Sample records for treatment plant discharge

  1. Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    Treated wastewater discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contains plants radically improve the overall quality of the treated wastewa- ter compared to secondary plants

  2. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  3. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, Edward W. (1833 Pisgah Rd., North Augusta, SC 29841); Benemann, John R. (2741 O'Harte, San Pablo, CA 94806); Weissman, Joseph C. (2086 N. Porpoise Pt. La., Vero Beach, FL 32963); Tillett, David M. (911-3 Coquina La., Vero Beach, FL 32963)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

  4. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the ability of existing treatment technologies at Plant 1 toof existing treatment technologies at both OCSD plantsof existing treatment technologies at both OCSD plants

  5. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.; Tillett, D.M.

    1991-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are described for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulic and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge. 4 figures.

  6. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  7. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Construction Quality Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Safety and Health Evaluations Activity Report for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Construction Quality Review Dates of Activity 02142011 - 02172011 Report Preparer Joseph...

  8. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  9. Discharge waters from a power plant as an influent of phytoplankton in adjacent estuarine waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong, Clyde B

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DISCHARGE WATERS FROM A POWER PLANT AS AN 1NFLUENT OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN ADJACENT ESTUARINE WATERS A Thesis 'by CLYDE B. STRONG, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Su'bject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences DISCHARGE WATERS FROM A POWER PLANT AS AN INFLUEN'I' OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN ADJACENT ESTUARINE WATERS A Thesis by CLYDE B. STRONG, JR. Approved as to sty...

  10. CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants: Market Opportunities This document explores...

  11. Surfactants containing radioactive run-offs: Ozone treatment, influence on nuclear power plants water waste special treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prokudina, S.A.; Grachok, M.A. [Belarussian State Economic Univ., Minsk (Belarus)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the problems encountered in the efficiency of radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plants in Kursk. The ozonization of aqueous solutions of surfactants was carried out in the laboratory`s ozonization system. The surfactants which are discharged to the ion exchangers deteriorate resins, clog up the ion exchangers, and decrease filtration velocity. Therefore, this investigation focused on finding a method to increase the efficiency of this treatment process.

  12. Desulphurization and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S.L.; Feng, Q.B.; Li, L.; Xie, C.L.; Zhen, L.P. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were conducted for removal of SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas and simultaneous treatment of wastewater from blast furnace by pulsed corona discharge. Tests were conducted for the flue gas flow from 12 to 18 Nm{sup 3}/h, the simulated gas temperature from 80 to 120 {sup o}C, the inlet flux of wastewater from 33 to 57 L/h, applied voltage from 0 to 27 kV, and SO{sub 2} initial concentration was about 1,430 mg/m{sup 3}. Results showed that wastewater from blast furnace has an excellent ability of desulphurization (about 90%) and pulsed corona discharge can enhance the desulphurization efficiency. Meanwhile, it was observed that the SO{sub 2} removal ratio decreased along with increased cycle index, while it increased as the flux of flue gas was reduced, and increased when the flux of wastewater from blast furnace was increased. In addition, results demonstrated that the content of sulfate radical produced in wastewater increase with an increment of applied pulsed voltage, cycle index, or the flux of flue gas. Furthermore, the results indicated that the higher the inlet content of cyanide the better removal effect of it, and the removal rate can reach 99.9% with a residence time of 2.1 s in the pulsed corona zone during the desulphurization process when the inlet content was higher, whereas there was almost no removal effect when the inlet content was lower. This research may attain the objective of waste control, and can provide a new way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and simultaneously degrade wastewater from blast furnace for integrated steel plants.

  13. Mobile water treatment plant special study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

  14. B Plant treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units inspection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, T.G.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This inspection plan is written to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303 for operations of a TSD facility. Owners/operators of TSD facilities are required to inspection their facility and active waste management units to prevent and/or detect malfunctions, discharges and other conditions potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. A written plan detailing these inspection efforts must be maintained at the facility in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173-303, ``Dangerous Waste Regulations`` (WAC 173-303), a written inspection plan is required for the operation of a treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facility and individual TSD units. B Plant is a permitted TSD facility currently operating under interim status with an approved Part A Permit. Various operational systems and locations within or under the control of B Plant have been permitted for waste management activities. Included are the following TSD units: Cell 4 Container Storage Area; B Plant Containment Building; Low Level Waste Tank System; Organic Waste Tank System; Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) Tank System; Low Level Waste Concentrator Tank System. This inspection plan complies with the requirements of WAC 173-303. It addresses both general TSD facility and TSD unit-specific inspection requirements. Sections on each of the TSD units provide a brief description of the system configuration and the permitted waste management activity, a summary of the inspection requirements, and details on the activities B Plant uses to maintain compliance with those requirements.

  15. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS.

  16. Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania Solar Farm Going Strong at Water Treatment Plant in Pennsylvania October 8, 2010 - 10:39am Addthis Aqua...

  17. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  18. Method and apparatus for balancing discharge fluid flow in drilling mud treatment units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, C.J.

    1983-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling fluid flow in the drilling mud treatment units of an oil/gas well drilling rig such as, for example, the shale shaker, desander, desilter, and mud cleaner portions thereof provides floating the inlet of an intake conduit at the supernatent liquid layer of the drilling rig reserve pit and providing a common distributor head for routing the supernatent liquid to the various solid control units. A pump is connected to the intake conduit and the header at the intake and discharge respectively. The pump transmits the reserve pit supernatent from the reserve pit to the header by pumping. There is provided one or more branch lines affixed to the header each discharging respectively into the drain of a drilling mud treatment unit associated with the drilling rig with the flow of reserve pit supernatent liquid keeping the various drains open. The drains are positioned to discharge back into the reserve pit. The method saves the use of fresh water for the purpose of keeping drains open by the use of the supernatent liquid.

  19. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident. Journal of21 3. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS……………………………………………….. 23 3.1-25 3.2- WASTES FROM NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS………………………… 28 4.

  20. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Construction Project - June 2010 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project - June 2010 June 2010 Evaluation to determine whether Waste...

  1. Bechtel National Inc. Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    June 2010 Bechtel National Incorporated Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project Report from the Department of Energy Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review June 14-18, 2010...

  2. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil refineries, and waste treatment operations such as composting, sludgeoil refineries, and waste treatment operations such as composting, sludge

  3. ADAPTIVE MODEL BASED CONTROL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    .j.boucherie@utwente.nl Abstract In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge in the Netherlands. An important step in the commonly applied biological wastewater treatment processADAPTIVE MODEL BASED CONTROL FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS Arie de Niet1 , Maartje van de Vrugt2

  4. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  5. Life-cycle assessment of wastewater treatment plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprints analysis of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. In previous research, the issue of global warming is often related ...

  6. Selection of Native Wetland Plants for Water Treatment of Urban Runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rejmankova, Eliska; Bayer, David E

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UC Davis KEYWORDS: Wetlands, Water Treatment, Urban Runoff,of Native Wetland Plants for Water Treatment of UrbanValley Wetlands Biomass Response to Heavy Metal Treatment

  7. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Training Field, 2004) 6 Figure 2. Layout of the Fire Training Field (Map of Brayton Fire Training Field and Disaster City, 2004 ) 7 TREATMENT PLANT UNITS The wastewater treatment plant consists of four basic units, namely...-Blaze contains several strains of non-pathogenic, spore forming, facultative bacteria, Bacillus, along with a surfactant and nutrients sufficient for biodegradation. The physical characteristics listed for the product (Micro Blaze Spill Control, 2004...

  8. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  9. Compressor discharge bleed air circuit in gas turbine plants and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anand, Ashok Kumar (Niskayuna, NY); Berrahou, Philip Fadhel (Latham, NY); Jandrisevits, Michael (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine system that includes a compressor, a turbine component and a load, wherein fuel and compressor discharge bleed air are supplied to a combustor and gaseous products of combustion are introduced into the turbine component and subsequently exhausted to atmosphere. A compressor discharge bleed air circuit removes bleed air from the compressor and supplies one portion of the bleed air to the combustor and another portion of the compressor discharge bleed air to an exhaust stack of the turbine component in a single cycle system, or to a heat recovery steam generator in a combined cycle system. In both systems, the bleed air diverted from the combustor may be expanded in an air expander to reduce pressure upstream of the exhaust stack or heat recovery steam generator.

  10. MIC on stainless steels in wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iversen, A. [Avesta Sheffield AB (Sweden)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field tests of stainless steels were carried out at five wastewater treatment plants for one year. Three stainless steel grades i.e. AISI 304 (UNS S30400), AISI 316 (UNS S31600) and duplex 2205 (UNS S31803) were tested in the final settling tank in the plants. The time dependence of the open circuit potential (OCP) was measured for all coupons. Ennoblement of the OCP, similar to that reported from investigations in seawater, was found in one of the plants. Waters from three of the exposure sites, containing dispersed deposits from exposed coupons, were chemically analyzed. Pitting corrosion was observed after the field test on steel grade AISI 304 in three of the five plants, and on AISI 316 in one plant. No corrosion was found on 2205 in any of the plants. Laboratory measurements of the OCP were carried out for AISI 304, AISI 316 and 2205 in water collected from one of the plants. Cathodic polarization curves were determined as well in wastewater from the same plant. The cathodic reaction rate increased at the highest OCP. Simulation of the ennoblement was carried out by potentiostatic polarization in a 600 ppm chloride solution. The current response indicated corrosion on AISI 304 welded material and on AISI 304, AISI 316 in crevice assemblies after a long period of induction time.

  11. EIS-0224: Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Facilities Improvements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This EIS analyzes the Lake County Sanitation District joint venture with the geothermal industry, specifically the Northern California Power Agency, Calpine Corporation (Calpine), and Pacific Gas and Electric Company, to develop a plan for disposal of secondary-treated effluent from the Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant near the City of Clearlake, California, in the Southeast Geysers Geothermal Steam Field."

  12. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series of heat transfer fouling tests using a condenser heat exchanger in the laboratory cooling tower, from which we confirmed that the plasma water treatment technology could prevent or significantly mitigate mineral foulings in condenser tubes when compared with the no-treatment case. With the completion of the present work, a cooling water treatment technology using pulse spark discharges is currently ready for field-validation tests. The plasma water treatment technology is a true mechanical water softener with almost no maintenance, which continuously converts hard water to soft water spending a relatively small amount of energy. Such a mechanical water softener could find wide-spread applications to solve hard water problems both in industry and at home.

  13. Using “warm handoffs” to link hospitalized smokers with tobacco treatment after discharge: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faseru, Babalola; Mussulman, Laura M.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Shireman, Theresa I.; Hunt, Jamie J.; Carlini, Beatriz H.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Ayars, Candace L.; Cook, David J.; Richter, Kimber P.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    post-randomization Handoff Figure 1 Overview and study design of EQUIP – a randomized controlled trial.will collect 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data. Outcome measures and analyses include 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months, biochemically...:10.1186/1745-6215-13-127 Cite this article as: Richter et al.: Using “warm handoffs” to link hospitalized smokers with tobacco treatment after discharge: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2012 13:127. Richter et al. Trials 2012...

  14. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project. Results: The model was run for a 100 MW OTEC Plant consisting of four separate ducts, discharging a total combined flow rate of 420 m3/s of warm water and 320 m3/s of cold water in a mixed discharge at 70 meters deep. Each duct was assumed to have a discharge port diameter of 10.5m producing a downward discharge velocity of about 2.18 m/s. The natural system, as measured in the HOTS program, has an average concentration of 10-15 mgC/m3. To calibrate the biological model, we first ran the model with no OTEC plant and varied biological parameters until the simulated data was a good match to the HOTS observations. This modeling showed that phytoplankton concentration were patchy and highly dynamic. The patchiness was a good match with the data variability observed within the HOTS data sets. We then ran the model with simulated OTEC intake and discharge flows and associated nutrients. Directly under the OTEC plant, the near-field plume has an average terminal depth of 172 meters, with a volumetric dilution of 13:1. The average terminal plume temperature was 19.8oC. Nitrate concentrations are 1 to 2 umol/kg above ambient. The advecting plume then further dilutes to less than 1 umol/kg above ambient within a few kilometers downstream, while remaining at depth. Because this terminal near-field plume is well below the 1% light limited depths (~120m), no immediate biological utilization of the nutrients occurs. As the nitrate is advected and dispersed downstream, a fraction of the deep ocean nutrients (< 0.5 umol/kg perturbation) mix upward where they are utilized by the ambient phytoplankton population. This occurs approximately twenty-five kilometers downstream from the plant at 110 - 70 meters depth. For pico-phytoplankton, modeling results indicate that this nutrient perturbation causes a phytoplankton perturbation of approximately 1 mgC/m3 (~10% of average ambient concentrations) that covers an area 10x5 km in size at the 70 to 90m depth. Thus, the perturbations are well within the natural variability of the system, generally corresponding to a 10 to 15% increase above the a

  15. A review of the Y-12 Plant discharge of enriched uranium to the sanitary sewer (DEUSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is situated adjacent to the Oak Ridge city limits and is operated by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The Y-12 Plant is located on 4,860 acres, which is collectively referred to as the Y-12 Plant site. Among the missions for which the facility is in existence are producing nuclear weapons components, supporting weapon design laboratories, and processing special nuclear materials (SNM). The Y-12 Plant is under the regulatory guidance of DOE Order 5400.5 and has complied with the technical requirements governing SNM since its issue. However, an in-depth review with appropriate documentation had not been performed, prior to the effect presented herein, to substantiate this claim. As a result of the solid waste issue, it was determined that other types of waste should be formally reviewed for content with respect to SNM. Therefore, a project was formed to investigate the conveyance of SNM through the sanitary sewer system. It is emphasized that this project addresses only effluent from the sanitary sewer system and not the storm sewer system. The project reviewed sanitary sewer data both for the Y-12 Plant and the Y-12 Plant site.

  16. Factor water treatment up-front in IPP plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, J.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes how independent power producers profit from drawing on the expertise of a water-treatment supplier at the inception of a project. Concepts presented here apply to other major subsystems. The nature of independent power project development, both domestic and international, has resulted in many innovative approaches to client service. The highly competitive, fast-track nature of project development requires that financial pro forma plans remain fluid, with periodic updates made as the project races from conceptual design through financial closing. Suppliers are continually called upon to provide insight and expertise to facilitate the project. Their expertise is also sought by organizations considering the purchase of an existing independent power producer (IPP) facility. Many foundation steps'' occur during early commercial development. Among these are: response to a request for proposals, power slates agreements, feasibility studies, site qualification, contract negotiation, host development, and steam sales agreements. As the project moves forward, development of comprehensive design and equipment specifications, equipment selection, and financial analysis are required. One aspect frequently overlooked because of the multitude of business and technical issues involved is the water supply. With public water supplies often inaccessible, it may be necessary to make use of a poor-quality source--such as effluent from publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), acid mine drainage, host-facility process discharge, landfill leachate, and produced water from oil fields. Even if surface water or groundwater is available, the quality and often the quantity may be unknown, or there may be no provisions for discharge of wastewater.

  17. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  18. Waste Treatment Plant and Tank Farm Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|of Energy WashingtonWaste IsolationTreatment Plant

  19. Analytical support for a new, low-level radioactive wastewater treatment plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, V.D.; Marsh, J.H.; Ingram, L.M.; Melton, W.L.; Magonigal, E.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) located in Aiken, SC, is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company under contract with the US Department of Energy. The mission of SRS is to manufacture radioisotopes for use in national defense and space exploration. The F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) is a wastewater treatment plant supporting SRS for low-level radioactive process waste streams. In order to comply with the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the facility had to become operational by November 8, 1988. The F/H ETF employs pH adjustment, microfiltration, organic removal, reverse osmosis, evaporation, and ion exchange to remove contaminants prior to discharge to the environment via a state-permitted outfall. Concentrated contaminants removed by these processes are diverted to other facilities for further processing. The ETF is supported by a 24 hr/day facility laboratory for process control and characterization of influent feed, treated effluent water, and concentrated waste. Permit compliance analyses reported to the state of SC are performed by an offsite certified contract laboratory. The support laboratory is efficiently organized to provide: metal analyses by ICP-AES, alpha/beta/gamma activity counting, process ions by Ion Selective Electrode (ISE), oil and grease analyses by IR technique, mercury via cold vapor AA, conductivity, turbidity, and pH. All instrumentation is contained in hoods for radioactive sample handling.

  20. Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real-time fault detection and isolation in biological wastewater treatment plants F. Baggiani and S@dsi.unifi.it Automatic fault detection is becoming increasingly important in wastewater treatment plant operation, given automation controllers, wastewater treatment INTRODUCTION Real-time monitoring is an increasingly important

  1. ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACCEPTED BY WATER ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH _______ ODOR AND VOC REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT of biofilters for sequential removal of H2S and VOCs from wastewater treatment plant waste air. The biofilter of VOCs. In Europe, biological treatment in biofilters has rapidly been gaining ground as a relatively

  2. Coalbed methane produced water management guide treatment and discharge to surface waters: Black Warrior Basin, Alabama. Final report, April 1991-May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, H.A.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assist coalbed methane in their efforts to manage produced waters in an environmentally acceptable manner, GRI, in cooperation with the member companies of the Coalbed Methane Association of Alabama, developed a guidance manual that presents the state-of-the-art methodology for managing Black Warrior Basin produced water through the use of treatment ponds and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Six treatment pond systems were studied to develop information for the manual. Topics included in the manual are produced water characteristics, NPDES permit requirements, sample collection and testing, pond based treatment methods, treatment pond management, and process troubleshooting.

  3. Modeling Offgas Systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Frank G., III

    2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    To augment steady-state design calculations, dynamic models of three offgas systems that will be used in the Waste Treatment Plant now under construction at the Hanford Site were developed using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark}. The offgas systems modeled were those for the High Level Waste (HLW) melters, Low Activity Waste (LAW) melters and HLW Pulse Jet Ventilation (PJV) system. The models do not include offgas chemistry but only consider the two major species in the offgas stream which are air and water vapor. This is sufficient to perform material and energy balance calculations that accurately show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure, temperature, humidity and flow throughout the systems. The models are structured to perform pressure drop calculations across the various unit operations using a combination of standard engineering calculations and empirical data based correlations for specific pieces of equipment. The models include process controllers, gas ducting, control valves, exhaust fans and the offgas treatment equipment. The models were successfully used to analyze a large number of operating scenarios including both normal and off-normal conditions.

  4. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project- June 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Waste Treatment Plant Construction Project is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  5. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Bechtel National Inc., Waste Treatment Plant Construction Site – November 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether Bechtel National Inc., Waste Treatment Plant Construction Site is performing at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  6. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite Review, Waste Treatment Plant Hanford Site- June 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Evaluation to determine whether the Waste Treatment Plant Hanford Site is continuing to perform at a level deserving DOE-VPP Star recognition.

  7. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  8. Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lagrangian Sampling of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile of wastewater treatment plant effluent in Boulder Creek, Colorado, and Fourmile Creek, Iowa, during the summer........................................................................................................................................................... 5 Field Measurements, Nutrients, Carbon, Major Ions, Trace Elements, and Biological Components

  9. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  10. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  11. Scaled Testing to Evaluate Pulse Jet Mixer Performance in Waste Treatment Plant Mixing Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pre-treat and vitrify the waste in Hanford’s 177 underground waste storage tanks. Numerous process vessels will hold waste at various stages in the WTP. These vessels have pulse jet mixer (PJM) systems. A test program was developed to evaluate the adequacy of mixing system designs in the solids-containing vessels in the WTP. The program focused mainly on non-cohesive solids behavior. Specifically, the program addressed the effectiveness of the mixing systems to suspend settled solids off the vessel bottom, and distribute the solids vertically. Experiments were conducted at three scales using various particulate simulants. A range of solids loadings and operational parameters were evaluated, including jet velocity, pulse volume, and duty cycle. In place of actual PJMs, the tests used direct injection from tubes with suction at the top of the tank fluid. This gave better control over the discharge duration and duty cycle and simplified the facility requirements. The mixing system configurations represented in testing varied from 4 to 12 PJMs with various jet nozzle sizes. In this way the results collected could be applied to the broad range of WTP vessels with varying geometrical configurations and planned operating conditions. Data for “just-suspended velocity”, solids cloud height, and solids concentration vertical profile were collected, analyzed, and correlated. The correlations were successfully benchmarked against previous large-scale test results, then applied to the WTP vessels using reasonable assumptions of anticipated waste properties to evaluate adequacy of the existing mixing system designs.

  12. B Plant complex treatment, storage, and disposal units inspection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owners or operators of facilities that treat, store, and/or dispose of dangerous waste and/or mixed waste as defined by WAC 173-303, {open_quotes}Dangerous Waste Regulations,{close_quotes} must inspect their facilities to prevent malfunctions and deteriorations, operator errors, and discharges that may cause or lead to the release of hazardous waste constituents to the environment and/or cause a threat to human health. The WAC regulations require a written inspection schedule be developed, implemented, and kept at the facility.

  13. Water/Wastewater Treatment Plant Field Device Wiring Method Decision Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dicus, Scott C.

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The choice of field device wiring method for water and wastewater treatment plant design is extremely complex and contains many variables. The choice not only affects short-term startup and equipment costs, but also ...

  14. Site-Specific Seismic Site Response Model for the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohay, Alan C.; Reidel, Steve P.

    2005-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This interim report documents the collection of site-specific geologic and geophysical data characterizing the Waste Treatment Plant site and the modeling of the site-specific structure response to earthquake ground motions.

  15. The Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assitance Program (TAP), provides information on the Energy-Water Nexus: State and Local Roles in Efficiency & Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.

  16. An integrated system to remote monitor and control anaerobic wastewater treatment plants through the internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Olivier

    controllers that stabilise the treatment plant, meet the depollution requirements and provide a biogas quality to degrade slowly degradable substrates at high #12;concentrations, very low sludge production, low energy

  17. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble components are mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, causing uncertainty in its composition, particularly the radionuclide content. This plan will provide an estimate of the likely composition and the basis for it, assess likely treatment technologies, identify potential disposition paths, establish target treatment limits, and recommend the testing needed to show feasibility. Two primary disposition options are proposed for investigation, one is concentration for storage in the tank farms, and the other is treatment prior to disposition in the Effluent Treatment Facility. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Recycle stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc), a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 210,000 years. Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass, which will be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Because {sup 99}Tc has a very long half-life and is highly mobile, it is the largest dose contributor to the Performance Assessment (PA) of the IDF. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Recycle are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. Although the baseline process will recycle this stream to the Pretreatment Facility, if the LAW facility begins operation first, this stream will not have a disposition path internal to WTP. One potential solution is to return the stream to the tank farms where it can be evaporated in the 242-A evaporator, or perhaps deploy an auxiliary evaporator to concentrate it prior to return to the tank farms. In either case, testing is needed to evaluat

  18. Chemical Dust Treatment of Cottonseed for Planting Purposes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson)

    1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were planted at different dates and in listed fur- rows of different depths. The cottonseed used in these experiments was delinted by three methods-cottonseed oil mill delinting machincry, con- centrated sulphuric acid, and hydrochloric acid gas... experimental plats. The plats varied in size and con- sisted of rows 25, 50, and 132 feet in length spaced 36 inches apart. The preparation of the laad'and the cultivation were always in keep- ing with good farm practices. At most locations three plant...

  19. Influence of planting treatments on American chestnut (Castanea dentata)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    replaced www.epa.gov #12;4/25/2009 2 Historic surface mining reclamation practices Left "as is" Valleys and Reclamation Act of 1977 Compaction Erosion Heavy Liming Grass Planted The Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA or greater productivity Valuable forested land Alternative Species Used: Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia

  20. Biomass, Leaf Area, and Resource Availability of Kudzu Dominated Plant Communities Following Herbicide Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.T. Rader

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kudzu is an exotic vine that threatens the forests of the southern U.S. Five herbicides were tested with regard to their efficacy in controlling kudzu, community recover was monitored, and interactions with planted pines were studied. The sites selected were old farm sites dominated by kudzu.These were burned following herbicide treatment. The herbicides included triclopyr, clopyralid, metsulfuron, tebuthiuron, and picloram plus 2,4-D. Pine seedlings were planted the following year. Regression equations were developed for predicting biomass and leaf area. Four distinct plant communities resulted from the treatments. The untreated check continued to be kudzu dominated. Blackberry dominated the clopyradid treatment. Metsulfron, trychlopyr and picloram treated sites resulted in herbaceous dominated communities. The tebuthiuron treatment maintained all vegetation low.

  1. Texas Persimmon Distribution and Control with Individual Plant Treatments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scifres, C. J.

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with a IN STABLE IN THE,NEXT 15 YEARS basal spray eon&g 16 pmds of 2,4,5-T in 100 gallons of diesel oil. This treatment was most effective when applied in fdy, Aupt w early September. Ranchers hsnre reported mmplete co~txd whm the Texas pemm top...

  2. West Point Treatment Plant Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED JumpHills, New York: EnergyMountain, Utah:Orange,WestFoodPlant

  3. Independent Activity Report, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of theResponses to2012Plant

  4. Mobile water treatment plant special study. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

  5. Aeration control in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant: impact on performances, energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for stratospheric ozone [1]. In biological wastewater treatment, microbial processes such as hydroxylamine oxidationAeration control in a full-scale activated sludge wastewater treatment plant: impact strategy on energy consumption and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant

  6. Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant Project - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulenceUtilizeRural PublicRatesAbout Us > HanfordTreatment

  7. Hanford Waste Treatment Plant places first complex piping module in Pretreatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Crews at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, also known as the "Vit Plant," placed a 19-ton piping module inside the Pretreatment Facility. The module was lifted over 98-foot-tall walls and lowered into a space that provided less than two inches of clearance on each side and just a few feet on each end. It was set 56 feet above the ground.

  8. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  9. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon can be an effective treatment method applied to control oil pollution in both fresh water and marine environments. Hydrocarbon degraders, both indigenous and exogenous, are responsible for utilizing petroleum...

  10. A multilevel coordinated control strategy for energy conservation in wastewater treatment plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A multilevel coordinated control strategy for energy conservation in wastewater treatment plants and energy conservation. To achieve these goals automatic control must be applied. This paper describes on the basis of energy conservation, provided that the effluent quality meets the environmental standards

  11. Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

    2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed action regarding an upgrade of the Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF). Potential environmental consequences associated with the proposed action and alternative actions are provided. DOE proposes to design, build, and operate a new WWTF, consistent with the requirements of Title 30 of the Texas Administrative Code (TAC), Chapter 317, ''Design Criteria for Sewage Systems,'' capable of supporting current and future wastewater treatment requirements of the Plant. Wastewater treatment at Pantex must provide sufficient operational flexibility to meet Pantex Plant's anticipated future needs, including potential Plant mission changes, alternative effluent uses, and wastewater discharge permit requirements. Treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water maybe used for irrigation on DOE-owned agricultural land. Five factors support the need for DOE action: (1) The current WWTF operation has the potential for inconsistent permit compliance. (2) The existing WWTF lies completely within the 100-year floodplain. (3) The Pantex Plant mission has the potential to change, requiring infrastructure changes to the facility. (4) The life expectancy of the existing facility would be nearing its end by the time a new facility is constructed. (5) The treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water would have a beneficial agricultural use through irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following factors are present and of concern at the proposed action site on Pantex Plant: (1) Periodic wastewater effluent permit exceedances; (2) Wetlands protection and floodplain management; (3) Capability of the existing facility to meet anticipated future needs of Pantex (4) Existing facility design life; and (5) Use of treated wastewater effluent and non-regulated water for irrigation. Evaluation during the internal scoping led to the conclusion that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond for treated wastewater effluent for irrigation water, as needed. The two new lagoons would be li

  13. Effects of different site preparation treatments on species diversity, composition and plant traits in Pinus halepensis woodlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    drought, its edaphic plasticity, and its ability to colonize land after agricultural abandonment1 Effects of different site preparation treatments on species diversity, composition and plant, yet studies on the effects of silvicultural treatments on plant diversity are scarce. Our experiment

  14. The treatment of wood preserving wastes with activated carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pence, Robert Fuller

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirement and treatment schemes should be based on these combined requirements. Current treatment schemes employed in the wood preserving industry combine physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations in treating wastewaters. Jones, et al...-five of the plants performed secondary treatment on-site of which 32 used biological methods. Only 6 per- cent discharged their wastewaters directly to the environment without any form of treatment and approximately 40 percent of the plants planned to change...

  15. Thermal discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant outfalls: Impacts on stream temperatures and fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.K.; Ryon, M.G.; Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the US Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7 C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  16. Thermal Discharges from Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Outfalls: Impacts on Stream Temperatures and Fauna of Little Bayou and Big Bayou Creeks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, W.K.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a biological monitoring plan for the receiving streams of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) began in the late 1980s, because of an Agreed Order (AO) issued in September 1987 by the Kentucky Division of Water (KDOW). Five years later, in September 1992, more stringent effluent limitations were imposed upon the PGDP operations when the KDOW reissued Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit No. KY 0004049. This action prompted the US Department of Energy (DOE) to request a stay of certain limits contained in the permit. An AO is being negotiated between KDOW, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), and DOE that will require that several studies be conducted, including this stream temperature evaluation study, in an effort to establish permit limitations. All issues associated with this AO have been resolved, and the AO is currently being signed by all parties involved. The proposed effluent temperature limit is 89 F (31.7C) as a mean monthly temperature. In the interim, temperatures are not to exceed 95 F (35 C) as a monthly mean or 100 F (37.8 C) as a daily maximum. This study includes detailed monitoring of instream temperatures, benthic macroinvertebrate communities, fish communities, and a laboratory study of thermal tolerances.

  17. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  18. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is dependent on the confidence that DOE has in the long term mission for T Plant, is proposed: (1) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is high, then the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) would continue to implement the path forward previously described in the Alternatives Report (HNF-39744). Risks to the sludge project can be minimized through the establishment of an Interface Control Document (ICD) defining agreed upon responsibilities for both the STP and T Plant Operations regarding the transfer and storage of sludge and ensuring that the T Plant upgrade and operational schedule is well integrated with the sludge storage activities. (2) If the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is uncertain, then the ASF conceptual design should be pursued on a parallel path with preparation of T Plant for sludge storage until those uncertainties are resolved. (3) Finally, if the confidence level in a durable, extended T Plant mission independent of sludge storage is low, then the ASF design should be selected to provide independence from the T Plant mission risk.

  19. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  20. Transition Plan for the K-1203 Sewage Treatment Plant, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmeister J.

    2008-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The K-1203 Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) was previously used to treat and process all sanitary sewage waste from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The plant was shut down on May 29, 2008 as a result of the transition of sewage treatment for ETTP to the City of Oak Ridge. The City of Oak Ridge expanded the Rarity Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant (RRSTP) to include capacity to treat the waste from the ETTP and the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) constructed a new ETTP lift station and force main to RRSTP. In preparation for the shutdown of K-1203, the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with Operation Management International (OMI) developed a shut down plan to outline actions that need to occur prior to the transition of the facility to Bechtel Jacob Company, LLC (BJC) for decontamination and demolition (D and D). This plan outlines the actions, roles, and responsibilities for BJC in order to support the transition of the K-1203 STP from OMI to the BJC Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) and D and D programs. The D and D of the K-1203 Facilities is planned under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Remaining Facilities D and D Action Memorandum in the Balance of Site-Utilities D and D Subproject in fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  1. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  2. Proceedings ASCE EWRI World Water and Environmental Resources Congress 2005 May 15-19, 2005 Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    Modeling and evaluating temperature dynamics in wastewater treatment plants Scott A. Wells1 , Dmitriy treatment plants (WWTP). This type of model would allow operators to evaluate alternatives for reducing conditions. Temperatures were taken at 6 control points throughout the treatment plant and used as a basis

  3. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  4. Emissions model of waste treatment operations at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schindler, R.E.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated model of the waste treatment systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) was developed using a commercially-available process simulation software (ASPEN Plus) to calculate atmospheric emissions of hazardous chemicals for use in an application for an environmental permit to operate (PTO). The processes covered by the model are the Process Equipment Waste evaporator, High Level Liquid Waste evaporator, New Waste Calcining Facility and Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal facility. The processes are described along with the model and its assumptions. The model calculates emissions of NO{sub x}, CO, volatile acids, hazardous metals, and organic chemicals. Some calculated relative emissions are summarized and insights on building simulations are discussed.

  5. Phenix Power Plant Decommissioning Project. Treatment of the Primary Cold Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deluge, M. [CEA /Marcoule DDCO/SDSP BP 17171 302078 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenix is a sodium-cooled fast neutron reactor located at the CEA's Rhone Valley Center where it was commissioned in 1974. It has an electric power rating of 250 MW and is operated jointly by the CEA and EDF. Its primary role today is to investigate the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste into shorter-lived wasteform. Its final shutdown is scheduled for the beginning of 2009. In this context the Phenix Power Plant Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2003. It covers the definitive cessation of plant operation and the dismantling (D and D) operations together with the final shutdown preparatory phase. The final shutdown phase includes the operations authorized within the standard operating methodological framework. The dismantling phase also comprises treatment of sodium-bearing waste and dismantling of the nuclear facilities (reactor block, shielded cells, etc.). Treatment of the Phenix primary cold trap is scheduled to begin in 2016. The analysis program includes the following steps: - Accurately determine the contamination in the trap by carrying out gamma spectrometry measurement campaigns from 2007 to 2013 (the remaining difficulty will be to accurately determine the distribution of the contamination). - Validate the safety studies for the ELA facility. This work is currently in progress; ELA will be commissioned following inactive qualification testing. - Proceed with cutting tests on the knit mesh filter, which are scheduled to begin in 2008.

  6. Permit Program Regulating Discharge of Nondomestic Wastewater into a POTW (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any significant industrial user is required to apply for and obtain an individual indirect discharge permit if they discharge water or waste into a publicly owned treatment works.

  7. Waste Treatment Plant Support Program: Summaries of Reports Produced During Fiscal Years 1999-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeman, Gordon H.

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) being built on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will be the largest chemical processing plant in the United States. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is the designer and constructor for the WTP. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has provided significant research and testing support to the WTP. This report provides a summary of reports developed initially under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement and later PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE in support of the WTP. In March 2001, PNNL under its “1831” use agreement entered into a contract with BNI to support their research and testing activities. However, PNNL support to the WTP predates BNI involvement. Prior to March 2001, PNNL supported British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. in its role as overall designer and constructor. In February 2007, execution of PNNL’s support to the WTP was moved under its “1830” prime contract with DOE. Documents numbered “PNWD-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1831” use agreement. Documents numbered “PNNL-XXXX” were issued under PNNL’s “1830” prime contract with DOE. The documents are sorted by fiscal year and categorized as follows: ? Characterization ? HLW (High Level Waste) ? Material Characterization ? Pretreatment ? Simulant Development ? Vitrification ? Waste Form Qualification. This report is intended to provide a compendium of reports issued by PNWD/PNNL in support of the Waste Treatment Plant. Copies of all reports can be obtained by clicking on http://www.pnl.gov/rpp-wtp/ and downloading the .pdf file(s) to your computer.

  8. Storing carbon dioxide in saline formations : analyzing extracted water treatment and use for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Heath, Jason E.; Borns, David James; Dewers, Thomas A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse D.; McNemar, Andrea; Krumhansl, James Lee; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to address the potential to scale up of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and sequestration in the United States saline formations, an assessment model is being developed using a national database and modeling tool. This tool builds upon the existing NatCarb database as well as supplemental geological information to address scale up potential for carbon dioxide storage within these formations. The focus of the assessment model is to specifically address the question, 'Where are opportunities to couple CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use for existing and expanding power plants, and what are the economic impacts of these systems relative to traditional power systems?' Initial findings indicate that approximately less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data points meet the working criteria for combined CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water treatment systems. The initial results of the analysis indicate that less than 20% of all the existing complete saline formation well data may meet the working depth, salinity and formation intersecting criteria. These results were taken from examining updated NatCarb data. This finding, while just an initial result, suggests that the combined use of saline formations for CO{sub 2} storage and extracted water use may be limited by the selection criteria chosen. A second preliminary finding of the analysis suggests that some of the necessary data required for this analysis is not present in all of the NatCarb records. This type of analysis represents the beginning of the larger, in depth study for all existing coal and natural gas power plants and saline formations in the U.S. for the purpose of potential CO{sub 2} storage and water reuse for supplemental cooling. Additionally, this allows for potential policy insight when understanding the difficult nature of combined potential institutional (regulatory) and physical (engineered geological sequestration and extracted water system) constraints across the United States. Finally, a representative scenario for a 1,800 MW subcritical coal fired power plant (amongst other types including supercritical coal, integrated gasification combined cycle, natural gas turbine and natural gas combined cycle) can look to existing and new carbon capture, transportation, compression and sequestration technologies along with a suite of extracting and treating technologies for water to assess the system's overall physical and economic viability. Thus, this particular plant, with 90% capture, will reduce the net emissions of CO{sub 2} (original less the amount of energy and hence CO{sub 2} emissions required to power the carbon capture water treatment systems) less than 90%, and its water demands will increase by approximately 50%. These systems may increase the plant's LCOE by approximately 50% or more. This representative example suggests that scaling up these CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies to many plants throughout the country could increase the water demands substantially at the regional, and possibly national level. These scenarios for all power plants and saline formations throughout U.S. can incorporate new information as it becomes available for potential new plant build out planning.

  9. Wastewater Discharge Program (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The wastewater discharge regulations require that a license be obtained for the discharge of wastewater to a stream, river, wetland, or lake of the state, or to the ocean. Typical discharges...

  10. Hanford ETR- Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant- Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Technical Review- Estimate at Completion (Cost) Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a comprehensive review ofthe Hanford WTP estimate at completion - assessing the project scope, contract requirements, management execution plant, schedule, cost estimates, and risks.

  11. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from waste treatment plant biogas using the apollo scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.W.; Burrowes, P.A.; Gupta, A.; Walton, P.S.; Meffe, S.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide and other sulphur compounds from anaerobic digester gas streams prior to their use as fuel for boilers, stationary engines, and cogeneration units minimizes corrosion problems and reduces sulfur emission loadings. A research program at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto in the 1980`s demonstrated the use of a modified flotation cell for the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream and its catalytic oxidation to sulfur. The essence of the technology was a proprietary gas liquid contactor which provided very high mass transfer rates at the interface. A bench scale contactor developed at the university achieved hydrogen sulfide removal efficiencies of over 99.9% at atmospheric pressure. A demonstration unit for digester gas scrubbing applications was designed, fabricated, and then installed and evaluated at the Metropolitan Toronto Works Department - Main Treatment Plant (MTP).

  12. One System Integrated Project Team Progress in Coordinating Hanford Tank Farms and the Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Harp, Ben J. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc. (United States)

    2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed at the Hanford Site in late 2011 as a way to improve coordination and itegration between the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) on interfaces between the two projects, and to eliminate duplication and exploit opportunities for synergy. The IPT is composed of jointly staffed groups that work on technical issues of mutal interest, front-end design and project definition, nuclear safety, plant engineering system integration, commissioning, planning and scheduling, and environmental, safety, health and quality (ESH&Q) areas. In the past year important progress has been made in a number of areas as the organization has matured and additional opportunities have been identified. Areas covered in this paper include: Support for development of the Office of Envirnmental Management (EM) framework document to progress the Office of River Protection's (ORP) River Protection Project (RPP) mission; Stewardship of the RPP flowsheet; Collaboration with Savannah River Site (SRS), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Operations programs integration; and, Further development of the waste acceptance criteria.

  13. Natural and synthetic estrogens in wastewater treatment plant effuent and the coastal ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, David R. (David Richmond)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steroidal estrogens are potent endocrine disrupting chemicals that are naturally excreted by vertebrates (e.g., humans and fish) and can enter natural waters through the discharge of treated and raw sewage. Because estrogens ...

  14. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  15. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  16. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  17. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  18. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, Stuart T. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number oftechnical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule.

  19. Wastewater treatment and energy : an analysis on the feasibility of using renewable energy to power wastewater treatment plants in Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, Kevin John

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wastewater treatment is a very energy intensive industry. Singapore has a state-of-the-art wastewater treatment system that uses a number of sustainable techniques that greatly improve its overall efficiency. The centralized ...

  20. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the feasibility study for utilizing low temperature geothermal heat in the City of San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant are summarized. The study is presented in terms of preliminary engineering design, economic analysis, institutional issues, environmental impacts, resource development, and system implementation.

  1. Hanford Waste Simulants Created to Support the Research and Development on the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eibling, R.E.

    2001-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of nonradioactive waste simulants to support the River Protection Project - Waste Treatment Plant bench and pilot-scale testing is crucial to the design of the facility. The report documents the simulants development to support the SRTC programs and the strategies used to produce the simulants.

  2. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Harrington, Christopher C. [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Department of Energy - Office of River Protection, 2440 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  3. A view of treatment process of melted nuclear fuel on a severe accident plant using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, R.; Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Mizuguchi, K. [Power and Industrial Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0862 (Japan); Oomori, T. [Chemical System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation Power Systems Company, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At severe accident such as Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident, the nuclear fuels in the reactor would melt and form debris which contains stable UO2-ZrO2 mixture corium and parts of vessel such as zircaloy and iron component. The requirements for solution of issues are below; -) the reasonable treatment process of the debris should be simple and in-situ in Fukushima Daiichi power plant, -) the desirable treatment process is to take out UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} or metallic U and TRU metal, and dispose other fission products as high level radioactive waste; and -) the candidate of treatment process should generate the smallest secondary waste. Pyro-process has advantages to treat the debris because of the high solubility of the debris and its total process feasibility. Toshiba proposes a new pyro-process in molten salts using electrolysing Zr before debris fuel being treated.

  4. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  5. Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A direct discharge permit is required if a project involves the discharge of pollutants to state waters. For generation purposes, this involves the withdrawal of surface water for cooling purposes...

  6. Updated Site Response Analyses for the Waste Treatment Plant, DOE Hanford, Site, Washington.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngs, Robert R.

    2007-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the calculations performed to develop updated relative amplification functions for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facility at the DOE Hanford Site, Washington State. The original 2,000-year return period design spectra for the WTP were based on the results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) performed for the DOE Hanford Site by Geomatrix (1996). Geomatrix (1996) performed the PSHA using empirical soil-site ground motion models based primarily on recordings from California. As part of that study, site response analyses were performed to evaluate ground motions at the Hanford sites and California deep soil sites. As described in Appendix A of Geomatrix (1996), characteristic site profiles and dynamic soil properties representative of conditions at various Hanford sites and California deep soil strong motion recording stations were defined. Relative site responses of the Hanford profiles and California profiles were then compared. Based on the results of those site response analyses, it was concluded that ground motions at the Hanford sites underlain by deep soil deposits are similar in character to those on California deep soil sites and it was judged appropriate to use empirical deep soil site attenuation relationships based primarily on California ground motion data to develop design spectra for the Hanford sites. In a subsequent analysis, Geomatrix (2003) updated the site response analyses of Geomatrix (1996, Appendix A) to incorporate randomization of the California and Hanford profiles. The results of that analysis also led to the conclusion that the response of the Hanford profiles was similar to the response of deep soil sites in California.

  7. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  8. Biologically induced concrete deterioration in a wastewater treatment plant assessed by combining microstructural analysis with thermodynamic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemann, A., E-mail: andreas.leemann@empa.c [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B.; Hoffmann, C. [Empa, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the nitrification basins of wastewater treatment plants, deterioration of the concrete surface can occur due to acid attack caused by a nitrifying biofilm covering the concrete. To identify the mechanism of deterioration, concrete cubes of different composition were suspended in an aerated nitrification basin of a wastewater treatment plant for two years and analyzed afterwards. The microstructural investigation reveals that not only dissolution of hydrates takes place, but that calcite precipitation close to the surface occurs leading to the formation of a dense layer. The degree of deterioration of the different cubes correlates with the CaO content of the different cements used. Cements which contain a high fraction of CaO form more calcite offering a better protection against the acid attack. The presence of slag, which lowers the amount CaO in the cement, leads to a faster deterioration of the concrete than observed for samples produced with pure OPC.

  9. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  10. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  11. Helium corona-assisted air discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Nan; Gao Lei; Ji Ailing; Cao Zexian [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases including air at low voltages yet without consuming any inert gas will enormously promote the application of non-thermal plasmas. By taking advantage of the low onset voltage for helium corona, air discharge was successfully launched at much reduced voltages with a needle-plate system partly contained in a helium-filled glass bulb--for a needle-plate distance of 12 mm, 1.0 kV suffices. Ultraviolet emission from helium corona facilitates the discharging of air, and the discharge current manifests distinct features such as relatively broad Trichel pulses in both half periods. This design allows safe and economic implementation of atmospheric discharge of electronegative gases, which will find a broad palette of applications in surface modification, plasma medicine and gas treatment, etc.

  12. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The project completed TPA Milestone M-083-032 to 'Complete those activities required by the 241-Z Treatment and Storage Unit's RCRA Closure Plan' four years and seven months ahead of this legally enforceable milestone. In addition, the project completed TPA Milestone M-083-042 to 'Complete transition and dismantlement of the 241-2 Waste Treatment Facility' four years and four months ahead of schedule. The project used an innovative approach in developing the project-specific RCRA closure plan to assure clear integration between the 241-Z RCRA closure activities and ongoing and future CERCLA actions at PFP. This approach provided a regulatory mechanism within the RCRA closure plan to place segments of the closure that were not practical to address at this time into future actions under CERCLA. Lessons learned from th is approach can be applied to other closure projects within the DOE Complex to control scope creep and mitigate risk. A paper on this topic, entitled 'Integration of the 241-Z Building D and D Under CERCLA with RCRA Closure at the PFP', was presented at the 2007 Waste Management Conference in Tucson, Arizona. In addition, techniques developed by the 241-Z D&D Project to control airborne contamination, clean the interior of the waste tanks, don and doff protective equipment, size-reduce plutonium-contaminated process piping, and mitigate thermal stress for the workers can be applied to other cleanup activities. The project-management team developed a strategy utilizing early characterization, targeted cleanup, and close coordination with PFP Criticality Engineering to significantly streamline the waste- handling costs associated with the project . The project schedule was structured to support an early transition to a criticality 'incredible' status for the 241-Z Facility. The cleanup work was sequenced and coordinated with project-specific criticality analysis to allow the fissile material waste being generated to be managed in a bulk fashion, instead of individual waste packages. This approach negated the need for real-time assay of individ

  13. Fate of As, Se, and Hg in a Passive Integrated System for Treatment of Fossil Plant Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Yost; Paul Pier; Gregory Brodie

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    TVA is collaborating with EPRI and DOE to demonstrate a passive treatment system for removing SCR-derived ammonia and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant wastewater stream. The components of the integrated system consist of trickling filters for ammonia oxidation, reaction cells containing zero-valent iron (ZVI) for trace contaminant removal, a settling basin for storage of iron hydroxide floc, and anaerobic vertical-flow wetlands for biological denitrification. The passive integrated treatment system will treat up to 0.25 million gallons per day (gpd) of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pond effluent, with a configuration requiring only gravity flow to obviate the need for pumps. The design of the system will enable a comparative evaluation of two parallel treatment trains, with and without the ZVI extraction trench and settling/oxidation basin components. One of the main objectives is to gain a better understanding of the chemical transformations that species of trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in passive treatment system components with differing environmental conditions. This progress report details the design criteria for the passive integrated system for treating fossil power plant wastewater as well as performance results from the first several months of operation. Engineering work on the project has been completed, and construction took place during the summer of 2005. Monitoring of the passive treatment system was initiated in October 2005 and continued until May 18 2006. The results to date indicate that the treatment system is effective in reducing levels of nitrogen compounds and trace metals. Concentrations of both ammonia and trace metals were lower than expected in the influent FGD water, and additions to increase these concentrations will be done in the future to further test the removal efficiency of the treatment system. In May 2006, the wetland cells were drained of FGD water, refilled with less toxic ash pond water, and replanted due to low survival rates from the first planting the previous summer. The goals of the TVA-EPRI-DOE collaboration include building a better understanding of the chemical transformations that trace elements such as arsenic, selenium, and mercury undergo as they are treated in a passive treatment system, and to evaluate the performance of a large-scale replicated passive treatment system to provide additional design criteria and economic factors.

  14. Estimating costs and benefits of advanced control for wastewater treatment plants the MAgIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benchmarking; cost­benefit analysis; full-scale plant control; on-line process control; sensors Introduction plants. The effective coupling of the sensors to on-line control algorithms is now operational in 10 al., 2004). The methodology is designed such that the evaluation should be possible from existing

  15. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the

  16. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  17. Plant reestablishment after soil disturbance: Effects of soils, treatment, and time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, C.A.; Alford, K.; McIlveny, G.; Tijerina, A.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined plant growth and establishment on 16 sites where severe land disturbance had taken place. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the different methods in term of their effects on establishment of native and alien plants. Disturbances ranged from 1 to 50 years in age. Revegetation using native plants had been attempted at 14 of the sites; the remainder were abandoned without any further management. Revegetation efforts variously included seeding, fertilizer application, mulching with various organic sources, compost application, application of Warden silt loam topsoil over sand and gravel soils, and moderate irrigation.

  18. The carbon footprint analysis of wastewater treatment plants and nitrous oxide emissions from full-scale biological nitrogen removal processes in Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprint analysis of advanced wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ...

  19. Oscillations in glow discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prickett, Tom

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1950 CONTENTS Introduction ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 I. Review of Plasma Oscillations in Gas Discharges ? . . 2 II. Review of Relaxation Processes in Gas Discharges ? . 13 III. Report of Laboratory Investigation... 179540 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Sketch of Plasma Space in which Electrons are given Displacements in the X-direction ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 2* Early Circuit Arrangement of Discharge Study ? ? ? ? ? 19 3, Flow Diagram of the Experimental System...

  20. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  1. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  2. Assessment of sludge management options in a waste water treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jong hyun, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is part of a larger project which began in response to a request by the Spanish water agengy, Cadagua, for advice on life cycle assessment (LCA) and environmental impacts of Cadagua operated wastewater treatment ...

  3. Regional factors governing performance and sustainability of wastewater treatment plants in Honduras : Lake Yojoa Subwatershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Kent B. (Kent Bramwell)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake Yojoa, the largest natural lake in Honduras, is currently experiencing eutrophication from overloading of nutrients, in part due to inadequate wastewater treatment throughout the Lake Yojoa Subwatershed. Some efforts ...

  4. Plant species as a significant factor in wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varvel, Tracey W

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Constructed wetlands are one of the newest wastewater treatment technologies. They should reduce the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and utilize a large amount of the influent. The BOD determines how much oxygen is used bymicro organisms while...

  5. Evolutionary parameter optimization of a fuzzy controller which is used to control a sewage treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebner, Marc

    Evolutionary parameter optimization of a fuzzy controller which is used to control a sewage, Abt. Rechnerarchitektur, Sand 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany Patrick Stalph Julius inexpensive equipment, which controls parts of the plant in a new way. Fuzzy controllers are often used

  6. Feasibility of geothermal heat use in the San Bernardino Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report, September 1980-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, W.C.; Larson, T.C.; Stewart, C.A.; Wessel, H.B.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system was developed for utilizing nearby low temperature geothermal energy to heat two high-rate primary anaerobic digesters at the San Bernardino Wastewater Treatment Plant. The geothermal fluid would replace the methane currently burned to fuel the digesters. A summary of the work accomplished on the feasibility study is presented. The design and operation of the facility are examined and potentially viable applications selected for additional study. Results of these investigations and system descriptions and equipment specifications for utilizing geothermal energy in the selected processes are presented. The economic analyses conducted on the six engineering design cases are discussed. The environmental setting of the project and an analysis of the environmental impacts that will result from construction and operation of the geothermal heating system are discussed. A Resource Development Plan describes the steps that the San Bernardino Municipal Water Department could follow in order to utilize the resource. A preliminary well program and rough cost estimates for the production and injection wells also are included. The Water Department is provided with a program and schedule for implementing a geothermal system to serve the wastewater treatment plant. Regulatory, financial, and legal issues that will impact the project are presented in the Appendix. An outline of a Public Awareness Program is included.

  7. Modeling the effects of low flow augmentation by discharge from a wastewater treatment plant on dissolved oxygen concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gholkar, Tejal A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A GIS-based hydrological/water quality model called Non Point Source Model (NPSM) was used to simulate various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the Leon Creek Watershed, near San Antonio, Texas. The model was then used...

  8. Modeling the Effects of Low Flow Augmentation by Discharge from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Leon Creek, San Antonio, Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matlock, Dr. Marty D.; Hann, Dr. Roy W. Jr.; Gholkar, Tejal A.

    A GIS-based hydrological/water quality model called Non Point Source Model (NPSM) was used to simulate various physical, chemical and biological processes taking place in the Leon Creek Watershed, near San Antonio, Texas. The model was then used...

  9. Nonnative Plant Response to Silvicultural Treatments: A Model Based on Disturbance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Cara

    can have on nonnative vegetation, alter their harvesting techniques to minimize negative nonnative result in substantial adverse effects on the functions of native forest ecosystems, including nutrient in the scientific literature. Of a total of 42 studies that addressed the effects of silvicultural treatments

  10. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 400 Area Septic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affects groundwater or has the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 400 Area Septic System. The influent to the system is domestic waste water. Although the 400 Area Septic System is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. Therefore, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used.

  11. Enterprise Assessments Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality - June 2015

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic Plan Departmentof EnergyPublic LawEnergyEnhanced5Plant - March

  12. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  13. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore »FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  14. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gingerich, Daniel B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  15. Combustion testing and heat recovery study: Frank E. Van Lare Wastewater Treatment Plant, Monroe County. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the study were to record and analyze sludge management operations data and sludge incinerator combustion data; ascertain instrumentation and control needs; calculate heat balances for the incineration system; and determine the feasibility of different waste-heat recovery technologies for the Frank E. Van Lare (FEV) Wastewater Treatment Plant. As an integral part of this study, current and pending federal and state regulations were evaluated to establish their impact on furnace operation and subsequent heat recovery. Of significance is the effect of the recently promulgated Federal 40 CFR Part 503 regulations on the FEV facility. Part 503 regulations were signed into law in November 1992, and, with some exceptions, affected facilities must be in compliance by February 19, 1994. Those facilities requiring modifications or upgrades to their incineration or air pollution control equipment to meet Part 503 regulations must be in compliance by February 19, 1995.

  16. The Department of Energy's $12.2 Billion Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Quality Assurance Issues

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015 - JanuaryTank 48H TreatmentEnergyEnergy

  17. Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality, August 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, anEnergy nepdg_5251_5500.pdfAnalysis of Downwash fromWaste Treatment

  18. NITRO-HYDROLYSIS: AN ENERGY EFFICIENT SOURCE REDUCTION AND CHEMICAL PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT BIOSOLIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The nitro-hydrolysis process has been demonstrated in the laboratory in batch tests on one municipal waste stream. This project was designed to take the next step toward commercialization for both industrial and municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) by demonstrating the feasibility of the process on a small scale. In addition, a 1-lb/hr continuous treatment system was constructed at University of Tennessee to treat the Kuwahee WWTF (Knoxville, TN) sludge in future work. The nitro-hydrolysis work was conducted at University of Tennessee in the Chemical Engineering Department and the gas and liquid analysis were performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Nitro-hydrolysis of sludge proved a very efficient way of reducing sludge volume, producing a treated solution which contained unreacted solids (probably inorganics such as sand and silt) that settled quickly. Formic acid was one of the main organic acid products of reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used in the nitrolysis. When less nitric acid was used formic acid was initially produced but was later consumed in the reactions. The other major organic acid produced was acetic acid which doubled in concentration during the reaction when larger quantities of nitric acid were used. Propionic acid and butyric acid were not produced or consumed in these experiments. It is projected that the commercial use of nitro-hydrolysis at municipal wastewater treatment plants alone would result in a total estimated energy savings of greater than 20 trillion Btu/yr. A net reduction of 415,000 metric tons of biosolids per year would be realized and an estimated annual cost reduction of $122M/yr.

  19. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval and Delivery of Hanford Tank Wastes for Vitrification in the Waste Treatment Plant - 13234

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton J. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Post Office Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)] [Bechtel National, Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Post Office Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety-conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction of WTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration and Controls, Front-End Design and Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety and Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH and QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant{sup R} Foundation-Configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan. (authors)

  20. One System Integrated Project Team: Retrieval And Delivery Of The Hanford Tank Wastes For Vitrification In The Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harp, Benton J. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Kacich, Richard M. [Bechtel National, Inc., Richland, WA (United States); Skwarek, Raymond J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was formed in late 2011 as a way for improving the efficiency of delivery and treatment of highly radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) 586-square-mile Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The purpose of the One System IPT is to improve coordination and integration between the Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) contractor and the Tank Operations Contractor (TOC). The vision statement is: One System is a WTP and TOC safety conscious team that, through integrated management and implementation of risk-informed decision and mission-based solutions, will enable the earliest start of safe and efficient treatment of Hanford's tank waste, to protect the Columbia River, environment and public. The IPT is a formal collaboration between Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), which manages design and construction of the WTP for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (DOEORP), and Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), which manages the TOC for ORP. More than fifty-six (56) million gallons of highly radioactive liquid waste are stored in one hundred seventy-seven (177) aging, underground tanks. Most of Hanford's waste tanks - one hundred forty-nine (149) of them - are of an old single-shell tank (SST) design built between 1944 and 1964. More than sixty (60) of these tanks have leaked in the past, releasing an estimated one million gallons of waste into the soil and threatening the nearby Columbia River. There are another twenty-eight (28) new double-shelled tanks (DSTs), built from 1968 to 1986, that provide greater protection to the environment. In 1989, DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) signed a landmark agreement that required Hanford to comply with federal and state environmental standards. It also paved the way for agreements that set deadlines for retrieving the tank wastes and for building and operating the WTP. The tank wastes are the result of Hanford's nearly fifty (50) years of plutonium production. In the intervening years, waste characteristics have been increasingly better understood. However, waste characteristics that are uncertain and will remain as such represent a significant technical challenge in terms of retrieval, transport, and treatment, as well as for design and construction ofWTP. What also is clear is that the longer the waste remains in the tanks, the greater the risk to the environment and the people of the Pacific Northwest. The goal of both projects - tank operations and waste treatment - is to diminish the risks posed by the waste in the tanks at the earliest possible date. About two hundred (200) WTP and TOC employees comprise the IPT. Individual work groups within One System include Technical, Project Integration & Controls, Front-End Design & Project Definition, Commissioning, Nuclear Safety & Engineering Systems Integration, and Environmental Safety and Health and Quality Assurance (ESH&QA). Additional functions and team members will be added as the WTP approaches the operational phase. The team has undertaken several initiatives since its formation to collaborate on issues: (1) alternate scenarios for delivery of wastes from the tank farms to WTP; (2) improvements in managing Interface Control Documents; (3) coordination on various technical issues, including the Defense Nuclear Facilities Nuclear Safety Board's Recommendation 2010-2; (4) deployment of the SmartPlant? Foundation-configuration Management System; and (5) preparation of the joint contract deliverable of the Operational Readiness Support Plan.

  1. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  2. State waste discharge permit application: 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (Project W-049H)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the original Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Concent Order negotiations, US DOE, US EPA and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground to the Hanford Site are subject to permitting in the State Waste Discharge Permit Program (SWDP). This document constitutes the SWDP Application for the 200 Area TEDF stream which includes the following streams discharged into the area: Plutonium Finishing Plant waste water; 222-S laboratory Complex waste water; T Plant waste water; 284-W Power Plant waste water; PUREX chemical Sewer; B Plant chemical sewer, process condensate, steam condensate; 242-A-81 Water Services waste water.

  3. Water Pollutant Discharge Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The discharge of oil in quantities which exceed the standards adopted by the Pollution Control Board, or the discharge of other pollutants directly or indirectly into the waters is prohibited....

  4. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Richard L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Niemi, Belinda J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Paik, Ingle K. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Buczek, Jeffrey A. [AREVA Federal Services LLC (United States); Lietzow, J. [URS Professional Services (United States); McCoy, F. [AREVA Federal Services LLC (United States); Beranek, F. [URS Professional Services (United States); Gupta, M. [URS Professional Services (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  5. Overview of Pulse Jet Mixer/Hybrid Mixing System Development to Support the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, Dean E.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.; Barnes, Steven M.

    2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection's Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) will process and treat radioactive waste that is stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Pulse jet mixer (PJM) technology was selected for mixing the contents of many of the process vessels. Several of the tanks are expected to contain concentrated slurries that exhibit a non-Newtonian rheology and the understanding required to apply this technology to mobilize the non-Newtonian slurries was not mature. Consequently, an experimental testing effort was undertaken to investigate PJM performance in several scaled versions of WTP vessels and to develop mixing system configurations that met WTP requirements. This effort evolved into a large, multifaceted test program involving many different test facilities. Elements of the test program included theoretical analysis, development and characterization of simulants, development of instrumentation and measurement techniques, hundreds of tests at various scales in numerous test stands, and data analysis and application. This program provided the technical basis for the selection of pulse jet mixers along with air spargers and steady jets generated by recirculation pumps to provide mixing systems for several of the vessels with non-Newtonian slurries. This paper provides an overview of the testing program and a summary of the key technical results that formed the technical basis of the final mixing system configurations to be used in the WTP.

  6. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate to the insoluble technetium dioxide. The reducing agents were tried with and without sorbents.

  7. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondarytreated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  8. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasenko, Victor F. (Tomsk, RU); Panchenko, Aleksey N. (Tomsk, RU); Skakun, Victor S. (Tomsk, RU); Sosnin, Edward A. (Tomsk, RU); Wang, Francis T. (Danville, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  9. Improved Management of the Technical Interfaces Between the Hanford Tank Farm Operator and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant - 13383

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Garth M. [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Bechtel National Inc., 2435 Stevens Center Place, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States); Saunders, Scott A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)] [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is constructing the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford site in Washington to treat and immobilize approximately 114 million gallons of high level radioactive waste (after all retrievals are accomplished). In order for the WTP to be designed and operated successfully, close coordination between the WTP engineering, procurement, and construction contractor, Bechtel National, Inc. and the tank farms operating contractor (TOC), Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, is necessary. To develop optimal solutions for DOE and for the treatment of the waste, it is important to deal with the fact that two different prime contractors, with somewhat differing contracts, are tasked with retrieving and delivering the waste and for treating and immobilizing that waste. The WTP and the TOC have over the years cooperated to manage the technical interface. To manage what is becoming a much more complicated interface as the WTP design progresses and new technical issues have been identified, an organizational change was made by WTP and TOC in November of 2011. This organizational change created a co-located integrated project team (IPT) to deal with mutual and interface issues. The Technical Organization within the One System IPT includes employees from both TOC and WTP. This team has worked on a variety of technical issues of mutual interest and concern. Technical issues currently being addressed include: - The waste acceptance criteria; - Waste feed delivery and the associated data quality objectives (DQO); - Evaluation of the effects of performing a riser cut on a single shell tank on WTP operations; - The disposition of secondary waste from both TOC and WTP; - The close coordination of the TOC double shell tank mixing and sampling program and the Large Scale Integrated Test (LSIT) program for pulse jet mixers at WTP along with the associated responses to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2; - Development of a set of alternatives to the current baseline that involve aspects of direct feed, feed conditioning, and design changes. The One System Technical Organization has served WTP, TOC, and DOE well in managing and resolving issues at the interface. This paper describes the organizational structure used to improve the interface and several examples of technical interface issues that have been successfully addressed by the new organization. (authors)

  10. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  11. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  12. Zero-discharge of nutrients and water in a willow dominated constructed wetland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brix, Hans

    evapotranspire the water, and nutrients can be recycled via the willow biomass produced in the system. The willow; recycling; Salix; water treatment; willow; zero-discharge Introduction Discharge of domestic sewage from this is not possible because of clayish soil conditions or high ground water tables. Other treatment solutions, like

  13. PERIODIC GLOW DISCHARGE REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest andOptimize832 2.860SelectedGLOW DISCHARGE REPORT

  14. ^--'^ Poster session : 4st confrence on Small Wastewater Treatment Plants. Stratford-upon-Avon, April 18-21, 1999 f . Contact e-mail : catherine.boutin@cemagref.fr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . They are biological Systems for wastewater treatment, for which the effective bacterial culture is developing on added^--'^ Poster session : 4st conférence on Small Wastewater Treatment Plants. Stratford a large number of communities with less than 2 000 inhabitants. The adjustment of wastewater treatment

  15. Laboratory Scoping Tests Of Decontamination Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.; Nash, Charles A.; Crawford, Charles L.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the potential treatment of this stream to remove radionuclides and subsequently disposition the decontaminated stream elsewhere, such as the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), for example. The treatment process envisioned is very similar to that used for the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) that has been operating for years at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and focuses on using mature radionuclide removal technologies that are also compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am. This report discusses results of preliminary radionuclide decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of Monosodium Titanate (MST) to remove {sup 90}Sr and actinides, inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc, and zeolites for {sup 137}Cs. Test results indicate that excellent removal of {sup 99}Tc was achieved using Sn(II)Cl{sub 2} as a reductant, coupled with sorption onto hydroxyapatite, even in the presence of air and at room temperature. This process was very effective at neutral pH, with a Decontamination Factor (DF) >577 in two hours. It was less effective at alkaline pH. Conversely, removal of the cesium was more effective at alka

  16. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

  17. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  18. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  19. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.

  20. Energy (Cost) Savings by Zero Discharge in Cooling Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matson, J. V.; Gardiner, W. M.; Harris, T. G.; Puckorius, P. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -practiced, successful treatment procedures. The effects and history of corrosion and scale inhibitors, as well as other treatment chemicals, have been evaluated for numerous plants utilizing zero blowdown, and a summation of this knowledge is presented here. The cost...

  1. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has evaluated the existing waste feed qualification strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) based on experience from the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) waste qualification program. The current waste qualification programs for each of the sites are discussed in the report to provide a baseline for comparison. Recommendations on strategies are then provided that could be implemented at Hanford based on the successful Macrobatch qualification strategy utilized at SRS to reduce the risk of processing upsets or the production of a staged waste campaign that does not meet the processing requirements of the WTP. Considerations included the baseline WTP process, as well as options involving Direct High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) processing, and the potential use of a Tank Waste Characterization and Staging Facility (TWCSF). The main objectives of the Hanford waste feed qualification program are to demonstrate compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), determine waste processability, and demonstrate unit operations at a laboratory scale. Risks to acceptability and successful implementation of this program, as compared to the DWPF Macro-Batch qualification strategy, include: Limitations of mixing/blending capability of the Hanford Tank Farm; The complexity of unit operations (i.e., multiple chemical and mechanical separations processes) involved in the WTP pretreatment qualification process; The need to account for effects of blending of LAW and HLW streams, as well as a recycle stream, within the PT unit operations; and The reliance on only a single set of unit operations demonstrations with the radioactive qualification sample. This later limitation is further complicated because of the 180-day completion requirement for all of the necessary waste feed qualification steps. The primary recommendations/changes include the following: Collection and characterization of samples for relevant process analytes from the tanks to be blended during the staging process; Initiation of qualification activities earlier in the staging process to optimize the campaign composition through evaluation from both a processing and glass composition perspective; Definition of the parameters that are important for processing in the WTP facilities (unit operations) across the anticipated range of wastes and as they relate to qualification-scale equipment; Performance of limited testing with simulants ahead of the waste feed qualification sample demonstration as needed to determine the available processing window for that campaign; and Demonstration of sufficient mixing in the staging tank to show that the waste qualification sample chemical and physical properties are representative of the transfers to be made to WTP. Potential flowcharts for derivatives of the Hanford waste feed qualification process are also provided in this report. While these recommendations are an extension of the existing WTP waste qualification program, they are more in line with the processes currently performed for SRS. The implementation of these processes at SRS has been shown to offer flexibility for processing, having identified potential processing issues ahead of the qualification or facility processing, and having provided opportunity to optimize waste loading and throughput in the DWPF.

  2. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  3. High-tech waste treatment plant to open in Ho Chi Min City (20-07-2005)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    providing capital for the plant construction," Tuan said. #12;Every day, HCM City, which has a population incinerated. But incineration destroys natural resources, adds to climate change and causes pollution from air Energy company also uses deep-well technology to keep its disposal of industrial wastewater inside its

  4. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project - October 2010 October 2010 Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant...

  5. Independent Oversight Assessment, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2012 Independent Oversight Assessment, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - January 2012 January 2012 Assessment of the...

  6. Groundwater Discharge Permit and Registration (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Groundwater Discharge Permitting and Registration Program seeks to protect groundwater quality by establishing standards, criteria, and procedures for wastewater discharges. The program...

  7. Industrial Discharge Permits (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All businesses and government agencies discharging process wastewater to the public sewer system must report their activities to DC Water's Pretreatment Center. Wastewater discharge permits are...

  8. Field evaluation of a horizontal well recirculation system for groundwater treatment: Field demonstration at X-701B Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korte, N.; Muck, M.; Kearl, P.; Siegrist, R.; Schlosser, R.; Zutman, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Houk, T. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the field-scale demonstration performed as part of the project, In Situ Treatment of Mixed Contaminants in Groundwater. This project was a 3{1/2} year effort comprised of laboratory work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and fieldwork performed at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). The overall goal of the project was to evaluate in situ treatment of groundwater using horizontal recirculation coupled with treatment modules. Specifically, horizontal recirculation was tested because of its application to thin, interbedded aquifer zones. Mixed contaminants were targeted because of their prominence at DOE sites and because they cannot be treated with conventional methods. The project involved several research elements, including treatment process evaluation, hydrodynamic flow and transport modeling, pilot testing at an uncontaminated site, and full-scale testing at a contaminated site. This report presents the results of the work at the contaminated site, X-701B at PORTS. Groundwater contamination at X-701B consists of trichloroethene (TCE) (concentrations up to 1800 mg/L) and technetium-998 (Tc{sup 99}) (activities up to 926 pCi/L).

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  10. Calculation Method for the Projection of Future Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. McLeod

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the calculation method developed for the projection of future utility spent nuclear fuel (SNF) discharges in regard to their timing, quantity, burnup, and initial enrichment. This projection method complements the utility-supplied RW-859 data on historic discharges and short-term projections of SNF discharges by providing long-term projections that complete the total life cycle of discharges for each of the current U.S. nuclear power reactors. The method was initially developed in mid-1999 to update the SNF discharge projection associated with the 1995 RW-859 utility survey (CRWMS M&O 1996). and was further developed as described in Rev. 00 of this report (CRWMS M&O 2001a). Primary input to the projection of SNF discharges is the utility projection of the next five discharges from each nuclear unit, which is provided via the revised final version of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) 1998 RW-859 utility survey (EIA 2000a). The projection calculation method is implemented via a set of Excel 97 spreadsheets. These calculations provide the interface between receipt of the utility five-discharge projections that are provided in the RW-859 survey, and the delivery of projected life-cycle SNF discharge quantities and characteristics in the format requisite for performing logistics analysis to support design of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). Calculation method improvements described in this report include the addition of a reactor-specific maximum enrichment-based discharge burnup limit. This limit is the consequence of the enrichment limit, currently 5 percent. which is imposed as a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license condition on nuclear fuel fabrication plants. In addition, the calculation method now includes the capability for projecting future nuclear plant power upratings, consistent with many such recent plant uprates and the prospect of additional future uprates. Finally. this report summarizes the results of the 2002 Reference SNF Discharge Projection.

  11. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru (Amagasaki, JP)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  12. Appendix E. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Noncompliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    in the Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility. A portion of the overflow entered the storm drain system of a wastewater batch at the Steam Plant Wastewater Treatment Facility (SPWTF ­ NPDES Outfall X02) became. Members of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department and the Y-12 Biological Monitoring and Abatement

  13. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byand M.D. Sands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.

  14. DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, S.M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

  15. Active species downstream of an ArO surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Vasco

    Active species downstream of an Ar­O 2 surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine, surface.1088/0963-0252/20/3/035006 Active species downstream of an Ar­O2 surface-wave microwave discharge for biomedicine, surface treatment in a 0.5 cm diameter tube at pressures between 1 and 12 mbar. The early afterglow that occurs downstream

  16. Cesium Removal at Fukushima Nuclear Plant - 13215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, James L.; Barker, Tracy A. [Avantech Incorporated, 95A Sunbelt Blvd Columbia, SC 29203 (United States)] [Avantech Incorporated, 95A Sunbelt Blvd Columbia, SC 29203 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that took place on March 11, 2011 created a number of technical challenges at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. One of the primary challenges involved the treatment of highly contaminated radioactive wastewater. Avantech Inc. developed a unique patent pending treatment system that addressed the numerous technical issues in an efficient and safe manner. Our paper will address the development of the process from concept through detailed design, identify the lessons learned, and provide the updated results of the project. Specific design and operational parameters/benefits discussed in the paper include: - Selection of equipment to address radionuclide issues; - Unique method of solving the additional technical issues associated with Hydrogen Generation and Residual Heat; - Operational results, including chemistry, offsite discharges and waste generation. Results show that the customized process has enabled the utility to recycle the wastewater for cooling and reuse. This technology had a direct benefit to nuclear facilities worldwide. (authors)

  17. Magnetic dipole discharges. III. Instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Instabilities in a cross-field discharge around a permanent magnet have been investigated. The permanent magnet serves as a cold cathode and the chamber wall as an anode. The magnet is biased strongly negative and emits secondary electrons due to impact of energetic ions. The electrons outside the sheath are confined by the strong dipolar magnetic field and by the ion-rich sheath surrounding the magnet. The electron energy peaks in the equatorial plane where most ionization occurs and the ions are trapped in a negative potential well. The discharge mechanism is the same as that of cylindrical and planar magnetrons, but here extended to a 3-D cathode geometry using a single dipole magnet. While the basic properties of the discharge are presented in a companion paper, the present focus is on various observed instabilities. The first is an ion sheath instability which oscillates the plasma potential outside the sheath below the ion plasma frequency. It arises in ion-rich sheaths with low electron supply, which is the case for low secondary emission yields. Sheath oscillations modulate the discharge current creating oscillating magnetic fields. The second instability is current-driven ion sound turbulence due to counter-streaming electrons and ions. The fluctuations have a broad spectrum and short correlation lengths in all directions. The third type of fluctuations is spiky potential and current oscillations in high density discharges. These appear to be due to unstable emission properties of the magnetron cathode.

  18. Journal of Engineering Mathematics Optimal discharging in a branched estuary Optimal discharging in a branched estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that returns to the discharge site is less polluted than would 1 #12;Journal of Engineering Mathematics OptimalJournal of Engineering Mathematics Optimal discharging in a branched estuary Optimal discharging the proximity of the discharge site to the branching and upon how the rate of discharge is adjusted. Explicit

  19. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Dickinson, Michael (San Leandro, CA); Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Winnetka, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  20. Assessment of Waste Treatment Plant Lab C3V (LB-S1) Stack Sampling Probe Location for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glissmeyer, John A.; Geeting, John GH

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a series of tests used to assess the proposed air sampling location in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Lab C3V (LB-S1) exhaust stack with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. Federal regulations require that an air sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack in accordance with the criteria of American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

  1. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); De Marquis, Virginia K. (Tijeras, NM); Harris, Steven M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  2. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 183-N Backwash Discharge Pond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. Liquid effluents on the Hanford Site have been classified as Phase I, Phase II, and Miscellaneous Streams. The Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 establishes milestones for State Waste Discharge Permit application submittals for all Phase I and Phase II streams, as well as the following 11 Miscellaneous Streams as identified in Table 4 of the Consent Order No. DE91NM-177.

  3. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.

  4. BULKING SLUDGE TREATMENT BY MICROSCOPIC OBSERVATION AND MECHANICAL TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the operation of the biological stage of waste water treatment plants. If the threatening extensive growth of wastewater treatment plants often need a complex control for the optimal processing. The measurement status and for the regulation of biological parts in waste water treatment plants. Furthermore, e

  5. State Surface Water Discharge Permits (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules apply to the discharge of all pollutants from a point source to surface waters of the state. The rule does not apply to facilities that require both a state discharge permit and a federal...

  6. Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Quality regulates facilities that discharge any pollutant into waters of the state. Permits must be acquired before the discharge of any pollutants into state waters...

  7. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic Ion Thruster Discharge ChamberSimulations for an Ion Engine Discharge Chamber,” J. Propul.Model of an Ion Thruster Discharge Chamber,” in 39th AIAA

  8. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  9. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  10. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  11. Plant evolution The Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieseberg, Loren

    Plant evolution The Evolution of Plants by Kathy J. Willis and Jenny C. McElwain. Oxford University Press, 2002. $40.00/£22.99 pbk (378 pages) ISBN 0 19 850065 3 Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution is observed for treatments of evolution and development. Titles of major monographs on the subject imply

  12. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  13. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  14. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  15. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  16. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton (Calabasas, CA); Bremner, Robert J. (Woodland Hills, CA); Meng, Sen Y. (Reseda, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  17. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  18. Non-storm water discharges technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathews, S.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) submitted a Notice of Intent to the California State Water Resources Control Board (hereafter State Board) to discharge storm water associated with industrial activities under the California General Industrial Activity Storm Water National Pollutant Elimination System Discharge Permit (hereafter General Permit). As required by the General Permit, LLNL provided initial notification of non-storm water discharges to the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (hereafter Regional Board) on October 2, 1992. Additional findings and progress towards corrective actions were reported in subsequent annual monitoring reports. LLNL was granted until March 27, 1995, three years from the Notice of Intent submission date, to eliminate or permit the non-storm water discharges. On May 20, 1994, the Regional Board issued Waste Discharge Requirements (WDR Board Order No. 94-131, NPDES No. CA0081396) to LLNL for discharges of non-contact cooling tower wastewater and storm water related to industrial activities. As a result of the issuance of WDR 94-131, LLNL rescinded its coverage under the General Permit. WDR 94-131 allowed continued non-storm water discharges and requested a technical report describing the discharges LLNL seeks to permit. For the described discharges, LLNL anticipates the Regional Board will either waive Waste Discharge Requirements as allowed for in The Water Quality Control Plan for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Central Valley Region (hereafter Basin Plan) or amend Board Order 94-131 as appropriate.

  19. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plant - August 2011 August 2011 Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  1. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the local political organizations that can influence decisions regarding the use of the alternative source. Often a plan to use reclaimed water will work only if local politics and power plant goals converge. Even then, lengthy negotiations are often needed for the plans to come to fruition. (3) Regulatory requirements for planning and developing associated infrastructure such as pipelines, storage facilities, and back-up supplies that can require numerous approvals, permits, and public participation, all of which can create delays and increased costs. (4) Permitting requirements that may be difficult to meet, such as load-based discharge limits for wastewater or air emissions limitations for particulate matter (which will be in the mist of cooling towers that use reclaimed water high in dissolved solids). (5) Finding discharge options for cooling tower blowdown of reclaimed water that are acceptable to permitting authorities. Constituents in this wastewater can limit options for discharge. For example, discharge to rivers requires National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits whose limits may be difficult to meet, and underground injection can be limited because many potential injection sites have already been claimed for disposal of produced waters from oil and gas wells or waters associated with gas shale extraction. (6) Potential liabilities associated with using alternative sources. A power plant can be liable for damages associated with leaks from reclaimed water conveyance systems or storage areas, or with mine water that has been contaminated by unscrupulous drillers that is subsequently discharged by the power plant. (7) Community concerns that include, but are not limited to, increased saltwater drift on farmers fields; the possibility that the reclaimed water will contaminate local drinking water aquifers; determining the 'best' use of WWTP effluent; and potential health concerns associated with emissions from the cooling towers that use recycled water. (8) Interveners that raise public concerns about the potential for emissions of emergi

  2. Power Plant Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) 2 Nevada Geodetic LaboratoryStillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area

  3. Light Emission of Argon Discharges: Importance of Heavy Particle Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, Peter [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, POB 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulation studies on argon glow discharges established between flat disc electrodes, at pressure x electrode separation (pd) of 45 Pa cm are reported, with special attention to heavy-particle processes including excitation-induced light emission. The discharges are investigated through self-consistent hybrid modelling, consisting of a fluid description for components near local hydrodynamic equilibrium (slow electrons and ions), and Monte Carlo treatment of energetic electrons and heavy particles (ions and neutral atoms). The light emission profiles are analyzed for a wide range of operating conditions. The numerical results for the relative intensities and the shapes of the negative glow (created by electron impact excitation) and the cathode glow (created by heavy particle impact excitation) are in good agreement with experimental data obtained by Maric et al.

  4. EPA - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System General...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: EPA -...

  5. Hawaii National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material: Hawaii National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit PacketPermittingRegulatory...

  6. Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2012 SDPPP update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected...

  7. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutsol, Alexander F. (San Ramon, CA); Fridman, Alexander (Marlton, NJ); Blank, Kenneth (Philadelphia, PA); Korobtsev, Sergey (Moscow, RU); Shiryaevsky, Valery (Moscow, RU); Medvedev, Dmitry (Moscow, RU)

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  8. Oil and Hazardous Substance Discharge Preparedness (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Anyone who owns or operates a vessel or facility that transports, stores, or otherwise handles hazardous wastes must take reasonable steps to prevent the discharge of those materials.

  9. Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boffardi, B. P.

    Over the past decade, the water requirements for cooling industrial manufacturing processes have changed dramatically. Once-through cooling has been largely replaced by open recirculating cooling water methods. This approach reduces water...

  10. Nanoparticle synthesis in pulsed low temperature discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.J.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon nitride powders with an average size as low as 7 nm are synthesized in a pulsed radio frequency glow discharge. The as-synthesized silicon nitride powder from a silane/ammonia plasma has a high hydrogen content and is sensitive to oxidation in air. Post-plasma heating of the powder in a vacuum results in nitrogen loss, giving silicon-rich powder. In contrast, heat treatment at 800 C for 20 minutes in an ammonia atmosphere (200 Torr pressure) yields a hydrogen-free powder which is stable with respect to atmospheric oxidation. Several approaches to synthesizing silicon carbide nano-size powders are presented. Experiments using silane/hydrocarbon plasmas produce particles with a high hydrogen content as demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The hydrogen is present as both CH and SiH functionality. These powders are extremely air-sensitive. A second approach uses a gas mixture of methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen. The particles have a low hydrogen content and resist oxidation. Particle morphology of the silicon carbide is more spherical and there is less agglomeration than is observed in the silicon nitride powder.

  11. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    2009 Keywords: Corbicula fluminea Coal-fired power plant Selenium Mercury Glutathione Condition index Bioaccumulation a b s t r a c t Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have, 1993, 1997, 2002; Rowe et al., 2002). For example, coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges have been

  12. ElectricOIL discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1 ) produced using a low­pressure oxygen/helium/nitric-oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic

  13. An experimental study of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subedi, D. P. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel (Nepal); Tyata, R. B. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Electrical, Khwopa College of Engineering, Libali-2, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Shrestha, R. [Department of Natural Sciences, School of Science, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel, Nepal and Department of Physics, Basu College, Kalighat, Byasi, Bhaktapur (Nepal); Wong, C. S. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, experimental results on atmospheric pressure argon dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) have been presented. The discharge was generated using a high voltage (0 to 20 kV) power supply operating at frequency of 10 to 30 kHz and was studied by means of electrical and optical measurements. A homogeneous and steady discharge was observed between the electrodes with gap spacing from 1 mm to 3 mm and with a dielectric barrier of thickness 1.5 mm while argon gas is fed at a controlled flow rate of 2liter per min. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) and electron density (n{sub e}) of the plasma have been determined by means of optical emission spectroscopy. Our results show that the electron density is of the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} while the electron temperature is estimated to be ? 1 eV. The homogeneity and non-thermal nature of the discharge were utilized in the investigation of the change in wettabilty of a polymer sample subjected to the treatment by the discharge. Contact angle analysis showed that the discharge was effective in improving the wettability of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) polymer sample after the treatment.

  14. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  15. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  16. Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Oxygen Discharge and Post-Discharge Kinetics Experiments and Modeling for the Electric Oxygen a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels

  17. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  18. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  19. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  20. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's...

  1. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power plants. If a state establishes a new or revised TMDL for one of these pollutants in a water body where a power plant is located, the next renewal of the power plant's National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit is likely to include more restrictive limits. Power generators may need to modify existing operational and wastewater treatment technologies or employ new ones as TMDLs are revised or new ones are established. The extent to which coal-fired power plants may be impacted by revised and new TMDL development has not been well established. NETL asked Argonne to evaluate how current and potential future TMDLs might influence coal-fired power plant operations and discharges. This information can be used to inform future technology research funded by NETL. The scope of investigation was limited to several eastern U.S. river basins rather than providing a detailed national perspective.

  2. q < 1 discharges in Tokapole II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, T. H.; Dexter, R. N.; Prager, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations are reported of discharges in which safety factor q values are obtained as low as 0.4 in Tokapole II, a tokamak with a four-node poloidal divertor configuration.

  3. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  4. Environmental constituents of Electrical Discharge Machining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Margaret H. (Margaret Hyunjoo), 1982-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is a non-traditional process that uses no mechanical forces to machine metals. It is extremely useful in machining hard materials. With the advantages EDM has to offer and its presence ...

  5. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2,...

  6. CLADIERE et al Discharges of endocrine disrupting chemicals by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    receiving waters, wastewater treatment plant effluents have been widely studied. However, Although APEOs and BPA are regularly quantified within wastewater and to a lesser extent in runoff, few studies deal an important contamination of CSOs by BPA and levels of APEOs close to those reported in wastewaters

  7. Glow discharge based device for solving mazes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinov, Alexander E., E-mail: dubinov-ae@yandex.ru; Mironenko, Maxim S.; Selemir, Victor D. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ? All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Sarov Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation); Maksimov, Artem N.; Pylayev, Nikolay A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ? All-Russian Scientific and Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF), Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod region 607188 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glow discharge based device for solving mazes has been designed and tested. The device consists of a gas discharge chamber and maze-transformer of radial-azimuth type. It allows changing of the maze pattern in a short period of time (within several minutes). The device has been tested with low pressure air. Once switched on, a glow discharge has been shown to find the shortest way through the maze from the very first attempt, even if there is a section with potential barrier for electrons on the way. It has been found that ionization waves (striations) can be excited in the maze along the length of the plasma channel. The dependancy of discharge voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. A reduction in discharge voltage with one or two potential barriers present has been found and explained. The dependency of the magnitude of discharge ignition voltage on the length of the optimal path through the maze has been measured. The reduction of the ignition voltage with the presence of one or two potential barriers has been observed and explained.

  8. Magnetic dipole discharges. II. Cathode and anode spot discharges and probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R. [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)] [Institute for Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The high current regime of a magnetron-type discharge has been investigated. The discharge uses a permanent magnet as a cold cathode which emits secondary electrons while the chamber wall or a grounded electrode serves as the anode. As the discharge voltage is increased, the magnet develops cathode spots, which are short duration arcs that provide copious electrons to increase the discharge current dramatically. Short (1 ?s), high current (200 A) and high voltage (750 V) discharge pulses are produced in a relaxation instability between the plasma and a charging capacitor. Spots are also observed on a negatively biased plane Langmuir probe. The probe current pulses are as large as those on the magnet, implying that the high discharge current does not depend on the cathode surface area but on the properties of the spots. The fast current pulses produce large inductive voltages, which can reverse the electrical polarity of the magnet and temporarily operate it as an anode. The discharge current may also oscillate at the frequency determined by the charging capacitor and the discharge circuit inductance. Each half cycle of high-current current pulses exhibits a fast (?10 ns) current rise when a spot is formed. It induces high frequency (10–100 MHz) transients and ringing oscillations in probes and current circuits. Most probes behave like unmatched antennas for the electromagnetic pulses of spot discharges. Examples are shown to distinguish the source of oscillations and some rf characteristics of Langmuir probes.

  9. EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the...

  10. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Emerging technologies and approaches to minimize discharges into Lake Michigan, phase 2 module 4 report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, M.C.; Gillenwater, P.; Urgun-Demirtas, M.; Nnanna, G.; Yu, J.; Jannotta, I, (Energy Systems); (Purdue University Calumet)

    2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) established the new water quality-based discharge criteria for mercury (Hg), thereby increasing the need for many municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants in the region to lower the mercury in their effluents. Information on deployable technologies to satisfy these requirements for industrial and municipal dischargers in the Great lakes region is scarce. Therefore, BP funded Purdue University Calumet and Argonne to identify deployable Hg removal technologies to meet the GLI discharge criterion at its Whiting Refinery in Indiana. The joint PUC/Argonne project was divided into 2 phases. Results from Phase I and Phase II Modules 1-3 have been previously reported. This report summarizes the work done in Phase 3 Module 4, which consisted of the pilot scale testing of Hg removal technologies previously selected in Module 3. The pilot testing was an Argonne/PUC jointly directed project that was hosted at and funded by the BP refinery in Whiting, IN. As two organizations were involved in data analysis and interpretation, this report combines two independent sets of evaluations of the testing that was done, prepared respectively by Argonne and Purdue. Each organization retains sole responsibility for its respective analysis conclusions and recommendations. Based on Module 3 bench testing with pre-Effluent To Lake (pre-ETL) and clarifier effluent (CE) samples from the Whiting refinery, three different technologies were chosen for pilot testing: (1) Ultrafiltration (using GE ZeeWeed(reg sign) Technology, 0.04 {mu}m pore size and made up of PVDF) for particulate mercury removal; (2) Adsorption using Mersorb(reg sign) LW, a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, for dissolved mercury removal if present and (3) The Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration process for both particulate and dissolved (if present) mercury removal. The ultrafiltration and the Blue PRO(reg sign) reactive filtration pilot studies were done simultaneously at the BP Whiting refinery using a slipstream of wastewater taken just prior to the Effluent to lake (pre-ETL) outfall. It was the intention of this pilot testing to demonstrate proof of concept, i.e. can the discharge limits obtained at bench scale be consistently met at the pilot scale. Although Mersorb(reg sign) LW was selected for dissolved mercury removal testing, this technology was not pilot tested because of a lack of dissolved mercury in the test wastewater during the pilot study. The overall objective of this pilot testing was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the tested technologies with continuous and varying feed conditions to meet the GLI criterion (1.3 ppt). Optimization for full-scale design was outside of the scope of this work. In addition to demonstrating whether the Hg criterion can be met, information on residue generation rate, frequency of backwashing and other maintenance issues were collected to better understand the implications for a full-scale system.

  12. EA-1190: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Amarillo, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed upgrade of the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant Wastewater Treatment Plant in Amarillo, Texas.

  13. Central peaking of magnetized gas discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Francis F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Curreli, Davide [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Partially ionized gas discharges used in industry are often driven by radiofrequency (rf) power applied at the periphery of a cylinder. It is found that the plasma density n is usually flat or peaked on axis even if the skin depth of the rf field is thin compared with the chamber radius a. Previous attempts at explaining this did not account for the finite length of the discharge and the boundary conditions at the endplates. A simple 1D model is used to focus on the basic mechanism: the short-circuit effect. It is found that a strong electric field (E-field) scaled to electron temperature T{sub e}, drives the ions inward. The resulting density profile is peaked on axis and has a shape independent of pressure or discharge radius. This “universal” profile is not affected by a dc magnetic field (B-field) as long as the ion Larmor radius is larger than a.

  14. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  15. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coueedel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Boufendi, L.; Samarian, A. A. [GREMI - Groupe de Recherches sur l'Energetique des Milieux Ionises, CNRS/Universite d'Orleans, 14 rue d'Issoudun, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-ground measurement of dust-particle residual charges in the afterglow of a dusty plasma was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force. It was found that positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral dust particles coexisted for more than 1 min after the discharge was switched off. The mean residual charge for 200-nm-radius particles was measured. The dust particle mean charge is about -5e at a pressure of 1.2 mbar and about -3e at a pressure of 0.4 mbar.

  16. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  17. Channel bed slope effect on the height of gravity waves produced by a sudden downstream discharge stoppage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porté-Agel, Fernando

    of Hydraulic Engineering. Submitted November 3, 2008; accepted October 14, 2009; posted ahead of print November Engineers #12;Introduction In relatively small hydraulic power plant structures (run-off river without pond to the turbine at the downstream end. Changes in the operation of the turbine produce changes in discharge

  18. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  19. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to take advantage of desirable properties of the respective gases. There is a conducting gas, an insulating gas, and a third gas that has low ionization energy resulting in a net increase in the number of electrons available to produce a current.

  20. Repowering, an effective way to reduce CO{sub 2} discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Termuehlen, H.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several repowering projects with gas turbines being added to an existing steam plant have been successful. Their success was rated by providing more efficient power generation from existing power plants at strategic locations in grid systems and by the reduction of mainly SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. Little or no credit was given to the fact that such repowering of old steam plants drastically reduces the CO{sub 2} discharge from any power plant site. Two of such repowering concepts seem to be the most attractive options, namely the full repowering by generating all steam in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and parallel repowering where only a portion of the steam supply for the steam turbine is generated in a HRSG. This paper addresses the CO{sub 2} reduction.

  1. Effects of High Nighttime Temperature and Role of Plant Growth Regulators on Growth, Development and Physiology of Rice Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Abdul R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    to HNT (32 degrees C) or ambient nighttime temperature (ANT) (27 degrees C) starting from 2000 h until 0600 h, and with or without plant growth regulator treatments. The plant growth regulator treatments included alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), glycine...

  2. Treatment of Radioactive Metallic Waste from Operation of Nuclear Power Plants by Melting - The German Way for a Consistent Recycling to Minimize the Quantity of Radioactive Waste from Operation and Dismantling for Disposal - 12016

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegener, Dirk [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany); Kluth, Thomas [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During maintenance of nuclear power plants, and during their decommissioning period, a large quantity of radioactive metallic waste will accrue. On the other hand the capacity for final disposal of radioactive waste in Germany is limited as well as that in the US. That is why all procedures related to this topic should be handled with a maximum of efficiency. The German model of consistent recycling of the radioactive metal scrap within the nuclear industry therefore also offers high capabilities for facilities in the US. The paper gives a compact overview of the impressive results of melting treatment, the current potential and further developments. Thousands of cubic metres of final disposal capacity have been saved. The highest level of efficiency and safety by combining general surface decontamination by blasting and nuclide specific decontamination by melting associated with the typical effects of homogenization. An established process - nationally and internationally recognized. Excellent connection between economy and ecology. (authors)

  3. Current and Long-Term Effects of Delta Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs from Disinfection Byproduct Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wei-Hsiang; Haunschild, Kristine; Lund, Jay R.; Fleenor, William E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    existing treatment plant. American Water Woks Association Water Quality Technology.plant, representing an existing treatment configuration, to add alternative disinfection and other technologies.

  4. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biological electricity generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biological electricity generation B.E. Logan Department accomplishing wastewater treatment in processes based on microbial fuel cell technologies. When bacteria oxidize.4 £ 106 L of wastewater, a wastewater treatment plant has the potential to become a 2.3 MW power plant

  5. Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Which Do Not Discharge Process Wastewater (MDEQ Form 2E) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Montana Facilities Which Do Not Discharge Process...

  6. Experimental investigation of electron multipactor discharges at very high frequency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Timothy P. (Timothy Paul)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multipactor discharges are a resonant condition in which electrons impact a surface in phase with an alternating electric field. The discharge is sustained by electron multiplication from secondary emission. As motivation, ...

  7. Packed-bed reactor/silent-discharge plasma design data report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facility Compliance Act requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). The DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (AL) currently does not have adequate systems to treat the mixed wastes generated and stored at the nine DOE-AL sites. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, DOE-AL organized a Treatment Selection Team under the Mixed-Waste Treatment Program (MWTP) to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed waste. The strategy developed by the Treatment Selection Team, as described in the AL Mixed-Waste Treatment Plan (DOE 1994), is to use available off-site commercial treatment facilities for all wastes that can be successfully and cost-effectively treated by such facilities. Where no appropriate commercial treatment facilities exist, mobile treatment units (MTUs) would be developed to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste must not only address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. The packed-bed reactor/silent discharge plasma was chosen as a potential candidate for the treatment of the mixed wastes. The process is described.

  8. Residual dust charges in discharge afterglow L. Couedel,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was performed in a rf discharge. An upward thermophoretic force was used to balance the gravitational force

  9. Biofiltration vs. conventional activated sludge plants: what about priority and emerging1 pollutants removal?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    performances of two complete wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) for all priority19 substances listed solids elimination and possible coagulant impact on soluble compounds. For biological27 treatments; biofiltration; conventional activated sludge; physico-chemical lamellar settling;42 wastewater treatment plant

  10. Trace elements in coal by glow discharge mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, M.L.; Wilson, C.R.; Pestovich, J. Jr. [WAL Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A need and a demand exist for determining trace elements in coal and coal related by-products, especially those elements which may potentially be a health hazard. The provisions of the 1990 clean air act require that the EPA evaluate the emissions of electric utilities for trace elements and other potentially hazardous organic compounds. The coal fired electric utility industry supplies roughly 60% of the total generating capacity of 2,882,525 million kilowatt hours (nearly 3 trillion kilowatt hours) generated in the U.S. This is accomplished by 414 power plants scattered across the country that burned 813,508,000 short tons of coal in 1993. The relative volatility of some inorganic constituents in coal makes them more prone to be emitted to the atmosphere following combustion. The production of analytical data for trace elements is known to be a difficult task in coal and by-products of coal combustion (fly ash, bottom ash, gas streams, etc.), in terms of both sample collection and analytical determinations. There are several common analytical methods available to the analyst to determine trace elements in coal and coal by-products. In general analytical germs, the material to be analyzed can be totally solubilized (or extracted), or the elements analytes can be determined in the material as a solid. A relatively new elemental technique, Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) can be used with solids as well. This new analytical technique had never before been applied directly to coal. The radio frequency-glow discharge quadropole mass spectrometer was used to analyze coal directly for the first time ever by rf-GDMS. The rf-GDMS technique is described.

  11. Formation of ozone and oxidation of methane in a direct current corona discharge 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tangirala, Umashanker

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    if they are not deliberately maintained below toxic levels. This kind of air pollution problem is quite different from that of industrial emissions as it calls for the removal of mere traces of contaminant from large volumes of gas. For this purpose, conventional treatment... current corona discharge reactor, over a wide range of experimental conditions. The experi- mental variables were corona current, voltage, reactor radius ratio (Ri/R2), gas flow rate and temperature. Generally, more ozone was produced in the negative...

  12. Spectra of Ions Produced by Corona Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skalny, J.; Hortvath, G. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, Mlynska dolina F-2, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mason, N. J. [Open University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass spectrometric study of ions extracted from both positive and negative DC corona discharges, initiated in point-to plane electrode system, has been carried out in ambient air at low air pressure (5 - 30) kPa. The average relative humidity of air was typically 40-50 %. Ions were extracted through a small orifice in the plane electrode into an intermediate gap where the low pressure prevented further ion-molecule reactions. Mass analysis of negative ions formed in the negative corona discharge using ambient air has shown that the yield of individual ions is strongly affected by trace concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and water vapour. In dry air the CO{sub 3}{sup -} ion was found to be dominant. In presence of water this is converted very efficiently to cluster ions CO{sub 3}{sup -}{center_dot}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} containing one and more water molecules. The yield of O{sub 3}{sup -}{center_dot}(H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters or core ions was found to be considerably lower than in some other studies at atmospheric pressure. The mass spectrum of ions extracted from drift region of a positive corona discharge was simpler being dominantly cluster ions H3O+{center_dot}(H2O)n most probably formed from O{sub 2}{sup +} ions, a two step process being active if water molecules are present in the discharge gap even at relatively low concentration.

  13. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  14. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Rick D. (Corvallis, OR)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  15. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  16. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    August 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  17. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 May 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  18. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2013 March 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 2012 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent review of selected...

  1. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Observation of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low Activity Waste Facility Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems Hazards Analysis Activities...

  2. Independent Oversight Activity Report, Hanford Waste Treatment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Engineering Activities and Tank Farm Operations HIAR-HANFORD-2014-01-13 This Independent Oversight Activity Report documents...

  3. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The review was conducted August 18-28, 2014. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - December 2014 More Documents &...

  4. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    tables. The review was conducted June 2-19, 2014. Enterprise Assessments Operational Awareness Record, Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - December 2014 More Documents &...

  5. Independent Oversight Review, Waste Treatment and Immobilization...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2011 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  6. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the present fouling experiments for three different cases: no treatment, PWT coil only, and PWT coil plus self-cleaning filter. Fouling resistances decreased by 59-72% for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter compared with the values for no-treatment cases. SEM photographs showed much smaller particle sizes for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter as larger particles were continuously removed from circulating water by the filter. The x-ray diffraction data showed calcite crystal structures for all three cases.

  7. Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

  8. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  9. State waste discharge permit application: Hydrotest, maintenance and construction discharges. Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On December 23, 1991, the US DOE< Richland Operation Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order No. DE91NM-177 (216 Consent Order) (Ecology and US DOE 1991). The 216 Consent Order list regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site and requires compliance with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. Hanford Site liquid effluent streams discharging to the soil column have been categorized on the 216 Consent Order as follows: Phase I Streams; Phase II Streams; Miscellaneous Streams. Phase I and Phase II Streams were initially addressed in two report. Miscellaneous Streams are subject to the requirements of several milestones identified in the 216 Consent Order. This document constitutes the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit application for hydrotest,maintenance and construction discharges throughout the Hanford Site. This categorical permit application form was prepared and approved by Ecology.

  10. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  11. Anaerobic co-digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste with FOG waste from a sewage treatment plant: Recovering a wasted methane potential and enhancing the biogas yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin-Gonzalez, L., E-mail: lucia.martin@uab.ca [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Colturato, L.F. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Font, X.; Vicent, T. [Departament d'Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental (ICTA) Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anaerobic digestion is applied widely to treat the source collected organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (SC-OFMSW). Lipid-rich wastes are a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion due to their high theoretical methane potential. Nevertheless, although fat, oil and grease waste from sewage treatment plants (STP-FOGW) are commonly disposed of in landfill, European legislation is aimed at encouraging more effective forms of treatment. Co-digestion of the above wastes may enhance valorisation of STP-FOGW and lead to a higher biogas yield throughout the anaerobic digestion process. In the present study, STP-FOGW was evaluated as a co-substrate in wet anaerobic digestion of SC-OFMSW under mesophilic conditions (37 {sup o}C). Batch experiments carried out at different co-digestion ratios showed an improvement in methane production related to STP-FOGW addition. A 1:7 (VS/VS) STP-FOGW:SC-OFMSW feed ratio was selected for use in performing further lab-scale studies in a 5 L continuous reactor. Biogas yield increased from 0.38 {+-} 0.02 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} to 0.55 {+-} 0.05 L g VS{sub feed}{sup -1} as a result of adding STP-FOGW to reactor feed. Both VS reduction values and biogas methane content were maintained and inhibition produced by long chain fatty acid (LCFA) accumulation was not observed. Recovery of a currently wasted methane potential from STP-FOGW was achieved in a co-digestion process with SC-OFMSW.

  12. An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Rodgers; James Castle

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

  13. Applications of Energy Efficiency Technologies in Wastewater Treatment Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, S.; Werner, L.; Wu, Y. Y.; Ganji, A. R.

    "Depending on the level and type of treatment, municipal wastewater treatment (WWT) can be an energy intensive process, constituting a major cost for the municipal governments. According to a 1993 study wastewater treatment plants consume close to 1...

  14. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA); Alexeev, Nikolai (Moscow, RU); Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Samokhin, Andrei (Moscow, RU)

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter ("plasmatron") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  15. Low current plasmatron fuel converter having enlarged volume discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabinovich, Alexander; Alexeev, Nikolai; Bromberg, Leslie; Cohn, Daniel R.; Samokhin, Andrei

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (""plasmatron"") that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.

  16. Notice of Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Intent (NOI) for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities under TPDES General Permit (TXR150000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  17. abnormal glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

  18. atmospheric glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    34 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

  19. ablation glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

  20. analytical glow discharge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29 Glow Discharge Enhanced Chemical Reaction: Application in Ammonia Synthesis and Hydrocarbon Gas Cleanup Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: ......

  1. WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WAC - 173 - 221 - Discharge Standards and Effluent Limitations for Domestic Wastewater Facilities Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  2. File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater...

  3. WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173 - 220 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit ProgramLegal Published NA Year...

  4. Point Source Discharges to Surface Waters (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule requires permits for control of sources of water pollution by providing the requirements and procedures for application and issuance of state National Pollutant Discharge Elimination...

  5. atmospheric pressure discharge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 367 Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 140 (2001) 185189 The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry Chemistry Websites...

  6. atmospheric pressure discharges: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 367 Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 140 (2001) 185189 The electrodeless discharge lamp: a prospective tool for photochemistry Chemistry Websites...

  7. Oklahoma Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (OPDES) Standards (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program of the Water Quality Division of the Department of Environmental Quality sets the point source, biosolids (sewage sludge), and stormwater permitting standards for discharges to the...

  8. Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Constructio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity on Moderate Risk Sites Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Notice...

  9. Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Constructio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Notice of Intent for Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity on Low Risk Sites Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal...

  10. Cathode fall measurement in a dielectric barrier discharge in helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method based on the “zero-length voltage” extrapolation is proposed to measure cathode fall in a dielectric barrier discharge. Starting, stable, and discharge-maintaining voltages were measured to obtain the extrapolation zero-length voltage. Under our experimental conditions, the “zero-length voltage” gave a cathode fall of about 185 V. Based on the known thickness of the cathode fall region, the spatial distribution of the electric field strength in dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric helium is determined. The strong cathode fall with a maximum field value of approximately 9.25 kV/cm was typical for the glow mode of the discharge.

  11. The Physiologic Effects of Multiple Simultaneous Electronic Control Device Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawes, Donald M.; Ho, Jeffrey D; Reardon, Robert F; Sweeney, James D; Miner, James R

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    physiologic effects of conducted electrical weapon dischargePhysiological effects of a conducted electrical weapon onLL, et al. Respiratory effect of prolonged electrical weapon

  12. Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tracing And Quantifying Magmatic Carbon Discharge In Cold Groundwaters- Lessons Learned From Mammoth Mountain, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  13. Groundwater Discharge of Mercury to California Coastal Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flegal, Russell; Paytan, Adina; Black, Frank

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. 2009. Submarine groundwater discharge of total mercuryof nutrient-enriched fresh groundwater at Stinson Beach,Priya Ganguli collects groundwater at Elkhorn Slough. Coal-

  14. Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United States Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Hydrothermal Heat Discharge In The Cascade Range, Northwestern United States...

  15. A positivity-preserving scheme for the simulation of streamer discharges in non-attaching and attaching gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Chijie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assumed having axial symmetry, the streamer discharge is often described by a fluid model in cylindrical coordinate system, which consists of convection dominated (diffusion) equations with source terms, coupled with a Poisson's equation. Without additional care for a stricter CFL condition or special treatment to the negative source term, popular methods used in streamer discharge simulations, e.g., FEM-FCT, FVM, cannot ensure the positivity of the particle densities for the cases in attaching gases. By introducing the positivity-preserving limiter proposed by Zhang and Shu \\cite{ppl} and Strang operator splitting, this paper proposed a finite difference scheme with a provable positivity-preserving property in cylindrical coordinate system, for the numerical simulation of streamer discharges in non-attaching and attaching gases. Numerical examples in non-attaching gas (N$_2$) and attaching gas (SF$_6$) are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  16. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the presence of MTBE, ETBE and TAME. Chemosphere 85, 616-Xanthomonas sp. MTBE/ETBE/TAME a Acinetobacter calcoaceticusMTBE= Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, ETBE= Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether,

  17. Ordered dust structures in a glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karasev, V. Yu., E-mail: plasmadust@yandex.ru; Ivanov, A. Yu.; Dzlieva, E. S.; Eikhval'd, A. I. [St. Petersburg State University, Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly ordered three-dimensional dust structures are created in a striated glow discharge, and their horizontal cross-sectional images are analyzed. Calculated correlation functions, local correlation parameters, and corresponding approximations are used to classify the state of a structure according to the Kosterlitz-Thouless-Halperin-Nelson-Young (KTHNY) two-dimensional melting theory and a phenomenological approach. An orientational map based on an orientational parameter is proposed to expose domains in a cross section of a structure. It is shown that a plasma crystal is a polycrystal consisting of hexagonal domains (crystallites). Thermophoretic forces are used to create corners of various angles in the perimeter of the structure. Transition between hexagonal and square cell shapes is observed.

  18. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R. (Tracey, CA); Nygren, Richard E. (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, NM); Ulrickson, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  19. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Used Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge. Water, Air, and Soilin Ground Level Air and Sewage Sludge. Water, Air, and SoilMeans of Measurements on Sewage Sludge. Water, Air, and Soil

  20. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after discovery of nuclear fission. During the World War II,operation of nuclear reactors, each fission results in thesupplies by fallout. Fission products from nuclear tests and

  1. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can be mined in Niger, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Gabon, 4)can be found in China, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation andCanada, Australia and Kazakhstan. During the period between

  2. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    found that the uranium content in seawater ranges from 1.1rocks. Seawater also contains a noticeable amount of uraniumof seawater; however, is not proportional to its uranium

  3. Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    tests and presents the experimental results produced at the SS-PJM test setup in the Applied Process Engineering Laboratory (APEL). * Large Tank Experimental Data for Validation...

  4. Energy from vascular plant wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) duckweed (Spirodela sp. and Lemna sp.), water pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides), and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) were anaerobically fermented using an anaerobic filter technique that reduced the total digestion time from 90 d to an average of 23 d and produced 0.14 to 0.22 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (2.3 to 3.6 ft/sup 3//lb) from mature filters for the 3 aquatic species. Kudzu required an average digestion time of 33 d and produced an average of 0.21 m/sup 3/ CH/sub 4//kg (dry weight) (3.4 ft/sup 3//lb). The anaerobic filter provided a large surface area for the anaerobic bacteria to establish and maintain an optimal balance of facultative, acid-forming, and methane-producing bacteria. Consequently the efficiency of the process was greatly improved over prior batch fermentations.

  5. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comments on the Presence of Chernobyl Derived Cs and Tc inRadiological Impact of the Chernobyl Debris Compared with42 5.3- CHERNOBYL…………………………………………………………… 43 v   5.4-

  6. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were measured by gamma-spectrometry. Also the partition oftreatment process. In gamma-spectrometry of sludge, the

  7. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    though our water and biosolids recycling systems. Areas inoften rely on beneficial reuse of biosolids for disposal.to recycle water or reuse biosolids because of low-level

  8. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tests. Atmospheric nuclear weapon tests introduced largethrough 1980 from nuclear weapon tests, mostly in megatonFROM WEAPONS TESTS The primary use of nuclear energy after

  9. Fate of Radionuclides in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shabani Samgh Abadi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive Plume from Fukushima: Is There a Correlation?France due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. Journal ofGreece due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. Journal of

  10. Waste Treatment and Immobilation Plant Pretreatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium TransferonUS-IndiaVALUE STUDY4,Department ofDepartmentMilestone,7

  11. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrate Salt BearingProcessingWaste

  12. General Conditions Applicable to Water Discharge Permits and Procedures and Criteria for Issuing Water Discharge Permits (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations describe permit and facility requirements for facilities which discharge wastewater. Facility construction, expansion, alteration, production increases, or process modifications...

  13. Technical area status report for chemical/physical treatment. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.H. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs and activities throughout the DOE Complex. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to develop, deploy, and complete appropriate technologies for the treatment of an DOE low-level mixed waste (LLMW). The MWIP mission includes development of strategies related to enhanced waste form production, improvements to and testing of the EM-30 baseline flowsheet for mixed waste treatment, programmatic oversight for ongoing technical projects, and specific technical tasks related to the site specific Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) based on primary functional areas of the Mixed Waste Treatment Plant) identified by EM-30. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Chemical/Physical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. The focus of this document is the Chemical/Physical Treatment System (CPTS). The CPTS performs the required pretreatment and/or separations on the waste streams passing through the system for discharge to the environment or efficient downstream processing. Downstream processing can include all system components except Front-End Waste Handling. The primary separations to be considered by the CPTS are: (1) removal of suspended and dissolved solids from aqueous and liquid organic streams, (2) separation of water from organic liquids, (3) treatment of wet and dry solids, including separation into constituents as required, for subsequent thermal treatment and final form processing, (4) mercury removal and control, and (5) decontamination of equipment and waste classified as debris.

  14. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE (WTP-SW) BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford’s WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing. The granular products (both simulant and radioactive) were tested and a subset of the granular material (both simulant and radioactive) were stabilized in a geopolymer matrix. Extensive testing and characterization of the granular and monolith material were made including the following: ? ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) testing of granular and monolith; ? ASTM C1308 accelerated leach testing of the radioactive monolith; ? ASTM C192 compression testing of monoliths; and ? EPA Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The significant findings of the testing completed on simulant and radioactive WTP-SW are given below: ? Data indicates {sup 99}Tc, Re, Cs, and I

  15. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge Leopoldo Soto1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra optimized plasma foci. It is interesting note that plasma parameters practically constant in plasma focusAn ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge Leopoldo Soto1 , Cristian Pavez1, 2 , Mario Barbaglia3

  16. Characteristics of a corona discharge with a hot corona electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M.; Niyazaliev, I. A.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the temperature of the corona electrode on the electrical characteristics of a corona discharge was studied experimentally. A modified Townsend formula for the current-voltage characteristic of a one-dimensional corona is proposed. Gasdynamic and thermal characteristics of a positive corona discharge in a coaxial electrode system are calculated. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  17. Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choueiri, Edgar

    rights reserved. #12;Abstract A new electrodeless accelerator concept, called Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD), that relies on an RF-assisted discharge to produce a plasma, an applied magnetic field to guide the plasma into the acceleration region, and an induced current sheet

  18. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary (Gloucester, VA); D'Silva, Arthur P. (Ames, IA); Fassel, Velmer A. (Ames, IA)

    1986-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  19. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  20. Discharge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    : effective discharge, transport, sediment, constituents, rating curve, half-load Citation: Vogel, R. M., J. RDischarge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel Department of Civil and Environmental load is ultimately the quantity of interest, we define a new index, the half-load discharge, which

  1. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations, the US Department and Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-E Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-E Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-E Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  2. State Waste Discharge Permit application: 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atencio, B.P.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations; the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water discharges to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit via dedicated pipelines. The 200-W Powerhouse Ash Waste Water is the only discharge to the 200-W Powerhouse Ash Pit. The 200-W Powerhouse is a steam generation facility consisting of a coal-handling and preparation section and boilers.

  3. Parallel vacuum arc discharge with microhollow array dielectric and anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jinghua; Zhou, Lin; Fu, Yuecheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Rongkun; Chen, Faxin; Li, Linbo; Meng, Shijian, E-mail: mengshijian04@126.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrode configuration with microhollow array dielectric and anode was developed to obtain parallel vacuum arc discharge. Compared with the conventional electrodes, more than 10 parallel microhollow discharges were ignited for the new configuration, which increased the discharge area significantly and made the cathode eroded more uniformly. The vacuum discharge channel number could be increased effectively by decreasing the distances between holes or increasing the arc current. Experimental results revealed that plasmas ejected from the adjacent hollow and the relatively high arc voltage were two key factors leading to the parallel discharge. The characteristics of plasmas in the microhollow were investigated as well. The spectral line intensity and electron density of plasmas in microhollow increased obviously with the decease of the microhollow diameter.

  4. Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission. 3 figs.

  5. Plasma mixing glow discharge device for analytical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An instrument for analyzing a sample has an enclosure that forms a chamber containing an anode which divides the chamber into a discharge region and an analysis region. A gas inlet and outlet are provided to introduce and exhaust a rare gas into the discharge region. A cathode within the discharge region has a plurality of pins projecting in a geometric pattern toward the anode for exciting the gas and producing a plasma discharge between the cathode and the anode. Low energy electrons (e.g. <0.5 eV) pass into the analysis region through an aperture. The sample to be analyzed is placed into the analysis region and bombarded by the metastable rare gas atoms and the low energy electrons extracted into from the discharge region. A mass or optical spectrometer can be coupled to a port of the analysis region to analyze the resulting ions and light emission.

  6. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  7. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  8. Low-voltage gas-discharge device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kovarik, V.J.; Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic device of the type wherein current flow is conducted by an ionized gas comprising a cathode of the type heated by ionic bombardment, an anode, means for maintaining a predetermined pressure in the region between the anode and the cathode and means for maintaining a field in the region is described. The field, which is preferably a combined magnetic and electric field, is oriented so that the mean distance traveled by electrons before reaching the anode is increased. Because of this increased distance traveled electrons moving to the anode will ionize a large number of gas atoms, thus reducing the voltage necessary to initiate gas breakdown. In a preferred embodiment the anode is a main hollow cathode and the cathode is a smaller igniter hollow cathode located within and coaxial with the main hollow cathode. An axial magnetic field is provided in the region between the hollow cathodes in order to facilitate gas breakdown in that region and initiate plasma discharge from the main hollow cathode.

  9. Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    permits. To improve the aesthetic qualities of the effluent, coal ash (from local power plants_mill_discharge.jpg 2. Coal Power Plant http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/2008Color Removal from Pulp Mill Effluent Using Coal Ash Produced from Georgia Coal Combustion Power

  10. Regulations for the Rhode Island Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations aim to protect surface water from pollutant discharges. They describe allowable discharges in the state that are subject to permits, discharges which may be made without permits,...

  11. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hosseini, S. H. R., E-mail: hosseini@kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Institute of Pulsed Power Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Akiyama, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Lukeš, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, Prague, Prague 18200 (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000?Hz, with 0.5?J per pulse energy output at 25?kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  12. Ms. Victoria A. White Chief Operating Officer Fermilab

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lab in Lead, South Dakota Page 1 of 3 treated through the Sanford Laboratory waste water treatment plant and then discharged in compliance with National Pollutant Discharge...

  13. Entrainment by Spatiotemporal Chaos in Glow Discharge-Semiconductor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marat Akhmet; Ismail Rafatov; Mehmet Onur Fen

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Entrainment of limit cycles by chaos [1] is discovered numerically through specially designed unidirectional coupling of two glow discharge-semiconductor systems. By utilizing the auxiliary system approach [2], it is verified that the phenomenon is not a chaos synchronization. Simulations demonstrate various aspects of the chaos appearance in both drive and response systems. Chaotic control is through the external circuit equation and governs the electrical potential on the boundary. The expandability of the theory to collectives of glow discharge systems is discussed, and this increases the potential of applications of the results. Moreover, the research completes the previous discussion of the chaos appearance in a glow discharge-semiconductor system [3].

  14. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and discharge to conserve water resources and reduce the negative environmental impact associated with discharging wastewater into the environment. Wastewater treatment enables providing water with specifications suitable for either recycle in the same... process or reuse in other ways within the process or outside the process. Therefore, water treatment and recycle/reuse contribute to addressing both of the aforementioned water problems: fresh water sacristy and environmental impact of wastewater...

  15. Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koptur, Suzanne

    Primitive Land Plants 37 PRIMITIVE LAND PLANTS These are the plants that were present soon after land was colonized, over 400 mil- lion years ago. A few plants living today are closely related to those ancient plants, and we often call them "living fossils". Two major lineages of plants evolved

  16. NMED - Discharge Permit Application | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources JumpNEF AdvisorsState of New Mexico ||ROW-

  17. Physical Plant Power Plant - 32 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ) for producing single-node cuttings. Regardless of reapplication stages, nutrient termination on 1 Oct. caused taller plants with more nodes, more leaves, more flowering nodes, more total flowers, and fewer aborted flowers than those being terminated earlier...

  18. UPDES General Permit for Discharges from Construction Activities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharges from Construction Activities (Permit No. UTRC00000) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: UPDES General Permit...

  19. AZPDES General Permit for Stormwater Discharges Associated with...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stormwater Discharges Associated with Construction Activity (Permit No. AZG2013-001) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther:...

  20. Neutral Gas Expansion in a Cylindrical Helicon Discharge Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    ­1500 G) magnetic field parallel to the axis of the tube. In many helicon experiments for basic plasma research, the discharge chamber is composed of a small diameter (2­10 cm), relatively long (0.5­1.75 m

  1. arc discharge lamp: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TR, were determined. It was found that there is no local LTE in this arc discharge air plasma during its spacetime evolution, and effects of strong non-izothermality have a...

  2. Equilibrium theory of cylindrical discharges with special application to helicons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    ) Radiofrequency discharges used in industry often have centrally peaked plasma density profiles n(r) although, and radiative transport. The book by Delcroix5 covers these local properties, including cross sections, and goes

  3. Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside Small) (PET) capillary tubes of different shapes and lengths and decontamination of flow tubes, both for several years at the Orsay Plasma Lab. Its biological decontamination efficiency has been demonstrated

  4. Discharging a DC bus capacitor of an electrical converter system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kajouke, Lateef A; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method of discharging a bus capacitor of a bidirectional matrix converter of a vehicle are presented here. The method begins by electrically shorting the AC interface of the converter after an AC energy source is disconnected from the AC interface. The method continues by arranging a plurality of switching elements of a second energy conversion module into a discharge configuration to establish an electrical current path from a first terminal of an isolation module, through an inductive element, and to a second terminal of the isolation module. The method also modulates a plurality of switching elements of a first energy conversion module, while maintaining the discharge configuration of the second energy conversion module, to at least partially discharge a DC bus capacitor.

  5. Discharge source with gas curtain for protecting optics from particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas curtain device is employed to deflect debris that is generated by an extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation discharge source such as an electric discharge plasma source. The gas curtain device projects a stream of gas over the path of the radiation to deflect debris particles into a direction that is different from that of the path of the radiation. The gas curtain can be employed to prevent debris accumulation on the optics used in photolithography.

  6. Mode transition of a Hall thruster discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Kentaro, E-mail: kenhara@umich.edu; Sekerak, Michael J., E-mail: msekerak@umich.edu; Boyd, Iain D.; Gallimore, Alec D. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A Hall thruster is a cross-field plasma device used for spacecraft propulsion. An important unresolved issue in the development of Hall thrusters concerns the effect of discharge oscillations in the range of 10–30?kHz on their performance. The use of a high speed Langmuir probe system and ultra-fast imaging of the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster suggests that the discharge oscillation mode, often called the breathing mode, is strongly correlated to an axial global ionization mode. Stabilization of the global oscillation mode is achieved as the magnetic field is increased and azimuthally rotating spokes are observed. A hybrid-direct kinetic simulation that takes into account the transport of electronically excited atoms is used to model the discharge plasma of a Hall thruster. The predicted mode transition agrees with experiments in terms of the mean discharge current, the amplitude of discharge current oscillation, and the breathing mode frequency. It is observed that the stabilization of the global oscillation mode is associated with reduced electron transport that suppresses the ionization process inside the channel. As the Joule heating balances the other loss terms including the effects of wall loss and inelastic collisions, the ionization oscillation is damped, and the discharge oscillation stabilizes. A wide range of the stable operation is supported by the formation of a space charge saturated sheath that stabilizes the electron axial drift and balances the Joule heating as the magnetic field increases. Finally, it is indicated from the numerical results that there is a strong correlation between the emitted light intensity and the discharge current.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Environmental Compliance Guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Water Act: National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual provides general guidance for Department of Energy (DOE) officials for complying with Sect. 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977 and amendments. Section 402 authorizes the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or states with EPA approved programs to issue National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for the direct discharge of waste from a point source into waters of the United States. Although the nature of a project dictates the exact information requirements, every project has similar information requirements on the environmental setting, type of discharge(s), characterization of effluent, and description of operations and wastewater treatment. Additional information requirements for projects with ocean discharges, thermal discharges, and cooling water intakes are discussed. Guidance is provided in this manual on general methods for collecting, analyzing, and presenting information for an NPDES permit application. The NPDES program interacts with many sections of the CWA; therefore, background material on pertinent areas such as effluent limitations, water quality standards, toxic substances, and nonpoint source pollutants is included in this manual. Modifications, variances, and extensions applicable to NPDES permits are also discussed.

  9. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  10. High pressure discharges in cavities formed by microfabrication techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, B.A.; Cammack, D.A.; Pinker, R.D.; Racz, J. [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510 (United States)] [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Philips Research, Briarcliff Manor, New York 10510 (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure discharges are the basis of small high intensity light sources. In this work, we demonstrate the formation of high pressure discharges, in cavities formed by applying micromachining and integrated circuit techniques to quartz substrates. Cavities containing varying amounts of mercury and argon were fabricated to obtain high pressure discharges. A high pressure mercury discharge was formed in the electrodeless cavities by exciting them with a microwave source, operating at 2.45 GHz and in the electroded cavities by applying a dc voltage. The contraction of the discharge into a high pressure arc was observed. A broad emission spectrum due to self-absorption and collisions between excited atoms and normal atoms, typical of high pressure mercury discharges, was measured. The light output and efficacy increased with increasing pressure. The measured voltage was used to estimate the pressure within the electroded cavities, which is as high as 127 atm for one of the two cavities discussed in this work. Efficacies over 40 lumens per watt were obtained for the electrodeless cavities and over 50 scr(l)m/W for the electroded cavities. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

  12. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  13. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizati...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    December 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  14. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2014 June 2014 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  15. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    January, 2015 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Enterprise Assessments (EA)...

  16. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    September 2014 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy independent Office of Enterprise Assessments...

  17. anaerobic biological treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    results for an anaerobic digestion system operated at an existing wastewater treatment plant. Based on scale-up evaluation, the test system should yield an energy balance with...

  18. Enterprise Assessments Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizat...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality January 2015 Office of Nuclear Safety and Environmental Assessments Office of Environment,...

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilizati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 March 2014 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality This report documents the results of an independent oversight review of...

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Site Waste Treatment and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    August 2013 Review of the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Construction Quality The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enforcement and Oversight...

  1. Impedance response to induced epileptiform discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Terry Lynn

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the development of an early-warning seizure detector. Such a detector would be design- ed to help the over two million individuals in the United States who are afflicted with epilepsy and cannot be significantly helped with standard treatment methods... to lead a more normal life, a preliminary study to develop an early-warning seizure detector was un- dertaken by Marquardt that could alert the patient of an impending at- tack (10). Several devices that detect seizure onset and one that at- tempts...

  2. Apparatus and process for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phifer, Mark A. (North Augusta, SC); Nichols, Ralph L. (North Augusta, SC)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed utilizing permeable treatment media for treatment of contaminated water, along with a method for enhanced passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media. The apparatus includes a treatment cell including a permeable structure that encloses the treatment media, the treatment cell may be located inside a water collection well, exterior to a water collection well, or placed in situ within the pathway of contaminated groundwater. The passive flow of contaminated water through the treatment media is maintained by a hydraulic connection between a collecting point of greater water pressure head, and a discharge point of lower water pressure head. The apparatus and process for passive flow and groundwater treatment utilizes a permeable treatment media made up of granular metal, bimetallics, granular cast iron, activated carbon, cation exchange resins, and/or additional treatment materials. An enclosing container may have an outer permeable wall for passive flow of water into the container and through the enclosed treatment media to an effluent point. Flow of contaminated water is attained without active pumping of water through the treatment media. Remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and other water contaminants to acceptable regulatory concentration levels is accomplished without the costs of pumping, pump maintenance, and constant oversight by personnel.

  3. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP.

  4. Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helium Ash Simulation Studies with Divertor Helium Pumping in JET Internal Transport Barrier Discharges

  5. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  6. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  7. Remediation of the Highland Drive South Ravine, Port Hope, Ontario: Contaminated Groundwater Discharge Management Using Permeable Reactive Barriers and Contaminated Sediment Removal - 13447

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyth, David; Roos, Gillian [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada)] [Golder Associates Ltd., 2390 Argentia Road, Mississauga, ON L5N 5Z7 (Canada); Ferguson Jones, Andrea [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada)] [MMM Group Ltd., 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON L3T 0A1 (Canada); Case, Glenn [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada)] [AECL Port Hope Area Initiative Management Office, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, ON L1A 3S4 (Canada); Yule, Adam [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)] [Public Works and Government Services Canada, 4900 Yonge Street, 11th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2N 6A6 (Canada)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Highland Drive South Ravine (HDSR) is the discharge area for groundwater originating from the Highland Drive Landfill, the Pine Street North Extension (PSNE) roadbed parts of the Highland Drive roadbed and the PSNE Consolidation Site that contain historical low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). The contaminant plume from these LLRW sites contains elevated concentrations of uranium and arsenic and discharges with groundwater to shallow soils in a wet discharge area within the ravine, and directly to Hunt's Pond and Highland Drive South Creek, which are immediately to the south of the wet discharge area. Remediation and environmental management plans for HDSR have been developed within the framework of the Port Hope Project and the Port Hope Area Initiative. The LLRW sites will be fully remediated by excavation and relocation to a new Long-Term Waste Management Facility (LTWMF) as part of the Port Hope Project. It is projected, however, that the groundwater contaminant plume between the remediated LLRW sites and HDSR will persist for several hundreds of years. At the HDSR, sediment remediation within Hunt's Ponds and Highland Drive South Creek, excavation of the existing and placement of clean fill will be undertaken to remove current accumulations of solid-phase uranium and arsenic associated with the upper 0.75 m of soil in the wet discharge area, and permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) will be used for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater to prevent the ongoing discharge of uranium and arsenic to the area in HDSR where shallow soil excavation and replacement has been undertaken. Bench-scale testing using groundwater from HDSR has confirmed excellent treatment characteristics for both uranium and arsenic using permeable reactive mixtures containing granular zero-valent iron (ZVI). A sequence of three PRBs containing ZVI and sand in backfilled trenches has been designed to intercept the groundwater flow system prior to its discharge to the ground surface and the creek and ponds in the HDSR. The first of the PRBs will be installed immediately up-gradient of the wet discharge area approximately 50 m from the creek, the other two will be installed across the area of shallow soil replacement, and all will extend from ground surface to the base of the water table aquifer through which the impacted groundwater flows. The PRBs have been designed to provide the removal of uranium and arsenic for decades, although the capacity of the treatment mixture for contaminant removal suggests that a longer period of treatment may be feasible. The environmental management plan includes an allowance for on-going monitoring, and replacement of a PRB(s) as might be required. (authors)

  8. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O'Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing indicate that sodium-bearing waste can be successfully calcined at 600 C with an AAR of 1.75. Unburned hydrocarbons are reduced to less than 10 ppm (7% O2, dry basis), with >90% reduction of NOx emissions. Mercury removal by the carbon bed reached 99.99%, surpassing the control efficiency needed to meet MACT emissions standards. No deleterious impacts on the carbon bed were observed during the tests. The test results imply that upgrading the NWCF calciner with a more efficient cyclone separator and the proposed MACT equipment can process the remaining tanks wastes in 3 years or less, and comply with the MACT standards.

  9. Rules and Regulations Pertaining to a User Fee System for Point Source Dischargers that Discharge Pollutants into the Waters of the State (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish a user fee system for point source dischargers that discharge pollutants into the surface waters of the State. The funds from such fees are used by the Department of...

  10. Method and apparatus for electrical cable testing by pulse-arrested spark discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnum, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Warne, Larry K. (Albuquerque, NM); Jorgenson, Roy E. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for electrical cable testing by Pulse-Arrested Spark Discharge (PASD) uses the cable response to a short-duration high-voltage incident pulse to determine the location of an electrical breakdown that occurs at a defect site in the cable. The apparatus for cable testing by PASD includes a pulser for generating the short-duration high-voltage incident pulse, at least one diagnostic sensor to detect the incident pulse and the breakdown-induced reflected and/or transmitted pulses propagating from the electrical breakdown at the defect site, and a transient recorder to record the cable response. The method and apparatus are particularly useful to determine the location of defect sites in critical but inaccessible electrical cabling systems in aging aircraft, ships, nuclear power plants, and industrial complexes.

  11. Maintenance implementation plan for B Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, S.E.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The B Plant facility, is located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. It consists of two major operating areas: the B Plant Canyon Building, and the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The B Plant was originally designed to chemically process spent nuclear fuels. After this initial mission was completed, the plant was modified to provide for the separation of strontium and cesium, individually, from the fission productwaste stream following plutonium and uranium recovery from irradiated reactor fuels in the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX). The recovered, purified, and concentrated strontium and cesium solutions were then transferred to the WESF for conversion to solid compounds, encapsulation, and interim storage. After strontium and cesium removal, the remaining waste was transferred from B Plant to tank farms. B Plantis an operating facility that is required to ensure safe storage And management of the WESF cesium and strontium capsules, as well as a substantial radiological inventory remaining in the plant from previous campaigns. There are currently no production activities at B Plant, but several operating systems are required to accomplish the current B Plant mission.B Plant receives and stores various chemicals from commercial suppliers for treatment of low-level waste generated at WESF and B Plant, generation of demineralized water, and conditioning of water used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning units. This report describes the maintenance of B Plant, including personnel training and schedules.

  12. Temporal modulation of plasma species in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Aijun; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu, Dingxin; Rong, Mingzhe, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: mzrong@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in helium is a pulsed discharge in nature and the moment of maximum species densities is almost consistent with peak discharge current density. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is used to investigate the temporal structure of plasma species in an atmospheric He-N{sub 2} dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). It is demonstrated that there exist microsecond delays of the moments of the maximum electron and ion densities from the peak of discharge current density. These time delays are caused by a competition between the electron impact and Penning ionizations, modulated by the N{sub 2} level in the plasma-forming gas. Besides, significant electron wall losses lead to the DBD being more positively charged and, with a distinct temporal separation in the peak electron and cation densities, the plasma is characterized with repetitive bursts of net positive charges. The temporal details of ionic and reactive plasma species may provide a new idea for some biological processes.

  13. TECHNICAL ARTICLES PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brix, Hans

    TECHNICAL ARTICLES #12;2 PLANTS USED IN CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS Hans Brix Department of Plant Ecology, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Aarhus, Nordlandsvej 68, 8240 Risskov, Denmark ABSTRACT Vegetation plays an important role in wastewater treatment wetlands. Plants

  14. J. Phys. III IYance 7 (1997) 927-936 APRIL 1997, PAGE 927 A Stable Discharge Glow in Gas Discharge System with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have been stud- ied in a wide range of the gas pressure p (21.3-466.5 hPa) and of interJ. Phys. III IYance 7 (1997) 927-936 APRIL 1997, PAGE 927 A Stable Discharge Glow in Gas Discharge.40.Sx Metal-semiconductor-metal structures Abstract. A dc discharge generated between parallel plate

  15. Combined process for 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid treatment Coupling of an electrochemical system with a biological treatment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    system with a biological treatment. Jean-Marie Fontmorina,b *, Florence Fourcadea,b Florence Genestec-made electrochemical flow cell was used for the pre-treatment and a biological treatment was then carried out using activated sludge supplied by a local wastewater treatment plant. 2,4-D was used as a target compound

  16. ecological engineering 2 6 ( 2 0 0 6 ) 375391 available at www.sciencedirect.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaubey, Indrajeet

    January 2006 Accepted 24 January 2006 Keywords: Phosphorus Effluent discharge Wastewater treatment plant reactive P (SRP) upstream and downstream from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharges; (2 sources such as munici- pal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharges still exert a prominent

  17. Recirculation on a single stage of vertical flow constructed wetland: treatment limits and operation modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Recirculation on a single stage of vertical flow constructed wetland: treatment limits French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) plant comprises two stages of treatment which the first and treatment performances in different operating conditions. Results showed good performances

  18. Pulsed discharge ionization source for miniature ion mobility spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Jun; Ramsey, J. Michael; Whitten, William B.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for flowing a sample gas and a reactant gas (38, 43) past a corona discharge electrode (26) situated at a first location in an ion drift chamber (24), applying a pulsed voltage waveform comprising a varying pulse component and a dc bias component to the corona discharge electrode (26) to cause a corona which in turn produces ions from the sample gas and the reactant gas, applying a dc bias to the ion drift chamber (24) to cause the ions to drift to a second location (25) in the ion drift chamber (24), detecting the ions at the second location (25) in the drift chamber (24), and timing the period for the ions to drift from the corona discharge electrode to the selected location in the drift chamber.

  19. The culture of some marine fishes in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a power plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luebke, Richard William

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and sampled to determine survival, growth, condition, and for saltmarsh species reproduction: bay anchovy, Anchoa 'tch'lll (Valenc' nnes); h epshead m'n ow, ~Cr' r t Led:*oc'tfth, Gb ff'1(a'Md Gt d); a'lf' molly, P '1'a~tt' 'n (L ); lfd wats 'Iv 'd, M 'd...' beryl)'n (C p ); Pl 'da p p, P ht t 1 (Lf );Atl t' k, ~Mt d lt (L' 1; bl kd om, P~ac 's (Id eos); reddr, ~dc' n* o ll t (L' ): t 'p d list, ~Mtt ~ht 11 LITERATURE REVIEW Pond culture of fish has been going on for centuries virtually throughout...

  20. The culture of some marine fishes in ponds receiving heated discharge water from a power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luebke, Richard William

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D 0 c( L t III X Q 0 ttt 0 IU 8 g IV IU D Q 0 C4 W 0 g 0 td D 0 0 a I LIJ EJ P C O 0 0 IA Gl O R O IK ct ILI Y O ct CS IIS C9 IZ ct X CJ CII O I ?S Cc AI AI Co I- ICI X EJ n. (L CL IL O tr...VS 0 Id III I 0 CII 2: co o o A C og & o 6 0 g I OI td o III 0 8 ~ CIC Q I g 'u ~ g IO 4-I 0 Cl OI I OI 0 2 6 g I I 8 Cd CII V ld E I Il) 0 O' IO IA O dl O IA O Ilc 0 dl 0 dl 0 dl O dl 0 III 0 Cd Id A y& Id lcl cd Id...

  1. Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 ?s). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

  2. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Quigley, Gerard P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  3. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  4. High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.

  5. Airflow influence on the discharge performance of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriegseis, J.; Tropea, C. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Griesheim (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Griesheim (Germany); Grundmann, S. [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Flughafenstr. 19, D-64347 Griesheim (Germany)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, the effect of the airflow on the performance of dielectric barrier discharge plasma-actuators is investigated experimentally. In order to analyze the actuator's performance, luminosity measurements have been carried out simultaneously with the recording of the relevant electrical parameters. A performance drop of about 10% is observed for the entire measured parameter range at a flow speed of M = 0.145 (U{sub {infinity}}=50 m/s). This insight is of particular importance, since the plasma-actuator control authority is already significantly reduced at this modest speed level. The results at higher Mach numbers (0.4

  6. Influence of wastewater-treatment effluent on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of wastewater- treatment effluent on concentrations and fluxes of solutes in the Bush of treated effluents from wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs) will increasingly affect the chemical biological processes associated with very low flow conditions, such as denitrification and sulfate reduction

  7. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are located downstream of control technologies and just before discharge to the atmosphere. The need for monitoring airborne emissions of hazardous chemicals is established in the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit and in notices of construction. Based on the current potential-to-emit, the Hanford Site Air Operating Permit does not contain general monitoring requirements for BOP facilities. However, the permit identifies monitoring requirements for specific projects and buildings. Needs for future monitoring will be established by future permits issued pursuant to the applicable state and federal regulations. A number of liquid-effluent discharge systems serve the BOP facilities: sanitary sewer, process sewer, retention process sewer, and aquaculture system. Only the latter system discharges to the environment; the rest either discharge to treatment plants or to long-term storage. Routine compliance sampling of liquid effluents is only required at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory. Liquid effluents from other BOP facilities may be sampled or monitored to characterize facility effluents or to investigate discharges of concern. Effluent sampling and monitoring for the BOP facilities depends on the inventories, activities, and environmental permits in place for each facility. A description of routine compliance monitoring for BOP facilities is described in the BOP FEMP.

  8. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  9. Condenser for extreme-UV lithography with discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condenser system, for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography, employs quasi grazing-incidence collector mirrors that are coated with a suitable reflective metal such as ruthenium to collect radiation from a discharge source to minimize the effect of contaminant accumulation on the collecting mirrors.

  10. SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS Weber's law implies neural discharge more regular than

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jianfeng

    SYNAPTIC MECHANISMS Weber's law implies neural discharge more regular than a Poisson process Jing, interspike interval, psychophysical law, spike rate Abstract Weber's law is one of the basic laws established. In this paper, we carried out an analysis on the spike train statistics when Weber's law holds

  11. COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON HEATING IN RF GAS DISCHARGES: I. QUASILINEAR THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaganovich, Igor

    COLLISIONLESS ELECTRON HEATING IN RF GAS DISCHARGES: I. QUASILINEAR THEORY Yu.M. Aliev1 , I an interest in mechanisms of electron heating and power deposition in the plasma main- tained by radio{frequency (rf) electric elds. A modern trend in plasma technology aims at decreasing the gas pressures down

  12. A Guide to Discharging, with Applications to List Coloring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Douglas B.

    on DBW preprint page Based on a survey written with Daniel W. Cranston #12;The Discharging Method #12;The of reducible configurations" #12;Proof Template Let S be a set of "desired" configurations. #12;Proof Template Template Let S be a set of "desired" configurations. (1) Give initial "charge"

  13. Corrosion mitigation considerations in planning for zero liquid discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt-Dick, D.B. [Ashland Chemical Co., Portland, TX (United States). Drew Industrial Division; Lee, B. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States). Drew Industrial Division

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction in the availability and in the quality of water, coupled with more significantly more stringent water discharge restrictions, has resulted in increasing numbers of industrial complexes investigating water reuse and zero liquid discharge. Their investigation generally includes a survey of the potential impact of increased dissolved solids on the formation of mineral salt scales on heat transfer surfaces. These predictive tools are readily available and fairly accurate. The prediction of corrosion potential, however, is not as clearly defined, and as a consequence, little consideration is given to the effects of increased solids on corrosion. In addition to the potential for accelerated corrosion related to increased dissolved solids, many reuse waters contain elevated levels of biological activity and are rich in the nutrients that feed these micro organisms. This paper looks at the reasons for selecting zero liquid discharge as a means of water conservation and discharge reduction, the unit operations available to achieve these goals, and the corrosion mechanisms and mitigation associated with reuse water.

  14. Estimating discharge in rivers using remotely sensed hydraulic information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Laurence C.

    SAR images of three braided rivers were coupled with channel slope data obtained from topographic maps­100%) of the observed, with the mean estimate accuracy within 10%. This level of accuracy was achieved using calibration functions developed from observed discharge. The calibration functions use reach specific geomorphic

  15. ICE SHEET SOURCES OF SEA LEVEL RISE AND FRESHWATER DISCHARGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Anders

    ICE SHEET SOURCES OF SEA LEVEL RISE AND FRESHWATER DISCHARGE DURING THE LAST DEGLACIATION Anders E the sources of sea level rise and freshwater dis- charge to the global oceans associated with retreat of ice­10 m sea level rise at 19.0­19.5 ka, sourced largely from Northern Hemisphere ice sheet retreat

  16. THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE* I.V. Kurchatov of the energy of thermonuclear reactions. Physicists the world over are attracted by the extraordinarily interest- ing and very difficult task of controlling thermonuclear reactiom. Investigations in this field

  17. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

  18. Columnar discharge mode between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Yanpeng; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yaoge [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)] [School of Electric Power, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a fast-gated intensified charge-coupled device, end- and side-view photographs were taken of columnar discharge between parallel dielectric barrier electrodes in atmospheric pressure helium. Based on three-dimensional images generated from end-view photographs, the number of discharge columns increased, whereas the diameter of each column decreased as the applied voltage was increased. Side-view photographs indicate that columnar discharges exhibited a mode transition ranging from Townsend to glow discharges generated by the same discharge physics as atmospheric pressure glow discharge.

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daily III, W D

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300 should be considered separately when deciding on an approach for reducing the salt discharge to the subsurface. The smaller units may justify moderate changes to equipment, and may benefit from increased cleaning frequencies, more accurate and suitable chemical treatment, and sources of make up water and discharge re-use. The larger cooling towers would be more suitable for automated systems where they don't already exist, re-circulation and treatment of blow down water, and enhanced chemical dosing strategies. It may be more technically feasible and cost efficient for the smaller cooling towers to be replaced by closed loop dry coolers or hybrid towers. There are several potential steps that could be taken at each location to reduce the TDS concentration and/or water use. These include: sump water filtration, minimization of drift, accurate chemical dosing, and use of scale and corrosion coupons for chemical calibration. The implementation of some of these options could be achieved by a step-wise approach taken at two representative facilities. Once viable prototype systems have been proven in the field, systematic implementation should proceed for the remaining systems, with cost, desired reduction, and general feasibility taken into consideration for such systems.

  20. Plant Operational Status - Pantex Plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear AstrophysicsPayroll,Physics Physics An errorPlant

  1. Waste not Discharged to Surface Waters (North Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The rules in this Subchapter apply to all persons proposing to construct, alter, extend, or operate any sewer system, treatment works, disposal system, contaminates soil treatment system, animal...

  2. Final Treatment Center Project for Liquid and Wet Radioactive Waste in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravarik, K.; Stubna, M.; Pekar, A.; Krajc, T.; Zatkulak, M.; Holicka, Z. [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Slezak, M. [SE - VYZ, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Final Treatment Center (FTC) for Mochovce nuclear power plant (NPP) is designed for treatment and final conditioning of radioactive liquid and wet waste produced from plant operation. Mochovce NNP uses a Russian VVER-440 type reactor. Treated wastes comprise radioactive concentrates, spent resin and sludge. VUJE Inc. as an experienced company in field of treatment of radioactive waste in Slovakia has been chosen as main contractor for technological part of FTC. This paper describes the capacity, flow chart, overall waste flow and parameters of the main components in the FTC. The initial project was submitted for approval to the Slovak Electric plc. in 2003. The design and manufacture of main components were performed in 2004 and 2005. FTC construction work started early in 2004. Initial non-radioactive testing of the system is planned for summer 2006 and then radioactive tests are to be followed. A one-year trial operation of facility is planned for completion in 2007. SE - VYZ will be operates the FTC during trial operation and after its completion. SE - VYZ is subsidiary company of Slovak Electric plc. and it is responsible for treatment with radioactive waste and spent fuel in the Slovak republic. SE - VYZ has, besides of other significant experience with operation of Jaslovske Bohunice Treatment Centre. The overall capacity of the FTC is 870 m{sup 3}/year of concentrates and 40 m{sup 3}/year of spent resin and sludge. Bituminization and cementation were provided as main technologies for treatment of these wastes. Treatment of concentrate is performed by bituminization. Concentrate and bitumen are metered into a thin film evaporator with rotating wiping blades. Surplus water is evaporated and concentrate salts are embedded in bitumen. Bitumen product is discharged into 200 l steel drums. Spent resin and sludge are decanted, dried and mixed with bitumen. These mixtures are also discharged into 200 l steel drums. Drums are moved along bituminization line on a roller conveyor. After the drums cool, they are capped and removed from the conveyor and placed in a storage hall. Drums with bitumen product are loaded into Fiber Reinforced Concrete containers (FRC) and grouted with cement. Cement grout is prepared from mixture of cement, additive and radioactive concentrates. By formulating the cement grout with evaporator concentrates the maximum radioactivity is fixed in cement matrix and volume of final waste product is minimized. A batch mixer with rotating blades is used produce the cement grout. FRCs loaded with bitumen drums are placed on roller conveyor and moved along the cementation line. Grouted FRCs are stored in the expedition hall for 28 days of curing and then transported to final disposal. After placed in operation the FTC provides treatment for all liquid and wet LLW produced from the operation of the Mochovce NPP. The final product of the FTC is a FRC loaded with 7 drums of waste fixed in bitumen and the space between the drums is grouted with cement. This container meets all limits for final disposal in the National Radioactive Waste Repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  3. Development of dredged ash disposal area, Paradise fossil plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paradise Steam-Electric Plant coal-fired facility in Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. This project is to construct a dredge pond near the Jacobs Creek ash pond capable of storing fly ash dredged from the ash pond. This will provide approximately 10 years of additional fly ash storage in the fly ash pond. Effluent from the dredge pond will be returned to the Jacobs Creek ash pond for discharge to Jacobs Creek. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Storm water pollution prevention plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. An NPDES permit was issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and was effective on July 1, 1995. The permit requires that a Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWP3) be developed by December 28, 1995, and be fully implemented by July 1, 1996; this plan has been developed to fulfill that requirement. The outfalls and monitoring points described in this plan contain storm water discharges associated with industrial activities as defined in the NPDES regulations. For storm water discharges associated with industrial activity, including storm water discharges associated with construction activity, that are not specifically monitored or limited in this permit, Y-12 Plant personnel will meet conditions of the General Storm Water Rule 1200-4-10. This document presents the programs and physical controls that are in place to achieve the following objectives: ensure compliance with Section 1200-4-10-.04(5) of the TDEC Water Quality Control Regulations and Part 4 of the Y-12 Plant NPDES Permit (TN0002968); provide operating personnel with guidance relevant to storm water pollution prevention and control requirements for their facility and/or project; and prevent or reduce pollutant discharge to the environment, in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Tennessee Water Quality Control Act.

  5. Macroscopic behavior and discrete dynamo in high-[Theta] reversed-field pinch discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arimoto, H.; Nakamura, A.; Sato, K.I.; Nagata, A.; Ando, T.; Kubota, S.; Masamune, S.; Nagatsu, M.; Tsukishima, T. (Plasma Science Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the discrete dynamo in high-[Theta] reversed-field pinch (RFP) discharges are studied through comparisons with those in normal-[Theta] RFP discharges, where [Theta]=[ital B][sub [theta

  6. Utah Code Ann. § 19-5-107: Discharge of pollutants unlawful...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ann. 19-5-107: Discharge of pollutants unlawful -- Discharge permit required Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute:...

  7. Physical limits for high ion charge states in pulsed discharges in vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yushkov, Georgy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to change if ultrahigh vacuum was available. In conclusion,charge state in a short pulse discharge in vacuum. Fig. 2.power for gold discharges in vacuum for the three circuit

  8. Internet Based, GIS Catalog of Non-Traditional Sources of Cooling Water for Use at America's Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Daniel Arthur

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.

  9. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  10. Electric characteristics of a surface barrier discharge with a plasma induction electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alemskii, I. N.; Lelevkin, V. M.; Tokarev, A. V.; Yudanov, V. A. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Static and dynamic current-voltage and charge-voltage characteristics of a surface barrier discharge with a plasma induction electrode have been investigated experimentally. The dependences of the discharge current on both the gas pressure in the induction electrode tube and the winding pitch of the corona electrode, as well as of the discharge power efficiency on the applied voltage, have been measured.

  11. Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

  12. Edge Plasma Effects in DIII-D Impurity Seeded Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, G.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A.W.; McKee, G. R.; Murakami, M; Wade, M.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DIII-D, ELMing H-mode radiating mantle discharges have been obtained with electron density near the Greenwald density limit and a large fraction of the input power radiated inside the last closed flux surface, significantly reducing peak divertor heat fluxes. In these ''puff and pump'' discharges, the introduction of argon reduces particle flux to divertor tiles by a factor of 4 while peak heat flux is half of the no impurity value, suggesting that impurity seeding may be a useful control tool to reduce wall heat and particle fluxes in fusion reactors. A robust H-mode transport barrier is maintained and there is little change in the ELM energy or in the ELM frequency.

  13. Optogalvanic effect in a hollow cathode discharge with nonlaser sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apel, C.T.; Keller, R.A.; Zalewski, E.F.; Engleman, R. Jr.

    1982-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several atomic emission sources were investigated for their potential to induce optogalvanic signals in hollow cathode lamps. The sources included an inductively coupled argon plasma, a H/sub 2/--O/sub 2/ flame, a high-temperature furnace, electrodeless microwave discharge lamps, and hollow cathode lamps. Successful results were obtained with argon emission from the inductively coupled plasma focused into an argon-filled hollow cathode tube and with atomic emission from one hollow cathode discharge focused into a hollow cathode tube containing the same element. Very low level optogalvanic signals were observed from the other sources but could not be unambiguously ascribed to emission from a specific element. A problem encountered was the presence of a background signal due to photoelectric emission and possibly radiative heating of the cathode.

  14. Temporal process of plasma discharge by an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugawa, M.; Sugaya, R.; Isobe, S.; Kumar, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790 (Japan); Honda, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565 (Japan)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of the plasma discharge due to an electron beam is experimentally investigated. A pulse ({approximately}540 {mu}s) of an electron beam (0.5{endash}1.5 keV, {le}20 mA) is injected into argon gas (5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{endash}5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr) in a magnetic field (50{endash}300 G). The discharge based on a gas break down occurs cascade-likely in time. The gas beak down with some steps is explained by the two stream instability of an electron beam-plasma system, from the observation of the temporal evolution of the frequency spectra (0{endash}3.0 GHz) of the instability and the measurement of the temporal plasma density and temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeny, William M. (Albuquerque, NM); Small, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  17. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu ['Gheorghe Asachi' Technical University of Iasi, Department of Machine Manufacturing Technology, Blvd. D Mangeron 59A, 700050 Iasi (Romania); Schulze, Hans-Peter [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Institute of Fundamental Electrical Engineering and EMC Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Besliu, Irina [University 'Stefan cel Mare' of Suceava, Department of Technologies and Management, Str. Universitatii, 13, 720 229 Suceava (Romania)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  18. Z-Pinch Discharge in Laser Produced Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, E.; Lunney, J. G. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast coaxial electrical discharge, with relatively low current, was used to produce a Z-pinch effect in a laser produced aluminum plasma. The ion flux in the laser plasma was monitored with a Langmuir ion probe. The line density in the plasma column was controlled by using an aperture to select the portion of the laser plasma which enters the discharge cell. The Z-pinch dynamics were recorded using time-resolved imaging of the visible self-emission; the plasma was pinched to about one-third of the initial radius. Both the laser and Z-pinch plasmas were diagnosed using time-and space-resolved spectroscopy; substantial heating was observed. The measured behaviour of the pinch was compared with predictions of the slug model.

  19. Water balance report for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Y-12 Plant, which occupies approximately 800 acres, was built by the Army Corps of Engineers in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Recently, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, who manages the Y-12 Plant, has been concerned with the effects of water consumption and losses at the plant facility, and the ability of ground water beneath the site to act as a source of water seepage into East Fork Poplar Creek or as a source of water infiltration into subsurface strata. This has prompted the need to perform a water balance study on the facility. Data regarding all uses of municipal water and sources of discharge from the plant were recorded and then water balance calculations were performed using a computer model developed in a multi-dimensional electronic spreadsheet. This report describes the results of this research and includes the flow data collected during the study.

  20. Negative ion source with hollow cathode discharge plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.; Prelec, K.

    1980-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative ion source of the type where negative ions are formed by bombarding a low-work-function surface with positive ions and neutral particles from a plasma, wherein a highly ionized plasma is injected into an anode space containing the low-work-function surface is described. The plasma is formed by hollow cathode discharge and injected into the anode space along the magnetic field lines. Preferably, the negative ion source is of the magnetron type.

  1. Depth Profile Analysis of New Materials in Hollow Cathode Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djulgerova, R.; Mihailov, V.; Gencheva, V.; Popova, L.; Panchev, B. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Michaylova, V. [Technical University of Sofia, 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria); Szytula, A.; Gondek, L.; Dohnalik, T.M. [Smoluchowski Institute of Physics - Jagellonian University, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Petrovic, Z.Lj. [Institute of Physics, 11080 Zemun, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this review the possibility of hollow cathode discharge for depth profile analysis is demonstrated for several new materials: planar optical waveguides fabricated by Ag+-Na+ ion exchange process in glasses, SnO2 thin films for gas sensors modified by hexamethildisilazane after rapid thermal annealing, W- and WC- CVD layers deposited on Co-metalloceramics and WO3- CVD thin films deposited on glass. The results are compared with different standard techniques.

  2. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M.; Tonkyn, R.G.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes. 12 figs.

  3. The Use of DC Glow Discharges as Undergraduate Educational Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephanie A. Wissel and Andrew Zwicker, Jerry Ross, and Sophia Gershman

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmas have a beguiling way of getting students excited and interested in physics. We argue that plasmas can and should be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum as both demonstrations and advanced investigations of electromagnetism and quantum effects. Our device, based on a direct current (DC) glow discharge tube, allows for a number of experiments into topics such as electrical breakdown, spectroscopy, magnetism, and electron temperature.

  4. Role of substrate temperature at graphene synthesis in arc discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Xiuqi; Keidar, Michael

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substrate temperature required for synthesis of graphene in arc discharge plasma was studied. It was shown that increase of the copper substrate temperature up to melting point leads to increase in the amount of graphene production and quality of graphene sheets. Favorable range of substrate temperatures for arc-based graphene synthesis was determined in relatively narrow range of about 1340-1360K which is near the melting point of copper.

  5. Magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters at high discharge voltages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G., E-mail: Ioannis.G.Mikellides@jpl.nasa.gov; Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of numerical simulations and experiments have been performed to assess the effectiveness of magnetic shielding in a Hall thruster operating in the discharge voltage range of 300–700?V (I{sub sp}???2000–2700?s) at 6?kW, and 800?V (I{sub sp} ? 3000) at 9?kW. At 6?kW, the magnetic field topology with which highly effective magnetic shielding was previously demonstrated at 300?V has been retained for all other discharge voltages; only the magnitude of the field has been changed to achieve optimum thruster performance. It is found that magnetic shielding remains highly effective for all discharge voltages studied. This is because the channel is long enough to allow hot electrons near the channel exit to cool significantly upon reaching the anode. Thus, despite the rise of the maximum electron temperature in the channel with discharge voltage, the electrons along the grazing lines of force remain cold enough to eliminate or reduce significantly parallel gradients of the plasma potential near the walls. Computed maximum erosion rates in the range of 300–700?V are found not to exceed 10{sup ?2}?mm/kh. Such rates are ?3 orders of magnitude less than those observed in the unshielded version of the same thruster at 300?V. At 9?kW and 800?V, saturation of the magnetic circuit did not allow for precisely the same magnetic shielding topology as that employed during the 6-kW operation since this thruster was not designed to operate at this condition. Consequently, the maximum erosion rate at the inner wall is found to be ?1 order of magnitude higher (?10{sup ?1}?mm/kh) than that at 6?kW. At the outer wall, the ion energy is found to be below the sputtering yield threshold so no measurable erosion is expected.

  6. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  7. High energy KrCl electric discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Scott, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high energy KrCl laser for producing coherent radiation at 222 nm. Output energies on the order of 100 mJ per pulse are produced utilizing a discharge excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions, thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HCl is used as a halogen donor which undergoes a harpooning reaction with metastable Kr.sub.M * to form KrCl.

  8. Characteristics of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanovskii, A. M., E-mail: stefan@nfi.kiae.ru; Dremin, M. M.; Kakurin, A. M.; Kislov, A. Ya.; Mal'tsev, S. G.; Notkin, G. E.; Pavlov, Yu. D.; Poznyak, V. I.; Sushkov, A. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of experimental studies of discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density are presented. On the basis of measurements of the generated soft X-ray emission, for a group of 'slow' disruptions, the dynamics of the magnetic configuration of the central part of the plasma column is studied and the possible role of the m/n = 1/1 mode in the excitation of predisruptions or the final stage of disruption is analyzed. It is shown that the characteristics of plasma electron cooling in predisruptions correspond to those of electron cooling upon pellet injection into T-10 and in discharge predisruptions occurring in regimes with the 'quiet mode.' It is found that, in the latter case, the reason for predisruptions and fast electron cooling in the plasma core is the instability of the m/n = 2/1 mode, its spontaneous spatial reconstruction, and the generation of a 'cooling wave' during this process. Measurements of the electron temperature (determined from the plasma radiation intensity at the second electron cyclotron harmonic) in the zone of the m/n = 2/1 mode have shown that the transformation of the m/n = 2/1 mode leads to the excitation of predisruptions and the final phase of disruption not only in regimes with the 'quiet mode,' but also in disruptions of ordinary ohmic discharges. The experimental results obtained in this work make it possible to determine the scenario of the development of 'slow' discharge disruptions in the T-10 tokamak at the limiting plasma density.

  9. Method and apparatus for processing exhaust gas with corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barlow, Stephan E. (Richland, WA); Orlando, Thomas M. (Kennewick, WA); Tonkyn, Russell G. (Kennewick, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is placing a catalyst coating upon surfaces surrounding a volume containing corona discharge. In addition, the electrodes are coated with a robust dielectric material. Further, the electrodes are arranged so that at least a surface portion of each electrode extends into a flow path of the exhaust gas to be treated and there is only exhaust gas in the volume between each pair of electrodes.

  10. To appear in Proceedings of ECSCW99 Dynamics in Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    reports on our study of a modern wastewater treatment plant in Denmark. The following section describesTo appear in Proceedings of ECSCW99 Dynamics in Wastewater Treatment: A Framework for Understanding on the study of unskilled work in a Danish wastewater treatment plant, the problem of formalisation of work

  11. CONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diehl, Stefan

    CONTROL OF AN IDEAL ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT VIA AN ODE-PDE MODEL STEFAN treatment plants, consists basically of a biological reactor followed by a sedi- mentation tank, which has. 1. Introduction The need for efficient wastewater treatment plants in terms of low effluent con

  12. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Equilibrium theory of cylindrical discharges with special application to helicons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curreli, Davide; Chen, Francis F. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1594 (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiofrequency discharges used in industry often have centrally peaked plasma density profiles n(r) although ionization is localized at the edge, even in the presence of a dc magnetic field. This can be explained with a simple cylindrical model in one dimension as long as the short-circuit effect at the endplates causes a Maxwellian electron distribution. Surprisingly, a universal profile can be obtained, which is self-similar for all discharges with uniform electron temperature T{sub e} and neutral density n{sub n}. When all collisions and ionizations are radially accounted for, the ion drift velocity toward the wall reaches the Bohm velocity at a radius which can be identified with the sheath edge, thus obviating a pre-sheath calculation. For non-uniform T{sub e} and n{sub n}, the profiles change slightly but are always peaked on axis. For helicon discharges, iteration with the HELIC code for antenna-wave coupling yields profiles consistent with both energy deposition and diffusion profiles. Calculated density is in absolute-value agreement with experiment.

  14. Ignition and extinction phenomena in helium micro hollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulsreshath, M. K.; Schwaederle, L.; Dufour, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dussart, R. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); Sadeghi, N. [LIPhy, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier (UMR5588), Grenoble (France); Overzet, L. J. [GREMI, CNRS/Université d'Orléans (UMR7344), Orléans (France); PSAL, UTDallas, Richardson, Texas 75080-3021 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) were produced using 250??m thick dielectric layer of alumina sandwiched between two nickel electrodes of 8??m thickness. A through cavity at the center of the chip was formed by laser drilling technique. MHCD with a diameter of few hundreds of micrometers allowed us to generate direct current discharges in helium at up to atmospheric pressure. A slowly varying ramped voltage generator was used to study the ignition and the extinction periods of the microdischarges. The analysis was performed by using electrical characterisation of the V-I behaviour and the measurement of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms density by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. At the ignition of the microdischarges, 2??s long current peak as high as 24?mA was observed, sometimes followed by low amplitude damped oscillations. At helium pressure above 400?Torr, an oscillatory behaviour of the discharge current was observed just before the extinction of the microdischarges. The same type of instability in the extinction period at high pressure also appeared on the density of He*({sup 3}S{sub 1}) metastable atoms, but delayed by a few ?s relative to the current oscillations. Metastable atoms thus cannot be at the origin of the generation of the observed instabilities.

  15. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel.

  16. EIS-0121: Alternative Cooling Water Systems, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is to provide environmental input into the selection and implementation of cooling water systems for thermal discharges from K– and C-Reactors and from a coal-fired powerhouse in the D-Area at the Savannah River Plant (SRP)

  17. REVIEW ARTICLE Impacts of calcium water treatment residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    REVIEW ARTICLE Impacts of calcium water treatment residue on the soil-water-plant system in citrus of calcium water treatment residue (Ca-WTR) for stabilizing Cu in soil and its subsequent influence on Cu. Keywords Calcium water treatment residue . Citrus production . Copper contamination . Soil pH . Remediation

  18. Plant-Water Relations in Seasonally Dry Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Gregory Rubin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    treatment. Figure 3. Leaf water potential measured over timeecosystems, including soil water use generally between 20 cmboth deep roots and deep water use by plants have also been

  19. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srienc, Friedrich (Lake Elmo, MN); Somers, David A. (Roseville, MN); Hahn, J. J. (New Brighton, MN); Eschenlauer, Arthur C. (Circle Pines, MN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  20. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Carlsbad, CA); Nehring, Ramlah (La Jolla, CA); McGrath, Robert B. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  1. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: neutron flux, cur- rent noise, vibration diagnostics: Swedish Nuclear Powe

  2. Radioactive waste treatment technologies and environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HORVATH, Jan; KRASNY, Dusan [JAVYS, PLc. - Nuclear and Decommisioning Company, PLc. (Slovakia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radioactive waste treatment and conditioning are the most important steps in radioactive waste management. At the Slovak Electric, plc, a range of technologies are used for the processing of radioactive waste into a form suitable for disposal in near surface repository. These technologies operated by JAVYS, PLc. Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, PLc. Jaslovske Bohunice are described. Main accent is given to the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment and Conditioning Centre, Bituminization plant, Vitrification plant, and Near surface repository of radioactive waste in Mochovce and their operation. Conclusions to safe and effective management of radioactive waste in the Slovak Republic are presented. (authors)

  3. KKP-waste treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, W.; Grundke, E. [NPP Philippsburg (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the radwaste treatment in nuclear power plants in order to minimize the repository volume of the waste and the necessity of minimizing nuclear transports leads to new waste processing methods. The volume reduction effects of the new processing methods compared with the former ones is significant. Various types of operational waste of the two NPP`s in Philippsburg are generated as a result of the different kind of plants and their different mode of operation. Therefore the necessity of adequate waste treatment requires a new concept.

  4. anti-parasite treatment removes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute...

  5. Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project, October 2010 Review of Nuclear Safety Culture at the Hanford Site Waste...

  6. Dusty Plasma in He-Ar Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiorov, S. A. [A. M. Prokhorov Institute for General Physics under Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ramazanov, T. S.; Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a, Tole bi St., Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reports on the first experiments with plasma-dust formations in dc gas discharge plasma for He-Ar mixture. It is shown that under the conventional conditions of the experiments with dusty structures in plasma, the choice of light and heavy gases for the mixture suppresses electron heating in electric field and results in a supersonic jet with high Mach numbers. Distribution functions for drifting ions in the gas mixture are calculated for various mixture concentrations, electric field strengths and gas pressures.

  7. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rignot, E.J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Gogineni, S.P. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Krabill, W.B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (United States)] [and others] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Island, VA (United States); and others

    1997-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Glow-discharge synthesis of silicon nitride precursor powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.; Buss, R.J.; Loehman, R.E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (US))

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radio-frequency glow discharge is used for the synthesis of submicron, amorphous, silicon nitride precursor powders from silane and ammonia. Powders are produced with a range of Si/N ratios, including stoichiometric, Si-rich, and N-rich, and contain substantial amounts of hydrogen. The powders appear to be similar to silicon diimide and are easily converted to oxide by water vapor. The powders lose weight and crystallize to a mixture of {alpha} and {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} after prolonged heating at 1600{degree}C. Studies of spectrally and spatially resolved optical emission from the plasma are reported.

  9. Ethanol reforming in non-equilibrium plasma of glow discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levko, D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a detailed kinetic study of the main plasma chemical processes in non-equilibrium ethanol/argon plasma are presented. It is shown that at the beginning of the discharge the molecular hydrogen is mainly generated in the reaction of ethanol H-abstraction. Later hydrogen is formed from active H, CH2OH and CH3CHOH and formaldehyde. Comparison with experimental data has shown that the used kinetic mechanism predicts well the concentrations of main species at the reactor outlet.

  10. SRO -NERP-1 THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia, University of

    AND TREATMENT by Whit Gibbons Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Aiken , South Carolina A PUBLICATION OF EROA 'S SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PARK -SEPTEMBER 1977 COPIES MAY BE OBTAINEO FROM SAVANNAHSRO -NERP-1 SNAKES OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT WITH INFORMATION ABOUT SNAKEBITE PREVENTION

  11. USDA Orange County Invasive Plant Management (OCIM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Sarah

    (Treatments) No Action Passive Restoration Intermediate Restoration Active Restoration Exotic plant management type of CSS and 22% grasslands. 16 Control 53 Passive 37 Intermediate 25 Active · 21% had the goal of increasing California Gnatcatcher habitat. · 39% of the restorations were in house and 44% were contracted

  12. Prospects for river discharge and depth estimation through assimilation of swath-altimetry into a raster-based hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Prospects for river discharge and depth estimation through assimilation of swath water depth and discharge, reducing the discharge RMSE from 23.2% to 10.0% over an 84-day simulation. Clark, D. P. Lettenmaier, and D. E. Alsdorf (2007), Prospects for river discharge and depth estimation

  13. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  14. Minimization of effluent discharge to the Soil Column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dronen, V.R.; Hydzik, K.M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1987, the US Congress mandated that the US Department of Energy (DOE), cease discharge of contaminated effluents to the soil column at the Hanford Site by calendar year 1995. The plan and schedule for this activity can be found in The Plan and Schedule to Discontinue Disposal of Contaminated Liquid into the Soil Column at the Hanford Site, (WHC 1987). Coupled with this mandate and DOE`s intent to cleanup Hanford (remediate and restore to the extent practicable), DOE entered into an agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). The agreement is called the ``Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order`` (Ecology et al. 1992) otherwise known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The Tri-Party Agreement established schedules and legally enforceable milestones for the Hanford cleanup mission. One such milestone was to cease discharge of effluent to Hanford`s 300 Area process trenches located approximately 100 m from the Columbia River, north of Richland, Washington.

  15. Wastewater treatment in the oil-shale industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, J.P.; Phillips, T.E.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of the stringent state and federal standards governing the discharge of wastes into local waters and the limited water supplies in this area, an oil shale industry will probably reuse process effluents to the maximum extent possible and evaporate the residuals. Therefore, discharge of effluents into surface and ground waters may not be necessary. This paper reviews the subject of wastewater treatment for an oil shale industry and identifies key issues and research priorities that must be resolved before a large-scale commercial industry can be developed. It focuses on treatment of the waters unique to an oil shale industry: retort water, gas condensate, and mine water. Each presents a unique set of challenges.

  16. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Evapotranspiration Bed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evapotranspiration (ET) beds treat wastewater in the soil by evaporation and by transpiration from plants growing there. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation and maintenance of ET beds....

  17. Modeling a short dc discharge with thermionic cathode and auxiliary anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); University ITMO, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation) [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)] [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)] [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A short dc discharge with a thermionic cathode can be used as a current and voltage stabilizer, but is subject to current oscillation. If instead of one anode two anodes are used, the current oscillations can be reduced. We have developed a kinetic model of such a discharge with two anodes, where the primary anode has a small opening for passing a fraction of the discharge current to an auxiliary anode. The model demonstrates that the current-voltage relationship of the discharge with two anodes is characterized everywhere by positive slope, i.e., positive differential resistance. Therefore, the discharge with two anodes is expected to be stable to the spontaneous oscillation in current that is induced by negative differential resistance. As a result, such a discharge can be used in an engineering application that requires stable plasma, such as a current and voltage stabilizer.

  18. A model for the self-pulsing regime of microhollow cathode discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chabert, P.; Lazzaroni, C.; Rousseau, A. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UPMC, CNRS, Paris XI, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microhollow cathode discharges may operate in different regimes depending of the discharge current. They are subject to relaxation oscillations in the so-called self-pulsing regime in which the discharge oscillates between two quasiequilibria: at low current it remains confined in the microhole whereas it expands on the cathode backside during short high-current pulses. A model based on a nonlinear discharge resistance is proposed to describe the phenomenon. The analysis of the dynamics reveals that the current pulse rises in an extremely short time while the characteristic (longer) decay time is imposed by the resistance when the discharge is expanded outside the hole. It is shown how the nonlinear discharge resistance may be inferred from the experimental current-voltage signals.

  19. Treatment of Organic-Contaminated Wastewater by Pervaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijmans, J. G.; Kaschemekat, J.; Baker, R. W.; Simmons, V. L.

    . However, the stream contains too much solvent to be discharged. Currently, these waste streams would be trucked to an incinerator or perhaps to a solvent reclaimer, both of which are expensive alternatives. The objective of the pervaporation process...TREATMENT OF ORGANIC-CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER BY PERVAPORATION J.G. WIJMANS J. KASCHEMEKAT R.W. BAKER V.L. SIMMONS Research Director Design Engineer President Marketing Director Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA ABSTRACT...

  20. Characteristics of radio-frequency atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharge with dielectric electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussain, S., E-mail: shussain@uos.edu.pk, E-mail: shussainuos@yahoo.com; Qazi, H. I. A.; Badar, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan)] [Department of Physics, University of Sargodha, 40100 Sargodha (Pakistan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental investigation to characterize the properties and highlight the benefits of atmospheric pressure radio-frequency dielectric-barrier discharge (rf DBD) with dielectric electrodes fabricated by anodizing aluminium substrate is presented. The current-voltage characteristics and millisecond images are used to distinguish the ? and ? modes. This atmospheric rf DBD is observed to retain the discharge volume without constriction in ? mode. Optical emission spectroscopy demonstrates that the large discharge current leads to more abundant reactive species in this plasma source.

  1. File:Texas NOI for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NOI for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Construction Activities (TXR150000).pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Texas NOI for Storm...

  2. Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations For State Administration Of The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) is created Pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act,...

  3. Active electron energy distribution function control in direct current discharge using an auxiliary electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweigert, I. V. [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Demidov, V. I. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States) [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron energy distribution functions are studied in the low voltage dc discharge with a constriction, which is a diaphragm with an opening. The dc discharge glows in helium and is sustained by the electron current emitted from a heated cathode. We performed kinetic simulations of dc discharge characteristics and electron energy distribution functions for different gas pressures (0.8 Torr-4 Torr) and discharge current of 0.1 A. The results of these simulations indicate the ability to control the shape of the electron energy distribution functions by variation of the diaphragm opening radius.

  4. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  5. Effect of nonlocal electron kinetics on the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge in xenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Skornyakov, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The established dynamics of a dielectric barrier discharge in xenon at a pressure of 400 Torr is simulated in the framework of a one-dimensional fluid model in the local and nonlocal field approximations. It is shown that taking into account the nonlocal character of the electric field does not qualitatively change physical processes in a dielectric barrier discharge, but significantly affects its quantitative characteristics. In particular, the sheath thickness decreases, plasma ionization intensifies, the spatiotemporal distribution of the mean electron energy changes, and the discharge radiation efficiency increases. Electron kinetics in a dielectric barrier discharge in xenon is analyzed using the nonlocal field approximation.

  6. Long range temporal correlation in the chaotic oscillations of a dc glow discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lahiri, S. [Dinabandhu Mahavidyalaya, Bongaon, North 24 Parganas, Kolkata 743235 (India); Roychowdhury, D. [Techno India, EM4/1 Sector V, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700091 (India); Sekar Iyengar, A. N. [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long range temporal correlations in the fluctuations of the plasma floating potentials (measured using a Langmuir probe) are investigated in a dc glow discharge plasma. Keeping the neutral pressure constant, the discharge voltage was varied and at the formation of the plasma, quasi periodic oscillations were excited and on further increase of the discharge voltage they became chaotic (irregular) beyond a threshold voltage. We compared the Lyapunov exponent with the Hurst exponent obtained from R/S statistics which showed an opposite behaviour at the transition point. These results are perhaps new since we have not come across such comparative analysis for chaotic oscillations in a glow discharge plasma before.

  7. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donko, Z. [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D. [Institute for Plasma and Atomic Physics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum 44780 (Germany)

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  8. A plasma needle for generating homogeneous discharge in atmospheric pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Xuechen; Yuan Ning; Jia Pengying; Chen Junying [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous discharge in air is often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for industrial applications. In this paper, we present a method whereby stable homogeneous discharge in open air can be generated by a simple plasma needle. The discharge mechanism is discussed based on the spatially resolved light emission waveforms from the plasma. Optical emission spectroscopy is used to determine electron energy and rotational temperature, and results indicate that both electron energy and rotational temperature increase with increasing the applied voltage. The results are analyzed qualitatively based on the discharge mechanism.

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - arc discharge method Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at different points on the cable. The discharge contained short, bluish arcs. 12... Artificial Dry-band Arcing ... Source: Arizona State University, Power Systems Engineering...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - assisted discharge inductive Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studies Summary: words: capacity fade, interfacial impedance, lithium ion batterysupercapacitor hybrid, pulse discharge... supercapacitor hybrid and a battery alone has been...

  11. RAPID FORMATION OF HIGH DENSITY MICROWAVE DISCHARGES FOR APPLICATION IN COUNTERHPM PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    Building Abstract Recent decades of research on high power microwave (HPM) sources for nonlethal discharges as a means of protect ing sensitive electronics from HPM irradiation. Collectively

  12. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 thin films has been examined. Several factors influencing

  13. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Del Mar, CA); Jin, RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO); Keith, Kevin (Three Forks, MT); Copenhaver, Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  14. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, RongGuan (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  15. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  16. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach, Jennifer (Chicago, IL); Zieler, Helge (Chicago, IL); Jin, James (Chicago, IL); Keith, Kevin (Chicago, IL); Copenhaver, Gregory (Chapel Hill, NC); Preuss, Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2006-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  17. Plant centromere compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mach; Jennifer M. (Chicago, IL), Zieler; Helge (Del Mar, CA), Jin; RongGuan (Chesterfield, MO), Keith; Kevin (Three Forks, MT), Copenhaver; Gregory P. (Chapel Hill, NC), Preuss; Daphne (Chicago, IL)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  18. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemethy, E.K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBL-8596 itr-t C,d.. HYDROCARBONS & ENERGY FROM PLANTS jmethods of isolating the hydrocarbon-like material from I.privatelyownedrights. HYDROCARBONS AND ENERGY FROM PLANTS

  19. NUCLEAR PLANT AND CONTROL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: software require- ments, safety analysis, formal, the missiles, and the digital protection systems embed- ded in nuclear power plants. Obviously, safety method SOFTWARE SAFETY ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL PROTECTION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS USING A QUALITATIVE FORMAL

  20. Propagation of Ornamental Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeWerth, A. F.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of Ornamental Plants I A. I?. DEWERTH, Head Department of Floriculture and Landscape Architecture Texas A. & M. College System THE MULTIPLICATION of ornamental plants is After sterilizing, firm the soil to within 1; receiving more...

  1. Macrophyte Decomposition Rates in the Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland: Preliminary Results!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    Macrophyte Decomposition Rates in the Tres Rios Constructed Treatment Wetland: Preliminary Results wetland. Plant Ecology 200:69-82. Literature Cited! Figure 1A: Aerial photo of the treatment flow cell, such as those associated with municipal wastewater treatment.! Constructed treatment wetlands perform important

  2. USE OF HERBICIDES TO CONTROL ALLIGATORWEED AND RESTORE NATIVE PLANTS IN MANAGED MARSHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Station Auburn, Alabama, USA 36849 Abstract: Marsh management is used to improve the quality of wetland alligatorweed and restoring native plants. In the year of treatment, imazapyr controlled alligatorweed better of treatment, application of triclopyr amine resulted in greater native plant biomass than imazapyr. High

  3. Poisonous Plant Management. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Toxic plants also contribute to indirect losses such as reduced calving , lambing or kidding percentages and reduced fiber production and weight gain. Direct and indirect losses from poisonous plants in Texas cost livestock producers from $50 million... to $100 million annually. In the United States, more than 400 species of poisonous plants have been identified. These toxic plants are generally not found in greatest abundance on good-to-excellent condition range but are, with few exceptions...

  4. PERSPECTIVES Interpretingphenotypicvariationin plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    PERSPECTIVES Interpretingphenotypicvariationin plants James S. Coleman Kelly D.M. McConnaughay David D. Ackerly Plant ecologists and evolutionary biologists frequently examine patterns of phenotypic phenotypic traits change throughout growth and development of individual plants, and that rates of growth

  5. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  6. A Plant-Level Simulation Model for Evaluating CO2 Capture Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The IECM: A Plant-Level Simulation Model for Evaluating CO2 Capture Options Edward S. Rubin/charts capability Easy to add or update models #12;E.S. Rubin, Carnegie Mellon IECM Software Package Power Plant, IGCC and NGCC plants All flue/fuel gas treatment systems CO2 capture and storage options (pre

  7. TREATMENT OF GASEOUS EFFLUENTS ISSUED FROM RECYCLING – A REVIEW OF THE CURRENT PRACTICES AND PROSPECTIVE IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; William Kerlin; Steven Bakhtiar

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of gaseous waste management for the recycling of nuclear used fuel is to reduce by best practical means (ALARA) and below regulatory limits, the quantity of activity discharged to the environment. The industrial PUREX process recovers the fissile material U(VI) and Pu(IV) to re-use them for the fabrication of new fuel elements e.g. recycling plutonium as a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel or recycling uranium for new enrichment for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Meanwhile the separation of the waste (activation and fission product) is performed as a function of their pollution in order to store and avoid any potential danger and release towards the biosphere. Raffinate, that remains after the extraction step and which contains mostly all fission products and minor actinides is vitrified, the glass package being stored temporarily at the recycling plant site. Hulls and end pieces coming from PWR recycled fuel are compacted by means of a press leading to a volume reduced to 1/5th of initial volume. An organic waste treatment step will recycle the solvent, mainly tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) and some of its hydrolysis and radiolytic degradation products such as dibutyl phosphate (HDPB) and monobutyl phosphate (H2MBP). Although most scientific and technological development work focused on high level waste streams, a considerable effort is still under way in the area of intermediate and low level waste management. Current industrial practices for the treatment of gaseous effluents focusing essentially on Iodine-129 and Krypton-85 will be reviewed along with the development of novel technologies to extract, condition, and store these fission products. As an example, the current industrial practice is to discharge Kr-85, a radioactive gas, entirely to the atmosphere after dilution, but for the large recycling facilities envisioned in the near future, several techniques such as 1) cryogenic distillation and selective absorption in solvents, 2) adsorption on activated charcoal, 3) selective sorption on chemical modified zeolites, or 4) diffusion through membranes with selective permeability are potential technologies to retain the gas.

  8. Long-term multipactor discharge in multicarrier systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anza, S.; Vicente, C.; Gimeno, B.; Boria, V. E.; Armendariz, J. [Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo - ICMUV, Universitat de Valencia c/ Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Comunicaciones, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Aurora Software and Testing S.L., Parque Cientifico Universitat de Valencia, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new mechanism of long-term multipactor in multicarrier systems is studied employing both analytical and numerical methods. In particular, the investigation is focused on the impact that a realistic secondary emission yield at low energies produces on the development of long term multipactor. A novel analytical model for this interperiod charge accumulation is presented using the traditional multipactor theory for parallel plates, and approximating the multicarrier signal as a single-carrier signal modulated by a pulsed signal envelope. The analytical predictions are verified by numerical simulations for a typical rectangular waveguide. The analytical and numerical results demonstrate that the susceptibility of the system to develop a long-term multipactor discharge increases with higher values of low-energy secondary emission yield.

  9. Electrodeless HID lamp study. Final report. [High intensity discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, J.M.; Johnson, P.D.; Jones, C.E.; Rautenberg, T.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High intensity discharge lamps excited by solenoidal electric fields (SEF/HID) were examined for their ability to give high brightness, high efficacy and good color. Frequency of operation was 13.56 MHz (ISM Band) and power to the lamp plasma ranged from about 400 to 1000 W. Radio frequency transformers with air cores and with air core complemented by ferrite material in the magnetic path were used to provide the voltage for excitation. Electrical properties of the matching network and the lamp plasma were measured or calculated and total light from the lamp was measured by an integrating sphere. Efficacies calculated from measurement were found to agree well with the positive column efficacies of conventional HID lamps containing only mercury, and with additives of sodium, thallium, and scandium iodide. Recommendations for future work are given.

  10. Atlas of uranium emission intensities in a hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, B.A.; Keller, R.A.; Engleman, R. Jr.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uranium emission spectrum from a hollow cathode discharge is displayed from 11,000 to 26,000 cm/sup -1/. This atlas lists 4928 spectral lines of uranium; 3949 are classified to the neutral spectrum and 431 are classified to the singly ionized spectrum. Listed wavenumbers are accurate to +-0.003 cm/sup -1/ and the listed relative intensities to +-8%. The richness of the spectrum makes this atlas useful for wavenumber calibration of lasers, spectrographs, and monochromators to an accuracy of 1 part in 10/sup 7/. This atlas is also useful as a guide to the uranium spectrum, and relative oscillator strengths (gf values) can be calculated from the intensities to a precision of +-20%.

  11. One-dimensional simulations of reversed field pinch discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martines, E.; Spagnolo, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple one-dimensional time-dependent model for simulating the magnetic field profiles in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is presented. The model, which is derived from basic MHD equations with the addition of a phenomenological dynamo electric field, is able, through the tuning of a few free parameters, to simulate the time evolution of RFP discharges in a large range of operating conditions, successfully reproducing quantities such as the average toroidal field, the loop voltage and the on-axis safety factor. The application to several experimental conditions obtained on the RFX-mod machine [P. Sonato et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 66, 161 (2003)], including oscillating poloidal current drive (OPCD) is shown and the simulation outcome is discussed.

  12. RF physics of ICWC discharge at high cyclotron harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyssoivan, A.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Vervier, M.; Van Schoor, M. [Association Euratom-Belgian State, LPP-ERM-KMS, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Bobkov, V.; Rohde, V.; Schneider, P. [Association Euratom-IPP, Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Douai, D.; Kogut, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA, IRFM, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Kreter, A.; Möller, S.; Philipps, V.; Sergienko, G. [Association Euratom-IEK-4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Moiseenko, V. [Institute of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Association Euratom-IPP, Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching, Germany and Ghent University, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Collaboration: TEXTOR Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments on Ion Cyclotron Wall Conditioning (ICWC) performed in tokamaks TEXTOR and ASDEX Upgrade with standard ICRF antennas operated at fixed frequencies but variable toroidal magnetic field demonstrated rather contrasting parameters of ICWC discharge in scenarios with on-axis fundamental ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for protons,?=?{sub H+}, and with its high cyclotron harmonics (HCH), ?=10?{sub cH+}? HCH scenario: very high antenna coupling to low density RF plasmas (P{sub pl}?0.9P{sub RF-G}) and low energy Maxwellian distribution of CX hydrogen atoms with temperature T{sub H}?350 eV. Fundamental ICR: lower antenna-plasma coupling efficiency (by factor of about 1.5 times) and generation of high energy non-Maxwellian CX hydrogen atoms (with local energy E{sub ?H} ?1.0 keV). In the present paper, we analyze the obtained experimental results numerically using (i) newly developed 0-D transport code describing the process of plasma production with electron and ion collisional ionization in helium-hydrogen gas mixture and (ii) earlier developed 1-D Dispersion Relation Solver accounting for finite temperature effects and collision absorption mechanisms for all plasma species in addition to conventionally examined Landau/TTPM damping for electrons and cyclotron absorption for ions. The numerical study of plasma production in helium with minor hydrogen content in low and high toroidal magnetic fields is presented. The investigation of the excitation, conversion and absorption of plasma waves as function of B{sub T}-field suggests that only fast waves (FW) may give a crucial impact on antenna coupling and characteristics of the ICWC discharge using standard poloidally polarized ICRF antennas designed to couple RF power mainly to FW. The collisional (non-resonant) absorption by electrons and ions and IC absorption by resonant ions of minor concentration in low T{sub e} plasmas is studied at fundamental ICR and its high harmonics.

  13. Effects of electrostatic discharge on three cryogenic temperature sensor models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courts, S. Scott; Mott, Thomas B. [Lake Shore Cryotronics, 575 McCorkle Blvd., Westerville, OH 43082 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic temperature sensors are not usually thought of as electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitive devices. However, the most common cryogenic thermometers in use today are thermally sensitive diodes or resistors - both electronic devices in their base form. As such, they are sensitive to ESD at some level above which either catastrophic or latent damage can occur. Instituting an ESD program for safe handling and installation of the sensor is costly and it is desirable to balance the risk of ESD damage against this cost. However, this risk cannot be evaluated without specific knowledge of the ESD vulnerability of the devices in question. This work examines three types of cryogenic temperature sensors for ESD sensitivity - silicon diodes, Cernox(trade mark, serif) resistors, and wire wound platinum resistors, all manufactured by Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. Testing was performed per TIA/EIA FOTP129 (Human Body Model). Damage was found to occur in the silicon diode sensors at discharge levels of 1,500 V. For Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors, damage was observed at 3,500 V. The platinum temperature sensors were not damaged by ESD exposure levels of 9,900 V. At the lower damage limit, both the silicon diode and the Cernox(trade mark, serif) temperature sensors showed relatively small calibration shifts of 1 to 3 K at room temperature. The diode sensors were stable with time and thermal cycling, but the long term stability of the Cernox(trade mark, serif) sensors was degraded. Catastrophic failure occurred at higher levels of ESD exposure.

  14. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  15. Asit Nema\\Foundation Green-Ensys 1 RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH SOLID WASTE TREATMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    that 285 million urban population in India ( 28% of the total population) is generating almost 120,000 MT of the entire chain of operations. A number of ULBs have gone about setting up treatment plants under treatment plants and one disposal facility from across India was carried out with the objective of assessing

  16. Test Plan: Sludge Treatment Project Corrosion Process Chemistry Follow-on Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This test plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract with Fluor Hanford (FH). The test plan describes the scope and conditions to be used to perform laboratory-scale testing of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) hydrothermal treatment of K Basin sludge. The STP, managed for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) by FH, was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from the sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) by using high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. The proposed testing builds on the approach and laboratory test findings for both K Basin sludge and simulated sludge garnered during prior testing from September 2006 to March 2007. The outlined testing in this plan is designed to yield further understanding of the nature of the chemical reactions, the effects of compositional and process variations and the effectiveness of various strategies to mitigate the observed high shear strength phenomenon observed during the prior testing. These tests are designed to provide process validation and refinement vs. process development and design input. The expected outcome is to establish a level of understanding of the chemistry such that successful operating strategies and parameters can be implemented within the confines of the existing STP corrosion vessel design. In July 2007, the DOE provided direction to FH regarding significant changes to the scope of the overall STP. As a result of the changes, FH directed PNNL to stop work on most of the planned activities covered in this test plan. Therefore, it is unlikely the testing described here will be performed. However, to preserve the test strategy and details developed to date, the test plan has been published.

  17. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  18. Recent Experiments and Post-Discharge Modeling of the ElectricOIL Laser System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    Recent Experiments and Post-Discharge Modeling of the ElectricOIL Laser System D. L. Carroll, J. T composed of two 99.993% reflective mirrors. Blaze II laser model was used to model typical Electric have demonstrated O2(a) yields greater than 15% using electric discharges,6,7,9 and modeling results4

  19. Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air Yohann Brelet1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Tesla coil discharges guided by femtosecond laser filaments in air Yohann Brelet1 , Aurélien, Palaiseau, France A Tesla coil generator was designed to produce high voltage pulses oscillating at 100 k experiments of laser guided discharges obtained in air by high voltage bursts delivered by a compact Tesla

  20. Design of a Continuous Supersonic Expansion Discharge Source for the Acquisition of a Rotationally-Cold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Benjamin J.

    Design of a Continuous Supersonic Expansion Discharge Source for the Acquisition of a Rotationally-Cold. However, even when the walls of these discharge cells are cryogenically cooled, the ion temperatures ionization techniques are needed. In order to produce cold gas-phase ions for spectroscopy, many groups have