Sample records for trending metal oxo

  1. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal

  3. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print

  4. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending: Metal Oxo

  5. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending:Trending:

  6. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending: Metal

  7. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQ

  8. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending:

  9. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed an inexpensive, highly efficient catalyst that can be used in the electrolysis of water to generate H2—a source of clean fuel, a reducing agent for metal ores, and a reactant used to produce hydrochloric acid and other chemicals. The catalyst is a metal-oxo complex in which modified pyridine rings surround an earth-abundant, low cost metal, such as molybdenum. Compared to other molecular catalysts, the Berkeley Lab compound has a longer life,...

  10. Trends in the electron-phonon coupling parameter in some metallic hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, M.; Burger, J.P.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an evaluation of the electron-phonon coupling parameter lambda, using the McMillan formalism, for several classes of stoichiometric mono- and dihydrides with a metallic underlying fcc structure. We calculate the electronic term eta and use experimental estimates for the phonon energies when available. We derive systematic trends concerning both contributions to eta stemming, respectively, from the metallic site M and the hydrogen site H. We show that eta/sub H/ is generally small, but it may become large if the Fermi energy is in the metal s-p band as in the filled d-band transition-metal (TM) hydrides such as PdH; eta/sub H/ may also be large when a metal-hydrogen antibonding band crosses the Fermi level, a case which happens in AlH and may happen for some unstable dihydrides. The metallic contribution eta/sub M/ is calculated to be small for all stable mono- and dihydrides like PdH, NiH, ZrH/sub 2/, NbH/sub 2/, etc., but nothing in principle prevents this contribution from becoming as large as in some pure TM, if one sweeps the Fermi level through the whole metallic d band. Good agreement with the available experimental data is obtained concerning the occurrence of superconductivity in the compounds considered.

  11. CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures: A combined in situ PM-IRAS and reaction kinetics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures Accepted for publication 14 October 2008 Available online 5 November 2008 Keywords: Pt-group metals CO a c t The CO oxidation reaction on Pt-group metals (Pt, Rh, and Pd) has been investigated at low (610À

  12. Econometric analysis of the historical growth and volatility trends of various metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Brittany Laurél

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Post Malthusian economics, there is growing recognition of the impact technological change and advance has on market activity. By studying historical production and price trends, boundaries of feasible growth can be ...

  13. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

  14. Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship Program TheSite Map Site Map HomeUSSites | CenterOpen-Metal

  15. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  16. Trends in Methanol Decomposition on Transition Metal Alloy Clusters from Scaling and Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Rankin, Rees B.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of ?rst principles Density Functional Theory calculations and thermochemical scaling relationships are employed to estimate the thermochemistry and kinetics of methanol decomposition on unsupported subnanometer metal clusters. The approach uses binding energies of various atomic and molecular species, determined on the pure metal clusters, to develop scaling relationships that are then further used to estimate the methanol decomposition thermodynamics for a series of pure and bimetallic clusters with four atoms per cluster. Additionally, activation energy barriers are estimated from Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi plots relating transition and ?nal state energies on these clusters. The energetic results are combined with a simple, microkineticallyinspired rate expression to estimate reaction rates as a function of important catalytic descriptors, including the carbon and atomic oxygen binding energies to the clusters. Based on these analyses, several alloy clusters are identi?ed as promising candidates for the methanol decomposition reaction.

  17. B(C6F5)3 Activation of Oxo Tungsten Complexes That Are Relevant to Olefin Metathesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    B(C6F5)3 Activation of Oxo Tungsten Complexes That Are Relevant to Olefin Metathesis Dmitry V Information ABSTRACT: We have found that coordination of B(C6F5)3 to an oxo ligand in tungsten oxo alkylidene reactions between a relatively well behaved Lewis acid (B(C6F5)3) and a variety of tungsten oxo complexes

  18. Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    Z-Selective Olefin Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Tungsten Oxo Alkylidene Complexes Dmitry V). Early in the development of olefin metathesis catalysts that contain tungsten, it was shown that metathetically more active and reproducible systems were produced when tungsten oxo complexes were deliberately

  19. Author's personal copy Crystal structure of the uranium oxo borohydride complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Author's personal copy Crystal structure of the uranium oxo borohydride complex U2(l-O)(BH4)6(dme)2 online 9 November 2011 Keywords: Uranium Borohydride Hydride Oxo Crystal structure Aminodiboranate a b s t r a c t The reaction of uranium tetrachloride, UCl4, with sodium N,N-dimethylaminodiboranate, Na(H3

  20. alpha-chloro beta-oxo sulfenyl: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alpha-chloro beta-oxo sulfenyl First Page Previous Page 1 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Ferrocenyl bis-phosphine ligands bearing sulfinyl, sulfonyl or sulfenyl groups:...

  1. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod

  2. A Highly Reactive Mononuclear Non-Heme Manganese(IV)?Oxo Complex That Can Activate the Strong C?H Bonds of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiujuan; Seo, Mi Sook; Davis, Katherine M.; Lee, Yong-Min; Chen, Junying; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Pushkar, Yulia N.; Nam, Wonwoo (Ewha); (Purdue)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mononuclear non-heme manganese(IV)-oxo complex has been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic methods. The Mn(IV)-oxo complex shows high reactivity in oxidation reactions, such as C-H bond activation, oxidations of olefins, alcohols, sulfides, and aromatic compounds, and N-dealkylation. In C-H bond activation, the Mn(IV)-oxo complex can activate C-H bonds as strong as those in cyclohexane. It is proposed that C-H bond activation by the non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex does not occur via an oxygen-rebound mechanism. The electrophilic character of the non-heme Mn(IV)-oxo complex is demonstrated by a large negative {rho} value of {approx}4.4 in the oxidation of para-substituted thioanisoles.

  3. Differences in Electrostatic Potential Around DNA Fragments Containing Guanine and 8-oxo-Guanine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hanges of electrostatic potential (EP) around the DNA molecule resulting from chemical modifications of nucleotides may play a role in enzymatic recognition of damaged sites. Effects of chemical modifications of nucleotides on the structure of DNA have been characterized through large scale density functional theory computations. Quantum mechanical structural optimizations of DNA fragments with three pairs of nucleotoides and accompanying counteractions were performed with a B3LYP exchange-correlation functional and 6-31G** basis sets. The “intact” DNA fragment contained guanine in the middle layer, while the “damaged” fragment had the guanine replaced with 8-oxo-guanine. The electrostatic potential around these DNA fragments was projected on a surface around the double helix. The 2D maps of EP of intact and damaged DNA fragments were analyzed to identify these modifications of EP that result from the occurrence of 8-oxo-guanine. It was found that distortions of the phosphate groups and displacements of the accompanying countercations are clearly reflected in the EP maps.

  4. Sequence-Dependent Variation in the Reactivity of 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine toward Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kok Seong

    The goal of this study was to define the effect of DNA sequence on the reactivity of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) toward oxidation. To this end, we developed a quadrupole/time-of-flight (QTOF) mass ...

  5. Evaluating the Identity and Diiron Core Transformations of a (?-Oxo)diiron(III) Complex Supported by Electron-Rich Tris(pyridyl-2-methyl)amine Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, Loi H.

    The composition of a (?-oxo)diiron(III) complex coordinated by tris[(3,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy)pyridyl-2-methyl]amine (R[subscript 3]TPA) ligands was investigated. Characterization using a variety of spectroscopic methods and ...

  6. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for gasoline, diesel and other petroleum products. This chapter provides an overview of world oil trends agreements on export routes have limited development. Petroleum production in the United States, including half of petroleum supplies to the United States. OPEC petroleum production also increased in 1994

  7. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Density Functional Theory Studies of [(H3buea)FeIII-X]n1 (X= S2-, O2-,OH-): Comparison of Bonding and Hydrogen Bonding in Oxo and Sulfido Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dey, Abhishek; Hocking, Rosalie K.; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Larsen, Peter; Borovik, Andrew S.; /Kansas U.; Hodgson, Keith O.; Hedman, Britt; Solomon, Edward I.; /SLAC,

    2006-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron L-edge, iron K-edge, and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy was performed on a series of compounds [Fe{sup III}H{sub 3}buea(X)]{sup n-} (X = S{sup 2-}, O{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}). The experimentally determined electronic structures were used to correlate to density functional theory calculations. Calculations supported by the data were then used to compare the metal-ligand bonding and to evaluate the effects of H-bonding in Fe{sup III}-O vs Fe{sup III-}S complexes. It was found that the Fe{sup III-}O bond, while less covalent, is stronger than the FeIII-S bond. This dominantly reflects the larger ionic contribution to the Fe{sup III-}O bond. The H-bonding energy (for three H-bonds) was estimated to be -25 kcal/mol for the oxo as compared to -12 kcal/mol for the sulfide ligand. This difference is attributed to the larger charge density on the oxo ligand resulting from the lower covalency of the Fe-O bond. These results were extended to consider an Fe{sup IV-}O complex with the same ligand environment. It was found that hydrogen bonding to Fe{sup IV-}O is less energetically favorable than that to Fe{sup III-}O, which reflects the highly covalent nature of the Fe{sup IV-}O bond.

  8. Ligand field considerations for the reactivity of high valent metal-oxo complexes and of bimetallic HX splitting photocatalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Matthew Burke

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic molecular complexes are used to probe mechanistic steps in two reaction reactions related to energy storage. The first reaction considered is the O-O bond formation step required for water oxidation to oxygen. ...

  9. International, National, and Virginia Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .............................................................................................................1 Global Coal Production and Consumption Trends ...................................................2.S. Electricity Generation....................................................................................15 U.S. Coal Consumption

  10. In Situ Analysis of 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine Oxidation Reveals Sequence- and Agent-Specific Damage Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Kok Seong

    Guanine is a major target for oxidation in DNA, with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) as a major product. 8-oxodG is itself significantly more susceptible to oxidation than guanine, with the resulting damage ...

  11. Nuclear power attitude trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nealey, S.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing vulnerability of nuclear power to political pressures fueled by public concerns, particularly about nuclear plant safety and radioactive waste disposal, has become obvious. Since Eisenhower's Atoms-for-Peace program, utility and government plans have centered on expansion of nuclear power generating capability. While supporters have outnumbered opponents of nuclear power expansion for many years, in the wake of the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident the margin of support has narrowed. The purpose of this paper is to report and put in perspective these long-term attitude trends.

  12. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  13. Smart Home Concepts: Current Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesh, Alladi

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Smart Home Concepts: Current Trends Alladi Venkatesh Ph.D.developments concerning smart home technologies and theirNews (Southern Report): Smart homes and high-tech clothing

  14. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  15. Petrick Technology Trends Of Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;323 Petrick Technology Trends chapter 9 The Future Of Manufacturing Irene Petrick Technology Trends This chapter is a story about the future of manufacturing based on three predictions: · that firms sophisticated modeling and simulation of both new products and production processes; · that additive

  16. International Trends in Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    International Trends in Green Building Friday, August 26, 2011 Registration 8:00 a.m. Presentation, Canada Green Building Council The presentation will cover international trends and innovations in the green-building industry as well as new opportunities for green-building collaboration with Arizona

  17. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  18. Bi{sub 6}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 5}Br{sub 2}: A new bismuth oxo-selenite bromide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdonosov, Peter S., E-mail: berdonosov@inorg.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Olenev, Andrei V. [SineTheta Ltd., MSU Building 1-77, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [SineTheta Ltd., MSU Building 1-77, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirsanova, Maria A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lebed, Julia B. [Institute for nuclear research RAS, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)] [Institute for nuclear research RAS, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Dolgikh, Valery A. [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new bismuth oxo-selenite bromide Bi{sub 6}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 5}Br{sub 2} was synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure belongs to the triclinic system (space group P1-bar , Z=2, a=7.1253(7) A, b=10.972(1) A, c=12.117(1) A, {alpha}=67.765(7) Degree-Sign , {beta}=82.188(8) Degree-Sign , {gamma}=78.445(7) Degree-Sign ) and is unrelated to those of other known oxo-selenite halides. It can be considered as an open framework composed of BiO{sub x} or BiO{sub y}Br{sub z} polyhedrons forming channels running along [1 0 0] direction which contain the selenium atoms in pyramidal shape oxygen coordination (SeO{sub 3}E). The spectroscopic properties and thermal stability were studied. The new compound is stable up to 400 Degree-Sign C. - graphical abstract: New bismuth oxo-selenite bromide with new open framework structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New bismuth oxo-selenite bromide was found and structurally characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bi{sub 6}(SeO{sub 3}){sub 3}O{sub 5}Br{sub 2} exhibit a new open framework structure type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BiO{sub x} or BiO{sub y}Br{sub z} polyhedrons form channels in the structure which are decorated by [SeO{sub 3}E] groups.

  19. Energy Perspectives: Trends and Milestones

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Perspectives is a graphical overview of energy history in the United States. The 43 graphs shown here reveal sweeping trends related to the nation's production, consumption, and trade of energy from 1949 through 2011.

  20. OpenEI Community - Corrugated Metal Pipe Market Trends

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRoseConcernsCompany Oil and GasOff the GridHome All0 en How

  1. Corrugated Metal Pipe Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentratingEnergyCoosa Valley

  2. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Home > Trends in Commercial Buildings > Trends in Buildings Floorspace Data tables Commercial Buildings TrendDetail Commercial Floorspace TrendDetail Background: Adjustment to...

  3. Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008-9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Business Cycle Effects on Metal and Oil Prices: Understanding the Price Retreat of 2008 of macroeconomic business cycles on six metals traded on the London Metal Exchange and oil prices. Reduced GDP oil prices (as a proxy for energy inputs in metals production) are derived. The estimated trend

  4. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  5. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  6. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  7. Foundations and Trends R Econometrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lansky, Joshua

    Foundations and Trends R in Econometrics Vol. 2, Nos. 1­2 (2006) 1­145 c 2008 A. Golan DOI: 10.1561/0800000004 Information and Entropy Econometrics -- A Review and Synthesis Amos Golan Department of Economics, American are to study the basics of information-theoretic methods in econometrics, to exam- ine the connecting theme

  8. Trend dynamics : a method to improve the analysis, dissemination and forecasting of trends on the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strazza, Ernesto (Strazza Silva)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis provides a new perspective in trend analysis with the acknowledgement of individuals as carriers of trends and susceptible to influence simultaneously by a trend's perceived significance and by external effects ...

  9. Theoretical Study on the Reaction of Ti+ with Acetone and the Role of Intersystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    MCO+ .5,6,8 Because of the strong metal-oxo bond of the early transition metals, the reactions trend. It has been shown that Fe+ , Co+ , and Ni+ react readily with acetone to give MCO+ and CH3-CH3

  10. Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed Nanoarchitecture Trends in Thermoelectric Properties with Nanostructure: Ferecrystals with Designed...

  11. January 2, 2002 Bayesian Prediction of National MultiContaminant Trends in Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the US EPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division and heavy metals. The regulatory process begins by establishing a maximum contaminant level goal (MCLGJanuary 2, 2002 Bayesian Prediction of National Multi­Contaminant Trends in Community Water System

  12. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010 Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010 Overview of building trends...

  13. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterns of energy consumption, trends in saturation andand how the energy consumption trend could be changed in athe sectoral energy consumption trends in China in detail,

  14. TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-Efficiency Improvement Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Won Young

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-pend TV Energy Consumption Trends and Energy-EfficiencyTrends and Energy Consumption ..TV Technology Trends and Energy Consumption. 1.2.3. Factors

  15. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  16. Earth-Abundant Transition Metal Chemistry: Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production and the Synthesis of High-spin Iron(IV)-oxo Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigi, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation (red) in 1:1 acetonitrile/toluene. Spectrometer0.1 M n Bu 4 NPF 6 in acetonitrile. Scan rate: 1000 mV/sec;0.1 M n Bu 4 NPF 6 in acetonitrile. Scan rate: 100 mV/sec;

  17. Earth-Abundant Transition Metal Chemistry: Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production and the Synthesis of High-spin Iron(IV)-oxo Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigi, Julian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or to ca 130 K on the Smart 1000 using a home-built device).or to ca 130 K on the Smart 1000 using a home-built device).or to ca 130 K on the Smart 1000 using a home-built device).

  18. Trends in engineering computer applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Undrill, J.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancements in computer hardware and software have significantly changed engineering computer applications and will continue to do so in the near future. The major trends to exercise the most influence are thought to be those involving expanded memory capacity, improved maintenance costs, flexibility and compatibility of programs and equipment, greater graphics capabilities, and data management programs. It is felt that the engineering profession will once again turn back to computers with massive disc memories, but will incorporate separate-but-data-linked machines into the total system.

  19. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  20. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  1. Bio-Oxo Technology

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    resources that is environmentally friendly with a reduced carbon footprint and at a cost competitive price will benefit all. 6 Easel commercialization approach Transition...

  2. Bio-Oxo Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department ofJune 2,The Big Green Bus rolled into Washington,Almost allEasel

  3. Historical trends in the accumulation of chemicals in Puget Sound. National status and trends program for marine environmental quality: Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefkovitz, L.F.; Cullinan, V.I.; Crecelius, E.A.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study is to: (1) continue monitoring historical trends in the concentration of contaminants in Puget Sound sediments, and (2) quantify recent trends in the recovery of contaminated sediments. Results from this study can be compared with those obtained in the 1982 study to determine whether sediment quality is still improving and to estimate the rate of recovery. A statistically significant reduction in sediment contamination over the past 20 years would provide empirical evidence that environmental regulation has had a positive impact on the water quality in Puget Sound. Chemical trends were evaluated from six age-dated sediment cores collected from the main basin of Puget Sound. Chemical analyses included metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, nutrients (total nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)), butyl tins, and total organic carbon (TOC). Sedimentation (cm/yr) and deposition rates (g/sq cm/yr) were estimated using a steady-state Pb-210 dating technique.

  4. Trends in hydrogen plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansen, T.; Raghuraman, K.S.; Hackett, L.A. (KTI, Zoetermeer (NL))

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding important design considerations for H{sub 2} production via steam reforming require detailed attention to the many elements that make up the process. This paper discusses design trends focus on improvements to the plant's three principal unit operations: Generation of H{sub 2}/CO syngas, Conversion of CO in the syngas and Separation/purification of H{sub 2} from syngas. Natural gas, LPG, oil, coal and coke are all potential raw materials for H{sub 2} production. For the first step in the process, generation of H{sub 2} syngas, the processes available are: Reforming the steam; Autothermal reforming with oxygen and steam; and Partial oxidation with oxygen (POX). Most syngas is presently produced by steam reforming of natural gas or light hydrocarbons up to naphtha.

  5. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  6. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Introduction

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) Trends in the Commercial Buildings Sector Since 1978, the Energy Information Administration has collected basic statistical...

  7. Isotopic Trends in Production of Superheavies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonenko, N.V. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Adamian, G.G.; Zubov, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Scheid, W. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The isotopic trends are discussed for cold and hot fusion reactions leading to superheavies. The possibilities of production of new isotopes in incomplete fusion reactions are treated.

  8. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetal

  9. Micro Injection-Molding of Cyclic Olefin Copolymer Using Metallic Glass Insert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loke, Y.W.

    There is shift in trend towards the use of high quality polymers as the base material in manufacturing microfluidic chips. In this paper, an amorphous metallic alloy mold insert was used in a micro injection-molding process ...

  10. Nuclear Power Trends Energy Economics and Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Power Trends Energy Economics and Sustainability L. H. Tsoukalas Purdue University Nuclear;National Research Council of Greece, May 8, 2008 Outline · The Problem · Nuclear Energy Trends · Energy Economics · Life Cycle Analysis · Nuclear Sustainability · Nuclear Energy in Greece? #12;National Research

  11. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  12. Beryllium abundances in metal-poor stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. F. Tan; J. R. Shi; G. Zhao

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have determined beryllium abundances for 25 metal-poor stars based on the high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the VLT/UVES database. Our results confirm that Be abundances increase with Fe, supporting the global enrichment of Be in the Galaxy. Oxygen abundances based on [O I] forbidden line implies a linear relation with a slope close to one for the Be vs. O trend, which indicates that Be is probably produced in a primary process. Some strong evidences are found for the intrinsic dispersion of Be abundances at a given metallicity. The deviation of HD132475 and HD126681 from the general Be vs. Fe and Be vs. O trend favours the predictions of the superbubble model, though the possibility that such dispersion originates from the inhomogeneous enrichment in Fe and O of the protogalactic gas cannot be excluded.

  13. Coal rank trends in eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of coal rank (by vitrinite maximum reflectance) for eastern Kentucky coals has revealed several regional trends. Coal rank varies from high volatile C (0.5% R/sub max/) to medium volatile bituminous (1.1% R/sub max/), and generally increases to the southeast. One east-west-trending rank high and at least four north-south-trending rank highs interrupt the regional increase. The east-west-trending rank high is associated with the Kentucky River faults in northeastern Kentucky. It is the only rank high clearly associated with a fault zone. The four north-south-trending rank highs are parallel with portions of major tectonic features such as the Eastern Kentucky syncline. Overall, though, the association of north-south-trending rank highs with tectonic expression is not as marked as that with the anomaly associated with the Kentucky River faults. It is possible that the rank trends are related to basement features with subdued surface expression. Rank generally increases with depth, and regional trends observed in one coal are also seen in overlying and underlying coals. The cause of the regional southeastward increase in rank is likely to be the combined influence of greater depth of burial and proximity to late Paleozoic orogenic activity. The anomalous trends could be due to increased depth of burial, but are more likely to have resulted from tectonic activity along faults and basement discontinuities. The thermal disturbances necessary to increase the coal rank need not have been great, perhaps on the order of 10-20/sup 0/C (18-36/sup 0/F) above the metamorphic temperatures of the lower rank coals.

  14. Stability trends of MAX phases from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlqvist, M.; Alling, B.; Rosen, J. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, IFM, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a systematic method to investigate the phase stability of M{sub n+1}AX{sub n} phases, here applied for M=Sc, Ti, V, Cr, or Mn, A=Al, and X=C or N. Through a linear optimization procedure including all known competing phases, we identify the set of most competitive phases for n=1-3 in each system. Our calculations completely reproduce experimental occurrences of stable MAX phases. We also identify and suggest an explanation for the trend in stability as the transition metal is changed across the 3d series for both carbon- and nitrogen-based systems. Based on our results, the method can be used to predict stability of potentially existing undiscovered phases.

  15. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Electron-Transport in La100-Xalx Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DELGADO, R.; ARMBRUSTER, H.; Naugle, Donald G.; TSAI, CL; JOHNSON, WL; WILLIAMS, A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an understanding of electron transport in liquid and amorphous transition-metal alloys. The recent review article by Naugle' discusses the most popular scattering mechanisms which have been proposed to ex- plain the systematic trends in the transport... coefficients. Gallagher and Greig had noted that the sign of the ther- mopower for a large number of amorphous transition metal alloys could be explained in terms of the Mott s d- model in which the sign of the thermopower should be the same...

  17. NERSC HPSS Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The...

  18. Emerging trends in the satellite industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Vagn Knudsen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Risk aversion in the satellite industry has fostered long development cycles and low rates of innovation in the past. Emerging trends in propulsion technology development and spacecraft architecture design could lead to ...

  19. Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth Ahead? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies -...

  20. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor...

  1. Effects of van der Waals Density Functional Corrections on Trends...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    van der Waals Density Functional Corrections on Trends in Furfural Adsorption and Hydrogenation on Close-Packed Effects of van der Waals Density Functional Corrections on Trends in...

  2. aureus bacteremia trends: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    certain domains conceptional and multi relational trends. We exploit the spectrum to cluster the difference graph Hammerton, James 90 7, 61896228, 2007 Trends and variability...

  3. TrendSetter Solar Products Inc aka Trendsetter Industries formerly...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TrendSetter Solar Products Inc aka Trendsetter Industries formerly Six River Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: TrendSetter Solar Products Inc (aka Trendsetter Industries,...

  4. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to better interpret energy consumption trends over time. Thetrends and policy options for reducing energy consumption orConsumption iii iv Sectoral Trends in Global Energy Use and

  5. SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility Program Planning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market-Based Programs Technical Information Network SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility Program Planning SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility...

  6. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  7. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesOutlook and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Biodiesel Market Trends,Global Biodiesel Market Trends, Outlook and OpportunitiesPresident, Emerging Markets Online http://www.emerginghttp://www.emerging--markets.commarkets.com Author, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market SurveyAuthor, Biodiesel 2020: A Global Market Survey Columnist

  9. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  10. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

  11. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  12. The Trend of Global Capitalism Qiudong Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Quidong

    , including Russia and east Europe countries, India, China, Mexico, South America and Africa, are relative the history, the present and the future trend of politic and economic relationship between developed and under strategic initiatives in the on-going global politic and economic game. The most serious threat

  13. Trends in Automotive Communication Systems Nicolas Navet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is given. Next, the current eorts of the automotive industry on middleware technologies which mayTrends in Automotive Communication Systems Nicolas Navet 1 , Françoise Simonot-Lion 2 May 29, 2008 of a large number of automotive networks such as LIN, J1850, CAN, FlexRay, MOST, etc.. This chap- ter rst

  14. PROFILING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROVIDER TRENDS IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    PROFILING SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROVIDER TRENDS IN HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS || James F. Burgess, Jr using several covariates. This is illustrated here in the context of sub- stance abuse care. One common process monitor for systems delivering substance abuse care is follow-up outpatient care within a certain

  15. National Conference on "New Trends in Bioinformatics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    for Bioinformatics & Computational Biology, IIT Delhi Phone:+911126596722,+911126596786, Email: conference2012National Conference on "New Trends in Bioinformatics" Theme: New Methods, Softwares, Databases, Web-tools of Bioinformatics from India July 30 & 31, 2012, IIT Delhi, India Organized By : Supercomputing Facility

  16. Heavy metal biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  17. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  18. Facility Automation Products--Systems--Applications--Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bynum, H. D.

    are to be commended, and should accelerate energy action plans by bringing the suppliers and demanders together for concentrated energy saving discussions. From this following view of the evolution and trends of energy control and facility management systems... of electric motor load control ???? shutting down motors when they were not required and starting them up as late as possible to perform their assigned tasks. Cycling motors off for 10 to 40 percent of the time during their duty period saved additional...

  19. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  20. TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    PWP-085 TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING CAPACITY IN CALIFORNIA, California 94720-5180 www.ucei.org #12;TRENDS IN ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION, PEAK DEMAND, AND GENERATING** Abstract This study analyzes state and regional electricity supply and demand trends for the eleven states

  1. A time-series study of the health effects of water-soluble and total-extractable metal content of airborne particulate matter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R; Elton, Robert A; Hibbs, Leon R; Agius, Raymond M; Beverland, Iain J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -soluble and total-extractable content of 11 trace metals determined in each sample. Time series were analysed using generalised additive Poisson regression models, including adjustment for minimum temperature and loess smoothing of trends. Methods were explored...

  2. TRENDS Working Paper 05-03 1 Trends in Old-Age Functioning and Disability in Japan:1993-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    #12;TRENDS Working Paper 05-03 1 Trends in Old-Age Functioning and Disability in Japan:1993 Working Paper 05-03 2 Trends in Old-Age Functioning and Disability in Japan:1993-2002 Abstract Disability with those found in the US. Japan is an especially interesting country because its age structure

  3. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  4. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  5. Trends Online: A Compendium of Data on Global Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Data records are presented in multipage formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables; graphs; discussions of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data, and references to literature providing further information. Instructions for citing specific data in Trends Online are provided for each compiled data set. All data appearing in Trends Online are available, on request, on digital media from CDIAC at no cost. [Copied from the Abstract to Trends Online at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/abstract.htm

  6. GIANT PLANETS ORBITING METAL-RICH STARS SHOW SIGNATURES OF PLANET-PLANET INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Murray-Clay, Ruth A., E-mail: rdawson@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-10, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas giants orbiting interior to the ice line are thought to have been displaced from their formation locations by processes that remain debated. Here we uncover several new metallicity trends, which together may indicate that two competing mechanisms deliver close-in giant planets: gentle disk migration, operating in environments with a range of metallicities, and violent planet-planet gravitational interactions, primarily triggered in metal-rich systems in which multiple giant planets can form. First, we show with 99.1% confidence that giant planets with semimajor axes between 0.1 and 1 AU orbiting metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] < 0) are confined to lower eccentricities than those orbiting metal-rich stars. Second, we show with 93.3% confidence that eccentric proto-hot Jupiters undergoing tidal circularization primarily orbit metal-rich stars. Finally, we show that only metal-rich stars host a pile-up of hot Jupiters, helping account for the lack of such a pile-up in the overall Kepler sample. Migration caused by stellar perturbers (e.g., stellar Kozai) is unlikely to account for the trends. These trends further motivate follow-up theoretical work addressing which hot Jupiter migration theories can also produce the observed population of eccentric giant planets between 0.1 and 1 AU.

  7. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  8. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Plants Chelating agents Pb hyperaccumulation Effects of pH on metal extraction Disposal options contaminants from soils Contaminants must be in harvestable portions of the plant (Wongkongkatep et al. 2003) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

  9. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  10. Recent Trends in Land Tenure in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motheral, Joe

    1944-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    colored; in Harrison County, 70 per cent; in Gregg County, 60 per cent; in San Jacinto County, 57 per cent; and in Walker County, 51 per cent. Almost one-third of the farm operators in counties along the lower reaches of the Colorado and Brazos rivers...RECENT TRENDS IN LAND TENURE IN TEXAS JOE MOTHERAL Division of Farm and Ranch Economics [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Public interest in the subject of land tenure has been height- ened by the swift changes, in the tenure pattern...

  11. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fan, Y. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  12. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs. It is important to note that this report covers only a portion of voluntary markets for renewable energy. It does not cover green power sold by independent marketers except for cases in which the marketers work in conjunction with utilities or default electricity suppliers.

  13. Status and Trend of Automotive Power Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive requirements in aspects of cost, reliability, efficiency, form factor, weight, and volume for power electronics modules in modern electric drive vehicles have driven the development of automotive power packaging technology intensively. Innovation in materials, interconnections, and processing techniques is leading to enormous improvements in power modules. In this paper, the technical development of and trends in power module packaging are evaluated by examining technical details with examples of industrial products. The issues and development directions for future automotive power module packaging are also discussed.

  14. Recent trends in refinery hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitani, A.M.; Siddiqui, M.A.B. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Refiners are experiencing a rise in hydrogen requirements to improve product quality and process heavy sour crudes. Fuel reformulation has disrupted refinery hydrogen balance in two ways: more hydrogen is needed for hydroprocessing and less hydrogen is coproduced from catalytic naphtha reforming. The purpose of this paper is to review trends in maximizing refinery hydrogen production by modifications and alternatives to the conventional steam methane reforming, recovery from refinery off gases and {open_quote}across-the-fence{close_quote} hydrogen supply. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Trends, Discovery, & Innovation at NUG User

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site MapTrends, Discovery, & Innovation

  16. Trends in stationary energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|IndustrialCenter GetsEnergySpecification:Donofrio FordTrends in

  17. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003 - Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYear Jan Monthly AnnualMajorTrends in

  18. Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

  19. Exploration trends of the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aburawi, R.M. [Waha Oil Co., Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wave of intense exploration activity in the Sirte Basin began after the discovery of oil in 1958, and an enormous quantity of hydrocarbon was found in less than ten years. The oil discovery rate has been gradually declining since its peak in the 1960`s, and it is now becoming increasingly difficult and more expensive to find a new reserve. This paper is an attempt to discuss briefly the past exploration cycle, to indicate the present position and to predict the future trend of our activities in the Sirte Basin. The past exploration activities in the Sirte Basin were concentrated along the particular geological trends where the possibilities of finding more reserves are now drastically reduced. Therefore, for the future healthy exploration activities, new ideas are needed to bring about some new favourable areas under further investigation. A new cycle of exploration success will emerge if our exploratory efforts are purposely directed towards the stratigraphic, stratrigraphic/structural traps and subtle type traps, along the migrational pathways and deep plays in the potential oil generative areas.

  20. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  1. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  2. Kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-TRI-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclo-hexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime in solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khizhnyi, V.A.; Danilova, T.A.; Goloverda, G.Z.; Dobronravova, Z.A.

    1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics and mechanism of the thermal dissociation of O,O'-bis(1,3,5-tri-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadienyl)-p-benzoquinone dioxime (quinol ether) in solutions in nonpolar solvents were investigated. The dissociation of the quinol ether is reversible two-stage process and involves the formation of an intermediate radical. In relation to the reaction conditions (initial concentration, temperature) the dissociation rate of the quinol ether obeys the kinetic equations omega = k/sub eff/ x c/sup 1/2/ or omega = k/sub 1/c. The change in the reaction order is due to the ratio of the rates of dissociation of the intermediate radical and of its reaction with the phenoxyl radical. The ESR spectra were recorded on a Varian E-9 radiospectrometer with high-frequency modulation of 100 kHz.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatio-temporal trends of heavy metals and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    , Hong Kong Kouping Chen Ã? Jiu Jimmy Jiao Received: 26 March 2009 / Accepted: 18 August 2009 Ã? Springer

  4. Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India and South Africa AgencyCompany Organization Carbon Disclosure Project...

  5. SciTech Connect: Blade Testing Trends (Presentation)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: Other Non-EERE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 17 WIND ENERGY BLADE TESTING; TRENDS; BIAXIAL TESTING; NATIONAL WIND TECHNOLOGY CENTER; NWTC;...

  6. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency -- Update on Program...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    -- Update on Program Experience Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency, Call...

  7. analyzing time trends: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This detection is affected by many factors: the size of the trend to be detected, the length of the available Antoine, David 36 Analyzing Collective View of Future,...

  8. Energy-saving tech, trends and talk at Efficiency Exchange

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy-saving-tech-trends-and-talk-at-Efficiency-Exchange Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives...

  9. analysis emerging trends: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wells can be divided into two major categories, clastic (oil & gas production) and carbonate (only gas Mohaghegh, Shahab 166 Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and...

  10. asian trend analysis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wells can be divided into two major categories, clastic (oil & gas production) and carbonate (only gas Mohaghegh, Shahab 167 Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and...

  11. antimicrobial resistance trends: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2020: A GLOBAL BIODIESEL MARKET GROWTH TRENDSEU BIODIESEL MARKET GROWTH TRENDSEU BIODIESEL MARKET GROWTH TRENDS EU Biofuels Targets:EU Biofuels Targets: Target 1Target 1...

  12. Solar Photovoltaic Installation Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Photovoltaic Installation Market Trends Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(95) Contributor 14 May, 2015 - 02:24 Global Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Installation...

  13. DOE Publishes Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a new report, SSL Pricing and Efficacy Trend Analysis for Utility Program Planning. The report was created in response to requests from utilities and energy efficiency...

  14. A Mild C-O Bond Formation Catalyzed by a Rhenium-Oxo Complex Benjamin D. Sherry, Alexander T. Radosevich, and F. Dean Toste*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toste, Dean

    , such as a halide or pseudohalide.1,2 For example, formation of sp3-C-O bonds by transition-metal-catalyzed allylic etherification requires the generation of copper3a,b or zinc3c alkoxides as nucleophiles and allylic esters, such as acetals (entry 15), ketals (entry 5), and t-butylcarbamates (entries 7, 8), were not cleaved

  15. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  16. Changes in species assemblages and diets of Collembola along a gradient of metal pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    coenological trends along a gradient of metal pollution, downwind of a zinc smelter located in the North. The total zinc content of the topsoil varied from 4000 to 35 000 mg/kg according to distance to the smelter (mainly caused by death or stunting of planted trees in the vicinity of the smelter) explained most

  17. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers Bakhtin?s carnivalesque theory by analyzing comedic rhetoric performed by two comedic metal bands. Through the theories of Johan Huizinga and Mikhail Bakhtin, Chapter I: I Play Metal argues that heavy metal culture is a modern...

  18. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles....

  19. Does interactivity improve exploratory data analysis of animated trend visualization?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Chris

    ]. In particular, animation has become a popular method for visualizing trends in multivariate information spaces1 Does interactivity improve exploratory data analysis of animated trend visualization? Felwa A technique for data analysis of large data. We compared interactive animations with non-interactive (passive

  20. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections November 2012 #12;Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections David Feldman1 , Galen Barbose2 , Robert Margolis1 , Ryan Wiser2 , Naïm Darghouth2 , and Alan Goodrich1 1 National Renewable Energy

  1. Has the Early Retirement Trend Reversed? Joseph F. Quinn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    Has the Early Retirement Trend Reversed? Joseph F. Quinn Department of Economics Boston College: figures 2.1 and 2.2; tables 2A.1 and 2A.2) has argued persuasively that this early retirement trend began.7 25.8 20.9 14.7 Age Source: Burkhauser and Quinn (1997: table 1), updated #12;3 The early retirement

  2. STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    this situation (e. g., "extRemes" package in open source statistical programming language R) Maximum likelihood1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute in Causes of Trends #12;4 (1) Introduction · Extreme value analysis under stationarity -- Statistical theory

  3. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit between the roof and the attic. · Apply modifications to traditional roofing assembly and roofing roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  4. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  5. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  6. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  7. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  8. The Role of Environment in the Mass-Metallicity Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael C. Cooper; Christy A. Tremonti; Jeffrey A. Newman; Ann I. Zabludoff

    2008-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a sample of 57,377 star-forming galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study the relationship between gas-phase oxygen abundance and environment in the local Universe. We find that there is a strong relationship between metallicity and environment such that more metal-rich galaxies favor regions of higher overdensity. Furthermore, this metallicity-density relation is comparable in strength to the color-density relation along the blue cloud. After removing the mean dependence of environment on color and luminosity, we find a significant residual trend between metallicity and environment that is largely driven by galaxies in high-density regions, such as groups and clusters. We discuss the potential source of this relationship between metallicity and local galaxy density in the context of feedback models, with special attention paid to quantifying the impact of environment on the scatter in the mass-metallicity relation. We find that environment is a non-negligible source of scatter in this fundamental relation, with > 15% of the measured scatter correlated with environment.

  9. Training and Research Experiences in Nonlinear DynamicsTraining and Research Experiences in Nonlinear Dynamics TREND 2004TREND 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Training and Research Experiences in Nonlinear DynamicsTraining and Research Experiences Shew, Santiago Triana, Daniel Zimmerman, and John Rodgers #12;Training and Research Experiences in Nonlinear DynamicsTraining and Research Experiences in Nonlinear Dynamics TREND 2004TREND 2004 Our Goals: u

  10. Training and Research Experiences in Nonlinear DynamicsTraining and Research Experiences in Nonlinear Dynamics TREND 2003TREND 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Training and Research Experiences in Nonlinear DynamicsTraining and Research Experiences, Woodrow Shew, Daniel Sisan, Santiago Triana, Daniel Zimmerman #12;Training and Research Experiences in Nonlinear DynamicsTraining and Research Experiences in Nonlinear Dynamics TREND 2003TREND 2003 Our Goal: u

  11. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  12. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  13. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  14. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  15. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  16. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  17. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  18. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  20. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  1. Divalent metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVries, Gretchen Anne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

  2. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  3. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal Immobilization, and Catalytic Applications. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

  4. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  5. Trends in Energy Management Technology: BCS Integration Technologies - Open Communications Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    223. Trends in Energy Management Technology CBE/UC BerkeleyTrends in Energy Management Technology CBE/UC Berkeley FEMP/p. 6. Trends in Energy Management Technology CBE/UC Berkeley

  6. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 3: State of Practice of Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    November 2000. Trends in Energy Management TechnologyTrends in Energy Management Technology FEMP/NTDP TechnicalT. L. , "Trends in Energy Management Technology - Enabling

  7. Workshop SDF 2012 Sensor Data Fusion: Trends, Solutions, Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    7 th Workshop SDF 2012 Sensor Data Fusion: Trends, Solutions, Applications Call for Papers of Connecticut, USA, p.willett@ieee.org, Felix Go- vaers, Fraunhofer FKIE. SDF 2012 is technically co

  8. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    price of power from new U.S. wind projects higher in 2009.should eventually help wind power regain the downward pricein Modern Energy Review] Wind Power Price Trends in the

  9. Reliability and Geographic Trends of 50,000 Photovoltaic Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and reliability data from nearly 50,000 photovoltaic (PV) systems totaling 1.7 gigawatts installed capacity in the USA from 2009 to 2012 and their geographic trends. About 90% of...

  10. Operations Expenditures: Historical Trends and Continuing Challenges (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this presentation for the American Wind Energy Association 2013 conference, NREL's Eric Lantz examines historical trends and continuing challenges of wind power operating expenses. Lowering such expenses could increase profitability and contribute to lowering the cost of energy.

  11. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  12. Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http://www.unece.org/trade/timber/docs/tc-sessions/tc-61/presentations/10-hillring.pdf #12;Introduction · Industrial use of wood fibre has increased · Oil

  13. Multimedia Content Analysis, Management and Retrieval: Trends and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebe, Nicu

    Multimedia Content Analysis, Management and Retrieval: Trends and Challenges Alan Hanjalica , Nicu, communications and storage technology have made multimedia data become prevalent. Multimedia has gained enormous content of multimedia data, built through the synergies of the information contained in different

  14. Trends and Opportunities in Industrial Hazardous Waste Minimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, M.

    This paper describes trends and opportunities in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous waste minimization. It uses U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data gathered since 1989 from over 20,000 facilities that account for almost all...

  15. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    should eventually help wind power regain the downward priceModern Energy Review] Wind Power Price Trends in the Unitedled the world in adding new wind power capacity in 2008, and

  16. Intersecting Fault Trends and Crustal-Scale Fluid Pathways Below...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3d Magnetotelluric Surveying Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Intersecting Fault Trends and Crustal-Scale Fluid Pathways Below...

  17. Regional And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Local Trends In Helium Isotopes, Basin And Range Province, Western North America- Evidence For Deep Permeable Pathways Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

  18. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svane, K. L., E-mail: ksvane@inano.au.dk; Hammer, B., E-mail: hammer@phys.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations.

  19. Trends in demand for retail and wholesale cuts of meat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holloway, David Wayne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRENDS IN DEMAND FOR RETAIL AND WHOLESALE CUTS OF MEAT A Thesis by DAVID WAYNE HOLLOWAY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics TRENDS IN DEMAND FOR RETAIL AND WHOLESALE CUTS OF MEAT A Thesis by DAVID WAYNE HOLLOWAY Approved as to style and content by: Donald E. Farris (Chair of Committee) Carl E. Shafer (Member) Rudo J...

  20. A reservoir engineer characterization of the Austin Chalk trend 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Her-Yuan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A RESERVOIR ENGINEER CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AUSTIN CHALK TREND A Thesis by HER-YUAN CHEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A RESERVOIR ENGINEER CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AUSTIN CHALK TREND A Thesis by HER-YUAN CHEN Approved as to style and content by; Steven W. Poston (Chairman of Committee) hing H. Wu (Member) Robert R. Serg...

  1. TOWARD AN ACCURATE MODEL OF METAL SORPTION IN SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    All T. Cygan; Howard L. Anderson; Sara E. Arthur; Patrick V. Brady; Carlos F. Jove; Jian-jie Liang; Eric R. Lindgren; Malcolm D. Siegel; David M. Teter; Henry R. Westrich; Pengchu Zhang

    Radionuclide transport in soils and groundwaters is routinely evaluated in performance assessment (PA) using simplified conceptual models (e.g., KD method) to describe radionuclide sorption. However, the KD approach with linear and reversible sorption of metal cations is rarely observed in the field. Inaccuracies of this model are typically addressed by conservativeness in the use of the chemical partitioning parameters, and often result in failed transport predictions or in increased costs for the cleanup of a site. Realistic assessments of radionuclide transport over a wide range of environmental conditions can proceed only from accurate and mechanistic models of the metal sorption process. Our research has recently examined the sorption mechanisms and partition coefficients for Ba2+ (analog for 226Ra2+) onto soil minerals (iron oxides and clay phases) using a combination of isothermal sorption/desorption measurements, synchrotron spectroscopic analyses of metal sorbed substrates, and computer molecular modeling simulations. Research goals include 1) evaluation and quantification of the critical mechanisms and geochemical parameters that control the retardation of radionuclides on the sorbing phases in near-field soils, 2) use of atomistic computer simulations to predict radionuclide KD values based on the partitioning of the metal cations between the solution and mineral surface, and 3) identification of the general trends in metal plume length associated with field sites. Results should improve our ability to estimate radionuclide migration at contaminated sites.

  2. Investigation of Noise and Durability Performance Trends for Asphaltic Pavement Surface Types: Three-Year Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Qing; Kohler, Erwin R.; Harvey, John T; Ongel, Aybike

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends for Asphalt Pavement Surface Types: First- andResults. University of California Pavement Research Center,Trends for Asphaltic Pavement Surface Types: First- and

  3. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  4. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  5. Production trends of Gulf of Mexico: exploration and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearcy, J.R.; Ray, P.K.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gulf of Mexico represents a matured hydrocarbon province with a long exploration and development history. The hydrocarbon occurrences in this province are delineated into several approximately shore-parallel trends of Miocene to Pleistocene age and a recently discovered northwest-southeast-trending deep Jurassic Norphlet trend. In addition, an Oligocene trend of limited extent is present in the western gulf. The current hottest plays of the Gulf of Mexico include the Jurassic Norphlet trend, the middle Miocene Corsair trend, and the Pliocene-Pleistocene Flexure trend. The Cenozoic sediments of the Gulf of Mexico, which are primarily regressive, were deposited in fluvial, deltaic, and interdeltaic barrier-plain environments. As the sediment source moved from the Rio Grande Embayment to the Mississippi Embayment during the Cenozoic, so did the depocenters. Salt-shale tectonics played a major role in forming hydrocarbon traps in this otherwise tectonically stable area. Most of the hydrocarbons are associated with the salt-shale domal structures and their associated fault systems and with growth faults and their associated rollover structures. Historical leasing activity on the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico indicates that the oil industry steadily moved exploration and development activity into deeper waters and plays. Area-wide lease sales have significantly accelerated exploration and development activity of this area. Historically, the response of the activity in the Gulf of Mexico to fluctuations of oil and gas prices has differed from other areas of the US. The short-term adverse impact of declining prices on the exploration and development in the Gulf of Mexico, especially the deep-water areas, may be significant, but the long-term effect will be minimal.

  6. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Vitek, John Michael [ORNL; Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wilson, Mahlon [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Connors, Dan [GenCell Corp; Rakowski, Jim [Allegheny Ludlum; Gervasio, Don [Arizona State University

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) Develop and optimize stainless steel alloys amenable to formation of a protective Cr-nitride surface by gas nitridation, at a sufficiently low cost to meet DOE targets and with sufficient ductility to permit manufacture by stamping. (2) Demonstrate capability of nitridation to yield high-quality stainless steel bipolar plates from thin stamped alloy foils (no significant stamped foil warping or embrittlement). (3) Demonstrate single-cell fuel cell performance of stamped and nitrided alloy foils equivalent to that of machined graphite plates of the same flow-field design ({approx}750-1,000 h, cyclic conditions, to include quantification of metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assembly [MEA] and contact resistance increase attributable to the bipolar plates). (4) Demonstrate potential for adoption in automotive fuel cell stacks. Thin stamped metallic bipolar plates offer the potential for (1) significantly lower cost than currently-used machined graphite bipolar plates, (2) reduced weight/volume, and (3) better performance and amenability to high volume manufacture than developmental polymer/carbon fiber and graphite composite bipolar plates. However, most metals exhibit inadequate corrosion resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments. This behavior leads to high electrical resistance due to the formation of surface oxides and/or contamination of the MEA by metallic ions, both of which can significantly degrade fuel cell performance. Metal nitrides offer electrical conductivities up to an order of magnitude greater than that of graphite and are highly corrosion resistant. Unfortunately, most conventional coating methods (for metal nitrides) are too expensive for PEMFC stack commercialization or tend to leave pinhole defects, which result in accelerated local corrosion and unacceptable performance.

  7. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  8. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  9. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  10. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  11. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  12. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya [University of Cincinnati; Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  13. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

  14. Wind Energy Technology Trends: Comparing and Contrasting Recent Cost and Performance Forecasts (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poster depicts wind energy technology trends, comparing and contrasting recent cost and performance forecasts.

  15. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Huiyuan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations are investigated of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the CIV line (Wang et al. 2011), with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to CIV prominently increases with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of dominant coolant, CIV line, decreases and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using SiIV+OIV]/CIV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicitiy and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7 to 6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that the metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely via affecting outflow acceleration. This ...

  16. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  17. Speed of Sound in metal Speed of Sound in metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    the metal rod and metal bar. 2. Acquire a metal bar or rod and measure its mass. Use the meter stick and measure and record the length in meters. Use the vernier calipers and measure the other dimensionBar Select the Smart Tool. Position the Smart tool so that the vertical line bisects the pulse. The (x

  18. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  19. Calixarene supported transition metal clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Stephanie Merac

    2013-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a series of calix[n]arene polynuclear transition metal and lanthanide complexes. Calix[4]arenes possess lower-rim polyphenolic pockets that are ideal for the complexation of various transition metal ...

  20. Neutron-Capture Element Trends in the Halo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sneden; J. J. Cowan; J. W. Truran

    2001-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In a brief review of abundances neutron-capture elements (Z > ~30) in metal-poor halo stars, attention is called to their star-to-star scatter, the dominance of r-process synthesis at lowest metallicities, the puzzle of the lighter members of this element group, and the possibility of a better r-/s-process discriminant.

  1. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  2. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  3. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  4. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  5. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  6. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  7. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  8. Consumer Attitudes About Renewable Energy: Trends and Regional Differences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natural Marketing Institute, Harleysville, Pennsylvania

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The data in this report are taken from Natural Marketing Institute's (NMI's) Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability Consumer Trends Database. Created in 2002, the syndicated consumer database contains responses from 2,000 to 4,000 nationally representative U.S. adults (meaning the demographics of the sample are consistent with U.S. Census findings) each year. NMI used the database to analyze consumer attitudes and behavior related to renewable energy and to update previously conducted related research. Specifically, this report will explore consumer awareness, concerns, perceived benefits, knowledge of purchase options, and usage of renewable energy as well as provide regional comparisons and trends over time.

  9. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  10. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  11. Matrix photooxidation of the metal carbonyls M(CO)/sub 6/ (M = Cr, W) by the isoelectronic molecules carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almond, M.J.; Downs, A.J.; Perutz, R.N.

    1985-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Photolysis of the hexacarbonyl molecules M(CO)/sub 6/ (M = Cr or W) in the presence of either CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O has been explored by examining the IR, Raman, and UV-visible spectra of solid argon or methane matrices at ca. 20 K. Hence it has been established that the hexacarbonyl undergoes photooxidation at the hands of CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O, the reaction proceeding in three stages. First, photolysis gives rise to a complex of the type XO-M(CO)/sub 5/ (X = OC or N/sub 2/), which is photochromic, being readily converted to Y-M(CO)/sub 5/ (Y = Ar, CH/sub 4/) and M(CO)/sup 6/ with the release of CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O. Second, complexing activates the CO/sub 2/ or N/sub 2/O molecule to photodissociation at wavelengths far in excess of the normal thresholds, so that continued UV photolysis leads to oxidation of the metal carbonyl to oxo-metal carbonyl intermediates O/sub x/M(CO)/sub y/ containing M=O groups, e.g. trans-O/sub 2/W(CO)/sub 4/; there is simultaneous reduction of CO/sub 2/ to CO and of N/sub 2/O to N/sub 2/. In addition, Cr(CO)/sub 6/ but not W(CO)/sub 6/ gives what is believed to be a binuclear intermediate incorporating CO/sub 2/. Finally, after prolonged UV photolysis, oxidation of the metal carbonyls affords the binary metal oxide molecules CrO/sub 2/ and WO/sub 3/. 44 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of...

  13. Spray casting of metallic preforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID); Sears, James W. (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal alloy is melted in a crucible and ejected from the bottom of the crucible as a descending stream of molten metal. The descending stream is impacted with a plurality of primary inert gas jets surrounding the molten metal stream to produce a plume of atomized molten metal droplets. An inert gas is blown onto a lower portion of the plume with a plurality of auxiliary inert gas jets to deflect the plume into a more restricted pattern of high droplet density, thereby substantially eliminating unwanted overspray and resulting wasted material. The plume is projected onto a moving substrate to form a monolithic metallic product having generally parallel sides.

  14. Functional Metal Phosphonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................................... 39 12 Zr6 prepared at 205 ?C with HF as a solubilizing agent ................................ 43 13 Layered structure of Zn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) viewed along the c-axis. The coordinating water molecules are between... acid groups form hydrogen-bonded pairs in in Zn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O). ..................... 55 15 Inorganic layered structure common to divalent metal phosphonates. Octahedral metal ions are coordinated by five phosphonate...

  15. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  16. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  17. Metal enrichment processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schindler; A. Diaferio

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many processes that can transport gas from the galaxies to their environment and enrich the environment in this way with metals. These metal enrichment processes have a large influence on the evolution of both the galaxies and their environment. Various processes can contribute to the gas transfer: ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, AGN outflows, galaxy-galaxy interactions and others. We review their observational evidence, corresponding simulations, their efficiencies, and their time scales as far as they are known to date. It seems that all processes can contribute to the enrichment. There is not a single process that always dominates the enrichment, because the efficiencies of the processes vary strongly with galaxy and environmental properties.

  18. The Future of Democracy in Europe Trends, Analyses and Reforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franz, Sven Oliver

    1 The Future of Democracy in Europe Trends, Analyses and Reforms A Green Paper for the Council-level accountability Mechanisms for direct citizen consultation Part III. Recommendations for reform Introduction Guidelines Our "wish list" of recommended reforms 1. Universal citizenship 2. Discretionary voting 3

  19. A review of trends in MIC. [Microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquhar, G.B. (Saudi Aramco, CSD/CCD, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of current trends in microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is presented from the viewpoint of the practicing corrosion engineer employed in the petroleum industry. The principal responsibility of this individual is not to identify, count, or even kill microorganisms, but to effectively control corrosion in the oilfield. Extensive references document the technology's advances.

  20. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  1. Citrus Variety Trends in the Lower Rio Grande Valley.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alderman, D. C. (DeForest Charles)

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citrus Variety Trends in the Lower Rio Grande Valley CONTENTS ......................................................................................................... Digest ...... 3... thousands of citrus trees and the growers were faced with a tremendous replanting program, which, in turn, had focused interest on varieties. Fruit production figures, yields per acre, and monetary returns per acre for five varieties of grapefruit...

  2. Trends in Regional Electricity Demands 1995-2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Department of Energy in EIA form 861. Council staff takes annual reported retail sales by each utility. Street lighting sales are not metered but rather estimated . 10 #12;Losses are Defined as Energy LoadsTrends in Regional Electricity Demands 1995-2012 January 29, 2014 #12;In Today's Conversation

  3. Status and Trends of Irrigated Agriculture in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and available water. As shown in Figure 4, most agricultural irrigation is in West and South Texas, far fromStatus and Trends of Irrigated Agriculture in Texas Irrigation is critical to our food production and food security and is a vital component of Texas' productive agricultural economy.Texas ranks third

  4. Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Security Threat Mitigation Trends in Low-cost RFID Systems Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro1,2 , Michel of security threat mitigation mecha- nisms in RFID systems, specially in low-cost RFID tags, are gaining great. Cryptography is a key tool to address these threats. Nevertheless, strong hardware constraints

  5. Joshua Rosenthol, CISSP Trends in the Threat Landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua Rosenthol, CISSP Trends in the Threat Landscape #12;2 Year in Review Data Theft Targeted-virus, firewalls, and intrusion prevention) are only effective against 30-50% of current security threats. Moreover, customers expect the effectiveness of signature-based security to continue to decline rapidly. IDC Threat

  6. Maps of Trends in Diagnosed Diabetes and Obesity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Robin L.

    Maps of Trends in Diagnosed Diabetes and Obesity November 2011 CDC's Division of Diabetes of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among US adults aged 18 years or older from 1994 through 2010. During this period, the prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes rose in all states. In 1994

  7. Unsupervised Trend Extraction for Prognostics and Condition Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    can be classified into three categories 1) Breakdown maintenance, 2) Preventive maintenance and 3.Mosallam@femto-st.fr e-mail: First Name.Last Name@ens2m.fr Abstract: Maintenance is becoming more expensive nowadays due as to use such trend in machinery health monitoring and maintenance needs. The proposed method does

  8. RETIREMENT TRENDS AND POLICIES TO ENCOURAGE WORK AMONG OLDER AMERICANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    retirement over much of the last century. Many public policies and private institutions that encouraged early are to be believed, most workers favor preserving the institutions that allow early retirement even if it meansRETIREMENT TRENDS AND POLICIES TO ENCOURAGE WORK AMONG OLDER AMERICANS by GARY BURTLESS AND JOSEPH

  9. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Status and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    54650 Acknowledgments Many agencies, institutions, and individuals contributed their time, energy benefits. The Emergency Wetlands Resources Act requires the Service to update its wetland status and trends and in the private sector. Some readers will use this information to gain insights on the effectiveness of wetland

  10. Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations Hilary W. Hoynes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Poverty in America: Trends and Explanations Hilary W. Hoynes Department of Economics, UC Davis 9, 2005 This paper was prepared for a symposium on poverty for the Journal of Economic Perspectives in real per capita GDP over the last three decades, the U.S. poverty rate has changed very little

  11. Detecting appropriate groundwater-level trends for safe groundwater development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Detecting appropriate groundwater-level trends for safe groundwater development Rahul Gokhale-monsoon Groundwater(GW) levels are important for the periodic categorisation of regions in India according to their GW-safety. A specific procedure has been recommended by the Groundwater Estimation Committee, 1997(GEC'97), constituted

  12. New Trends in the Use of Geosynthetics in Environmental Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    typically include both geosynthetics and earthen material components, (e.g. compacted clays for liners 1987) and to keep an upstream clay seepage control liner from dessicating in the Mission Dam (today1 New Trends in the Use of Geosynthetics in Environmental Applications Jorge G. Zornberg, Ph.D., P

  13. 4, 64736501, 2004 Is there a trend in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and in space to cover the global scale yields a best estimate of 0.05 Wm -2 for the radiative forcing due clouds and their climate effect remain highly uncertain. Boucher (1999) analyzed surface observationACPD 4, 6473­6501, 2004 Is there a trend in cirrus cloud cover due to aircraft traffic? F. Stordal

  14. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  15. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  16. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  17. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  18. Model for trace metal exposure in filter-feeding flamingos at alkaline Rift Valley Lake, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Y.M.; DiSante, C.J.; Lion, L.W. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Thampy, R.J.; Raini, J.A. [Worldwide Fund for Nature, Nakuru (Kenya). Lake Nakuru Conservation and Development Project; Motelin, G.K. [Egerton Univ., Njoro (Kenya). Dept. of Animal Health

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Toxic trace metals have been implicated as a potential cause of recent flamingo kills at Lake Nakuru, Kenya. Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) have accumulated in the lake sediments as a result of unregulated discharges and because this alkaline lake has no natural outlet. Lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) at Lake Nakuru feed predominantly on the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, and because of their filter-feeding mechanism, they are susceptible to exposure to particle-bound metals. Trace metal adsorption isotherms to lake sediments and S. platensis were obtained under simulated lake conditions, and a mathematical model was developed to predict metal exposure via filter feeding based on predicted trace metal phase distribution. Metal adsorption to suspended solids followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cr > Cu, and isotherms were linear up to 60 {micro}g/L. Adsorption to S. platensis cells followed the trend Pb {much_gt} Zn > Cu > Cr and fit Langmuir isotherms for Cr, Cu and Zn and a linear isotherm for Pb. Predicted phase distributions indicated that Cr and Pb in Lake Nakuru are predominantly associated with suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn are distributed more evenly between the dissolved phase and particulate phases of both S. platensis and suspended solids. Based on established flamingo feeding rates and particle size selection, predicted Cr and Pb exposure occurs predominantly through ingestion of suspended solids, whereas Cu and Zn exposure occurs through ingestion of both suspended solids and S. platensis. For the lake conditions at the time of sampling, predicted ingestion rates based on measured metal concentrations in lake suspended solids were 0.71, 6.2, 0.81, and 13 mg/kg-d for Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn, respectively.

  19. Trends in Aqueous Hydration Across the 4f Period Assessed by Reliable Computational Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuta, Jadwiga; Clark, Aurora E.

    2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The geometric and electronic structures, as well as the thermodynamic properties of trivalent lanthanide hydrates {Ln(H?O)?,? ³? and Ln(H?O)?,?(H?O)??,?? ³?, Ln = La – Lu} have been examined using unrestricted density functional theory (UDFT), unrestricted M€oller-Plesset perturbation theory (UMP2), and multiconfigurational self-consistent field methods (MCSCF). While Ln-hydrates with 2-5 unpaired f-electrons have some multiconfigurational character, the correlation energy lies within 5-7 kcal/mol across the period and for varying coordination numbers. As such DFT yields structural parameters and thermodynamic data quite close to experimental values. Both UDFT and UMP2 predict free energies of water addition to the Ln(H?O)? ³? species to become less favorable across the period; however, it is a non-linear function of the surface charge density of the ion. UDFT further predicts that the symmetry of the metal-water bond lengths is sensitive to the specific f-electron configuration, presumably because of repulsive interactions between filled f-orbitals and water lone-pairs. Within the Ln(H?O)?,?(H?O)??,?? ³?clusters, interactions between solvation shells overrides this orbital effect, increasing the accuracy of the geometric parameters and calculated vibrational frequencies. Calculated atomic charges indicate that the water ligands each donate 0.1 to 0.2 electrons to the Ln(III) metals, with increasing electron donation across the period. Significant polarization and charge transfer between solvation shells is also observed. The relationship between empirical effective charges and calculated atomic charges is discussed with suggestions for reconciling the trends across the period.

  20. Prospecting in ultracool dwarfs: measuring the metallicities of mid- and late-M dwarfs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Deacon, Niall R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Konigstuhl 17, Heidelberg D-69117 (Germany); Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai'i, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ansdell, Megan; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Brewer, John M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallicity is a fundamental parameter that contributes to the physical characteristics of a star. The low temperatures and complex molecules present in M dwarf atmospheres make it difficult to measure their metallicities using techniques that have been commonly used for Sun-like stars. Although there has been significant progress in developing empirical methods to measure M dwarf metallicities over the last few years, these techniques have been developed primarily for early- to mid-M dwarfs. We present a method to measure the metallicity of mid- to late-M dwarfs from moderate resolution (R ? 2000) K-band (? 2.2 ?m) spectra. We calibrate our formula using 44 wide binaries containing an F, G, K, or early-M primary of known metallicity and a mid- to late-M dwarf companion. We show that similar features and techniques used for early-M dwarfs are still effective for late-M dwarfs. Our revised calibration is accurate to ?0.07 dex for M4.5-M9.5 dwarfs with –0.58 < [Fe/H] < +0.56 and shows no systematic trends with spectral type, metallicity, or the method used to determine the primary star metallicity. We show that our method gives consistent metallicities for the components of M+M wide binaries. We verify that our new formula works for unresolved binaries by combining spectra of single stars. Lastly, we show that our calibration gives consistent metallicities with the Mann et al. study for overlapping (M4-M5) stars, establishing that the two calibrations can be used in combination to determine metallicities across the entire M dwarf sequence.

  1. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHot electron dynamics in807 DE899 06 Revision 0 METALS

  2. Metal coupled emission process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy Metal Organic Heat Carrierscom,

  3. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  4. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  5. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra (Iowa City, IA); Singh, Ajeet (Iowa City, IA); Halasz, Istvan (Iowa City, IA); Serban, Manuela (Iowa City, IA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  6. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  7. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  8. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  9. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  10. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  11. Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wroblewksi, R. G.

    EFFICIENT, INEXPENSIVE MOTORS: A NEW TREND IN THE MOTORS MARKET Ronald G. Wroblewski, P.E. Trainer and Consultant ABSTRACT The Consortiwn for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has established criteria for premium-efficiency motors above the EPACf... standard. CEE has set a wrifonn efficiency benchmark that all market players (manufacturers, utilities, and end-users) can use. Some end-users however, have been reluctant to specify these motors because they think they are too expensive...

  12. tchen@engr.smu.edu Trends in Viruses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Thomas M.

    Tom Chen SMU tchen@engr.smu.edu Trends in Viruses and Worms #12;TC/IEEE/10-16-03 SMU Engineering p Super Worms? · Some Research Issues Outline #12;TC/IEEE/10-16-03 SMU Engineering p. 3 1979 1983 1988, Mutation Engine Concept macro virus #12;TC/IEEE/10-16-03 SMU Engineering p. 4 · 70,000+ viruses are known

  13. Temporal trends of contaminants recorded in sediments of Puget Sound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecelius, E.A.; Curl, H.C. Jr.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the temporal trends of contamination that can be inferred from the chemical composition of age-dated sediment cores from central Puget Sound. The fine-grain sediment (less than 10% sand) of the deep region (>150m) of central Puget Sound, which accumulates relatively undisturbed sediment at a rate of approximately 1 cm per year, provides a useful record of the history of contamination. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Geology of eastern Smith Lake ore trend, Grants mineral belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ristorcelli, S.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sandstones in the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic) are the ore-bearing horizons of the eastern Smith Lake area. The Brushy Basin Member in this district consists of three sandstones with interbedded mudstones. Only the lower two sandstones contain ore. The sandstones are fine to coarse grained, well rounded, and arkosic, representing continental stream sediments. The lower sandstone contains rollfront ore. The redox interface is laterally extensive and well defined, extending at least 7 mi (11 km) west of the Bluewater fault zone. The ore generally occurs at the redox boundary but occasionally will be up to 1500 ft (450 m) updip. Limonitic alteration, where present, is downdip from the hematitic zone and is 100-1,500 ft (30 to 450 m) wide. The middle sandstone contains both trend ore and roll-front ore. The trend ore occurs downdip from the redox front in unoxidized ground. The redox front in the middle sand is also laterally extensive but displays a wedge shape, rather than a C shape. The clay assemblages of the two types of ore are different: the trend ore occurs in sands with the pore spaces filled with kaolinite; the roll-front ore is associated with altered illite-montmorillonite as grain coatings. Hematitic alteration is asociated with the latter. A second stage of kaolinite coats the illite-montmorillonite. Two periods of mineralization are suggested, but no absolute dates are known. The trend ore is the oldest (Jurassic) and is similar to the ore found in unoxidized ground elsewhere in the Grants region. The rollfront ore could be Laramide or post-Laramide because of its association with local Laramide structures.

  15. Current Trends in Cultural Customization and the Ecommerce Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Amanda

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    in regards to cultural markers, or interface design 13 elements that are predominant within a cultural group. In particular, they indicate colors, spatial organization, fonts, shapes, icons and metaphors, language, sounds, and motion as both cultural... as evaluating countries whose native language is written right- to-left. Research should also be performed across industries to discern any trends and patterns. 20 5 REFERENCES A de Souza, C. S. (2012). Semiotics: and Human?Computer Interaction. Encyclopedia of Human...

  16. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  17. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons.

  18. ``Towards Strange Metallic Holography'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Tong, David; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We initiate a holographic model building approach to 'strange metallic' phenomenology. Our model couples a neutral Lifshitz-invariant quantum critical theory, dual to a bulk gravitational background, to a finite density of gapped probe charge carriers, dually described by D-branes. In the physical regime of temperature much lower than the charge density and gap, we exhibit anomalous scalings of the temperature and frequency dependent conductivity. Choosing the dynamical critical exponent z appropriately we can match the non-Fermi liquid scalings, such as linear resistivity, observed in strange metal regimes. As part of our investigation we outline three distinct string theory realizations of Lifshitz geometries: from F theory, from polarized branes, and from a gravitating charged Fermi gas. We also identify general features of renormalization group flow in Lifshitz theories, such as the appearance of relevant charge-charge interactions when z {ge} 2. We outline a program to extend this model building approach to other anomalous observables of interest such as the Hall conductivity.

  19. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  20. Web Science 2.0: Identifying Trends through Semantic Social Network Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gloor, Peter A.

    We introduce a novel set of social network analysis based algorithms for mining the Web, blogs, and online forums to identify trends and find the people launching these new trends. These algorithms have been implemented ...

  1. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  2. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patterns of energy consumption, trends in saturation andtrend in passenger transport in Mumbai and Maharashtra, and estimated the energy consumption

  3. Metallicities of M Dwarf Planet Hosts from Spectral Synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob L. Bean; G. Fritz Benedict; Michael Endl

    2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first spectroscopic metallicities of three M dwarfs with known or candidate planetary mass companions. We have analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of these stars which we obtained at McDonald Observatory. Our analysis technique is based on spectral synthesis of atomic and molecular features using recently revised cool-star model atmospheres and spectrum synthesis code. The technique has been shown to yield results consistent with the analyses of solar-type stars and allows measurements of M dwarf [M/H] values to 0.12 dex precision. From our analysis, we find [M/H] = -0.12, -0.32, and -0.33 for GJ 876, GJ 436, and GJ 581 respectively. These three M dwarf planet hosts have sub-solar metallicities, a surprising departure from the trend observed in FGK-type stars. This study is the first part of our ongoing work to determine the metallicities of the M dwarfs included in the McDonald Observatory planet search program.

  4. Changes in worldwide demand for metals (final). Open File report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faucett, J.G.; Chmelynski, H.J.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide demand for metals was analyzed to identify the important factors that explain differences in the level of demand among world countries. The per capita demand for steel, aluminum, copper, and total nonferrous metals was investigated for 40 to 50 countries over a 22-year period. These countries have been further grouped into four world regions for purposes of making generalizations about the importance of these factors for countries in different stages of development and with dissimilar levels of per capita gross domestic product (GDP). Intercountry and intertemporal differences are explained largely by differences in per capita GDP and changes over time in per capita GDP, oil real prices, and to a lesser extent, metal real prices. The trend in world consumption is dramatically different in the last decade than the previous one. In 1962-73, per capita consumption increased in all areas and consumption intensity (consumption divided by (GDP) increased in most areas). In 1973-84, per capita consumption fell in most areas and intensity fell dramatically, except in developing nations.

  5. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  6. Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 F9BC4B725CE9393BE647 #12;Impact of long-range correlations on trend detection in total ozone Dmitry I; accepted 28 March 2007; published 24 July 2007. [1] Total ozone trends are typically studied using linear

  7. Long-term Trends in Laurentian Great Lakes Ice Cover Raymond A. Assel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long-term Trends in Laurentian Great Lakes Ice Cover Raymond A. Assel OPEN FILE REPORT December Commonwealth Blvd. Ann Arbor, MI 48105 #12;Long-Term Trends in Laurentian Great Lakes Ice Cover Raymond A is to give a brief overview of nearshore and lake wide trends in Great Lakes ice cover over the past one

  8. Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric aerosol forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric, the positive trend is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear-sky global solar radiation ratio of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption

  9. Retirement Trends and Patterns in the 1990s: The End of an Era?1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianyu

    of older men -- the well-known early retirement trend. In 1950, nearly three-quarters of all 65 year old clearly. The early retirement trend among older America men certainly appears to be over. The retirementRetirement Trends and Patterns in the 1990s: The End of an Era?1 Joseph F. Quinn Department

  10. IDENTIFYING TEMPORAL TRENDS IN TREATED SAGEBRUSH COMMUNITIES USING REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R. Douglas

    IDENTIFYING TEMPORAL TRENDS IN TREATED SAGEBRUSH COMMUNITIES USING REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY by Eric Identifying Temporal Trends in Treated Sagebrush Communities Using Remotely Sensed Imagery by Eric D. Sant over time, brightness and greenness provided diagnostic trends and condition of treated big sagebrush

  11. The Impact of Fuel Use Trends on the Highway Trust Fund's Present and Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    1 The Impact of Fuel Use Trends on the Highway Trust Fund's Present and Future Devin;2 The Impact of Fuel Use Trends on the Highway Trust Fund's Present and Future Devin Braun Ryan Endorf Stephen.3. Historical and Projected Fuel Use and Vehicle Miles Traveled Trends Section 2. Methodology Section 2

  12. Trends in Job Quality during the Great Recession: a Comparative Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Décembre 2012 Trends in Job Quality during the Great Recession: a Comparative Approach for the EU, Mathilde Guergoat-Larivière, Janine Leschke, Andrew Watt 161-1 Document de travail #12;#12;Trends in Job publication : Jean-Louis Dayan ISSN 1629-7997 ISBN 978-2-11-129831-6 #12;TRENDS IN JOB QUALITY DURING

  13. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. I. THREE BENCHMARK M DWARFS ORBITING SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Yantek, Scott M.; Delaney, Colleen R.; Montet, Benjamin T. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Isaacson, Howard T. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Wright, Jason T., E-mail: jcrepp@nd.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present initial results from a new high-contrast imaging program dedicated to stars that exhibit long-term Doppler radial velocity accelerations (or ''trends''). The goal of the TRENDS (TaRgetting bENchmark-objects with Doppler Spectroscopy) imaging survey is to directly detect and study the companions responsible for accelerating their host star. In this first paper of the series, we report the discovery of low-mass stellar companions orbiting HD 53665, HD 68017, and HD 71881 using NIRC2 adaptive optics (AO) observations at Keck. Follow-up imaging demonstrates association through common proper motion. These comoving companions have red colors with estimated spectral types of K7-M0, M5, and M3-M4, respectively. We determine a firm lower limit to their mass from Doppler and astrometric measurements. In the near future, it will be possible to construct three-dimensional orbits and calculate the dynamical mass of HD 68017 B and possibly HD 71881 B. We already detect astrometric orbital motion of HD 68017 B, which has a projected separation of 13.0 AU. Each companion is amenable to AO-assisted direct spectroscopy. Further, each companion orbits a solar-type star, making it possible to infer metallicity and age from the primary. Such benchmark objects are essential for testing theoretical models of cool dwarf atmospheres.

  14. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  15. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, Harold B. (Evans, GA); Imrich, Kenneth J. (Grovetown, GA)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  16. Metal-carbon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puretzky, A.A.; Hettich, R.L.; Jin, Changming; Haufler, R.E.; Compton, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafine particles formed by XeCl laser photolysis of M(CO){sub 6}, M = V, Cr, Mo, and W, have been analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry and other techniques. Novel metal carbide clusters, (MoC{sub 4}){sub n}, n = 1 {minus} 4 and (WC{sub 4}){sub m}, m = 1 {minus} 8, were detected and studied. The material produced by photolysis of V(CO){sub 6} shows a series of vanadium-oxygen clusters, V{sub x}O{sub 2x+2}, x = 2 {minus} 10. No clusters of any type were detected in the photolysis product of Cr(CO){sub 6}. Structures based on the experimental evidence are proposed and discussed in light of their chemical reactivity.

  17. Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Elgin, IL); Bailey, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gao, Yuan (Brewer, ME)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

  18. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  19. China's Industrial Energy Consumption Trends and Impacts of the Top-1000 Enterprises Energy-Saving Program and the Ten Key Energy-Saving Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China’s Industrial Energy Consumption Trends and Impacts ofChina’s Industrial Energy Consumption Trends and Impacts ofs industrial energy consumption trends from 1996 to 2010

  20. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  1. Fossil Imprints of the First Generation Supernova Ejecta in Extremely Metal-Deficient Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshikazu Shigeyama; Takuji Tsujimoto

    1998-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Using results of nucleosynthesis calculations for theoretical core-collapse supernova models with various progenitor's masses, it is shown that abundance patterns of C, Mg, Si, Ca, and H seen in extremely metal-deficient stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5 follow those seen in the individual first generation supernova remnants (SNRs). This suggests that most of the stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5 were made from individual supernova (SN) events. To obtain the ratio of heavy elements to hydrogen, a formula is derived to estimate the mass of hydrogen swept up by a SNR when it occurs in the interstellar matter with the primordial abundances. We use [Mg/H] to indicate the metallicities instead of [Fe/H]. The metallicities [Mg/H] predicted from these SNRs range from ~-4 to ~-1.5 and the mass of Mg in a SN is well correlated with its progenitor's mass. Thus the observed [Mg/H] in an extremely metal deficient star has a correspondence to the progenitor's mass. A larger [Mg/H] corresponds to a larger progenitor's mass. Therefore, so called `age-metallicity relation' does not hold for stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5. In contrast, the [Mg/Fe] ratios in the theoretical SNRs have a different trend from those in extremely metal-deficient stars. It is also shown that the observed trend of [Mg/Fe] can predict the Fe yield of each SN given the correspondence of [Mg/H] to the progenitor's mass. The Fe yields thus obtained are consistent with those derived from SN light curve analyses. This indicates that there is still a problem in modelling a core-collapse supernova at its beginning of explosion or mass cut.

  2. METALLICITY GRADIENTS IN THE MILKY WAY DISK AS OBSERVED BY THE SEGUE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Judy Y. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Morrison, Heather L. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Schoenrich, Ralph A. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: jyc@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed radial and vertical metallicity distribution of old stars in the Milky Way disk provides a powerful constraint on the chemical enrichment and dynamical history of the disk system. We present the radial metallicity gradient, {Delta}[Fe/H]/{Delta}R, as a function of height above the plane, |Z|, using 7010 main-sequence turnoff stars observed by the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration survey. The sample consists of mostly old thin and thick disk stars, with a minimal contribution from the stellar halo, in the region 6 kpc < R < 16 kpc, 0.15 kpc < |Z| < 1.5 kpc. The data reveal that the radial metallicity gradient becomes flat at heights |Z| > 1 kpc. The median metallicity at large |Z| is consistent with the metallicities seen in outer disk open clusters, which exhibit a flat radial gradient at [Fe/H] {approx}-0.5. We note that the outer disk clusters are also located at large |Z|; because the flat gradient extends to small R for our sample, there is some ambiguity in whether the observed trends for clusters are due to a change in R or |Z|. We therefore stress the importance of considering both the radial and vertical directions when measuring spatial abundance trends in the disk. The flattening of the gradient at high |Z| also has implications on thick disk formation scenarios, which predict different metallicity patterns in the thick disk. A flat gradient, such as we observe, is predicted by a turbulent disk at high redshift, but may also be consistent with radial migration, as long as mixing is strong. We test our analysis methods using a mock catalog based on the model of Schoenrich and Binney, and we estimate our distance errors to be {approx}25%. We also show that we can properly correct for selection biases by assigning weights to our targets.

  3. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Stahl, David A.

    2008-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid-phosphate concentrations), and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River, and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations, and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as two-times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

  4. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  5. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  6. Synthesis and Exploratory Catalysis of 3d Metals: Group-Transfer Reactions, and the Activation and Functionalization of Small Molecules Including Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mindiola, Daniel J.

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Our work over the past three years has resulted in the development of electron rich and low-coordinate vanadium fragments, molecular nitrides of vanadium and parent imide systems of titanium, and the synthesis of phosphorus containing molecules of the 3d transition metal series. Likewise, with financial support from BES Division in DOE (DE-FG02-07ER15893), we now completed the full characterization of the first single molecular magnet (SMM) of Fe(III). We demonstrated that this monomeric form of Fe(III) has an unusual slow relaxation of the magnetization under zero applied field. To make matters more interesting, this system also undergoes a rare example of an intermediate to high-spin transition (an S = 3/2 to S = 5/2 transition). In 2010 we reported the synthesis of the first neutral and low-coordinate vanadium complexes having the terminal nitride functionality. We have now completed a full study to understand formation of the nitride ligand from the metastable azide precursor, and have also explored the reactivity of the nitride ligand in the context of incomplete and complete N-atom transfer. During the 2010-2013 period we also discovered a facile approach to assemble low-coordinate and low-valent vanadium(II) complexes and exploit their multielectron chemistry ranging from 1-3 electrons. Consequently, we can now access 3d ligand frameworks such as cyclo-P3 (and its corresponding radical anion), nitride radical anions and cations, low-coordinate vanadium oxo’s, and the first example of a vanadium thionitrosyl complex. A cis-divacant iron(IV) imido having some ligand centered radical has been also discovered, and we are in the process of elucidating its electronic structure (in particular the sign of zero field splitting and the origin of its magnitude), bonding and reactivity. We have also revisited some paramagnetic and classic metallocene compounds with S >1/2 ground states in order to understand their reactivity patterns and electronic structure. Lastly, we are completing the synthesis and characterization of a titanium nitride anion and formation of the first example of boryl and aluminyl imido titanium complexes.

  7. Modeling the glass forming ability of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, Justin Lee

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compositions without rare earth metals in the Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-Wsmall percentages of rare earth metals as the oxide formingmore, often containing rare earth metals, are among the best

  8. Superconducting ``metals'' and ``insulators'' Smitha Vishveshwara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superconducting ``metals'' and ``insulators'' Smitha Vishveshwara Department of Physics, University to the distinction between normal metals and insulators: the superconducting ``metal'' with delocalized qua- siparticle excitations and the superconducting ``insulator'' with localized quasiparticles. We describe

  9. Trends in Energy Management Technology - Part 4: Review of Advanced Applications in Energy Management, Control, and Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Gaymond; Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ExcelSyus - Excel Energy Technologies, Ltd. http://pdf Trends in Energy Management TechnologyTrends in Energy Management Technology Fault Detection and

  10. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS WITH THE SUBARU HIGH DISPERSION SPECTROGRAPH. V. THE Zn-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STAR BS 16920-017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Satoshi [Gunma Astronomical Observatory, Takayama-mura, Agatsuma, Gunma 377-0702 (Japan); Aoki, Wako [National Astronomical Observatory, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1116 (United States); Takada-Hidai, Masahide, E-mail: honda@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: hidai@apus.rh.u-tokai.ac.jp [Liberal Arts Education Center, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report Zn abundances for 18 very metal-poor stars studied in our previous work, covering the metallicity range -3.2< [Fe/H] <-2.5. The [Zn/Fe] values of most stars show an increasing trend with decreasing [Fe/H] in this metallicity range, confirming the results found by previous studies. However, the extremely metal-poor star BS 16920-017([Fe/H] =-3.2) exhibits a significantly high [Zn/Fe] ratio ([Zn/Fe] = +1.0). Comparison of the chemical abundances of this object with HD 4306, which has similar atmospheric parameters to BS 16920-017, clearly demonstrates a deficiency of {alpha} elements and neutron-capture elements in this star, along with enhancements of Mn and Ni, as well as Zn. The association with a hypernova explosion that has been proposed to explain the high Zn abundance ratios found in extremely metal-poor stars is a possible explanation, although further studies are required to fully interpret the abundance pattern of this object.

  11. Cosmic metal production and the mean metallicity of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Calura; F. Matteucci

    2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of detailed chemo-photometric models for elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies, we evaluate the cosmic history of the production of chemical elements as well as the metal mass density of the present-day universe. We then calculate the mean metal abundances for galaxies of different morphological types, along with the average metallicity of galactic matter in the universe (stars, gas and intergalactic medium). For the average metallicity of galaxies in the local universe, we find Z_gal= 0.0175, i.e. close to the solar value. We find the main metal production in spheroids (ellipticals and bulges) to occur at very early times, implying an early peak in the metal production and a subsequent decrease. On the other hand, the metal production in spirals and irregulars is always increasing with time. We perform a self-consistent census of the baryons and metals in the local universe finding that, while the vast majority of the baryons lies outside galaxies in the inter-galactic medium (IGM), 52 % of the metals (with the exception of the Fe-peak elements) is locked up in stars and in the interstellar medium. We estimate indirectly the amount of baryons which resides in the IGM and we derive its mean Fe abundance, finding a value of X_Fe,IGM=0.05 X_Fe,sun. We believe that this estimate is uncertain by a factor of 2, owing to the normalization of the local luminosity function. This means that the Fe abundance of 0.3 solar inferred from X-ray observations of the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is higher than the average Fe abundance of the inter-galactic gas in the field.

  12. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  13. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  14. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  15. Geographic Patterns and Temporal Trends of trace Metal Deposition using the Lichen Xanthoparmelia in Maricopa County, Arizona, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    with the same techniques. Lichens were analyzed by both cold vapor technique for mercury (Hg) and wet digested, such as particulate trapping (Garty et al. 1979), uptake to cell wall exchange sites or transport intracellularly, Nash and Gries 1995). When an appropriate stratified sampling design (e.g. with respect to lichen

  16. Z .Marine Chemistry 64 1999 3955 Historical trends of metals in the sediments of San Francisco Bay,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    appeared to be the result of the proximity to a large Pb smelter. Inventories of Pb at RB are similar to those typical of atmospheric inputs, although influence from the Pb smelter is Z .also suspected

  17. REFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work performed during the first semi-annual third year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on analyzing production and injection data to optimize the reservoir management strategies for Germania Spraberry Unit. This study address the reservoir characterization and monitoring of the waterflooding project and propose alternatives of development of the current and future conditions of the reservoir to improve field performance. This research should serve as a guide for future work in reservoir simulation and can be used to evaluate various scenarios for additional development as well as to optimize the operating practices in the field. The results indicate that under the current conditions, a total of 1.410 million barrels of oil can be produced in the next 20 years through the 64 active wells and suggest that the unit can be successfully flooded with the current injection rate of 1600 BWPD and the pattern consisting of 6 injection wells aligned about 36 degrees respect to the major fracture orientation. In addition, a progress report on GSU waterflood pilot is reported for this period.

  18. Michigan Basin. Secondary recovery in reef trends yields more production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary recovery practices in reef trends in Michigan are described. Waterflooding in the Chester 18 Unit began in 1978; it currently has 6 injection wells and 11 production wells. The production wells use a submersible pumping unit, and current production levels are estimated at 3800 bopd. The present level of injection is ca. 17,000 bpd of water. The company operating the field has concluded that more barrels can be produced from a reef if a waterflood is started early. There are 55 to 60 such reefs with potential for supplemental recovery.

  19. TRENDS '90: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.); Boden, T.A.; Kanciruk, P.; Farrell, M.P.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a source of frequently used global change data. This first issue includes estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and from the production of cement, historical and modern records of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and methane concentrations, and several long-term temperature records. Included are tabular and graphical presentations of the data, discussions of trends in the data, and references to publications that provide further information. Data are presented in a two-page format, each dealing with a different data set. All data are available in digital form from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  20. Trends in prices of purebred Hereford beef cattle in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Harry Lee

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRENDS IN PRICES OF POREBRE ) HEREFORD BEEF CATTLE IN TEXAS A Thesis By HARRY L. WILLIAMS Approved as to style and oontent by C a rrsan o o tes Head o hutment ox Stu ent v sos' %fay 1952 THENDS IN F&!ICES OF F ~;!'BHFi. HEBE""ORB B 'g CA... ds sold at Texas auotions by number, sex and average prioe, 1915-50. S. Purebred Herefords sold at Texas auotions by number& sex and avezage pries by quarters, 1942-50 ' PXG:CHES 1 ~ Reserve ohampion bull and reserve champion female~ 1949, So...

  1. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2003-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on characterization of Germania Unit using an analog field ET ODaniel unit and old cased hole neutron. Petrophysical Characterization of the Germania Spraberry units requires a unique approach for a number of reasons--limited core data, lack of modern log data and absence of directed studies within the unit. The need for characterization of the Germania unit has emerged as a first step in the review, understanding and enhancement of the production practices applicable within the unit and the trend area in general. In the absence or lack of the afore mentioned resources, an approach that will rely heavily on previous petrophysical work carried out in the neighboring ET O'Daniel unit (6.2 miles away), and normalization of the old log data prior to conventional interpretation techniques will be used. A log-based rock model has been able to guide successfully the prediction of pay and non-pay intervals within the ET O'Daniel unit, and will be useful if found applicable within the Germania unit. A novel multiple regression technique utilizing non-parametric transformations to achieve better correlations in predicting a dependent variable (permeability) from multiple independent variables (rock type, shale volume and porosity) will also be investigated in this study. A log data base includes digitized formats of Gamma Ray, Cased Hole Neutron, limited Resistivity and Neutron/Density/Sonic porosity logs over a considerable wide area. In addition, a progress report on GSU waterflood pilot is reported for this period. We have seen positive response of water injection on new wells. We believe by proper data acquisition and precise reservoir engineering techniques, any lack of confidence in waterflooding can be overcome. Therefore, we develop field management software to control a vast data from the pilot and to perform precise reservoir engineering techniques such as decline curve analysis, gas and oil material balances, bubble map plot and PVT analysis. The manual for this software is listed in the Appendix-A.

  2. Integrating Distributed Generation: Regulation and Trends in three leading countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anaya, Karim L.; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In addition, it has the most developed permitting and sitting procedures which have improved over time. Priority access to the grid is given to wind energy along with long-term targets for wind development. As of 2012, there were around 5,020 wind turbines... which accounted for 30% of the domestic electricity supply. The size of the majority of wind turbines is between 0.5 and 0.9 MW and represents 42% of the total wind capacity (DEA, 2012). Figure 8 illustrates the trend in wind energy (onshore...

  3. Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | Department of Energy Current Trends in Policy -

  4. Drilling Fluids Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, New Jersey: EnergyDrewDrilling Fluids Market Trends

  5. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction on Multifunctional Pd Catalysts. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction...

  6. Recommendation 221: Recommendation Regarding Recycling of Metals...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    221: Recommendation Regarding Recycling of Metals and Materials Recommendation 221: Recommendation Regarding Recycling of Metals and Materials In addition to the DOE making a final...

  7. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar...

  8. Berry and others: Temporal Trends of Canopy-forming Kelp Beds Temporal Trends in the Areal Extent of Canopy-forming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Berry and others: Temporal Trends of Canopy-forming Kelp Beds Temporal Trends in the Areal Extent of Canopy-forming Kelp Beds Along the Strait of Juan de Fuca and Washington's Outer Coast Helen Berry Ecoscan Resource Data Extended Abstract Kelp beds are important nearshore habitats that support commercial

  9. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    the majority of the land and maintained a social hierarchy that created a vast wealth disparity between the peasants and the church and upper classes. The Church?s feudal ownership of the land meant that it had power over the peasants, limiting social... manifest itself in metal culture. It may further 16 be suggested that the socio-economic climate from which metal culture developed has analogous threads to 16th century French feudal society. While feudalism and capitalism differ, both French...

  10. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  11. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  12. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  13. On interrelations of recurrences and connectivity trends between stock indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goswami, B; Marwan, N; Kurths, J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Financial data has been extensively studied for correlations using Pearson's cross-correlation coefficient {\\rho} as the point of departure. We employ an estimator based on recurrence plots --- the Correlation of Probability of Recurrence (CPR) --- to analyze connections between nine stock indices spread worldwide. We suggest a slight modification of the CPR approach in order to get more robust results. We examine trends in CPR for an approximately 19-month window moved along the time series and compare them to {\\rho}. Binning CPR into three levels of connectedness: strong, moderate and weak, we extract the trends in number of connections in each bin over time. We also look at the behavior of CPR during the Dot-Com bubble by shifting the time series to align their peaks. CPR mainly uncovers that the markets move in and out of periods of strong connectivity erratically, instead of moving monotonously towards increasing global connectivity. This is in contrast to {\\rho}, which gives a picture of ever increasing...

  14. On interrelations of recurrences and connectivity trends between stock indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Goswami; G. Ambika; N. Marwan; J. Kurths

    2011-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Financial data has been extensively studied for correlations using Pearson's cross-correlation coefficient {\\rho} as the point of departure. We employ an estimator based on recurrence plots --- the Correlation of Probability of Recurrence (CPR) --- to analyze connections between nine stock indices spread worldwide. We suggest a slight modification of the CPR approach in order to get more robust results. We examine trends in CPR for an approximately 19-month window moved along the time series and compare them to {\\rho}. Binning CPR into three levels of connectedness: strong, moderate and weak, we extract the trends in number of connections in each bin over time. We also look at the behavior of CPR during the Dot-Com bubble by shifting the time series to align their peaks. CPR mainly uncovers that the markets move in and out of periods of strong connectivity erratically, instead of moving monotonously towards increasing global connectivity. This is in contrast to {\\rho}, which gives a picture of ever increasing correlation. CPR also exhibits that time shifted markets have high connectivity around the Dot-Com bubble of 2000. We stress on the importance of significance testing in interpreting measures applied to field data. CPR is more robust to significance testing. It has the additional advantages of being robust to noise, and reliable for short time series lengths and low frequency of sampling. Further, it is more sensitive to changes than {\\rho} as it captures correlations between the essential dynamics of the underlying systems.

  15. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  16. (2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A. (Merck)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  17. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  18. Metal-sensing layer-semiconductor and metal-sensing layer-metal heterostructure gas sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.; Li, Zheng; Fonash, S.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely sensitive gas sensors can be fabricated using heterostructures of the form metal-sensing layer-semiconductor or metal-sensing layer-metal. These structures are heterostructure diodes which have the barrier controlling transport at least partially located in the sensing layer. In the presence of the gas species to be detected, the electrical properties of the sensing layer evolve, resulting in a modification of the barrier to electric current transport and, hence, resulting in detection due to changes in the current-voltage characteristics of the device. This type of sensor structure is demonstrated using the Pd/Ti-O/sub x/Ti heterostructure hydrogen detector.

  19. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  20. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs.

  1. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  2. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  3. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  4. Maskless laser writing of microscopic metallic interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a metal pattern on a substrate is disclosed. The method includes depositing an insulative nitride film on a substrate and irradiating a laser beam onto the nitride film, thus decomposing the metal nitride into a metal constituent and a gaseous constituent, the metal constituent remaining in the nitride film as a conductive pattern. 4 figs.

  5. Maskless laser writing of microscopic metallic interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a metal pattern on a substrate. The method includes depositing an insulative nitride film on a substrate and irradiating a laser beam onto the nitride film, thus decomposing the metal nitride into a metal constituent and a gaseous constituent, the metal constituent remaining in the nitride film as a conductive pattern.

  6. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  7. TRANSITION DE MOTT METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TRANSITION DE MOTT METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS IN TRANSITION METAL OXIDES by D. B. McWHAN, A. MENTH oxydes de metaux de transition on observe une transition d'isolant a metal puis de metal a isolant de type Mott lorsque l'on augmentelenombre d'electrons d. Danslesysthe(V1-~Cr~)203une transition de Mott

  8. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  9. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  10. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati R. (Yorktown, VA); Kneisel, Peter (Williamsburg, VA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area.

  11. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Bigler, Nicolas (Morin Heights, CA); Arnaud, Guy (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  12. Anaerobic microbial remobilization of coprecipitated metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for solubilizing coprecipitated metals. Metals in waste streams are concentrated by treatment with an iron oxide coprecipitating agent. The coprecipitated metals are solubilized by contacting the coprecipitate with a bacterial culture of a Clostridium species ATCC 53464. The remobilized metals can then be recovered and recycled. 4 figs.

  13. “Covalent Hydration” Reactions in Model Monomeric Ru 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes: Thermodynamic Favorability as a Function of Metal Oxidation and Overall Spin States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Cape, Jonathan L.; Hurst, James K.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the plausibility of water addition to the simple mononuclear ruthenium complexes, [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 2+}/{sup 3+} and [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)RuOH]{sup 3+}, in which the OH fragment adds to the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. Activation of bpy toward water addition has frequently been postulated within the literature, although there exists little definitive experimental evidence for this type of 'covalent hydration'. In this study, we examine the energetic dependence of the reaction upon metal oxidation state, overall spin state of the complex, as well as selectivity for various positions on the bipyridine ring. The thermodynamic favorability is found to be highly dependent upon all three parameters, with free energies of reaction that span favorable and unfavorable regimes. Aqueous addition to [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 3+} was found to be highly favorable for the S = 1/2 state, while reduction of the formal oxidation state on the metal center makes the reaction highly unfavorable. Examination of both facial and meridional isomers reveals that when bipyridine occupies the position trans to the ruthenyl oxo atom, reactivity toward OH addition decreases and the site preferences are altered. The electronic structure and spectroscopic signatures (EPR parameters and simulated spectra) have been determined to aid in recognition of 'covalent hydration' in experimental systems. EPR parameters are found to uniquely characterize the position of the OH addition to the bpy as well as the overall spin state of the system.

  14. Structure and Mechanism of HpcH: A Metal Ion Dependent Class II Aldolase from the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fülöp, Vilmos

    ,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (homoprotocatechuate, HPC) to pyruvate and succinic semialdehyde.4 This Escherichia coli path characterized aromatic catabolic pathways is the 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid degradation pathway of Escherichia coli. The final step involves the conversion of 4-hydroxy-2-oxo- heptane-1,7-dioate into pyruvate

  15. Trends in On-Road Vehicle Emissions of Ammonia , D. Littlejohn2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy of certain heterogeneous reactions on rare earth metals (e.g., palladium, platinum, and rhodium

  16. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  17. Bandgap calculations and trends of organometal halide perovskites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castelli, Ivano E., E-mail: ivca@fysik.dtu.dk; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); García-Lastra, Juan María [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design (CAMD), Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, DK 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy production from the Sun requires a stable efficient light absorber. Promising candidates in this respect are organometal perovskites (ABX{sub 3}), which have been intensely investigated during the last years. Here, we have performed electronic structure calculations of 240 perovskites composed of Cs, CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}, and HC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as A-cation, Sn and Pb as B-ion, and a combination of Cl, Br, and I as anions. The calculated gaps span over a region from 0.5 to 5.0 eV. In addition, the trends over bandgaps have been investigated: the bandgap increases with an increase of the electronegativities of the constituent species, while it reduces with an increase of the lattice constants of the system.

  18. Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI) Solar Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbell, R.; Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Cory, K.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a summary of the finance trends for small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) projects (PV <1 MW), large-scale PV projects (PV greater than or equal to 1 MW), and concentrated solar power projects as reported in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Finance Tracking Initiative (REFTI). The report presents REFTI data during the five quarterly periods from the fourth quarter of 2009 to the first half of 2011. The REFTI project relies exclusively on the voluntary participation of industry stakeholders for its data; therefore, it does not offer a comprehensive view of the technologies it tracks. Despite this limitation, REFTI is the only publicly available resource for renewable energy project financial terms. REFTI analysis offers usable inputs into the project economic evaluations of developers and investors, as well as the policy assessments of public utility commissions and others in the renewable energy industry.

  19. Computing trends using graphic processor in high energy physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mihai Niculescu; Sorin-Ion Zgura

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main challenges in Heavy Energy Physics is to make fast analysis of high amount of experimental and simulated data. At LHC-CERN one p-p event is approximate 1 Mb in size. The time taken to analyze the data and obtain fast results depends on high computational power. The main advantage of using GPU(Graphic Processor Unit) programming over traditional CPU one is that graphical cards bring a lot of computing power at a very low price. Today a huge number of application(scientific, financial etc) began to be ported or developed for GPU, including Monte Carlo tools or data analysis tools for High Energy Physics. In this paper, we'll present current status and trends in HEP using GPU.

  20. State trends in ecological risk assessment and standard setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, M R; Fowler, K M; Bilyard, G R

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purposes of this paper are (1) to identify key states' activities and plans related to setting cleanup standards using the ecological risk assessment process, and (2) to discuss the impacts these actions may have on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental restoration program. This report is prepared as part of a larger task, the purpose of which is to identify and assess state regulatory trends and legal developments that may impact DOE's environmental restoration program. Results of this task are intended to provide DOE with advance notice of potentially significant regulatory developments so as to enhance DOE's ability to influence these developments and to incorporate possible regulatory and policy changes into its planning process.

  1. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (R{sub d}) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2 {+-} 0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  2. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the fourth year in a row, the United States led the world in adding new wind power capacity in 2008, and also surpassed Germany to take the lead in terms of cumulative installed wind capacity. The rapid growth of wind power in the U.S. over the past decade (Figure 1) has been driven by a combination of increasingly supportive policies (including the Federal production tax credit (PTC) and a growing number of state renewables portfolio standards), uncertainty over the future fuel costs and environmental liabilities of natural gas and coal-fired power plants, and wind's competitive position among generation resources. This article focuses on just the last of these drivers - i.e., trends in U.S. wind power prices - over the period of strong capacity growth since 1998.

  3. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  4. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic or glass having a thin layer of silver, gold or alloys thereof at the surface thereof is disclosed. A first metal is bonded to the thin layer and a second metal is bonded to the first metal. The first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl and alloys thereof, and the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Cu, Al, Pb, Au and alloys thereof. 3 figures.

  5. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  6. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  7. Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends Table 3: Drilling Blowouts, Wells Drilled, Rates andfluid volume. Well construction includes drilling, reworking3 and 4. The drilling blowout rate per well from 1991 to

  8. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data) Jenny Heeter National Renewable Energy Laboratory With contributions from: Kathy Belyeu Independent...

  9. Trends in Ln(III) Sorption to Quartz Assessed by Molecular Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ln(III) Sorption to Quartz Assessed by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Laser Induced Flourescence Studies. Trends in Ln(III) Sorption to Quartz Assessed by Molecular Dynamics...

  10. Wind Power Development in the United States: Current Progress, Future Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Keywords: Wind energy, renewable energy, cost trends,wind energy are projected to be relatively modest. Figure 6 shows the total estimated electric-sector costs

  11. Trends in the cost of efficiency for appliances and consumer electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the default price trend projection. The resultingprojections of annual shipments, product lifetimes, electricity prices,projections in the NIA. Figure 1 shows the historical real price

  12. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  13. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  14. Methods for reducing the loss of metal in a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for reducing loss of metal from a metal vapor laser by collecting metal present outside the hot zone of the laser and introducing or confining it in the hot zone.

  15. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  16. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  17. Tri-Lab Directors' statement on the nuclear posture review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds PrintStatement

  18. Tri-Party Agreement Hanford Public Involvement Plan

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds PrintStatement

  19. Tri-Party Agreement Project Manager's List

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds

  20. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo BondsTUNL Annual BBQ

  1. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo BondsTUNL Annual

  2. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo BondsTUNL

  3. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo BondsTUNLHIGS| PAC

  4. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo BondsTUNLHIGS|

  5. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo

  6. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram of Events 1)

  7. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram of Events 1)

  8. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram of Events

  9. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram of

  10. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram ofMain Office

  11. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram ofMain Office

  12. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram ofMain

  13. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram ofMainDuke

  14. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgram

  15. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgramHINDA HIGS NaI

  16. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgramHINDA HIGS

  17. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory : 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal OxoProgramHINDA

  18. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  19. Metal volatilization and separation during incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Chu, H.W.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified risks from a thermal treatment process. Fundamental research leading to better understanding of their behavior and improved control of their emissions is greatly needed. This paper reports studies on metal volatilization and separation during incineration. Metal volatilization studies were carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the dynamic volatilization characteristics of various metals during the combustion of metal-containing wood pellets were investigated in a high-temperature electric furnace. In addition to uncontrolled volatilization, the potential of employing chemical additives to bind metals and prevent them from volatilizing during combustion was also investigated. The second experiment involved the investigation of metal volatilization characteristics during the thermal treatment of metal-contaminated clay in a fluidized bed unit. The metal species tested in both experiments were compounds of lead and cadmium. Metal capture/separation studies were also carried out in two separate experiments. The first involved the use of sorbents in the combustion chamber to capture metals during the fluidized bed incineration of metal-containing wood pellets. The second experiments, however, employed sorbents to absorb metal vapors in a fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler. The objective of both the experiments is to characterize the metal absorption efficiency associated with the processes.

  20. Approximating Metal-Insulator Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Danieli; K. Rayanov; B. Pavlov; G. Martin; S. Flach

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate metal-insulator transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-Andre model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  1. Metallization and insulization during impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that the large strains produced by hypervelocity impacts can be expected to produce dramatic changes in the chemical bonding (electronic structures) of materials. This will change the mechanical behavior towards increased ductility when a semiconductor is compressed until it becomes metallic; and towards increased brittleness when a transition metal is expanded so as to localize its d-band electrons. Both isotropic compression (expansion) and shear strains can cause these transformations. Critical deformation criteria are given based on the observed cubic to tetragonal transformations in compressed semiconductors.

  2. Laser photodeposition of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, R.; Boyer, P.K.; Mahan, J.E.; Collins, G.J.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the deposition of the refractory metals chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten through the laser-induced gas-phase photolysis of their respective hexacarbonyls. A copper, hollow cathode laser was used at ultraviolet wavelengths matched to peaks in the absorption spectra of the carbonyl molecules. Localized room-temperature metal deposition was achieved by focusing the beam into a cell containing the carbonyl gas and helium as a buffer. No major differences were noted for deposition on a polished silicon wafer, a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and a quartz flat.

  3. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  4. Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

  5. Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S. (Stony Brook, NY); Mao, Yuanbing (Los Angeles, CA)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

  6. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  7. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  8. Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Author's personal copy Temporal and spatial trends of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater hydrocarbons Bohai Bay Temporal and spatial trends Seawater a b s t r a c t The temporal and spatial distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the seawater of Tianjin Bohai Bay during 1996

  9. Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 503509 Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric Environment 36 (2002) 503­509 Trend of acid rain and neutralization by yellow sand 2001; accepted 11 April 2001 Abstract Acid rain and its neutralization by yellow sand in East Asia were was obtained. Firstly, the trend of the acid rain in East Asia due to the rapid increase of Chinese pollutants

  10. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications October 2008. Courtesy of Dr Mhairi Coyle, CEH Edinburgh. #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends Limited #12;Ground-level ozone in the 21st century I October 2008 I iiiThe Royal Society Ground

  11. Soil mineralogy trends in California landscapes R.C. Graham a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Soil mineralogy trends in California landscapes R.C. Graham a, , A.T. O'Geen b a Soil & Water soil mineralogical trends: 1) granitic terrain of the Peninsular Ranges, 2) granitic terrain of life. Inherent soil fertility issues are often directly linked to soil mineralogy (e.g., Page et al

  12. Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation for Trend Contaminated Fractionally Differenced Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation for Trend Contaminated Fractionally Differenced Processes Peter to scientific problems in the environmental and ecological sciences. #12;#12;Wavelet-Based Parameter Estimation of polynomial trend plus FD noise and apply the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) to separate a time series

  13. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  14. First principles investigation of scaling trends of zirconium silicate interface band offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    First principles investigation of scaling trends of zirconium silicate interface band offsets out to investigate the scaling trends of band offsets at model silicon/zirconium silicate interfaces. Owing to the d character of zirconium silicate conduction bands, the band gap and band offset are shown

  15. Report IEA-PVPS T1-14:2005 TRENDS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report IEA-PVPS T1-14:2005 TRENDS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004 #12;1 TRENDS IN PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004 Contents Introduction 2 1 Implementation of photovoltaic systems 3 2 The PV

  16. TREND: Toward Real Energy-efficient Network Design Marco Ajmone Marsan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    TREND: Toward Real Energy-efficient Network Design Marco Ajmone Marsan Politecnico di of the TREND (Toward Real Energy-efficient Network Design) Network of Excellence of the European Commission 7th at wireless access networks, core networks, and content distribution issues. Keywords ­ energy-efficient

  17. Historical Perspective of Clean Cities and Alternative Fuels Data Center Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, J. K.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document draws on the wealth of information housed in the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Trends and analyses are examined from data as far back as 1991. The findings of those trends and salient features are summarized.

  18. Revised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revised: 6 November 1991 Trends in the Consumption of Energy-Intensive Basic Materials on the consumption, rather than production, of materials. Earlier analyses of trends in basic materials consumption materials consumption patterns on energy use is the recognition that physical units (kilograms) are more

  19. Aerosol acidity in rural New England: Temporal trends and source region analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    the dissociation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) that condenses after forming via the gas phase oxidation of sulfurAerosol acidity in rural New England: Temporal trends and source region analysis L. D. Ziemba,1,2 E. Talbot (2007), Aerosol acidity in rural New England: Temporal trends and source region analysis, J

  20. Ralph Meyer, Thomas Schick, and Yuri Tschinkel (Ed.) Trends in Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschinkel, Yuri

    Ralph Meyer, Thomas Schick, and Yuri Tschinkel (Ed.) Trends in Mathematics #12;erschienen in der #12;Ralph Meyer, Thomas Schick, and Yuri Tschinkel (Ed.) Trends in Mathematics Mathematisches Institut im Internet über abrufbar. Address of the Editors Ralf Meyer, rameyer

  1. ELEVATION-DEPENDENT TRENDS IN PRECIPITATION OBSERVED BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    i THESIS ELEVATION-DEPENDENT TRENDS IN PRECIPITATION OBSERVED BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK Submitted BY ANGELA K. ROWE ENTITLED ELEVATION- DEPENDENT TRENDS IN PRECIPITATION OBSERVED BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK BY THE NAME RADAR NETWORK Radar data from the 2004 North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) Enhanced Observing

  2. SciTech Connect: Metal-Organic Framework Templated Inorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal-Organic Framework Templated Inorganic Sorbents for Rapid and Efficient Extraction of Heavy Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal-Organic Framework Templated...

  3. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    develop alternatives to the precious metal catalysts by using relatively inexpensive, earth-abundant metals. The chemical complexities of the more common metals have made this...

  4. Fossil Imprints of Outflow from the Galactic Bulge in Elemental Abundances of Metal-Rich Disk Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takuji Tsujimoto

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the elemental abundance features of metal-rich disk stars, highlighting the comparisons made with those of the recently revealed Galactic bulge stars. A similarity between two of the comparisons leads to a new theoretical picture of the bulge-disk connection in the Galaxy, where a supermassive black hole resides at the center. We postulate that a metal-rich outflow, triggered by feedback from a black hole, was generated and quenched the star formation, which had lasted several billion years in the bulge. The expelled gas cooled down in the Galactic halo without escaping from the gravitational potential of the Galaxy. The gas gradually started to accrete to the disk around five billion years ago, corresponding to the time of sun's birth, and replaced a low-metallicity halo gas that had been accreting over nearly ten billion years. The metal-rich infalling gas, whose elemental abundance reflects that of metal-rich bulge stars, mixed with the interstellar gas already present in the disk. Stars formed from the mixture compose the metal-rich stellar disk. This scheme is incorporated into models for chemical evolution of the disk. The resultant elemental features are compatible with the observed abundance trends of metal-rich disk stars, including the upturning feature exhibited in some [X/Fe] ratios, whose interpretation was theoretically puzzling. Furthermore, the predicted abundance distribution function of disk stars covers all observational facts to be considered: (i) the deficiency of metal-poor stars, (ii) the location of peak, and (iii) the extended metal-rich tail up to [Fe/H] ~ +0.4.

  5. Organochlorine compounds in pine needles: Methods and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, W.M.J. (National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Centre for Inland Waters); Eriksson, G.; Jensen, S. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab.); Kylin, H. (Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Wallenberg Lab. Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During April 1989, needles from Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees were collected from a network of stations in West Germany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Samples from selected stations were analyzed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers ([alpha]-HCH and [gamma]-HCH [lindane]), DDT, and DDE. Accumulation of the investigated compounds was observed in up to four needle-year classes. [gamma]-HCH decreased from south to north; the pattern for [alpha]-HCH was uniform; DDT/DDE also decreased from south to north. HCB was uniform throughout the sample area, and PCP was high in northern Sweden. Interpretation of trends was not altered by expressing concentrations on a fresh- or dry-weight basis or on a surface-area basis. The range of concentration variation for equivalent samples was 2 to 49% relative standard deviation; averages were 20 to 23%. There were no differences among trees facing the sample open direction; among different directions, trees open to the south collected more DDT, but this was not the case with other substances. There were no differences between trees of different ages. Samples at 4 to 5 m had lower contaminant levels than from 1.5 m.

  6. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  7. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Michael P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Schneibel, Joachim H. (Knoxville, TN); Pint, Bruce A. (Knoxville, TN); Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  8. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  9. Jurassic petroleum trends in eastern Gulf Coastal Plain and central and eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Jurassic petroleum trends can be delineated in Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, and in the central and eastern Gulf of Mexico. These trends are recognized by characteristic petroleum traps, reservoirs, and hydrocarbon types. The source for the Jurassic hydrocarbons is Smackover algal mudstones. The Jurassic oil trend includes the area north of the regional peripheral fault systems in the tri-state area, and extends into the area north of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs and salt anticlines, with Smackover grainstones and dolostones and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones as reservoirs. This trend has potential for Jurassic oil accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic oil and gas-condensate trend includes the onshore area between the regional peripheral fault systems and Wiggins arch and extends into the area of the Destin anticline. Traps are basement highs, salt related anticlines, and extensional faults. Cotton Valley fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Haynesville carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones, Smackover grainstones, packstones, dolostones, and marine sandstones, and Norphlet marine, eolian, and wadi sandstones serve as reservoirs. This trend contains most of the Jurassic fields in the eastern Gulf coastal plain. The trend has high potential for significant petroleum accumulations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The Jurassic deep natural gas trend includes the onshore area south of the Wiggins arch and extends into the Mississippi-Alabama shelf. Traps are faulted salt anticlines with basement highs as potential traps. Cotton Valley deltaic-strandplain sandstones and Norphlet eolian sandstones are the reservoirs. Several gas discoveries below 20,000 ft have been made in this trend in Mississippi and offshore Alabama. The trend has excellent potential for major gas accumulations in coastal Alabama and central Gulf of Mexico.

  10. Gas adsorption on metal-organic frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willis, Richard R. (Cary, IL); Low, John J. (Schaumburg, IL), Faheem, Syed A. (Huntley, IL); Benin, Annabelle I. (Oak Forest, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Yazaydin, Ahmet Ozgur (Evanston, IL)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention involves the use of certain metal organic frameworks that have been treated with water or another metal titrant in the storage of carbon dioxide. The capacity of these frameworks is significantly increased through this treatment.

  11. Postsynthetic modification of metal-organic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanabe, Kristine Kimie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. M. "Tuning Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Metal-OrganicS. M. "Tuning Hydrogen Sorption Properties of Metal-OrganicA summary of hydrogen sorption properties of three distinct

  12. Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

  13. NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely used in...

  14. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

  15. Metal salen catalyzed production of polytrimethylene carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Poulomi

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of Lewis acidic metal salen complexes (Al & Sn), as catalysts for this process. This was followed by the utilization of metal salen complexes of biometals as catalysts for the synthesis of these biodegradable polymers, as well as for the copolymerization...

  16. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

  17. Preparation of metal-triazolate frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M; Uribe-Romo, Fernando J; Gandara-Barragan, Felipe; Britt, David K

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides for novel metal-triazolate frameworks, methods of use thereof, and devices comprising the frameworks thereof.

  18. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF METAL GROWTH ON OXIDES A Thesis by KAI LUO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style a d content by: avid W. Goodman.... , Jilin University, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, David W. Goodman Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus...

  19. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  20. A chemical approach toward low temperature alloying of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazir, Rabia [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Applied Chemistry Research Centre, Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Ahmed, Sohail [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mazhar, Muhammad, E-mail: mazhar42pk@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Siddique, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Nawazish Ali [Material Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Shah, Muhammad Raza [HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nadeem, Muhammad [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Low temperature pyrolysis of [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2} and [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}] homogeneous powder. • Easy low temperature alloying of immiscible metals like Fe and Mo. • Uniform sized Fe–Mo nanoalloy with particle size of 48–68 nm. • Characterization by EDXRF, AFM, XRPD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance. • Alloy behaves as almost superparamagnetic obeying simple –R(CPE)– circuit. - Abstract: The present research is based on a low temperature operated feasible method for the synthesis of immiscible iron and molybdenum metals’ nanoalloy for technological applications. The nanoalloy has been synthesized by pyrolysis of homogeneous powder precipitated, from a common solvent, of the two complexes, trisbipyridineiron(II)chloride, [Fe(bipy){sub 3}]Cl{sub 2}, and bipyridinemolybedenum(IV) chloride, [Mo(bipy)Cl{sub 4}], followed by heating at 500 °C in an inert atmosphere of flowing argon gas. The resulting nanoalloy has been characterized by using EDXRF, AFM, XRD, magnetometery, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer and impedance spectroscopies. These results showed that under provided experimental conditions iron and molybdenum metals, with known miscibility barrier, alloy together to give (1:1) single phase material having particle size in the range of 48–66 nm. The magnetism of iron is considerably reduced after alloy formation and shows its trend toward superparamagnetism. The designed chemical synthetic procedure is equally feasible for the fabrication of other immiscible metals.

  1. Dark Matter Halos in Galaxies and Globular Cluster Populations. II: Metallicity and Morphology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, William; Hudson, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing body of data reveals a one-to-one linear correlation between galaxy halo mass and the total mass in its globular cluster (GC) population, M_{GCS} ~ M_h^{1.03 \\pm 0.03}, valid over 5 orders of magnitude. We explore the nature of this correlation for galaxies of different morphological types, and for the subpopulations of metal-poor (blue) and metal-rich (red) GCs. For the subpopulations of different metallicity we find M_{GCS}(blue) ~ M_h^{0.96 \\pm 0.03} and M_{GCS}(red) ~ M_h^{1.21 \\pm 0.03} with similar scatter. The numerical values of these exponents can be derived from the detailed behavior of the red and blue GC fractions with galaxy mass and provide a self-consistent set of relations. In addition, all morphological types (E, S0, S/Irr) follow the same relation, but with a second-order trend for spiral galaxies to have a slightly higher fraction of metal-rich GCs for a given mass. These results suggest that the amount of gas available for GC formation at high redshift was in nearly direct pr...

  2. subcollector Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    base collector depletion layer subcollector ohmic metal (a) base collector depletion layer Schottky metal base emitter collector collector We emitter base emitter emitter We Wc Wc (b) Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals Emitter & collector Ohmics undoped collector depletion layer base N

  3. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites.

  4. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imestigation ol" Maenons in Rare Earth Metals b\\ Inelastic Neutron Scattering tL Bjerrum Moiler #12;BLANK PAGE #12;Riso Report No. 178 Investigation of Magnons in Rare Earth Metals by Inelastic NeutronN LANGF h. a. dec. #12;Contents Page PREFACE 7 I. INTRODUCTION *> 1. Magnetism of Rare Earth Metals 10 2

  6. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  7. Plasticity of Metal Nanowires Christopher R. Weinberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    Plasticity of Metal Nanowires Christopher R. Weinberger Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque-4040 (Dated: November 24, 2011) Abstract The mechanisms of plasticity in metal naowires with diameters below 100 nm are reviewed. At these length scales, plasticity in face-centered-cubic metals subjected

  8. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of metal-RNA interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogt, Matthew John

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-RNA interactions are important to neutralize the negative charge and aid in correctly folding the RNA. Spectroscopically active metal ions, especially Mn2+, have been used to probe the type of interaction the metal has with RNA. In previous...

  10. Starbursts and their contribution to metal enrichment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunth Daniel

    2007-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the properties of starburst galaxies, compare the properties of the local ones with more distant starburts and examine their role in the metal enrichment of the interstellar medium and the intergalactic-intracluster medium. Metallicity is not an arrow of time and contrary to current belief metal rich galaxies can also be found at high redshift.

  11. Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Adsorption of Chromium (VI) by metal hydroxide sludge from the metal finishing Loïc Perrin Ecole sludge (MHS) during the treatment of their liquid effluents charged with heavy metals. Generally, a small part of these sludge is valorized because of their important metal fickleness. Consequently

  12. Slag Metal Reactions in Binary CaF2-Metal Oxide Welding Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) Slag Metal Reactions in Binary CaF2-Metal Oxide Welding Fluxes Some otherwise chemically stable fluxes may decompose into suboxides in the presence of welding arcs, thereby providing higher levels of 0 2 in weld metal than those oxides which do not form suboxides ABSTRACT. The stability of metal

  13. Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive metals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive that inserting a transition metal oxide (TMO) between the lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) layer and the metal-Yu Chen; Octavi E. Semonin; Arthur J. Nozik; Randy J. Ellingson; Matthew C. Beard."n-Type Transition Metal

  14. METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    METAL-NON METAL TRANSITIONS /N RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS. EXPERIMENT AND THEORK /. VALENCE INSTABILITIES, superconductivity, electron-phonon and band theory, to name a few. 2. Properties of normal rare earth metals. - Before discussing rare earth valence instabilities, three relevant general features of rare earth metals

  15. A KECK HIRES DOPPLER SEARCH FOR PLANETS ORBITING METAL-POOR DWARFS. II. ON THE FREQUENCY OF GIANT PLANETS IN THE METAL-POOR REGIME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sozzetti, Alessandro; Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Korzennik, Sylvain G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Boss, Alan P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Carney, Bruce W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laird, John B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 (United States)], E-mail: asozzett@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dlatham@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rstefanik@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: boss@dtm.ciw.edu, E-mail: bruce@physics.unc.edu, E-mail: laird@bgsu.edu

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of three years of precision radial velocity (RV) measurements of 160 metal-poor stars observed with HIRES on the Keck 1 telescope. We report on variability and long-term velocity trends for each star in our sample. We identify several long-term, low-amplitude RV variables worthy of followup with direct imaging techniques. We place lower limits on the detectable companion mass as a function of orbital period. Our survey would have detected, with a 99.5% confidence level, over 95% of all companions on low-eccentricity orbits with velocity semiamplitude K {approx}> 100 m s{sup -1}, or M{sub p} sin i {approx}> 3.0 M {sub J}(P/yr){sup (1/3)}, for orbital periods P {approx}< 3 yr. None of the stars in our sample exhibits RV variations compatible with the presence of Jovian planets with periods shorter than the survey duration. The resulting average frequency of gas giants orbiting metal-poor dwarfs with -2.0{approx}<[Fe/H]{approx}<-0.6 is f{sub p} < 0.67% (at the 1{sigma} confidence level). We examine the implications of this null result in the context of the observed correlation between the rate of occurrence of giant planets and the metallicity of their main-sequence solar-type stellar hosts. By combining our data set with the Fischer and Valenti (2005) uniform sample, we confirm that the likelihood of a star to harbor a planet more massive than Jupiter within 2 AU is a steeply rising function of the host's metallicity. However, the data for stars with -1.0{approx}<[Fe/H]{approx}<0.0 are compatible, in a statistical sense, with a constant occurrence rate f{sub p} {approx_equal} 1%. Our results can usefully inform theoretical studies of the process of giant-planet formation across two orders of magnitude in metallicity.

  16. Pricing trends in the US market for wholesale power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geschwind, D.P.; Flucke, J.M. [Burns & McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity markets in the United States have undergone an interesting transformation over the last several years. With the Energy Policy Act of 1992, Congress set the stage for competition in the wholesale market for electricity. No longer could one utility hold another utility hostage by denying it transmission access. Through increased choices of suppliers, purchasers of wholesale power have, in many cases, been able to lower their power costs by purchasing power on the open market, rather than purchasing power solely from an adjacent utility. Burns & McDonnell has worked with many wholesale power purchasers over recent years to evaluate the available options for lowering their power costs. In many of these evaluations, bid solicitations were conducted to identify specific wholesale power purchase options. Through these projects, Burns & McDonnell has been able to collect a substantial amount of data on the offered prices for wholesale power over the last several years. The purpose of this paper is to compare the purchase power data collected by Burns & McDonnell over the last several years in evaluating resource options for electric utilities. Reviews of this data suggest a declining pricing trend that reflects increasing levels of competition in the wholesale power market. The paper also illustrates the difficulty in constructing new generation that can produce electricity at a cost below that of the wholesale power market. Finally, the paper addresses the difference between average cost and marginal cost pricing as it relates to the cost of producing wholesale power for sale. The paper discusses the idea that some participants in the wholesale power market may actually be offering power for prices that are lower than their cost of producing electricity. The advantages and disadvantages of this pricing approach are examined.

  17. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  18. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  19. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  20. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and forecast future wind cost and pricing trends (see,long-term forecast of future wind costs or competitiveness,To put the material on wind cost and pricing trends in

  1. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States: Struggling to Remain Competitive in the Face of Strong Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost (and price) of energy delivered from a wind project.wind turbines has increased due to higher commodity (materials and energy) prices, andwind power, cost trends, price trends 1.0 Introduction Driven by concerns over climate and energy

  2. Trends in HFE Methods and Tools and Their Applicability to Safety Reviews

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hara, J.M.; Plott, C.; Milanski, J.; Ronan, A.; Scheff, S.; Laux, L.; and Bzostek, J.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) conducts human factors engineering (HFE) safety reviews of applicant submittals for new plants and for changes to existing plants. The reviews include the evaluation of the methods and tools (M&T) used by applicants as part of their HFE program. The technology used to perform HFE activities has been rapidly evolving, resulting in a whole new generation of HFE M&Ts. The objectives of this research were to identify the current trends in HFE methods and tools, determine their applicability to NRC safety reviews, and identify topics for which the NRC may need additional guidance to support the NRC's safety reviews. We conducted a survey that identified over 100 new HFE M&Ts. The M&Ts were assessed to identify general trends. Seven trends were identified: Computer Applications for Performing Traditional Analyses, Computer-Aided Design, Integration of HFE Methods and Tools, Rapid Development Engineering, Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. We assessed each trend to determine its applicability to the NRC's review by considering (1) whether the nuclear industry is making use of M&Ts for each trend, and (2) whether M&Ts reflecting the trend can be reviewed using the current design review guidance. We concluded that M&T trends that are applicable to the commercial nuclear industry and are expected to impact safety reviews may be considered for review guidance development. Three trends fell into this category: Analysis of Cognitive Tasks, Use of Virtual Environments and Visualizations, and Application of Human Performance Models. The other trends do not need to be addressed at this time.

  3. Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles. Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized...

  4. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  5. CVD of refractory amorphous metal alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenhover, M. [The Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a novel process is described for the fabrication of multi-metallic amorphous metal alloy coatings using a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Of special interest in this work are amorphous metal alloys containing Mo and/or Cr which have high crystallization temperatures and readily available low decomposition temperature metal-bearing precursors. The conditions for amorphous alloy formation via CVD are described as well as the chemical properties of these materials. High temperature, aqueous corrosion tests have shown these materials (especially those containing Cr) are among the most corrosion resistant metal alloys known.

  6. Directly susceptible, noncarbon metal ceramic composite crucible

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morrow, S. Marvin (Kingston, TN); Rexford, Donald (Pattersonville, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sintered metal ceramic crucible suitable for high temperature induction melting of reactive metals without appreciable carbon or silicon contamination of the melt. The crucible comprises a cast matrix of a thermally conductive ceramic material; a perforated metal sleeve, which serves as a susceptor for induction heating of the crucible, embedded within the ceramic cast matrix; and a thermal-shock-absorber barrier interposed between the metal sleeve and the ceramic cast matrix to allow for differential thermal expansions between the matrix and the metal sleeve and to act as a thermal-shock-absorber which moderates the effects of rapid changes of sleeve temperature on the matrix.

  7. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  8. 196 / JOURNAL OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING / JULY/AUGUST 2001 MODELED AREAL EVAPORATION TRENDS OVER THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szilagyi, Jozsef

    TRENDS OVER THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES By Jozsef Szilagyi1 ABSTRACT: Long-term (1961­1990) areal

  9. Synthesis of transition metal carbonitrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Munir, Zuhair A. R. (Davis, CA); Eslamloo-Grami, Maryam (Davis, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal carbonitrides (in particular, titanium carbonitride, TiC.sub.0.5 N.sub.0.5) are synthesized by a self-propagating reaction between the metal (e.g., titanium) and carbon in a nitrogen atmosphere. Complete conversion to the carbonitride phase is achieved with the addition of TiN as diluent and with a nitrogen pressure .gtoreq.0.6 MPa. Thermodynamic phase-stability calculations and experimental characterizations of quenched samples provided revealed that the mechanism of formation of the carbonitride is a two-step process. The first step involves the formation of the nonstoichiometric carbide, TiC.sub.0.5, and is followed by the formation of the product by the incorporation of nitrogen in the defect-structure carbide.

  10. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for sodium/sulfur battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triplett, M.B.; Winter, C.; Ashton, W.B.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes development trends in sodium/sulfur battery technology based on data from US patents. Purpose of the study was to use the activity, timing and ownership of 285 US patents to identify and describe broad patterns of change in sodium/sulfur battery technology. The analysis was conducted using newly developed statistical and computer graphic techniques for describing technology development trends from patent data. This analysis suggests that for some technologies trends in patent data provide useful information for public and private R and D planning.

  11. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Rong (Richland, WA); Merz, Martin D. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  12. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard Brian (Athens, GA); Summers, Anne O. (Athens, GA); Rugh, Clayton L. (Athens, GA)

    1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  13. Metalization of lipid vesicles via electroless plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrar, W.T.; O'Brien, D.F.; Warshawsky, A.; Voycheck, C.L.

    1988-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The encapsulation of metallic particles and metallic oxides within lipid vesicles has recently been of interest for applications such as catalysis, water splitting, and magnetic control of spin coupling. In this communication the authors introduce the concept and practice of the deposition of metal on vesicles by using electroless plating techniques. Coordination of low valent transition metals to organic functional groups on the surface of the bilayer membrane provides a means of binding metal atoms to vesicles. Chemical reduction produced zero valent atoms which serve as sites for further metal deposition by the chemical reduction techniques of electroless plating. Specifically, this procedure involved the binding of a small amount of tetrachloropalladate to the vesicle bilayer, reduction of the palladium(II) to palladium(0), followed by the deposition of much larger amounts of metal from an electroless plating solution. Electroless plating solutions were used for the deposition of palladium, nickel, cobalt, or copper metal onto the catalytic palladium centers. Since the metallic particles were associated with the vesicles, colloids were formed that were stable in water for much longer periods than the control metal particles formed in water alone. If the vesicles were composed in part of unsaturated lipids, with the olefinic groups on the hydrocarbon chains, the initial evidence suggests the transition metal was directed into the bilayer, rather than staying on the surface.

  14. Submicron patterned metal hole etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Liberman, Vladimir (Needham, MA); Morse, Jeffrey (Martinez, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wet chemical process for etching submicron patterned holes in thin metal layers using electrochemical etching with the aid of a wetting agent. In this process, the processed wafer to be etched is immersed in a wetting agent, such as methanol, for a few seconds prior to inserting the processed wafer into an electrochemical etching setup, with the wafer maintained horizontal during transfer to maintain a film of methanol covering the patterned areas. The electrochemical etching setup includes a tube which seals the edges of the wafer preventing loss of the methanol. An electrolyte composed of 4:1 water: sulfuric is poured into the tube and the electrolyte replaces the wetting agent in the patterned holes. A working electrode is attached to a metal layer of the wafer, with reference and counter electrodes inserted in the electrolyte with all electrodes connected to a potentiostat. A single pulse on the counter electrode, such as a 100 ms pulse at +10.2 volts, is used to excite the electrochemical circuit and perform the etch. The process produces uniform etching of the patterned holes in the metal layers, such as chromium and molybdenum of the wafer without adversely effecting the patterned mask.

  15. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG); Young, Albert C. (Flushing, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  16. Method For Characterizing Residual Stress In Metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Loren A. (Santa Fe, NM); Michel, David J. (Alexandria, VA); Wyatt, Jeffrey R. (Burke, VA)

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring the residual stress in metals. The method includes the steps of drilling one or more holes in a metal workpiece to a preselected depth and mounting one or more acoustic sensors on the metal workpiece and connecting the sensors to an electronic detecting and recording device. A liquid metal capable of penetrating into the metal workpiece placed at the bottom of the hole or holes. A recording is made over a period of time (typically within about two hours) of the magnitude and number of noise events which occur as the liquid metal penetrates into the metal workpiece. The magnitude and number of noise events are then correlated to the internal stress in the region of the workpiece at the bottom of the hole.

  17. Induction slag reduction process for purifying metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traut, Davis E. (Corvallis, OR); Fisher, II, George T. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Dennis A. (Corvallis, OR)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous method is provided for purifying and recovering transition metals such as neodymium and zirconium that become reactive at temperatures above about 500.degree. C. that comprises the steps of contacting the metal ore with an appropriate fluorinating agent such as an alkaline earth metal fluosilicate to form a fluometallic compound, and reducing the fluometallic compound with a suitable alkaline earth or alkali metal compound under molten conditions, such as provided in an induction slag metal furnace. The method of the invention is advantageous in that it is simpler and less expensive than methods used previously to recover pure metals, and it may be employed with a wide range of transition metals that were reactive with enclosures used in the prior art methods and were hard to obtain in uncontaminated form.

  18. Methods of selectively incorporating metals onto substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst; Richard D. (Salt Lake City, UT), Eyring; Edward M. (Salt Lake City, UT), Turpin; Gregory C. (Salt Lake City, UT), Dunn; Brian C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming multi-metallic sites on a substrate is disclosed and described. A substrate including active groups such as hydroxyl can be reacted with a pretarget metal complex. The target metal attached to the active group can then be reacted with a secondary metal complex such that an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction occurs to form a multi-metallic species. The substrate can be a highly porous material such as aerogels, xerogels, zeolites, and similar materials. Additional metal complexes can be reacted to increase catalyst loading or control co-catalyst content. The resulting compounds can be oxidized to form oxides or reduced to form metals in the ground state which are suitable for practical use.

  19. Trends in dish-Stirling solar receiver designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, R.B.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Adkins, D.R.; Moss, T.A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dish-Stirling solar energy system, because of its high efficiency, is a leading candidate for producing low-cost electric power from the sun. Dish-Stirling receiver design involves dealing with non-uniform and highly concentrated solar flux at high temperatures (700--800{degree}C) and, therefore, presents a variety of technical challenges. The technology is in the process of evolving from directly illuminated heater-head tube receivers'' to receivers that use refluxing (i.e., gravity assisted) liquid metals as an intermediate heat transfer fluid. Modern dish-Stirling development was initiated in the late 1970s by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the Department of Energy. The JPL technology development with United Stirling, Inc. involved the USAB 4.95 Stirling engine and directly illuminated heater-head tube receivers. This work eventually led to the successful demonstrations and world record efficiencies by Advanco Corp., and to the attempted commercialization of the technology by McDonnell Douglas Corp. The severe nature of concentrated solar flux and the potential advantages of heat-pipe technology have caused an evolution toward reflux'' receivers. These receivers are just beginning to be tested in the laboratory and integrated with dish-Stirling systems. In this paper, the history and current status of dish-Stirling receiver development are presented and discussed. The technical challenges to be addressed by the dish-Stirling community and the future plans at Sandia are outlined. 52 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Use of Building Automation System Trend Data for Inputs Generation in Bottom-Up Simulation Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zibin, N. F.; Zmeureanu, R. G.; Love, J. A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for analysis and use in simulation is very large. This paper explores automating the process of generating inputs from Building Automation System (BAS) trend data for use in building simulation software. A proof-of-concept prototype called the Automatic...

  1. Cost trends and government incentives in the California photovoltaics market, 2007-2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang Yan, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis is to analyze cost trends and government incentives in the California PV market during 2007-2008. The data show that pre-rebate system costs increased in California during this time period and that ...

  2. Beyound 4G : (), () Trends and Advances in Multi-Cell MISO/MIMO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Youngchul

    Beyound 4G : (), () , , Trends and Advances in Multi-Cell MISO/MIMO Technologies LTE-Advanced Beyond 4G . , (multiple-input single-output, MISO) (multiple-input multiple-output, MIMO) , MISO MIMO . . 3G , 4 LTE

  3. Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F.; Bodeker, G. E.; Hubert, D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Steinbrecht, W.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Boone, C. D.; Bourassa, A.; Davis, S. M.; Degenstein, D.; Delcloo, A.; Frith, S. M.; Froidevaux, L.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Jones, N.; Kurylo, M. J.; Kyrölä, E.; Laine, M.; Leblanc, S. T.; Lambert, J.-C.; Liley, B.; Mahieu, E.; Maycock, A.; de Mazière, M.; Parrish, A.; Querel, R.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Roth, C.; Sioris, C.; Staehelin, J.; Stolarski, R. S.; Stübi, R.; Tamminen, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Walker, K.; Wang, H. J.; Wild, J.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised datasets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine – EESC...

  4. Enhancing Control of Built Assets through Computer Aided Design - Past, Present and Emerging Trends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oommen, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the trends in Computer aided drafting and design within the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) industry by examining past, present and emerging technologies, standards, deliverables and stakeholders...

  5. Recent Economic Trends in Colorado's Oil and Gas Industry Martin Shields, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Oil and Gas Industry Martin Shields, Ph.D. Regional Economics Institute Trends in Colorado's Oil and Gas Industry Summary Colorado's economy lost issues affecting its prospects in Colorado. Although the oil and gas industry

  6. Assessing U.S. ESCO industry performance and market trends: Results from the NAESCO database project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborn, Julie; Goldman, Chuck; Hopper, Nicole; Singer, Terry

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance of the U.S. ESCO Industry: Results from theMarket Trends in the U.S. ESCO Industry: Results from theenergy service company (ESCO) industry in the United States.

  7. Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in District Energy Utility Applications, June 2005 Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use...

  8. Cool Trends on Campus: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Campus: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in Campus District Energy Systems, May 2005 Cool Trends on Campus: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in Campus District...

  9. Comment on 'Discussions on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benestad, R E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comment on Scafetta, Nicola. 'Discussion on Common Errors in Analyzing Sea Level Accelerations, Solar Trends and Global Warming.' arXiv:1305.2812 (May 13, 2013a). doi:10.5194/prp-1-37-2013.

  10. Travel Trends Using the Puget Sound Panel Survey: A Generalized Estimating Equations Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yee, Julie; Niemeier, Debbie

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    panel survey for the Puget Sound Region. Trans­ portationTravel trends using the Puget Sound Panel Table 18. Wave 1longitudinal data from the Puget Sound Transportation Panel.

  11. Understanding Wind Turbine Price Trends in the U.S. Over the Past Decade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consequent impacts on wind turbine and wind energy pricing.Bloomberg NEF”). 2011c. Wind Turbine Price Index, Issue V.Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past

  12. Enhancing Control of Built Assets through Computer Aided Design - Past, Present and Emerging Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oommen, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the trends in Computer aided drafting and design within the Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Operations (AECO) industry by examining past, present and emerging technologies, standards, deliverables and stakeholders...

  13. A Web-based Method for Exploring Early Child Development Trends in British Columbia, Canada 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trafford, Katherine L E

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    British Columbian policy-makers, researchers and community organizations make use of maps describing trends in Early Child Development (ECD) to make program decisions and funding allocation based upon the geography of need. ...

  14. Trends and Market Forces Shaping Small Community Air Service in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittman, Michael D.

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Trends and Market Forces Shaping Small Community Air Service in the United States, is the first in a series of papers written under the umbrella of the MIT Small Community Air Service White Paper series. The ...

  15. Examination of temporal DDT trends in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arhonditsis, George B.

    Examination of temporal DDT trends in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling 25 July 2013 Communicated by Dr. Erik Christensen Keywords: DDT Bayesian inference Dynamic linear (DDT) was initially heralded for its effectiveness against malaria and agricultural pests

  16. Trends in pan evaporation and actual evapotranspiration across the conterminous U.S.: Paradoxical or complementary?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramírez, Jorge A.

    increasing trends in ET*a [Szilagyi et al., 2001], GCM-based estimates of evapotrans- piration [Manabe, 1997: the radiative budget and the advective budget. These budgets have been addressed previously [Szilagyi et al

  17. 2013 Data Update: Trends and Market Forces Shaping Small Community Air Service in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittman, M.D.

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is an update to MIT Small Community Air Service White Paper No. 1—Trends and Market Forces Shaping Small Community Air Service in the United States1. This report provides updated analysis and data appendices ...

  18. Trends in North American net primary productivity derived from satellite observations, 1982-1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and solar radiation (dotted curve). Bottom panel in eachand solar radiation (dotted curve). Bottom panel in eachpanel of each plot we show mean monthly trends in d, NDVI, and solar

  19. Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status and Trends in U.S. Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Markets (2010 Data) Jenny Heeter and Lori Bird Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-52925 October 2011 NREL...

  20. Annual Report on U.S. Wind Power Installation, Cost, and Performance Trends: 2007 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on key trends in the U.S. wind power market, with an emphasis on the latest year, and presents a wealth of data, some of which has not historically been mined by wind power analysts.

  1. Demand Response in the U.S.- Key trends and federal facility participation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides demand response (DR) definition, current status of DR in the United States, key DR trends, and federal participation issues.

  2. Method and apparatus for dissociating metals from metal compounds extracted into supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Hunt, Fred H. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dissociating metal-ligand complexes in a supercritical fluid by treating the metal-ligand complex with heat and/or reducing or oxidizing agents is described. Once the metal-ligand complex is dissociated, the resulting metal and/or metal oxide form fine particles of substantially uniform size. In preferred embodiments, the solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the ligand is a .beta.-diketone such as hexafluoroacetylacetone or dibutyldiacetate. In other preferred embodiments, the metals in the metal-ligand complex are copper, silver, gold, tungsten, titanium, tantalum, tin, or mixtures thereof. In preferred embodiments, the reducing agent is hydrogen. The method provides an efficient process for dissociating metal-ligand complexes and produces easily-collected metal particles free from hydrocarbon solvent impurities. The ligand and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated to provide an economic, efficient process.

  3. New beryllium observations in low-metallicity stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Molaro; P. Bonifacio; F. Castelli; L. Pasquini

    1996-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present observations of the Be II 313.0 nm resonance doublet in 14 halo and old disk stars with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H]=-0.4 to about -3.0 obtained with the CASPEC spectrograph of the ESO 3.6m telescope at a FWHM about 8.6 km/s resolution. Abundances are derived by means of the synthetic spectra technique employing Kurucz (1993) atmospheric models, with enhanced alpha-elements and no overshooting. The derived abundances together with those available in literature show that for -2.7 < [Fe/H] < -0.8 Be correlates linearly with iron [Be] proportional to 1.07(+/- 0.08)[Fe/H], giving strength to previous results. However, a steeper correlation is still possible at metallicities lower than [Fe/H]<-1.4 with [Be] proportional to 1.6(+/- 0.44)[Fe/H]. When iron is replaced with oxygen, Be is found tracking closely oxygen up to solar values, without signs of breaking in correspondence of the onset of the Galactic disk. No evidence of intrinsic dispersion is found, ought to the large errors involved in the Be abundance determinations, but for three stars (HD 106516, HD 3795, HD 211998) a significant upper limit in the Be abundance can be placed at about 1 dex below the mean trend of the Be-Fe relation. For such stars non conventional mixing is required to explain Be depletion. Be observations can be used to discriminate strongly Li-depleted stars. These are the stars which show less Li than that expected by high energy cosmic rays production as deduced from Be observations. The available Be observations imply that some of the stars which contribute to the scatter in the Li-Fe diagramme are Li-depleted stars.

  4. Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with formSoutheastern IL ElecStrategicStories HomeSumco Techxiv CorporationMetal

  5. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  6. Onondaga-Bass Island trend - salt detachment structure in western New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patenaude, M.W.; Beardsley, R.W.; Campbell, R.C.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and gas production has been established in the Devonian Onondaga-Silurian Bass Islands stratigraphic section in Chautauque County, New York. The known productive trend is approximately 1.5 mi wide and 30 mi long and strikes northeast-southwest across central Chautauqua County, encompassing over 30,000 ac. This structural feature has been coined the Bass Islands trend. The trend is a complex, multiple horst-graben feature, characterized by high-angle reverse faults associated with a Salina B salt decollement. Over 200 mi of seismic records have been used to delineate the trend. The high-angle reverse fault or fracture zones within the Onondaga-Bass Islands stratigraphic section are the exclusive reservoirs. The productive section is capped by the Devonian Hamilton shales and sealed at the base by the Salina G anhydrite. Nearly 300 wells have been drilled on the structure with 38% having producible capabilities. Some producible wells have been encountered with natural flows and others have been stimulated with varying results. Completion attempts and production efforts have been complicated by the very high oil-paraffin content and the high dissolved solids content of the formation brine. Present development activity in the Onondaga-Bass Islands trend has lessened due to the present market conditions and newly proposed drilling and production regulations by New York State, specifically for the Bass Island trend. Operators are using this slowdown to collect reservoir and production data, evaluate completion and production techniques, observe stimulation effects, and plan future development.

  7. Prevailing climatic trends and runoff response from Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalaya, upper Indus basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasson, Shabeh ul; Lucarini, Valerio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures (Tx, Tn, and Tavg, respectively), diurnal temperature range (DTR) and precipitation from 18 stations (1250-4500 m asl) for their overlapping period of record (1995-2012), and separately, from six stations of their long term record (1961-2012). We apply Mann-Kendall test on serially independent time series to assess existence of a trend while true slope is estimated using Sen s slope method. Further, we statistically assess the spatial scale (field) significance of local climatic trends within ten identified sub-regions of UIB and analyze whether the spatially significant (field significant) climatic trends qualitatively agree with a trend in discharge out of corresponding sub-region. Over the recent period (1995-2012), we find a well agreed and mostly field significant cooling (warming) during monsoon season i.e. July-October (March-May and November), which is higher in magnitude relative to long term trends (1961-2012). We also find ... The observed...

  8. Cusiana trend exploration, Llanos Foothills thrustbelt, Colombia: The opening of a new hydrocarbon province

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, J.; Hayward, T.; Addison, F. (BP Exploration, Bogota (Colombia)); Espinosa, G. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Llanos Foothills petroleum trend of the Eastern Cordillera in Colombia containing the giant Cusiana Field has proven to be one of the most exciting hydrocarbon provinces discovered in recent years. The Llanos Foothills trend is a fold and thrust belt with cumulative discovered reserves to date of nearly 6 billion barrels of oil equivalent. This paper summarizes the critical exploration techniques used in unlocking the potential of this major petroleum system. The first phase of exploration in the Llanos Foothills lasted from the early 1960's to the mid-70's. Several large structures defined by surface geology and seismic data were drilled. Although no major discoveries were made, evidence of a petroleum play was found. The seismic imaging and drilling technology combined with the geological understanding which was then available did not allow the full potential of the trend to be realized. In the late 1980's better data and a revised geological perception of the trend led BP, Triton and Total into active exploration, which resulted in the discovery of the Cusiana Field. The subsequent discovery of the Cupiagua, Volcanera, Florena and Pauto Sur Fields confirmed the trend as a major hydrocarbon province. The exploration programme has used a series of geological and geophysical practices and techniques which have allowed the successful exploitation of the trend. The critical success factor has been the correct application of technology in seismic acquisition and recessing and drilling techniques.

  9. Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  10. Clamshell closure for metal drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanton, Paul S

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Closure ring to retain a lid in contact with a metal drum in central C-section conforming to the contact area between a lid and the rim of a drum and further having a radially inwardly directed flange and a vertically downwardly directed flange attached to the opposite ends of the C-section. The additional flanges reinforce the top of the drum by reducing deformation when the drum is dropped and maintain the lid in contact with the drum. The invention is particularly valuable in transportation and storage of fissile material.

  11. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, Edward F. (P.O. Box 900, Isle of Palms, SC 29451)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF.sub.4 and HNO.sub.3 and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200.degree. C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  12. Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod EggertMercuryAdvancedMetal-Ion-Mediated

  13. Rapid Freeform Sheet Metal Forming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified11 Connecticut2 of 3)theDieselFreeform Sheet Metal

  14. Contour forming of metals by laser peening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz (Rocklin, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are provided for forming shapes and contours in metal sections by generating laser induced compressive stress on the surface of the metal workpiece. The laser process can generate deep compressive stresses to shape even thick components without inducing unwanted tensile stress at the metal surface. The precision of the laser-induced stress enables exact prediction and subsequent contouring of parts. A light beam of 10 to 100 J/pulse is imaged to create an energy fluence of 60 to 200 J/cm.sup.2 on an absorptive layer applied over a metal surface. A tamping layer of water is flowed over the absorptive layer. The absorption of laser light causes a plasma to form and consequently creates a shock wave that induces a deep residual compressive stress into the metal. The metal responds to this residual stress by bending.

  15. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  16. Irradiation behavior of metallic fast reactor fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.; Walters, L.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic fuels were the first fuels chosen for liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMR's). In the late 1960's world-wide interest turned toward ceramic LMR fuels before the full potential of metallic fuel was realized. However, during the 1970's the performance limitations of metallic fuel were resolved in order to achieve a high plant factor at the Argonne National Laboratory's Experimental Breeder Reactor II. The 1980's spawned renewed interest in metallic fuel when the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept emerged at Argonne National Laboratory. A fuel performance demonstration program was put into place to obtain the data needed for the eventual licensing of metallic fuel. This paper will summarize the results of the irradiation program carried out since 1985.

  17. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  18. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  19. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Herbst, R. Scott (Idaho Falls, ID); Romanovskiy, Valeriy N. (St. Petersburg, RU); Smirnov, Igor V. (St.-Petersburg, RU); Babain, Vasily A. (St-Petersburg, RU); Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M. (St-Petersburg, RU)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  20. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.