electromagnetically since it is totally degenerate with the total mass of the system. Nevertheless, recent Fisher matrix studies has shown that if information about the equation of state of the neutron stars is available, it is indeed possible to extract redshift information from the gravitational wave signal alone. Therefore, measuring the cosmological parameters in pure gravitational wave fashion is possible. Furthermore, the huge number of sources potentially observable by the Einstein Telescope has led to speculations that the gravitational wave measurement is potentially competitive with traditional methods. The Einstein telescope is a conceptual study for a third generation gravitational wave detector which is designed to yield detections of $10^3-10^7$ binary neutron star systems per year. This study presents the first Bayesian investigation of the accuracy with which the cosmological parameters can be measured using observations of binary neutron star systems by the Einstein Telescope with the one year of observations. We find by direct simulation of $10^3$ detections of binary neutron stars that, within our simplifying assumptions, $H_0,\\Omega_m,\\Omega_\\Lambda,w_0$ and $w_1$ can be measured at the $95\\%$ level with an accuracy of $\\sim 8\\%,65\\%,39\\%,80\\%$ and $90\\%$, respectively. We also find, by extrapolation, that a measurement accuracy comparable with current measurements by Planck is reached for a number of observed events $O(10^{6-7})$
Electromagnetic field with induced massive term: Case with scalar field
Yu. P. Rybakov; G. N. Shikin; Yu. A. Popov; Bijan Saha
2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z
We consider an interacting system of massless scalar and electromagnetic field, with the Lagrangian explicitly depending on the electromagnetic potentials, i.e., interaction with broken gauge invariance. The Lagrangian for interaction is chosen in such a way that the electromagnetic field equation acquires an additional term, which in some cases is proportional to the vector potential of the electromagnetic field. This equation can be interpreted as the equation of motion of photon with induced nonzero rest-mass. This system of interacting fields is considered within the scope of Bianchi type-I (BI) cosmological model. It is shown that, as a result of interaction the electromagnetic field vanishes at $t \\to \\infty$ and the isotropization process of the expansion takes place.
Electromagnetic field with induced massive term: Case with spinor field
Yu. P. Rybakov; G. N. Shikin; Yu. A. Popov; Bijan Saha
2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z
We consider an interacting system of spinor and electromagnetic field, explicitly depending on the electromagnetic potentials, i.e., interaction with broken gauge invariance. The Lagrangian for interaction is chosen in such a way that the electromagnetic field equation acquires an additional term, which in some cases is proportional to the vector potential of the electromagnetic field. This equation can be interpreted as the equation of motion of photon with induced non-trivial rest-mass. This system of interacting spinor and scalar fields is considered within the scope of Bianchi type-I (BI) cosmological model. It is shown that, as a result of interaction the electromagnetic field vanishes at $t \\to \\infty$ and the isotropization process of the expansion takes place.
Electromagnetic Mass Models in General Theory of Relativity
Sumana Bhadra
2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
"Electromagnetic mass" where gravitational mass and other physical quantities originate from the electromagnetic field alone has a century long distinguished history. In the introductory chapter we have divided this history into three broad categories -- classical, quantum mechanical and general relativistic. Each of the categories has been described at a length to get the detailed picture of the physical background. Recent developments on Repulsive Electromagnetic Mass Models are of special interest in this introductory part of the thesis. In this context we have also stated motivation of our work. In the subsequent chapters we have presented our results and their physical significances. It is concluded that the electromagnetic mass models which are the sources of purely electromagnetic origin ``have not only heuristic flavor associated with the conjecture of Lorentz but even a physics having unconventional yet novel features characterizing their own contributions independent of the rest of the physics".
Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method
Torrisi, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell'Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I (Italy); Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania (Italy); Di Donato, L. [Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Isernia, T. [Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell'Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)
2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.
Internal wave instability: Wave-wave versus wave-induced mean flow interactions
Sutherland, Bruce
, known as parametric sub- harmonic instability, results generally when a disturbance of one frequency imparts energy to disturbances of half that frequency.13,14 Generally, a plane periodic internal wave, energy from primary waves is transferred, for example, to waves with half frequency. Self
Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter
Hansen, René Rydhof
Performance Assessment of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Based on the EquiMar Methodology S of the wave energy sector, device developers are called to provide reliable estimates on power performanceMar, Nissum Bredning, Hanstholm, North Sea, Ekofisk, Wave-to-wire, Wave energy. I. INTRODUCTION The wave
Analytical and Numerical Studies of Effective Medium Mixing Problems in Electromagnetics
Mai, Nam
2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
Electromagnetically Functionalized Colloidal Dispersions (EFCDs) have been utilized in several applications in electromagnetics such as reconfigurable antennas. The colloidal dispersions vary the electrical properties depending on the volume...
Texas at Austin, University of
Large Dynamic Range Electromagnetic FieldLarge Dynamic Range Electromagnetic Field Sensor based on Domain Inverted Electro-Optic Polymer Directional CouplerPolymer Directional Coupler Alan X. Wang Ray T. Chen Omega Optics Inc Austin TXOmega Optics Inc., Austin, TX -1- #12;Application of Electric Field
Electromagnetic mass difference on the lattice
Yusuke Namekawa; Yoshio Kikukawa
2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z
We calculate electromagnetic mass difference of mesons using a method proposed by Duncan {\\it et al}. The RG-improved gauge action and the non-compact Abelian gauge action are employed to generate configurations. Quark propagators in the range of $m_{PS}/m_{V}=0.76-0.51$ are obtained with the meanfield-improved clover quark action. Chiral and continuum extrapolations are performed and the results are compared with experiments. Finite size effects are also examined. Quark masses are extracted from the measured spectrum. Our preliminary values for light quark masses are $m_{u}^{\\bar{MS}}(\\mu =2 {GeV}) = 3.03(19)$ MeV, $m_{d}^{\\bar{MS}}(\\mu = 2 {GeV}) = 4.44(28)$ MeV, $m_{s}^{\\bar{MS}}(\\mu = 2 {GeV}) = 99.2(52)$ MeV.
Electromagnetic matrix elements for negative parity nucleons
Benjamin Owen; Waseem Kamleh; Derek Leinweber; Selim Mahbub; Benjamin Menadue
2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Here we present preliminary results for the evaluation of the electromagnetic form factors for the lowest-lying negative-parity, spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ nucleons, namely the $S_{11}(1535)$ and $S_{11}(1650)$, through the use of the variational method. We find that the characteristics of the electric form factor, $G_{E}$, are similar between these states, however significant differences are observed between the quark-sector contributions to the magnetic form factor, $G_{M}$. Within simple constituent quark models, these states are understood to be admixtures of $s=\\frac{1}{2}$ and $s=\\frac{3}{2}$ states coupled to orbital angular momentum $\\ell = 1$. Our results reveal a qualitative difference in the manner in which the singly-represented quark sector contributes to these baryon magnetic form factors.
Theory of Dipole Induced Electromagnetic Transparency
Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A detailed theory describing linear optics of vapors comprised of interacting multi-level quantum emitters is proposed. It is shown both by direct integration of Maxwell-Bloch equations and using a simple analytical model that at large densities narrow transparency windows appear in otherwise completely opaque spectra. The existence of such windows is attributed to overlapping resonances. This effect, first introduced for three-level systems in [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014)], is due to strongly enhanced dipole-dipole interactions at high emitters' densities. The presented theory extends this effect to the case of multilevel systems. The theory is applied to the D1 transitions of interacting Rb-85 atoms. It is shown that at high atomic densities, Rb-85 atoms can behave as three-level emitters exhibiting all the properties of dipole induced electromagnetic transparency. Applications including slow light and laser pulse shaping are also propose...
Vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields
Karbstein, Felix; Reuter, Maria; Zepf, Matt
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of non-linear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generatio...
Electromagnetic nonlinear gyrokinetics with polarization drift
Duthoit, F.-X. [SNU Division of Graduate Education for Sustainabilization of Foundation Energy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, T. S., E-mail: tshahm@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, 151-744 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
A set of new nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov equation with polarization drift and gyrokinetic Maxwell equations is systematically derived by using the Lie-transform perturbation method in toroidal geometry. For the first time, we recover the drift-kinetic expression for parallel acceleration [R. M. Kulsrud, in Basic Plasma Physics, edited by A. A. Galeev and R. N. Sudan (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983)] from the nonlinear gyrokinetic equations, thereby bridging a gap between the two formulations. This formalism should be useful in addressing nonlinear ion Compton scattering of intermediate-mode-number toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes for which the polarization current nonlinearity [T. S. Hahm and L. Chen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 266 (1995)] and the usual finite Larmor radius effects should compete.
PROPAGATION AND STABILITY OF SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS
Mochol, Iwona; Kirk, John G., E-mail: iwona.mochol@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nonlinear electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase velocity can propagate in the winds around isolated pulsars, and around some pulsars in binary systems. Using a short-wavelength approximation, we find and analyze an integrable system of equations that govern their evolution in spherical geometry. A confined mode is identified that stagnates to finite pressure at large radius and can form a precursor to the termination shock. Using a simplified criterion, we find this mode is stable for most isolated pulsars, but may be unstable if the external pressure is high, such as in the pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies and in W44. Pulsar winds in eccentric binary systems, such as PSR 1259-63, may go through phases with stable and unstable electromagnetic precursors, as well as phases in which the density is too high for these modes to propagate.
Gravitational Waves from Stellar Collapse: Correlations to Explosion Asymmetries
Chris L. Fryer; Daniel E. Holz; Scott A. Hughes
2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z
The collapse of massive stars not only produces observable outbursts across the entire electromagnetic spectrum but, for Galactic (or near-Galactic) supernovae, detectable signals for ground-based neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. Gravitational waves and neutrinos provide the only means to study the actual engine behind the optical outbursts: the collapsed stellar core. While the neutrinos are most sensitive to details of the equation of state, gravitational waves provide a means to study the mass asymmetries in this central core. We present gravitational wave signals from a series of 3-dimensional core-collapse simulations with asymmetries derived from initial perturbations caused by pre-collapse convection, core rotation, and low-mode convection in the explosion engine itself. A Galactic supernovae will allow us to differentiate these different sources of asymmetry. Combining this signal with other observations of the supernova, from neutrinos to gamma-rays to the compact remnant, dramatically increases the predictive power of the gravitational wave signal. We conclude with a discussion of the gravitational wave signal arising from collapsars, the leading engine for long-duration gamma-ray bursts.
Coastal Wave Generation and Wave Breaking over Terrain: Two Problems in Mesoscale Wave Dynamics
Qian, Tingting
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
Two problems in mesoscale wave dynamics are addressed: (i) wave-turbulence interaction in a breaking mountain wave and (ii) gravity wave generation associated with coastal heating gradients. The mean and turbulent structures in a breaking mountain...
Coastal Wave Generation and Wave Breaking over Terrain: Two Problems in Mesoscale Wave Dynamics
Qian, Tingting
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
Two problems in mesoscale wave dynamics are addressed: (i) wave-turbulence interaction in a breaking mountain wave and (ii) gravity wave generation associated with coastal heating gradients. The mean and turbulent structures in a breaking mountain...
Lie-Santilli isoapproach to the unification of gravity and electromagnetism
Animalu, A.O.E. [Univ. of Nigeria, Nsukka (Nigeria)]|[Istituto per la Ricerca di Base, Monteroduni (Italy)
1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The author reviews the problem of Einstein`s original proposal for the unification of gravity and electromagnetism in space-time differential geometry along the lines of the recent contributions by A.A. Logunov, R.M. Santilli, D.F. Lopez and others. The author presents a new method of unification based on the Lie-Santilli isotopic theory whereby the unified field tensor g = (g{sub {mu}{nu}}) is constructed from the symmetric Riemannian gravitational tensor, g = (g{mu}{nu}), and the antisymmetric electromagnetic field tensor F = (F{sub {mu}{nu}}) via an isotopic lifting g {yields} {cflx g} = Fg of the type of Lax pairing, where det F {ne} 0, the unified field {cflx g} satisfies Logunov-Santilli equations while g and F are treated as Lax pair. Because of Santilli`s isotopic equivalence between Minkowskian and Riemannian geometries, the author infers that in the Minkowskian limit F = f, g = {eta}, the metric {eta} satisfies Lax`s equation of motion {partial_derivative}{eta}/{partial_derivative}t = f{eta} {minus} {eta}f which insures the conservation of the eigenvalues of g. The invariance of the electromagnetic group of transformations (F) in Minkowski space is determined by the eigenvalue equations, det (F{sub {mu}{nu}}){minus}{lambda}{eta}{sub {mu}{nu}} = 0, from which the author deduces a Lie-isotopic {open_quotes}extended{close_quotes} relativity principle. A wave equation for a spin-2 particle in the unified field is derived, and the experimental consequences of the theory are discussed.
TIME-VARYING CHANNEL MODEL EFFICIENCY Scott Rickard
Drakakis, Konstantinos
with constant radial velocity relative to one an- other. For ease of presentation, we consider in this work the derivation of the Doppler effect, although the resulting channel for elec- tromagnetic waves has a similar path Doppler effect non- relativistic channel. In Section 3 we derive the continuous time
van der Wal, Caspar H.
Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport with 1 m spatial resolution. The microscope was designed to study spin transport, a critical issue-temperature optical microscope, elec- tromagnet and cryogenic cell with cold finger to measure continuous-wave cw
Precipitation of radiation belt electrons by EMIC waves, observed from ground and space
Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyoski, Y [NAGOYA UNIV; Sakaguchi, K [NAGOYA UNIV; Shiokawa, K [NAGOYA UNIV; Evans, D S [NOAA, BOULDER; Albert, Jay [AFRL; Connors, M [UNIV OF ATHABASCA
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We show evidence that left-hand polarised electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere. Our unique set of ground and satellite observations shows coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keY and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The coincident precipitation was produced by wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves near the plasmapause. The estimation of pitch angle diffusion coefficients supports that the observed EMIC waves caused coincident precipitation ofboth ions and relativistic electrons. This study clarifies that ions with energies of tens of ke V affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts via cyclotron resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's.
Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model
Lise-Marie Imbert-Gérard
2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.
Well-posedness and generalized plane waves simulations of a 2D mode conversion model
Imbert-Gérard, Lise-Marie
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Certain types of electro-magnetic waves propagating in a plasma can undergo a mode conversion process. In magnetic confinement fusion, this phenomenon is very useful to heat the plasma, since it permits to transfer the heat at or near the plasma center. This work focuses on a mathematical model of wave propagation around the mode conversion region, from both theoretical and numerical points of view. It aims at developing, for a well-posed equation, specific basis functions to study a wave mode conversion process. These basis functions, called generalized plane waves, are intrinsically based on variable coefficients. As such, they are particularly adapted to the mode conversion problem. The design of generalized plane waves for the proposed model is described in detail. Their implementation within a discontinuous Galerkin method then provides numerical simulations of the process. These first 2D simulations for this model agree with qualitative aspects studied in previous works.
Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms
Gordon, Joshua A., E-mail: josh.gordon@nist.gov; Holloway, Christopher L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77?GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.
Vol. 9, No. 6/June 1992/J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 937 Closed-form, localized wave solutions in optical
Ziolkowski, Richard W.
Physicsand Mathematics,Faculty of Engineering,Cairo University,Giza, Egypt Richard W Ziolkowski Electromagnetics-wave(LW)solutions that describe localized, slowlydecaying transmis- sion of energy in free space. Wepresent a theoretical any decay. Ziolkowski2 has argued that, although the FWM solutions have an infinite total energy
McCloy, John S.; Jordan, David V.; Kelly, James F.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Campbell, Luke W.
2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new concept for radiation detection is proposed, allowing a decoupling of the sensing medium and the readout. An electromagnetic material, such as a magnetic ceramic ferrite, is placed near a source to be tracked such as a shipping container. The electromagnetic material changes its properties, in this case its magnetic permeability, as a function of radiation. This change is evident as a change in reflection frequency and magnitude when probed using a microwave/millimeter-wave source. This brief report discusses modeling of radiation interaction of various candidate materials using a radiation detector modeling code Geant4, system design considerations for the remote readout, and some theory of the material interaction physics. The theory of radiation change in doped magnetic insulator ferrites such as yttrium iron garnet (YIG) seems well founded based on literature documentation of the photomagnetic effect. The literature also suggests sensitivity of permittivity to neutrons in some ferroelectrics. Research to date indicates that experimental demonstration of these effects in the context of radiation detection is warranted.
Yang, Zhiguo; Rong, Zhijian; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Baile
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we present an efficient spectral-element method (SEM) for solving general two-dimensional Helmholtz equations in anisotropic media, with particular applications in accurate simulation of polygonal invisibility cloaks, concentrators and circular rotators arisen from the field of transformation electromagnetics (TE). In practice, we adopt a transparent boundary condition (TBC) characterized by the Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) map to reduce wave propagation in an unbounded domain to a bounded domain. We then introduce a semi-analytic technique to integrate the global TBC with local curvilinear elements seamlessly, which is accomplished by using a novel elemental mapping and analytic formulas for evaluating global Fourier coefficients on spectral-element grids exactly. From the perspective of TE, an invisibility cloak is devised by a singular coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations that leads to anisotropic materials coating the cloaked region to render any object inside invisible to observe...
Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection
Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît [CEA LIST, Centre de Saclay F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.
Short Gamma Ray Bursts as possible electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems
S. Capozziello; M. De Laurentis; I. De Martino; M. Formisano
2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
Coalescing binary systems, consisting of two collapsed objects, are among the most promising sources of high frequency gravitational waves signals detectable, in principle, by ground-based interferometers. Binary systems of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers should also give rise to short Gamma Ray Bursts, a subclass of Gamma Ray Bursts. Short-hard-Gamma Ray Bursts might thus provide a powerful way to infer the merger rate of two-collapsed object binaries. Under the hypothesis that most short Gamma Ray Bursts originate from binaries of Neutron Star or Black Hole/Neutron Star mergers, we outline here the possibility to associate short Gamma Ray Bursts as electromagnetic counterpart of coalescing binary systems.
Electromagnetic quasinormal modes of D-dimensional black holes II
A. López-Ortega
2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
By using the sixth order WKB approximation we calculate for an electromagnetic field propagating in D-dimensional Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild de Sitter black holes its quasinormal frequencies for the fundamental mode and first overtones. We study the dependence of these QN frequencies on the value of the cosmological constant and the spacetime dimension. We also compare with the known results for the gravitational perturbations propagating in the same background. Moreover we exactly compute the QN frequencies of the electromagnetic field propagating in D-dimensional massless topological black hole and for charged D-dimensional Nariai spacetime we exactly calculate the QN frequencies of the coupled electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations.
An approach to electromagnetism from the general relativity
Robert Monjo i Agut
2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z
Classical gravitation is so similar to the electrostatic that the possible unification has been investigated for many years. Although electromagnetism is formulated successfully by quantum field theory, this paper proposes a simple approach to describe the electromagnetism from the macroscopic perspective of general relativity. The hypothesis is based on two charged particles that cause disturbance energy sufficient to disrupt the space-time and explain approximately Maxwell's equations. Therefore, with such this simple idea, we suggest the possibility that the geometric relationship between electromagnetism and gravitation is not yet fully exhausted.
Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Really Shaped Particle
Jozef Klacka
2001-08-13T23:59:59.000Z
Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (neutral in charge) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Various formulations of the equation of motion in the proper frame of reference of the particle are used. Main attention is devoted to the reformulation of the equation of motion in the general frame of reference, e. g., in the frame of reference of the source of electromagnetic radiation. This is the crucial form of equation of motion in applying it to motion of particles (cosmic dust, asteroids, ...) in the Universe if electromagnetic radiation acts on the particles. General relativistic equation of motion is presented.
Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas
Navarro, Roberto E., E-mail: roberto.navarro@ug.uchile.cl; Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Araneda, Jaime [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 20064 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Básicos y Aplicados en Complejidad, CEIBA complejidad, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.
Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter
Stefan G. Siegel, Ph.D.
2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
This program allowed further advancing the development of a novel type of wave energy converter, a Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter or CycWEC. A CycWEC consists of one or more hydrofoils rotating around a central shaft, and operates fully submerged beneath the water surface. It operates under feedback control sensing the incoming waves, and converts wave power to shaft power directly without any intermediate power take off system. Previous research consisting of numerical simulations and two dimensional small 1:300 scale wave flume experiments had indicated wave cancellation efficiencies beyond 95%. The present work was centered on construction and testing of a 1:10 scale model and conducting two testing campaigns in a three dimensional wave basin. These experiments allowed for the first time for direct measurement of electrical power generated as well as the interaction of the CycWEC in a three dimensional environment. The Atargis team successfully conducted two testing campaigns at the Texas A&M Offshore Technology Research Center and was able to demonstrate electricity generation. In addition, three dimensional wave diffraction results show the ability to achieve wave focusing, thus increasing the amount of wave power that can be extracted beyond what was expected from earlier two dimensional investigations. Numerical results showed wave cancellation efficiencies for irregular waves to be on par with results for regular waves over a wide range of wave lengths. Using the results from previous simulations and experiments a full scale prototype was designed and its performance in a North Atlantic wave climate of average 30kW/m of wave crest was estimated. A full scale WEC with a blade span of 150m will deliver a design power of 5MW at an estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in the range of 10-17 US cents per kWh. Based on the new results achieved in the 1:10 scale experiments these estimates appear conservative and the likely performance at full scale will exceed this initial performance estimates. In advancing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of this type of wave energy converter from 3 to 4, we find the CycWEC to exceed our initial estimates in terms of hydrodynamic performance. Once fully developed and optimized, it has the potential to not just outperform all other WEC technologies, but to also deliver power at a lower LCOE than competing conventional renewables like wind and solar. Given the large wave power resource both domestically and internationally, this technology has the potential to lead to a large improvement in our ability to produce clean electricity at affordable cost.
On the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in the CSL model
Donadi, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.donadi@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy) [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste Section, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Deckert, Dirk-André, E-mail: deckert@math.ucdavis.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, One Shields Ave, 95616 Davis (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California, One Shields Ave, 95616 Davis (United States); Bassi, Angelo, E-mail: bassi@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy) [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste Section, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
Spontaneous photon emission in the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is studied one more time. In the CSL model each particle interacts with a noise field that induces the collapse of its wave function. As a consequence of this interaction, when the particle is electrically charged, it radiates. As discussed in Adler (2013) the formula for the emission rate, to first perturbative order, contains two terms: one is proportional to the Fourier component of the noise field at the same frequency as that of the emitted photon and one is proportional to the zero Fourier component of the noise field. As discussed in previous works, this second term seems unphysical. In Adler (2013) it was shown that the unphysical term disappears when the noise is confined to a bounded region and the final particle’s state is a wave packet. Here we investigate the origin of this unphysical term and why it vanishes according to the previous prescription. We will see that perturbation theory is formally not valid in the large time limit since the effect of the noise accumulates continuously in time. Therefore either one performs an exact calculation (or at least in some way includes higher order terms) as we do here, or one finds a way to make a perturbative calculation meaningful, e.g., by confining the system as in Adler (2013). -- Highlights: •We compute the electromagnetic radiation emission in collapse models. •Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion are solved exactly. •The electromagnetic interaction must be treated exactly. •In order to obtain the correct emission rate the particle must be bounded.
Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir; Khajehmirzaei, M. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi-Rahaghi, B.; Rahmani, Z.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A. [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
The energy distribution along the focal axis of a long metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector with a plasma layer on its surface in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. The effects of some physical parameters, such as the plasma frequency, the wave frequency and the thickness of plasma layer on the energy distribution and the reflected and transmitted electromagnetic fields, are simulated. These investigations for both S- and P-polarizations have been done separately. It is found that the maximum value of the reflected intensity increases by increasing the incident wave frequency and by decreasing the plasma layer thickness and the plasma frequency for both polarizations. Furthermore, the results show that the increase of the magnetic field strength can cause an increase in the reflected intensity for S-polarization and a slight decrease for P-polarization.
Lustermann, W; Denes, P; Djambazov, L; Dröge, M; Faure, J L; Iliev, Bozhidar Z; Nanov, I; Raykov, P; Shivarov, N
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Low voltage supply system for the very front end readout electronics of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter
Sych, Robert
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The review addresses the spatial frequency morphology of sources of sunspot oscillations and waves, including their localization, size, oscillation periods, height localization with the mechanism of cut-off frequency that forms the observed emission variability. Dynamic of sunspot wave processes, provides the information about the structure of wave fronts and their time variations, investigates the oscillation frequency transformation depending on the wave energy is shown. The initializing solar flares caused by trigger agents like magnetoacoustic waves, accelerated particle beams, and shocks are discussed. Special attention is paid to the relation between the flare reconnection periodic initialization and the dynamics of sunspot slow magnetoacoustic waves. A short review of theoretical models of sunspot oscillations is provided.
Andreev, A A; Galkin, A L; Kalashnikov, M P; Korobkin, V V; Romanovsky, Mikhail Yu; Shiryaev, O B [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
We study the motion of an electron and emission of electromagnetic waves by an electron in the field of a relativistically intense laser pulse. The dynamics of the electron is described by the Newton equation with the Lorentz force in the right-hand side. It is shown that the electrons may be ejected from the interaction region with high energy. The energy spectrum of these electrons and the technique of using the spectrum to assess the maximal intensity in the focus are analysed. It is found that electromagnetic radiation of an electron moving in an intense laser field occurs within a small angle around the direction of the electron trajectory tangent. The tangent quickly changes its direction in space; therefore, electromagnetic radiation of the electron in the far-field zone in a certain direction in the vicinity of the tangent is a short pulse with a duration as short as zeptoseconds. The calculation of the temporary and spectral distribution of the radiation field is carried out. (superintense laser fields)
Conversion of relic gravitational waves into photons in cosmological magnetic fields
Dolgov, Alexander D.; Ejlli, Damian, E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: ejlli@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico-Edificio C, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy)
2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Conversion of gravitational waves into electromagnetic radiation is discussed. The probability of transformations of gravitons into photons in presence of cosmological background magnetic field is calculated at the recombination epoch and during subsequent cosmological stages. The produced electromagnetic radiation is concentrated in the X-ray part of the spectrum. It is shown that if the early Universe was dominated by primordial black holes (PBHs) prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), the relic gravitons emitted by PBHs would transform to an almost isotropic background of electromagnetic radiation due to conversion of gravitons into photons in cosmological magnetic fields. Such extragalactic radiation could be noticeable or even dominant component of Cosmic X-ray Background.
3D Observations of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Propagation in a Laboratory Plasma Column
Carter, Troy
. EMICW's are found in the Earth's auroral ionosphere and may play a role in the transport of energy from mode with a one-Hertz repetition rate which extends the life of the cathode and allows for efficient. #12;Fig. 1 is a composition of several of the measured instantaneous magnetic field amplitude data
Wilhelmi, Gary Joe
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. P. James for their guidance and assistance throughout this study. The efforts of Dr. J. L. Stone and Dr. L. E. Fite in procuring the vacuum equipment is greatly appreciated. Also, sincere thanks are due Dr. K. J. McCree for use of the Spectral...-2 Values of Q' for Rough Surfaces 91 V-3 C-1 C-2 Values of Volume Reflection Coefficients for Rough Surfaces Turbid Water Data Rough Surface Data 140 141 LIST OF FIGURFS Figure ~pa e II-1 Scattering geometry for the surface scatter...
Cole, Benjamin
2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z
Uncertainties associated with the microphysical and radiative properties of ice clouds remain an active research area because of the importance these clouds have in atmospheric radiative transfer problems and the energy balance of the Earth...
Control influence on the electromagnetic generator pre-design for a wave energy converter
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
) concept studied within the context of the SEAREV project [1]. Power takeoff (PTO: the generator) behavior on a pendulum set in a closed buoy actuated by the swell through excitation forces [2] (see Fig. 1 coupled to a load via an electronic power converter), which recovers a portion of its kinetic energy
Condition assessment of GFRP-retrofitted concrete cylinders using electromagnetic waves
Yu, Tzu-Yang (Tzu-Yang Young), 1973-
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this study is to develop an integrated nondestructive testing (NDT) capability, termed FAR NDT (Far-field Airborne Radar NDT), for the detection of defects, damages, and rebars in the near-surface region ...
Wilhelmi, Gary Joe
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
-2 Values of Q' for Rough Surfaces 91 V-3 C-1 C-2 Values of Volume Reflection Coefficients for Rough Surfaces Turbid Water Data Rough Surface Data 140 141 LIST OF FIGURFS Figure ~pa e II-1 Scattering geometry for the surface scatter... components are given by: 19 H, (a. . ~, ) Z-, E (ct, - g, ) (n. x 7, ) Egg (I I- 2) The components in the plane of incidence are: Ea = ECa, , n, )n. + Ccz, -d ) 4. 3 E H = -(o. , -d )+ (I 1-3) The local surface currents are now found. If the sub...
On Axion's Effect on Propagation of Monochromatic Electromagnetic Wave Through Strong Magnetic Field
Mikhail Khankhasayev; Carol Scarlett
2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
A possibility of detecting the effect of photon-axion mixing in a cavity experiment is discussed. There are two photon-axion modes that acquire different indices of refraction and split in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. For a magnetic field inhomogeneous in the direction transverse to the light propagation an analytical solution is obtained both for the index of refraction and the beams' trajectories. In a cavity experiment, the beam splitting creates a bifurcation effect, which results in a decrease of the light intensity in the central region. Modulation of magnetic field can separate this effect from background by providing a narrow frequency range for any observed signal. When one integrates this effect over time and accounts for bandwidth, the overall drop in FWHM intensity is of order 10-2%. This is a very measurable effect.
Parameterised Electromagnetic Scattering Solutions for a Range of Incident Wave Angles
Peraire, Jaime
reduction in the computational costs. Reduced--order approximations operate in two stages. In an initial off of these computations are stored. In an online stage, specified outputs of interest are computed at low cost for new in determining the scattering width distribution for a new design. Computational methods can provide assistance
M. Bordag
2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
The formulation of the Lifshitz formula in terms of real frequencies is reconsidered for half spaces described by the plasma model. It is shown that besides the surface modes (for the TM polarization), and the photonic modes, also waveguide modes must be considered.
Design of high temperature high speed electromagnetic axial thrust bearing
Mohiuddin, Mohammad Waqar
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is researching the magnetic bearings to use it as a better alternative to conventional bearings. This research was to develop an axial thrust electromagnetic bearing for high performance jet...
K -> pi pi Phenomenology in the Presence of Electromagnetism
Vincenzo Cirigliano; John F. Donoghue; Eugene Golowich
2000-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the influence of electromagnetism on the phenomenology of K -> pi pi decays. This is required because the present data were analyzed without inclusion of electromagnetic radiative corrections, and hence contain several ambiguities and uncertainties which we describe in detail. Our presentation includes a full description of the infrared effects needed for a new experimental analysis. It also describes the general treatment of final state interaction phases, needed because Watson's theorem is no longer valid in the presence of electromagnetism. The phase of the isospin-two amplitude A_2 may be modified by 50% -> 100%. We provide a tentative analysis using present data in order to illustrate the sensitivity to electromagnetic effects, and also discuss how the standard treatment of epsilon'/epsilon is modified.
A scalable electro-magnetic communication system for underwater swarms
Zimmer, Uwe
A scalable electro-magnetic communication system for underwater swarms Felix Schill 1 Uwe R. Zimmer for communication is small compared to propulsion requirements. Communication of state information can there- fore
Design Optimization of electromagnetic actuator by genetic algorithm
ELBEZ
2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
condition in the design or in the optimization of electromagnetic ... propose a new approach to optimize linear actuator. This new .... derivative of the stored magnetic energy with respect ..... H. Poorzahedy “Hybrid meta-heuristic algorithms.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding of Single-Walled Carbon
Gao, Hongjun
, electrically conducting polymer composites have gained popularity recently because of their light weight (SWNT)-polymer composites have been fabricated to evaluate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of a composite material depends on many factors, including the filler's intrinsic conductivity, dielectric
Low-cost electromagnetic tagging : design and implementation
Fletcher, Richard R. (Richard Ribon)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Several implementations of chipless RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags are presented and discussed as low-cost alternatives to chip-based RFID tags and sensors. An overview of present-day near-field electromagnetic ...
Design and parametric simulation of radially oriented electromagnetic actuators
Bosworth, William R., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents the design and simulation of an electromagnetic actuator system capable of delivering large pulses of radial force onto a cylindrical surface. Due to its robust design, simple control scheme, and large ...
Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators
Kohen, Stephen Michael, 1980-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Finite-element numerical modeling and analysis of electromagnetic waveguides and resonators used in terahertz (THz) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) is presented. Simulations and analysis of two types were performed: ...
Wave Propagation Theory 2.1 The Wave Equation
2 Wave Propagation Theory 2.1 The Wave Equation The wave equation in an ideal fluid can be derived #12;66 2. Wave Propagation Theory quantities of the quiescent (time independent) medium are identified perturbations is much smaller than the speed of sound. 2.1.1 The Nonlinear Wave Equation Retaining higher
Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves
US Army Corps of Engineers
Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves Steven A. Hughes* US Army Engineer Available online 7 October 2004 Abstract A new parameter representing the maximum depth-integrated wave momentum flux occurring over a wave length is proposed for characterizing the wave contribution
Structure-borne sound Flexural wave (bending wave)
Berlin,Technische Universität
1 Structure-borne sound · Flexural wave (bending wave) »One dimensional (beam) +(/x)dx +(/x)dx = (/x) (/x)dx=(2/x2)dx Mz +(Mz/x)dx Mz vy Fy Fy +(Fy/x)dx Structure-borne sound · Bending wave flexural wave #12;2 Structure-borne sound · Two obliquely propagating waves + - + + - + - Structure
Electromagnetic Probes at RHIC-II
G. David; R. Rapp; Z. Xu
2008-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
We summarize how future measurements of electromagnetic (e.m.) probes at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), in connection with theoretical analysis, can advance our understanding of strongly interacting matter at high energy densities and temperatures. After a brief survey of the important role that e.m. probes data have played at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, CERN) and RHIC to date, we identify key physics objectives and observables that remain to be addressed to characterize the (strongly interacting) Quark-Gluon Plasma (sQGP) and associated transition properties at RHIC. These include medium modifications of vector mesons via low-mass dileptons, a temperature measurement of the hot phases via continuum radiation, as well as gamma-gamma correlations to characterize early source sizes. We outline strategies to establish microscopic matter and transition properties such as the number of degrees of freedom in the sQGP, the origin of the hadron masses and manifestations of chiral symmetry restoration, which will require accompanying but rather well-defined advances in theory. Increased experimental precision, order of magnitude higher statistics than currently achievable, as well as a detailed scan of colliding species and energies are then mandatory to achieve sufficient discrimination power in theoretical interpretations. This increased precision can be achieved with hardware upgrades to the large RHIC detectors (PHENIX and STAR) along with at least a factor of ten as increase in luminosity over the next few years as envisioned for RHIC-II.
Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets
Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.
Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets
Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.
Electromagnetic Studies of Mesons, Nucleons, and Nuclei
Baker, Oliver K.
2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z
Professor Baker was a faculty member at Hampton University in Hampton, Virginia, and, jointly, a Staff Physicist at Jefferson Lab in nearby Newport News from September 1989 to July 2006. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded the grant DE-FG02-97ER41035 Electromagnetic Studies of Mesons, Nucleons, and Nuclei, while Baker was in this joint appointment. Baker sent a closeout report on these activities to Hampton University’s Sponsored Research Office some years ago, shortly after joining Yale University in 2006. In the period around 2001, the research grant with Baker as the Principal Investigator (PI) was put under the supervision of Professor Liguang Tang at Hampton University. Baker continued to pursue the research while in this join appointment, however the administrative responsibilities with the DOE and with Hampton University rested with Professor Tang after 2001, to my recollection. What is written in this document is from Baker’s memory of the research activities, which he has not pursued since joining the Yale University faculty.
Electromagnetic anti-jam telemetry tool
Ganesan, Harini (Sugar Land, TX); Mayzenberg, Nataliya (Missouri City, TX)
2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
A mud-pulse telemetry tool includes a tool housing, a motor disposed in the tool housing, and a magnetic coupling coupled to the motor and having an inner shaft and an outer shaft. The tool may also include a stator coupled to the tool housing, a restrictor disposed proximate the stator and coupled to the magnetic coupling, so that the restrictor and the stator adapted to generate selected pulses in a drilling fluid when the restrictor is selectively rotated. The tool may also include a first anti-jam magnet coupled to the too housing, and an second anti-jam magnet disposed proximate the first anti-jam magnet and coupled to the inner shaft and/or the outer shaft, wherein at least one of the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet is an electromagnet, and wherein the first anti-jam magnet and the second anti-jam magnet are positioned with adjacent like poles.
Binary power multiplier for electromagnetic energy
Farkas, Zoltan D. (203 Leland Ave., Menlo Park, CA 94025)
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A technique for converting electromagnetic pulses to higher power amplitude and shorter duration, in binary multiples, splits an input pulse into two channels, and subjects the pulses in the two channels to a number of binary pulse compression operations. Each pulse compression operation entails combining the pulses in both input channels and selectively steering the combined power to one output channel during the leading half of the pulses and to the other output channel during the trailing half of the pulses, and then delaying the pulse in the first output channel by an amount equal to half the initial pulse duration. Apparatus for carrying out each of the binary multiplication operation preferably includes a four-port coupler (such as a 3 dB hybrid), which operates on power inputs at a pair of input ports by directing the combined power to either of a pair of output ports, depending on the relative phase of the inputs. Therefore, by appropriately phase coding the pulses prior to any of the pulse compression stages, the entire pulse compression (with associated binary power multiplication) can be carried out solely with passive elements.