National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for trending metal oxo

  1. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  3. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the...

  4. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in both in technological and biological processes that are often governed by careful control over the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxygen bonds. For example,...

  5. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy (XAS) has emerged as an effective method for quantitatively probing electronic structure and orbital mixing in molecules and materials. The presence of...

  6. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low energy of the oxygen K-edge (about 530 eV), which magnifies issues associated with surface contamination and self-absorption effects. These challenges were overcome by...

  7. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effects. These challenges were overcome by applying state-of-the-art soft x-ray techniques in conjunction with hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To...

  8. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetic behavior, and conductivity. A better understanding of their behavior would help open up new avenues for innovation in a variety of scientific and technical areas. In this...

  9. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have developed an inexpensive, highly efficient catalyst that can be used in the electrolysis of water to generate H2-a source of clean fuel, a reducing agent for metal ores, and a reactant used to produce hydrochloric acid

  10. Molecular metal-Oxo catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2015-02-24

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition having the general formula [(PY5W.sub.2)MO].sup.2+, wherein PY5W.sub.2 is (NC.sub.5XYZ)(NC.sub.5H.sub.4).sub.4C.sub.2W.sub.2, M is a transition metal, and W, X, Y, and Z can be H, R, a halide, CF.sub.3, or SiR.sub.3, where R can be an alkyl or aryl group. The two accompanying counter anions, in one embodiment, can be selected from the following Cl.sup.-, I.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, and CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water containing electrolyte or straight sea water can be subject to an electric potential of between 1.0 V and 1.4 V relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, which at pH 7 corresponds to an overpotential of 0.6 to 1.0 V, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen with an optimal turnover frequency of ca. 1.5 million mol H.sub.2/mol catalyst per h.

  11. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  12. Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open-Metal Sites ... bond analysis, we study and explain trends in the binding between CO2 and open-metal ...

  13. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

  14. Trends in Formic Acid Decomposition on Model Transition Metal Surfaces: A Density Functional Theory Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herron, Jeffrey A.; Scaranto, Jessica; Ferrin, Peter A.; Li, Sha; Mavrikakis, Manos

    2014-12-05

    We present a first-principles, self-consistent periodic density functional theory (PW91-GGA) study of formic acid (HCOOH) decomposition on model (111) and (100) facets of eight fcc metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ni, Ir, and Rh) and (0001) facets of four hcp (Co, Os, Ru, and Re) metals. The calculated binding energies of key formic acid decomposition intermediates including formate (HCOO), carboxyl (COOH), carbon monoxide (CO), water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydroxyl (OH), carbon (C), oxygen (O), and hydrogen (H; H2) are presented. Using these energetics, we develop thermochemical potential energy diagrams for both the carboxyl-mediated and the formate-mediated dehydrogenation mechanisms on each surface. We evaluate the relative stability of COOH, HCOO, and other isomeric intermediates (i.e., CO + OH, CO2 + H, CO + O + H) on these surfaces. These results provide insights into formic acid decomposition selectivity (dehydrogenation versus dehydration), and in conjunction with calculated vibrational frequency modes, the results can assist with the experimental search for the elusive carboxyl (COOH) surface intermediate. Results are compared against experimental reports in the literature.

  15. Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts for ... Title: Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts ...

  16. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  17. Trends in Methanol Decomposition on Transition Metal Alloy Clusters from Scaling and BrnstedEvansPolanyi Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Rankin, Rees B.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-05-15

    A combination of ?rst principles Density Functional Theory calculations and thermochemical scaling relationships are employed to estimate the thermochemistry and kinetics of methanol decomposition on unsupported subnanometer metal clusters. The approach uses binding energies of various atomic and molecular species, determined on the pure metal clusters, to develop scaling relationships that are then further used to estimate the methanol decomposition thermodynamics for a series of pure and bimetallic clusters with four atoms per cluster. Additionally, activation energy barriers are estimated from BrnstedEvansPolanyi plots relating transition and ?nal state energies on these clusters. The energetic results are combined with a simple, microkineticallyinspired rate expression to estimate reaction rates as a function of important catalytic descriptors, including the carbon and atomic oxygen binding energies to the clusters. Based on these analyses, several alloy clusters are identi?ed as promising candidates for the methanol decomposition reaction.

  18. A single crystalline porphyrinic titanium metalorganic framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Shuai; Liu, Tian -Fu; Feng, Dawei; Tian, Jian; Wang, Kecheng; Qin, Junsheng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Ying -Pin; Bosch, Mathieu; Zou, Lanfang; et al

    2015-04-28

    We successfully assembled the photocatalytic titanium-oxo cluster and photosensitizing porphyrinic linker into a metalorganic framework (MOF), namely PCN-22. A preformed titanium-oxo carboxylate cluster is adopted as the starting material to judiciously control the MOF growth process to afford single crystals. This synthetic method is useful to obtain highly crystalline titanium MOFs, which has been a daunting challenge in this field. Moreover, PCN-22 demonstrated permanent porosity and photocatalytic activities toward alcohol oxidation.

  19. Alkane functionalization at ([mu]-Oxo)diiron(III) centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leising, R.A.; Kim, J.; Perez, M.A.; Que, L. Jr. )

    1993-10-20

    The reactivity of ([mu]-oxo)diferric complexes with [sup t]BuOOH (TBHP) for the functionalization of alkanes in CH[sub 3]CN has been investigated as part of our efforts to model dinuclear sites in nonheme iron enzymes. [Fe[sub 2](TPA)[sub 2]O(OAc)](CIO[sub 4])[sub 3] (1) (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, OAc = acetate) is an efficient catalyst for cyclohexane oxidation, affording cyclohexanol (A, 9 equiv), cyclohexanone (K, 11 equiv), and (tert-butylperoxy)cyclohexane (P, 16 equiv) in 0.25 h at ambient temperature and pressure under an argon atmosphere. The catalyst is remarkably robust, as indicated by the [sup 1]H NMR and UV-vis spectra of the reaction mixture during the catalytic reaction and by its ability to maintain its turnover efficiency with subsequent additions of oxidant. The catalytic mechanism for TBHP utilization was explored by observing the effects of varying the tripodal ligands on the ([mu]-oxo)([mu]-carboxylato)diferric catalysts and varying the bridge on Fe[sub 2]O(TPA)[sub 2] catalysts. The (A + K)/P ratio increased as the ligands became more electron donating. Solvent also played an important role in determining the partitioning of products between A + K and P, with benzonitrile favoring hydroxylated products at the expense of P and pyridine having the opposite effect. 49 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Electrostatic Cooperativity of Hydroxyl Groups at Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boily, Jean F.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2009-09-24

    The O-H bond distribution of hydroxyl groups at the {110} goethite (R-FeOOH) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics. This distribution was strongly affected by electrostatic interactions with neighboring oxo and hydroxo groups. The effects of proton surface loading, simulated by emplacing two protons at different distances of separation, were diverse and generated several sets of O-H bond distributions. DFT calculations of a representative molecular cluster were also carried out to demonstrate the impact of these effects on the orientation of oxygen lone pairs in neighboring oxo groups. These effects should have strong repercussions on O-H stretching vibrations of metal oxide surfaces.h

  1. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces Working title - Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces There are over 4,500 known halogenated natural products. The presence of a halogen in the molecular framework tunes a compound's chemical reactivity or biological activity in these natural fungicides and antibiotics. Four classes of enzymes are now known to catalyze

  2. A nanotubular metal-organic framework with permanent porosity : structure analysis and gas sorption studies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Simmons, J. M.; Li, J. R.; Yuan, D.; Weng, W.; Liu, D. J.; Zhou, H. C.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Texas A&M Univ.; NIST

    2009-01-01

    A nanotubular metal-organic framework, PCN-19, was constructed based on a micro3-oxo-trinickel basic carboxylate secondary building unit (SBU) and the 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylate ligand; its permanent porosity was confirmed by N2 adsorption isotherms, and its H2 storage performances were evaluated under both low and high pressures at 77 K.

  3. Trends in stationary energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    Trends in Stationary Energy Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review

  4. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  5. Metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, J.R.; Kherani, N.P.

    1987-11-01

    Metal hydride information is not available for most hydrides in a consolidated quick-reference source. This report's objective is to fill the need for such a document providing basic thermodynamic data for as many metal hydrides as possible. We conduced a computerized library search to access as many sources as possible and screened each source for such thermodynamic data as pressure-temperature graphs, van't Hoff curves, and impurity effects. We included any other relevant information and commented on it. A primary concern to be investigated in the future is the behavior of metal tritides. This would be important in the area of emergency tritium cleanup systems. The hydride graphs are useful, however, as tritides may be expected in most cases to behave similarly and at least follow trends of their respective hydrides. 42 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Visible Light-Induced Electron Transfer from Di-mu-oxo Bridged Dinuclear Mn Complexes to Cr Centers in Silica Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frei, Heinz; Weare, Walter W.; Pushkar, Yulia; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-03

    The compound (bpy)2MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV(bpy)2, a structural model relevant for the photosynthetic water oxidation complex, was coupled to single CrVI charge-transfer chromophores in the channels of the nanoporous oxide AlMCM-41. Mn K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy confirmed that the di-mu-oxo dinuclear Mn core of the complex is unaffected when loaded into the nanoscale pores. Observation of the 16-line EPR signal characteristic of MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV demonstrates that the majority of the loaded complexes retained their nascent oxidation state in the presence or absence of CrVI centers. The FT-Raman spectrum upon visible light excitation of the CrVI-OII --> CrV-OI ligand-to-metal charge-transfer reveals electron transfer from MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 700 cm-1) to CrVI, resulting in the formation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 645 cm-1). All initial and final states are directly observed by FT-Raman or EPR spectroscopy, and the assignments corroborated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. The endoergic charge separation products (DELTA Eo = -0.6 V) remain after several minutes, which points to spatial separation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV as a consequence of hole (OI) hopping as a major contributing mechanism. This is the first observation of visible light-induced oxidation of a potential water oxidation complex by a metal charge-transfer pump in a nanoporous environment. These findings will allow for the assembly and photochemical characterization of well defined transition metal molecular units, with the ultimate goal of performing endothermic, multi-electron transformations that are coupled to visible light electron pumps in nanostructured scaffolds.

  7. Tuning the reactivity of mononuclear nonheme manganese(iv)-oxo complexes by triflic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junying; Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong -Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-04-14

    Triflic acid (HOTf)-bound nonheme Mn(IV)-oxo complexes, [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 (L = N4Py and Bn-TPEN; N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine and Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized by adding HOTf to the solutions of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes and were characterized by various spectroscopies. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes exhibited a significant positive shift upon binding of HOTf. The driving force dependences of electron transfer (ET) from electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)(HOTf)2 complexes were examined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of ET to determine the reorganization energies of ET. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentials of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 complexes resulted in greatly enhanced oxidation capacity towards one-electron reductants and para-X-substituted-thioanisoles. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were markedly enhanced by binding of HOTf, such as a 6.4 105-fold increase in the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reaction (i.e., sulfoxidation). Such a remarkable acceleration in the OAT reaction results from the enhancement of ET from para-X-substituted-thioanisoles to the MnIV(O) complexes as revealed by the unified ET driving force dependence of the rate constants of OAT and ET reactions of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2. In contrast, deceleration was observed in the rate of H-atom transfer (HAT) reaction of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 complexes with 1,4-cyclohexadiene as compared with those of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes. Thus, the binding of two HOTf molecules to the MnIV(O) moiety resulted in remarkable acceleration of the ET rate when

  8. Tuning the reactivity of mononuclear nonheme manganese(iv)-oxo complexes by triflic acid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Junying; Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong -Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-04-14

    Triflic acid (HOTf)-bound nonheme Mn(IV)-oxo complexes, [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 (L = N4Py and Bn-TPEN; N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine and Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized by adding HOTf to the solutions of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes and were characterized by various spectroscopies. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes exhibited a significant positive shift upon binding of HOTf. The driving force dependences of electron transfer (ET) from electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)–(HOTf)2 complexes were examined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of ET to determine the reorganization energies of ET. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentialsmore » of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 complexes resulted in greatly enhanced oxidation capacity towards one-electron reductants and para-X-substituted-thioanisoles. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were markedly enhanced by binding of HOTf, such as a 6.4 × 105-fold increase in the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reaction (i.e., sulfoxidation). Such a remarkable acceleration in the OAT reaction results from the enhancement of ET from para-X-substituted-thioanisoles to the MnIV(O) complexes as revealed by the unified ET driving force dependence of the rate constants of OAT and ET reactions of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2. In contrast, deceleration was observed in the rate of H-atom transfer (HAT) reaction of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 complexes with 1,4-cyclohexadiene as compared with those of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes. Thus, the binding of two HOTf molecules to the MnIV(O) moiety resulted in remarkable acceleration of the ET rate when the ET is thermodynamically feasible. When the ET reaction is highly endergonic, the rate of the HAT reaction is decelerated due to the steric effect of the counter anion of HOTf.« less

  9. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Donofrio Ford Motor Company Trends in Workplace Charging Est EV NA NA approx 21 70-100 Miles: What Types of Chargers are Being Used? Considerations for Campus Installations *...

  10. Metal dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edited by K. Natesan

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

  11. A trinuclear oxo-chromium(III) complex containing the natural flavonoid primuletin: Synthesis, characterization, and antiradical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Alexiou, Anamaria D.P.; Decandio, Carla C.; Almeida, Sabrina da N.; Ferreira, Marcelo J.P.; Romoff, Paulete

    2015-04-10

    A new trinuclear oxo-centered chromium(III) complex with formula [Cr₃O(CH₃CO₂)₆(L)(H₂O)₂] (L = 5-hydroxyflavone, known as primuletin) was synthetized and characterized by ESI mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, and ¹H-NMR, UV-Vis, and FTIR spectroscopies. In agreement with the experimental results, DFT calculations indicated that the flavonoid ligand is coordinated to one of the three Cr(III) centers in an O,O-bidentate mode through the 5-hydroxy/4-keto groups. In a comparative study involving the uncoordinated primuletin and its corresponding complex, systematic reactions with the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) showed that antiradical activity increases upon complexation.

  12. Powertrain Trends and Future Potential

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Trends and Future Potential * Global Trends - Fighting Global Warming * Clean Diesel - Neglected in the U.S. for Too Long Agenda DSNE-NA | August 4, 2009 | Robert ...

  13. Trends in Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koester, C J; Moulik, A

    2005-03-31

    This article discusses developments in environmental analytical chemistry that occurred in the years of 2003 and 2004. References were found by searching the ''Science Citation Index and Current Contents''. As in our review of two years ago (A1), techniques are highlighted that represent current trends and state-of-the-art technologies in the sampling, extraction, separation, and detection of trace concentrations, low-part-per-billion and less, of organic, inorganic, and organometallic contaminants in environmental samples. New analytes of interest are also reviewed, the detections of which are made possible by recently developed analytical instruments and methods.

  14. Storage Trends and Summaries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summaries Storage Trends and Summaries Total Bytes Utilized The growth in NERSC's storage systems amounts to roughly 1.7x per year. Total Bytes Utilized Number of Files Stored The growth in the number of files stored is less than the growth in the number of bytes stored as the average file size has increased over time. The average file size as of August 2003 is about 30 MB. The median file size is closer to 1 MB. Number of Files Monthly I/O The growth rate of I/O is roughly the same as the

  15. Trends of petroleum fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E.M.; Woodward, P.W.

    1985-02-01

    Trends in properties of motor gasolines for the years 1942 through 1984; diesel fuels for the years 1950 through 1983; aviation fuels for the years 1947 through 1983; and heating oils for the years 1955 through 1984, have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys prepared and published by the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) formerly the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). The surveys for motor gasolines were conducted under a cooperative agreement with the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) and the Bureau of Mines from 1935 through 1948 and in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948 for all surveys. The motor gasoline surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines throughout the country. Other surveys prepared in cooperation with API and the Bureau of Mines, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Department of Energy, and currently NIPER were aviation gasolines beginning in 1947, diesel fuels in 1950, aviation turbine fuels in 1951, and heating oils, formerly burner fuel oils, in 1955. Various companies throughout the country obtain samples of motor gasolines from retail outlets and refinery samples for the other surveys, and analyze the samples using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures. The analytical data are sent to the Bartlesville Center for survey preparation and distribution. A summary report has been assembled from data in 83 semiannual surveys for motor gasolines that shows trends throughout the entire era from winter 19

  16. Occurrence Reporting Trends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occurrence Reporting Trends Occurrence Reporting Trends July 19, 2012 Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information (ORPS): Five Year Trends - Corporate Analysis of ...

  17. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  18. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings Trend Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Figure 2. 1989 to 1999 building trend with 95% confidence ranges...

  19. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Trends in Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Part 1. Energy Consumption Data Tables Total Energy Intensity Intensity by Energy Source Background: Site and Primary Energy Trends in Energy Consumption and Energy Sources Part...

  20. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  1. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  2. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  3. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  4. Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

  5. Energy Perspectives: Trends and Milestones

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    Energy Perspectives is a graphical overview of energy history in the United States. The 43 graphs shown here reveal sweeping trends related to the nation's production, consumption, and trade of energy from 1949 through 2011.

  6. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack McCaslin

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species like high-valent metal-oxo complexes and carbon and oxygen centered radicals are important intermediates in enzymatic systems, atmospheric chemistry, and industrial processes. Understanding the pathways by which these intermediates form, their relative reactivity, and their fate after reactions is of the utmost importance. Herein are described the mechanistic detail for the generation of several reactive intermediates, synthesis of precursors, characterization of precursors, and methods to direct the chemistry to more desirable outcomes yielding ‘greener’ sources of commodity chemicals and fuels.

  7. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galonic Fujimori,D.; Barr, E.; Matthews, M.; Koch, G.; Yonce, J.; Walsh, C.; Bollinger, J.; Krebs, C.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.

    2007-01-01

    The complex of the mononuclear non-heme halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces, Fe(II), {alpha}-ketoglutarate, bromide, and the substrate l-2-aminobutyryl-S-CytC2 reacts with O2 to form a reaction intermediate. Variable-field, freeze-quench Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals this intermediate to be a mixture of two high-spin Fe(IV) complexes in an approximate 3.7/1 ratio. Freeze-quench Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides further insight into the structure of this intermediate. A short 1.62-Angstroms interaction between the Fe and one of its ligands is attributed to the Fe(IV)-oxo group, and a 2.43-Angstroms interaction is assigned to the Fe-Br interaction. A significantly longer Fe-Br separation (2.53 Angstroms) is observed in the reactant complex, consistent with lower valency of the Fe in the reactant complex. This intermediate is the first example for a Br-Fe(IV)-oxo complex in a protein and provides evidence for a unifying mechanism for Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and halogenases.

  8. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the -Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CyTc3 From Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimori, D.Galonic; Barr, E.W.; Matthews, M.L.; Koch, G.M.; Yonce, J.R.; Walsh, C.T.; Bollinger, J.M., Jr.; Krebs, C.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.J.

    2009-06-01

    The complex of the mononuclear non-heme halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces, Fe(II), {alpha}-ketoglutarate, bromide, and the substrate l-2-aminobutyryl-S-CytC2 reacts with O{sub 2} to form a reaction intermediate. Variable-field, freeze-quench Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals this intermediate to be a mixture of two high-spin Fe(IV) complexes in an approximate 3.7/1 ratio. Freeze-quench Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides further insight into the structure of this intermediate. A short 1.62-{angstrom} interaction between the Fe and one of its ligands is attributed to the Fe(IV)-oxo group, and a 2.43-{angstrom} interaction is assigned to the Fe-Br interaction. A significantly longer Fe-Br separation (2.53 {angstrom}) is observed in the reactant complex, consistent with lower valency of the Fe in the reactant complex. This intermediate is the first example for a Br-Fe(IV)-oxo complex in a protein and provides evidence for a unifying mechanism for Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and halogenases.

  9. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  10. Bio-Oxo Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is it difficult? Aldehydes are more toxic to bacterial cells than alcohols. Toxins and inhibitors such as acetate, formate and 5- (hydroxymethyl)furfural are created ...

  11. Method of CO and/or CO.sub.2 hydrogenation using doped mixed-metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Abdelsayed, Victor; Smith, Mark W.; Spivey, James J.

    2015-10-06

    A method of hydrogenation utilizing a reactant gas mixture comprising a carbon oxide and a hydrogen agent, and a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a mixed-metal oxide containing metal sites supported and/or incorporated into the lattice. The mixed-metal oxide comprises a perovskite, a pyrochlore, a fluorite, a brownmillerite, or mixtures thereof doped at the A-site or the B-site. The metal site may comprise a deposited metal, where the deposited metal is a transition metal, an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or mixtures thereof. Contact between the carbon oxide, hydrogen agent, and hydrogenation catalyst under appropriate conditions of temperature, pressure and gas flow rate generate a hydrogenation reaction and produce a hydrogenated product made up of carbon from the carbon oxide and some portion of the hydrogen agent. The carbon oxide may be CO, CO.sub.2, or mixtures thereof and the hydrogen agent may be H.sub.2. In a particular embodiment, the hydrogenated product comprises an alcohol, an olefin, an aldehyde, a ketone, an ester, an oxo-product, or mixtures thereof.

  12. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G.; Boensch, F.D.; Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M.

    1993-05-01

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  13. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Hydrides Theodore Motyka Savannah River National Laboratory Metal Hydride System Architect Jose-Miguel Pasini, & Bart van Hassel UTRC Claudio Corgnale & Bruce Hardy SRNL Kevin Simmons and Mark Weimar PNNL Darsh Kumar GM, Matthew Thornton NREL, Kevin Drost OSU DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive Applications 2 Outline * Background and MH History * MH HSECoE Results * Material Operating Requirements * Modeling and Analyses * BOP and

  14. Trends in independent power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    A 33-person panel recently convened by Future Technology Surveys, Inc., identified a series of the most important IPP trends to have occurred int the past five years, and forecast what will happen in this volatile market over the next five years. The survey was designed to present viewpoints of experts in the United States and was intentionally not international in scope. The most important trends from 1989--1994 are ranked in order of importance as: global market; retail wheeling/open access; exempt wholesale generators (EWGs); Energy Policy Act 1992; increased competition; transmission (better access and policy changes); consolidation of industry; bulk power marketing and sales; open competitive bidding; and almost exclusive shift to large gas projects. There is shift in emphasis, and the introduction of new trends, in IPP executive prediction for the future (1995--1999). Their views, in order of importance, are: retail wheeling; increased globalization; consolidation of industry; competition and direct competition with utilities; open access transmission; restructuring of entire power utility industry; deregulation; electricity as a commodity; and unbundling of integrated monopolies.

  15. Metal detector technology data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.; Song, Yujiang; Pereira, Eulalia F.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2010-08-31

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-amino-7-methyl-5-oxo-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c] pyran-3-carbonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.; Banerjee, B.; Brahmachari, G.; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-12-15

    2-Amino-7-methyl-5-oxo-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c] pyran-3-carbonitrile, C{sub 16}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 3} is synthesized via one-pot multi-component reaction at room temperature using commercially available urea as inexpensive and environmentally benign organo-catalyst. Its structure is determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique The crystals are monoclinic, a = 10.7357(12), b = 8.7774(8), c = 15.0759(16) Å, β = 103.575(11)°, Z = 4, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, R = 0.0551 for 1696 observed reflections. The crystal structure is stabilized by N–H···N, C–H···O, and C–H···π interactions.

  18. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  19. Trends in packaged steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  20. METAL COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1959-02-01

    Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

  1. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010 Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010 Overview of building trends ...

  2. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  3. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  4. Petroleum 1996 - issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Increasingly, users of the Energy Information Administration`s petroleum data and analytical reports have expressed an interest in a recurring report that takes a broad view of the petroleum sector. What is sought is some perspective on the complex interrelationships that comprise an industry and markets accounting for 40 percent of the energy consumed in the United States and ranging from the drilling rig in the oil field to the pump at the local gasoline station. This report comprehensively examines historical trends, and selectively focuses on major issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to a common theme, in this case, the volatility in petroleum markets.

  5. Trends in stationary energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trends in stationary energy Trends in stationary energy Trends in Stationary Energy Lunch Presentation for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review stationaryenergy_mccormick_040213.pdf (816.41 KB) More Documents & Publications The Water-Energy Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities Capturing the Benefits of Integrated Resource Management for Water & Electricity Utilities and their Partners QER Public Meeting in San Francisco, CA: The Water-Energy Nexus

  6. Isotopic Trends in Production of Superheavies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Zubov, A.S.; Scheid, W.

    2005-11-21

    The isotopic trends are discussed for cold and hot fusion reactions leading to superheavies. The possibilities of production of new isotopes in incomplete fusion reactions are treated.

  7. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Home > Trends in Commercial Buildings > Energy Consumption - Part 1> Site Energy Consumption Tables Table 1. Total site energy consumption, relative standard errors, and 95%...

  8. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency, call slides and discussion summary, January 22, 2015.

  9. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Introduction

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    series of surveys in each sector reveals the trends in energy use for the sector. Introduction The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects data from a...

  10. Energy Project Incentive Funds: Updates and Trends

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the energy project incentive fund updates and trends and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  11. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  12. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  13. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  14. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  15. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  16. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  17. Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    Natural Gas 1998: Issues and Trends provides a summary of the latest data and information relating to the US natural gas industry, including prices, production, transmission, consumption, and the financial and environmental aspects of the industry. The report consists of seven chapters and five appendices. Chapter 1 presents a summary of various data trends and key issues in today`s natural gas industry and examines some of the emerging trends. Chapters 2 through 7 focus on specific areas or segments of the industry, highlighting some of the issues associated with the impact of natural gas operations on the environment. 57 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  19. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003 - Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Trends in Commercial Buildings Sector-1979 to 2003 Since the first CBECS in 1979, the commercial buildings sector has increased in size. From 1979 to 2003: The number of commercial...

  20. Quality Procedure- Causal Analysis and Trending

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Quality Procedure describes the process for reviewing and analyzing the cause(s) of issues and findings identified from the Office of Quality Assurance oversight activities and reporting trends as a result of this review.

  1. Prices & Trends | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy » Prices & Trends Prices & Trends Daily wholesale and retail prices for various energy products, including spot prices and select futures prices at national or regional levels. Prices are updated each weekday (excluding federal holidays), typically between 7:30 and 8:30 a.m | Photo courtesy EIA Daily wholesale and retail prices for various energy products, including spot prices and select futures prices at national or regional levels. Prices are updated each weekday (excluding

  2. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. II. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF 190 METAL-POOR STARS INCLUDING 10 NEW STARS WITH [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5 , ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, David; Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Asplund, M.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, Timothy C.; Barklem, P. S.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 16 elements in 190 metal-poor Galactic halo stars (38 program and 152 literature objects). The sample includes 171 stars with [Fe/H] {<=} -2.5, of which 86 are extremely metal poor, [Fe/H] {<=} -3.0. Our program stars include 10 new objects with [Fe/H] {<=} -3.5. We identify a sample of 'normal' metal-poor stars and measure the trends between [X/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the dispersion about the mean trend for this sample. Using this mean trend, we identify objects that are chemically peculiar relative to 'normal' stars at the same metallicity. These chemically unusual stars include CEMP-no objects, one star with high [Si/Fe], another with high [Ba/Sr], and one with unusually low [X/Fe] for all elements heavier than Na. The Sr and Ba abundances indicate that there may be two nucleosynthetic processes at lowest metallicity that are distinct from the main r-process. Finally, for many elements, we find a significant trend between [X/Fe] versus T {sub eff}, which likely reflects non-LTE and/or three-dimensional effects. Such trends demonstrate that care must be exercised when using abundance measurements in metal-poor stars to constrain chemical evolution and/or nucleosynthesis predictions.

  3. REFRACTORY METAL TUBE DRAWING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, C.H.; Karasek, F.J.

    1963-01-29

    A lubricant for drawing Zr and other refractory metals is described. Metallic Cu powder is added to a solution of acrylic resin in chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent. (AEC)

  4. Highly Fluorescent Group 13 Metal Complexes with Cyclic, Aromatic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Michael; Moore, Evan G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-11

    The neutral complexes of two ligands based on the 1-oxo-2-hydroxy-isoquinoline (1,2-HOIQO) motif with group 13 metals (Al, Ga, In) show bright blue-violet luminescence in organic solvents. The corresponding transition can be attributed to ligand-centered singlet emission, characterized by a small Stokes shifts of only a few nm combined with lifetimes in the range between 1-3 ns. The fluorescence efficiency is high, with quantum yields of up to 37% in benzene solution. The crystal structure of one of the indium(III) complexes (trigonal space group R-3, a = b = 13.0384(15) {angstrom}, c = 32.870(8) {angstrom}, ? = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, V = 4839.3(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 6) shows a six-coordinate geometry around the indium center which is close to trigonal-prismatic, with a twist angle between the two trigonal faces of 20.7{sup o}. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations (Al and Ga: B3LYP/6-31G(d)); In: B3LYP/LANL2DZ of the fac and mer isomers with one of the two ligands indicate that there is no clear preference for either one of the isomeric forms of the metal complexes. In addition, the metal centers do not have a significant influence on the electronic structure, and as a consequence, on the predominant intraligand optical transitions.

  5. Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, ...

  6. TrendSetter Solar Products Inc aka Trendsetter Industries formerly...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TrendSetter Solar Products Inc aka Trendsetter Industries formerly Six River Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: TrendSetter Solar Products Inc (aka Trendsetter Industries,...

  7. Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by Anthropogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by Anthropogenic Climate Change? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Are GRACE-era Terrestrial Water Trends Driven by ...

  8. NERSC User Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC NERSC User Day February 13 - Trends, Discovery, and Innovation in HPC February 10, 2013 by Francesca Verdier All members ...

  9. Jefferson Lab - Future Trends in Nuclear Physics Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trends2016 Privacy and Security Notice PREX - Credit:NASA LINKS Circular Registration Program Lodging Travel Visa Participants List Child Care Program print version Trends 2016 ...

  10. Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies - Slower Growth Ahead? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Recent Trends in Car Usage in Advanced Economies -...

  11. Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, OAPM Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, ...

  12. Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and What's Challenging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trends in Multifamily Programs: What's Working and What's Challenging Better Buildings Residential Network Multifamily Low-Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Multifamily ...

  13. UNEP Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009 Report Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNEP Global Trends in Sustainable Energy Investment 2009...

  14. Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India and South Africa Jump to: navigation, search Name Corporate Clean Energy Investment Trends in Brazil, China, India...

  15. UNEP-Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNEP-Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment 2011 AgencyCompany...

  16. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency, call slides and ...

  17. METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1958-03-01

    This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

  18. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  19. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  20. Trends in motor gasolines: 1942-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W

    1982-06-01

    Trends in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include trend charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows trends in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. Trends of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation temperatures, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are trend effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.

  1. Subsea production systems -- Trends in the nineties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes recent subsea production system experience, with focus on cost reduction trends which are expected to continue throughout the remainder of the decade. First, the system configuration trend from large, heavy, multi-well integrated drilling template and production/injection manifold systems to small, lightweight, ``minitemplate`` systems or clustered well manifolds with individual satellite wells is addressed. Second, several equipment technology trends are addressed including towed flowline bundles with integral manifolds, development of improved reservoir management/data acquisition tools, subsea pressure boosting to extend the reach of subsea systems, emergence of the rental tool market and ``tool pools``, ``horizontal`` trees for certain applications, and standardization of subsea components and interfaces. This paper concludes that subsea production systems have successfully demonstrated their overall reliability, and have established a proven track record over the past thirty years of field experience. System configuration and equipment technology trends in the nineties are now improving the profitability and capability of subsea production systems. Subsea production system examples are cited along with generic costs to illustrate the effectiveness of these cost reduction trends. 12 figs.

  2. Amorphous metal composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Martin A. (Troy, NY); Lupinski, John H. (Scotia, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  3. Trends and balances: 1985-1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This is the seventh edition of Trends and Balances to be presented to the staff of Oak Ridge National (ORNL) and other interested parties. Each year at the end of the planning cycle the Laboratory publishes its official planning document, the Institutional Plan. Trends and Balances is brought out as a condensation of that more formal document and is intended to provide a reference to the kinds of plans that have occupied senior laboratory management over the past year. An institution as large as ORNL changes slowly, so some of the information in this document overlaps that contained in the previous edition of Trends and Balances. Much, however, is different. A new section, for example, describes what senior Laboratory management feels are five new directions for science and technology at ORNL. This document is intended to provide new insights into the programs and structure of the Laboratory.

  4. Coal Fired Power Generation Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Fired Power Generation Market Trends Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  5. Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Household Vehicles Energy Use Cover Page Cover Page of Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends...

  6. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  7. Household Vehicles Energy Use: Latest Data & Trends

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E : C H R O N O L O G Y O F W O R L D O I L M A R K E T E V E N T S ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATIONHOUSEHOLD VEHICLES ENERGY USE: LATEST DATA & TRENDS 177 APPENDIX E A P P E N D...

  8. TMACS Test Procedure TP002: Trending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-05-31

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Trending functions.

  9. TMACS Test Procedure TP002: Trending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanlan, P.K.

    1994-08-29

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project`s acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Trending functions.

  10. INEEL Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Trend Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shropshire, David Earl; Teel, Dale Milton

    2000-02-01

    The objective of the INEEL GHG Inventory and Trend Analysis is to establish INEEL expertise in carbon management decision making and policy analysis. This FY-99 effort is the first step toward placing the INEEL in a leadership role within the DOE laboratories to support carbon management systems and analysis.

  11. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-06-03

    An electrochemical cell is described having a metal anode selected from the group consisting of zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and, an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal having the same metal as the metal of the anode, the improvement comprising: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte consisting solely of a tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt, which salt is soluble of water and forms and substantially water immiscible liquid bromine complex at temperatures in the range of about 10/sup 0/C. to about 60/sup 0/C. and wherein the tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt is selected from asymmetric quaternary ammonium compounds.

  12. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  13. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  14. Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao; Yue, Qu

    2013-11-07

    We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13? and ?7? for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

  15. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  16. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-10-11

    A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  17. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Toops, Todd J; Tortorelli, Peter F; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Pihl, Josh A; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Rakowski, Jim; EstevezGenCell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Effort devoted to scale up and demonstration of thin stamped metallic bipolar plates. Overall goal is to demonstrate potential for metallic bipolar plates to meet 5000 h automotive durability goal at a cost of less than $5/kW.

  18. MECS 2006- Fabricated Metals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Fabricated Metals (NAICS 332) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  19. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  20. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  1. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  2. Conservation trend indicators. Interim and final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, C.

    1980-08-21

    This report outlines major conservation trends for the four US energy consuming sectors: residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation. Tables on residential use include data on gas, electricity, and fuel oil. Data is not available for renewable sources or for bottled gas, kerosene, or propane. Commercial data is also reported for gas, electricity, and fuel oil, and total consumption is examined on a square foot basis. Industrial trends are shown for the ten most energy intensive industries. In addition, industrial efficiencies by fuel are analyzed. For the transportation sector, petroleum products (particularly gasoline) are the major fuels considered, and selected energy intensities are examined. The discussion on each sector will cover findings, data sources, and data interpretation. Recommendations on reporting are part of the residential section of this report.

  3. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  4. World mineral exploration trends and economic issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, J.E.; Eggert, R.G. . Dept. of Mineral Economics); Landsberg, H.H. )

    1988-01-01

    The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded.

  5. Volatile Species Retention During Metallic Fuel Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall S. Fielding; Douglas L. Proter

    2013-10-01

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Bases on these results it is very probably that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  6. Trends in characteristics of hazardous waste-derived fuel burned for energy recovery in cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, M.G.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Cement Kiln Recycling Coalition (CKRC) is a national trade association representing virtually all the U.S. cement companies involved in the use of waste-derived fuel in the cement manufacturing process as well as those companies involved in the collection, processing, managing, and marketing of such fuel. CKRC, in conjunction with the National Association of Chemical Recyclers (NACR), completed several data collection activities over the past two years to provide the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other interested parties with industry-wide trend analyses. The analyses evaluated the content of specific metals in waste fuels utilized by cement kilns, average Btu value of substitute fuels used by kilns, and provides insight into the trends of these properties. With the exception of the data collected by NACR, the study did not evaluate materials sent to hazardous waste incinerators or materials that are combusted at {open_quotes}on-site{close_quotes} facilities.

  7. Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-(35S)thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-(35S)cysteine or L-(35S)methionine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coloso, R.M.; Hirschberger, L.L.; Stipanuk, M.H. )

    1991-09-01

    The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-(35S)thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-(35S)cysteine and L-(35S)methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of (35S)OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of (35S)cysteine or (35S)methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine.

  8. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  9. Trends in U.S. Residential Natural Gas Consumption

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of residential natural gas consumption trends in the United States through 2009 and analyzes consumption trends for the United States as a whole (1990 through 2009) and for each Census division (1998 through 2009).

  10. EIA Energy Efficiency-Manufacturing Industry Trend Data, 1998...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Trends 1998, 2002, and 2006 Manufacturing Industry Trend Data 1998, 2002, and 2006 (NAICS) Page Last Modified: May 2010 Below are data from the 1998, 2002, and 2006 Manufacturing...

  11. New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind New Report Shows Downward Trend in LCOE for Wind May 18, 2015 - 2:48pm Addthis A new report recently published by the U.S. ...

  12. Workforce Trends in the Electric Utility Industry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trends in the Electric Utility Industry Workforce Trends in the Electric Utility Industry Section 1101 of the U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT)1 calls for a report on the current trends in the workforce of (A) skilled technical personnel that support energy technology industries, and (B) electric power and transmission engineers. It also requests that the Secretary make recommendations (as appropriate) to meet the future labor requirements. Workforce Trends in the Electric Utility Industry

  13. RetTrendReport1205.doc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RetTrendReport1205.doc&#0; RetTrendReport1205.doc&#0; RetTrendReport1205.doc&#0; (2.58 MB) More Documents & Publications Pension Plans for Contractor Workers April 1-10 comments.doc&#0; POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #39 Phased Retirement

  14. Advanced Engine Trends, Challenges and Opportunities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine Trends, Challenges and Opportunities Advanced Engine Trends, Challenges and Opportunities Presents mega trends for future powertrains facing energy diversity and powertrain efficiency issues deer11_taub.pdf (4.86 MB) More Documents & Publications Looking From A Hilltop: Automotive Propulsion System Technology Quarterly Biomass Program/Clean Cities State Web Conference: May 6, 2010 Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy

  15. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  16. Trends in Microfabrication Capabilities & Device Architectures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Todd; Jones, Adam; Lentine, Anthony L.; Mudrick, John; Okandan, Murat; Rodrigues, Arun F.

    2015-06-01

    The last two decades have seen an explosion in worldwide R&D, enabling fundamentally new capabilities while at the same time changing the international technology landscape. The advent of technologies for continued miniaturization and electronics feature size reduction, and for architectural innovations, will have many technical, economic, and national security implications. It is important to anticipate possible microelectronics development directions and their implications on US national interests. This report forecasts and assesses trends and directions for several potentially disruptive microfabrication capabilities and device architectures that may emerge in the next 5-10 years.

  17. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs. It is important to note that this report covers only a portion of voluntary markets for renewable energy. It does not cover green power sold by independent marketers except for cases in which the marketers work in conjunction with utilities or default electricity suppliers.

  18. Consumption trend analysis in the industrial sector: Regional historical trends. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Data on the use of natural gas, electricity, distillate and residual fuel oil, coal, and purchased coke were collected from the United States Bureau of the Census and aggregated nationally and by Census Region. Trend profiles for each fuel and industry were developed and economic, regulatory, and regional factors contributing to these trends were examined. The recession that followed the OPEC embargo in 1973 affected the industrial sector and the heavily industrialized regions of the country most severely. Both industrial production and fuel consumption fell significantly in 1975. As production recovered, spiraling fuel prices promoted conservation efforts, and overall fuel consumption remained at pre-recession levels. From 1975 to 1977 natural gas consumption decreased in almost all the industries examined with curtailments of gas supplies contributing to this trend.

  19. Light metal production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  20. Supported metal alloy catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrera, Joseph; Smith, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A process of preparing a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride including reacting a Group IV, V, or VI metal amide complex with ammonia to obtain an intermediate product; and, heating the intermediate product to temperatures and for times sufficient to form a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride is provided together with the product of the process and a process of reforming an n-alkane by use of the product.

  1. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  2. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  3. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  4. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  5. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  6. CRC Handbook of Electrical Resistivitives of Binary Metallic Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroder, K.

    1983-01-01

    Material design engineers often require a tabulation of physical properties in order to select the appropriate material for use, while developmental engineers need to be aware of basic principles and systemic trends that can be utilized as a guide for developing future materials and alloys. The trade-off in conductivity that results when metals are replaced by alloys for strength and stability purposes becomes an important consideration for both types of engineers. This handbook presents an extensive, updated and comprehensive compilation of the electrical resistivities of metallic alloys.

  7. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide the insight needed to control the microstructure of metals and lead to advanced manufacturing processes to produce materials with desired properties. Los Alamos...

  8. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  9. Trends Online: A Compendium of Data on Global Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Data records are presented in multipage formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables; graphs; discussions of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data, and references to literature providing further information. Instructions for citing specific data in Trends Online are provided for each compiled data set. All data appearing in Trends Online are available, on request, on digital media from CDIAC at no cost. [Copied from the Abstract to Trends Online at http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/abstract.htm

  10. Future trends and issues in regulatory takings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allbright, M.P.

    1995-12-01

    This paper will complement that delivered by Thomas root by following his historical analysis of the Fifth Amendment through recent case law with an analysis of regulatory taking through environmental statutes. The discussion will center on takings of water rights through application of the Clean Water Act and the Threatened and Endangered Species Act. Although the examples used will be hypothetical, they will be based upon factual situations. Some of the issues presented for consideration will be an examination of standing of municipalities and corporations under the Fifth Amendment, federal and state legislation impacting the judicial trend toward reviving the Fifth Amendment, budgetary considerations, and convergence from focus on real property to other types of property. The author will also discuss the judicial trend in the Fifth Amendment cases from reliance on federal power to regulate to financial impact on real property resulting from regulation, and the potential for a return to the analysis of the power to regulate through a resurrection of the Tenth Amendment limitation of powers.

  11. Solar cooking trends--A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, B.L.

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses early results of research on trends in solar cooking worldwide and the key factors in those trends. It is based on household interviews in Belize, Honduras and Nicaragua and mail surveys from scattered individuals and promotion projects worldwide. Household interviews from six more countries will be included in future reports. Early data indicate that where solar cooking has been introduced an immediate, rapid increase in awareness and interest in solar cooking is followed by slow, sustained growth in actual solar cooking two or three years later, after an incubation period. Access to information and affordable materials for the cookers are important. Individual users and promoters both identify similar key elements for effective promotion projects, but in current projects many are often missing. Even so, successes of these small-scale efforts verify the benefits and acceptability of solar cooking to families in many regions, and should encourage much broader promotion efforts. Future reports will explore various economic, technical, cultural and environmental factors in solar cooking use as guides for larger efforts.

  12. Global Natural Gas Market Trends, 2. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-15

    The report provides an overview of major trends occurring in the natural gas industry and includes a concise look at the drivers behind recent rapid growth in gas usage and the challenges faced in meeting that growth. Topics covered include: an overview of Natural Gas including its history, the current market environment, and its future market potential; an analysis of the overarching trends that are driving a need for change in the Natural Gas industry; a description of new technologies being developed to increase production of Natural Gas; an evaluation of the potential of unconventional Natural Gas sources to supply the market; a review of new transportation methods to get Natural Gas from producing to consuming countries; a description of new storage technologies to support the increasing demand for peak gas; an analysis of the coming changes in global Natural Gas flows; an evaluation of new applications for Natural Gas and their impact on market sectors; and, an overview of Natural Gas trading concepts and recent changes in financial markets.

  13. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  14. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  15. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  16. Metallic nanowire networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  17. METAL SURFACE TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-12

    Improved flux baths are described for use in conjunction with hot dipped coatings for uranium. The flux bath consists of molten alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal halides. One preferred embodiment comprises a bath containing molten KCl, NaCl, and LiCl in proportions approximating the triple eutectic.

  18. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  19. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  20. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  1. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  2. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Kaiser, Marshall

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  3. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  4. Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication...

  5. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis of metal silicide at metalsilicon oxide interface by electronic excitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of metal silicide at metalsilicon oxide ...

  6. Work Functions of the transition Metals and Metal Silicides ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Work Functions of the transition Metals and Metal Silicides Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 1999-02-15 OSTI Identifier: 3597 Report ...

  7. Precious Metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precious Metals General Information: The Materials Handling group provides Precious Metals receiving and documentation (PM's) for research programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). Precious metals are obtained from the DOE's Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery (BCPMSR). The return of scrap and excess precious metals to the BCPMSR is also provided by this group. Metals under this control are: GOLD - SILVER - PLATINUM - RHODIUM - PALLADIUM - IRIDIUM - OSMIUM - RUTHENIUM

  8. Metal Aminoboranes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Aminoboranes Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction

  9. Metal nanodisks using bicellar templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-12-03

    Metallic nanodisks and a method of making them. The metallic nanodisks are wheel-shaped structures that that provide large surface areas for catalytic applications. The metallic nanodisks are grown within bicelles (disk-like micelles) that template the growth of the metal in the form of approximately circular dendritic sheets. The zero-valent metal forming the nanodisks is formed by reduction of a metal ion using a suitable electron donor species.

  10. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  11. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  12. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Wei; Sathre, Roger; William R. Morrow, III; Shehabi, Arman

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  13. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  14. EXELFS of Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Y.; Alamgir, F.M.; Schwarz, R.B.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    1999-11-30

    The feasibility of using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) obtained from {approximately}1 nm regions of metallic glasses to study their short-range order has been examined. Ionization edges of the metallic glasses in the electron energy-loss spectrum (EELS) have been obtained from PdNiP bulk metallic glass and Ni{sub 2}P polycrystalline powder in a transmission electron microscope. The complexity of EXELFS analysis of L- and M-ionization edges of heavy elements (Z>22, i.e. Ni and Pd) is addressed by theoretical calculations using an ab initio computer code, and its results are compared with the experimental data.

  15. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  16. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  17. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  18. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  20. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  1. BPD Webinar: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Decisions (Text Version) | Department of Energy BPD Webinar: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform Decisions (Text Version) BPD Webinar: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform Decisions (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar for the Building Performance Database: Analyze Building Energy Data, Understand Market Trends, Inform Decisions, presented in October 2015. Watch the webinar. Elena Alschuler: Presentation cover slide:

  2. Current trends in the Advanced Bioindustry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Current trends in the Advanced Bioindustry Afternoon Plenary Session: Current Trends in the Advanced Bioindustry State of Technology-Michael McAdams, President, Advanced Biofuels Association b13_mcadams_ap-1.pdf (4.19 MB) More Documents & Publications Biomass 2013 Agenda Bioindustry Creates Green Jobs What is the Future of U.S. Diesel Production?

  3. Trending and root cause analysis of TWRS radiological problem reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.L.

    1997-07-31

    This document provides a uniform method for trending and performing root cause analysis for radiological problem reports at Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS).

  4. DOE Energy Technology Prices and Trends | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: DOE Energy Technology Prices and Trends AgencyCompany Organization: United States Department of Energy Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Non-renewable Energy...

  5. New report highlights key composite testing trends for more reliable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...DOE Fatigue Database Trends for Wind Turbine Blade Materials, 2010-2015" by ...

  6. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Primary Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Primary Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 primary consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 primary...

  7. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Site Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Site Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 site consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 site...

  8. Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation. San Francisco, CA. March 25, 2004 Demand Response National Trends: Implications for the West? (116.66 KB) More Documents & ...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Projections in Europe 2009...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liechtenstein, Poland and Turkey provided updated information on emission projections and national programmes in 2009." References "Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and...

  10. Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 1, 2015, Research Highlights Recent Developments and Trends in Redox Flow Batteries Different flow batteries schemes were investigated. The classic flow battery (top left, ...

  11. Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency -- Update on Program...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency -- Update on Program Experience Trends in Real Estate and Energy Efficiency -- Update on Program Experience Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability ...

  12. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Wu; Shuxiao Wang; David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Melissa Chan; Jingkun Jiang

    2006-09-01

    We have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China for 1995 through 2003. It is estimated that total Hg emissions from all anthropogenic sources increased at an average annual rate of 2.9% during the period 1995-2003, reaching 696 ({+-}307) t in 2003, with a speciation split of 395 t of Hg{sup 0}, 230 t of Hg{sup 2+}, and 70 t of particulate mercury, Hg{sup p}. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, as nonferrous metals production and coal consumption keep increasing. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion together contributed {approximately}80% of total Hg emissions during the past decade. Hg emissions from coal combustion increased from 202 t in 1995 to 257 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 3.0%. Among all of the coal consumption sectors, the power sector is the leading one in Hg emissions growth, up by 5.9% annually. Hg emissions from nonferrous metals smelting increased from 230 t in 1995 to 321 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 4.2%. Although Hg emissions related to gold smelting decreased since 1996, other nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead, and copper contributed significant Hg growth at annual rates of 8.5%, 13.0%, and 6.9%, respectively. At provincial level, the trends of Hg emissions show significant variation. The uncertainty level decreased from {+-}78% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions in 1995, to {+-}44% in 2003. This is primarily attributed to the decreased emissions from those Hg sources with the largest uncertainty in both activity levels and emission factors, such as artisanal gold smelting, mercury mining, and battery/fluorescent lamp production. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    otherwise does not necessarily constitute o r imply its endorsement, rccom- mendation, or ... : Enclosed f o r your useinformation is DOE-HTGR-88106, Rev. 0, "Metals Design Handbook". ...

  14. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Beard, James S.

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  15. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  16. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  17. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  18. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Cardinal, K.

    2004-09-01

    Utilities first began offering consumers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. Since then, the number of U.S. utilities offering green pricing programs has steadily grown. Today, more than 500 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or about 16% of all utilities nationally--offer their customers green power options. Because some of these utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other public power entities, the number of distinct programs is slightly more than 100. Through these programs, more than 33 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs, or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers must pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2003 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data provided in this report can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  19. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, Lori; Brown, Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  20. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  1. Electric steelmaking: recent trends and future constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burwell, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    This report provides a very brief description of steelmaking, and an overview of comparative data, primarily related to the use of energy and materials for each of the major steelmaking processes. This is followed by a discussion of possible limitations on the use of scrap - the current raw material for electric steel - and possible technological routes for overcoming them. The economics of electric-steel production in general, and of electric minimills in particular, seem clearly established. Electric steel-making is viable in its own right. The trend toward electric steelmaking provides significant economic and competitive advantages for producers and important overall economic, environmental and energy advantages for the US at large. Conversion to electric steelmaking offers a 4 to 1 advantage in terms of the overall energy used to produce a ton of steel, and a 2 to 1 savings in energy cost for the producer. The amount of energy saved, to produce the same amount of steel in 1967 and 1980, was equivalent to 25 million tons of coal. Furthermore, the amount of old scrap used to produce a ton of steel has doubled since 1967 because of the use of electric furnaces. Using the existing scrap to produce steel would save the energy equivalent of two billion barrels of oil. 44 references, 6 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  3. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Madsen, M.M.; Malone, G.A.

    1985-08-01

    As an integral part of its program in fluidized-bed combustion technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and the MITRE Corporation have undertaken a project to compile and analyze metal loss data obtained from a variety of FBC systems ranging from small-scale experimental units to industrial-size facilities and to establish a functional relationship between metal loss for several alloy types and various FBC design and operating parameters. To date, metal loss and operating information have been categorized for forty-four alloys in twenty separate FBC systems worldwide. Review of the tabulated data indicate the following trends: metal temperatures above 1200/sup 0/F significantly increase rates of metal loss; system operation with high excess air reduces metal loss, but does not eliminate it; use of coals with high ash sintering temperatures does not significantly reduce metal loss; degree of metal loss is much lower for surfaces exposed in the freeboard than for in-bed surfaces; the rate of metal loss decreases with time of exposure; iron-based stainless steels are relatively resistant to conditions which cause metal loss; cobalt-based alloys and high-chromium steels show significant resistance to metal loss; nickel-based alloys are most susceptible to metal loss; sulfidation/oxidation attack on metals within fluidized beds are more likely to occur if sorbent is present; and metal attack will occur irrespective of coal and sorbent type. 25 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  5. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  6. Transportation energy trends and issues through 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCicco, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Controlling transportation energy use looms as a serious challenge for the United States in the 21st century. Demand for transportation services is steadily growing, driven by increasing population, economic activity, and incomes. Few forces presently constrain growth in travel by the energy-intensive modes of automobile, truck, and air transportation. In contrast to other sectors of the economy, transportation energy efficiency improvements are nearly stagnant. Efficiency increases are now absent in highway modes; aircraft efficiency is improving, but not enough to offset rising air travel. Transportation is also the most oil-dependent sector of the economy as well as the country`s most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. A conservative forecast indicates US transportation energy consumption rising from 23 Quads in 1990 to roughly 36 Quads by 2030; less conservative assumptions push the total to 43 Quads by 2030. Yet opportunities exist for efficiency improvements to counter a substantial portion of this growth. The most promising options are technological, with potential long-term efficiency improvements of threefold for light vehicles, twofold for aircraft, and 65 percent for heavy trucks. Combined with system efficiency changes to help limit growth of the energy-intensive modes, transportation energy use might be cut to 19 Quads by 2030. Pursuing cost-effective strategies to move the system toward such reduced energy intensiveness would be clearly valuable for the economy and environment. This paper examines these trends and options, and offers suggestions for policies that could lead to reductions in transportation energy use and its associated problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and oil dependence risks. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  8. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  9. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  10. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  11. METAL RESISTIVITY MEASURING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, J. Jr.; Myers, R.G.

    1960-12-20

    An eddy current device is offered for detecting discontinuities in metal samples. Alternate short and long duration pulses are inductively applied to a metal sample via the outer coil of a probe. The long pulses give a resultant signal from the metal sample responsive to probe-tosample spacing and discontinuities within the sample and the shont pulses give a resultant signal responsive only to probe -to-sample spacing. The inner coil of the probe detects the two resultant signals and transmits them to a separation network where the two signals are separated. The two separated signals are then transmitted to a compensation network where the detected signals due to the short pulses are used to compensate for variations due to probe-to-sample spacing contained in the detected signals from the long pulses. Thus, a resultant signal is obtained responsive to discontinuities within the sample and independent of probe-to- sample spacing.

  12. Metal Resistivity Measuring Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, Jr, C. J.; Myers, R. G.

    1960-12-20

    An eddy current device is designed for detecting discontinuities in metal samples. Alternate short and long duration pulses are inductively applied to a metal sample via the outer coil of a probe. The lorg pulses give a resultant signal from the metal sample responsive to probe-tosample spacing and discontinuities with the sample, and the short pulses give a resultant signal responsive only to probe-to-sample spacing. The inner coil of the probe detects the two resultant signals and transmits them to a separation network where the two signals are separated. The two separated signals are then transmitted to a compensation network where the detected signals due to the short pulses are used to compensate for variations due to probeto-sample spacing contained in the detected signals from the long pulses. Thus a resultant signal is obtained responsive to discontinuities within the sample and independent of probe-to- sample spacing.

  13. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C.; Traut, Davis E.; Oden, Laurance L.; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  14. ITP Metal Casting: A Vision for the U.S. Metal Casting Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Metal Casting: Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices ITP Metal Casting: ...

  15. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  16. Liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  17. Metal-smelting facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, D.R.; Mack, J.E.; Thompson, W.T.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Currently there are 90,000 tons of contaminated ferrous and nonferrous scrap metal stored in aboveground scrap yards at the Department of Energy's Uranium Enrichment Facilities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio. This scrap is primarily contaminated with 100 to 500 ppM uranium at an average enrichment of 1 to 1.5% /sup 235/U. A study was performed that evaluated smelting of the ORGDP metal in a reference facility located at Oak Ridge. The study defined the process systems and baseline requirements, evaluated alternatives to smelting, and provided capital and operating costs for the reference facility. A review of the results and recommendations of this study are presented.

  18. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  19. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  20. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates M.P. Brady (project lead) P. F. Tortorelli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6115 Feb 14, 2007 Kick-Off Meeting OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 Effort Devoted to Scale Up and Demonstration of Thin Stamped Metallic Bipolar Plates Timeline Barriers * Start- April, 2006 * A. Durability (estimated) * Finish- April, 2008 * B. Cost (estimated) * Targets (2010) - resistivity < 10 mohm-cm 2 - corrosion < 1 x10 -6 A/cm 2

  1. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  2. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  3. Metal Insertion in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Lined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Insertion in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Lined with 2,2 '-Bipyridine Previous Next List E. D. Bloch, D. Britt, C. Lee, C. J. Doonan, F. J. Uribe-Romo, H. Furukawa, ...

  4. STRIPPING METAL COATINGS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

  5. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  6. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  7. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J.; Kantner, Edward

    1988-08-23

    It has now been discovered that reduction in the coulombic efficiency of metal halogen cells can be minimized if the microporous separator employed in such cells is selected from one which is preferably wet by the aqueous electrolyte and is not wet substantially by the cathodic halogen.

  8. Metal working lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andress, H.J.; Davis, R.H.; Schick, J.W.

    1981-08-11

    A lubricant concentrate for use in metal processing comprises a sulfur compound such as a sulfurized olefin or sulfurized mineral oil and an ester prepared from a fatty acid having 12 to 40 carbon atoms or the dimer thereof or a polyalkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride and a hydroxyl-containing amine.

  9. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore; Reece, Charles Edwin

    2009-06-02

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  10. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svane, K. L. Hammer, B.

    2014-11-07

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations.

  11. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H.; Varrin, Jr., Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  12. Worldwide Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from International Energy Agency (IEA) Indicator Analysis in Support of the Group of Eight (G8) Plan of Action Jump to:...

  13. Positron Computed Tomography: Current State, Clinical Results and Future Trends

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schelbert, H. R.; Phelps, M. E.; Kuhl, D. E.

    1980-09-01

    An overview is presented of positron computed tomography: its advantages over single photon emission tomography, its use in metabolic studies of the heart and chemical investigation of the brain, and future trends. (ACR)

  14. Operations Expenditures: Historical Trends and Continuing Challenges (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.

    2013-05-01

    In this presentation for the American Wind Energy Association 2013 conference, NREL's Eric Lantz examines historical trends and continuing challenges of wind power operating expenses. Lowering such expenses could increase profitability and contribute to lowering the cost of energy.

  15. Solar Trackers Market Trends | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Trackers Market Trends Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(100) Contributor 12 May, 2015 - 03:54 Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share,...

  16. Solar Renewable Energy Certificate (SREC) Markets: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Heeter, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper examines experience in solar renewable energy certificate (SREC) markets in the United States. It describes how SREC markets function--key policy design provisions, eligible technologies, state and regional eligibility rules, solar alternative compliance payments, measurement and verification methods, long-term contracting provisions, and rate caps. It also examines the trends of SREC markets--trading volumes, sourcing trends, trends in the size of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems driven by these markets, and trends in price and compliance. Throughout, the paper explores key issues and challenges facing SREC markets and attempts by policymakers to address some of these market barriers. Data and information presented in this report are derived from SREC tracking systems, brokers and auctions, published reports, and information gleaned from market participants and interviews with state regulators responsible for SREC market implementation. The last section summarizes key findings.

  17. Multi-decadal trends in global terrestrial evapotranspiration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature 467, 951-954, doi: 10.1038nature09396 (2010). 2. Trenberth, K. E., Smith, L., ...

  18. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Trends in Commercial...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and floorspace from 1995 to 1999 continued the general trends noted since 1979 (Figures 1 and 2). The size of the commercial buildings has grown steadily over the twenty...

  19. Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fall Tech Trends: Promising New Products from DOE's High Impact Technologies Catalyst Program September 13, 2016 3:00PM to 4:00PM EDT Presenters: Kris Jorgensen, A.O. Smith ...

  20. Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cunniffe, Siobhan; O’Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Lomax, Martine E.

    2014-04-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repairmore » is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase β, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL.« less

  1. Metal recovery from porous materials (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal recovery from porous materials Title: Metal recovery from porous materials The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention ...

  2. 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes 'Thirsty' Metals Key to Longer Battery Lifetimes Computations at NERSC show how multiply charged metal ions impact battery capacity ...

  3. Rare Earth Metals & Alloys | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Metals & Alloys Quantities of high-purity rare earth metals and alloys in ... storage, cutting and cleaning and SDS information for the rare earth elements (metals).

  4. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  5. Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce / Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, December 5, 2013. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (1.12 MB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings -- Concierge Programs for Contractors -- They're Not Just for Consumers anymore Programs and Contractors -Top Tips for Successful Relationships! (101)

  6. ADR Lunchtime Program: AMENDMENTS TO THE REHABILITATION ACT - RECENT TRENDS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND HOW ADR PRINCIPLES MAY HELP TO NAVIGATE THE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION INTERACTIVE PROCESS | Department of Energy AMENDMENTS TO THE REHABILITATION ACT - RECENT TRENDS AND HOW ADR PRINCIPLES MAY HELP TO NAVIGATE THE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION INTERACTIVE PROCESS ADR Lunchtime Program: AMENDMENTS TO THE REHABILITATION ACT - RECENT TRENDS AND HOW ADR PRINCIPLES MAY HELP TO NAVIGATE THE REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION INTERACTIVE PROCESS The Rehabilitation Act requires federal agencies to provide

  7. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  8. Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM | Department of Energy Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM Aligning Contract Incentives & Contract Mgt Trends - David Leotta, Director, Office of Contract Management, OAPM The Deputy Secretary issued December 2012 memo: "Aligning Contract Incentives" The purpose of the memo: Align Contractor Incentives with taxpayer interests Hold each party to the

  9. Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Corrective Measures Analysis > Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Seasonality in the Natural Gas Balancing Item: Historical Trends and Corrective Measures Released: June 4, 2010 Download Full Report (PDF) This special report examines an underlying cause of the seasonal pattern in the balancing item published in the Natural Gas Monthly. Research finds that a significant portion of data collected on EIA’s primary monthly natural gas

  10. Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Policy, OAPM | Department of Energy Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, OAPM Current Trends in Policy - What's new? - Berta Schreiber, Director, Office of Policy, OAPM New Uniform Financial Assistance Regulations DOE's financial assistance regulatory framework and environment have changed. In December, OMB issued new uniform regulations for financial assistance that combined previous OMB circulars under one set of regulations. Key