National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transportation studies conducted

  1. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - TransportConductivity Anion Exchange Membranes - TransportConductivity Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arlington, VA PDF icon amfc110811aemstransport.pdf ...

  2. Conductive atomic force microscopy study of local electronic transport in ZnTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kshirsagar, Sachin D.; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Tewari, Surya P.

    2013-02-05

    ZnTe thin films obtained by the electron beam evaporation technique were subjected to thermal annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C for 2 hours. The as deposited films were amorphous but transformed to the crystalline state under influence of the thermal treatment. There is increase in optical absorption due to the heat treatment caused by increase in free carrier concentration. Conductive atomic force microscopy shows the presence of electronic inhomogeneities in the films. This is attributed to local compositional variations in the films. I-V analysis in these systems indicates formation of Schottky junction at the metal semiconductor (M-S) interface.

  3. Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR This ... Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Modeling Heat Conduction ...

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum consumption and 33% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) study examines underexplored oil-savings and...

  5. Water Transport Exploratory Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on water transport exploratory studies, was given by Rod Borup of Los Alamos National laboratory at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a part of this project, instrumentation was developed to monitor cuttings beds and characterize foams in the flow loop. An ultrasonic-based monitoring system was developed to measure cuttings bed thickness in the flow loop. Data acquisition software controls the system and processes the data. Two foam generating devices were designed and developed to produce foams with specified quality and texture. The devices are equipped with a bubble recognition system and an in-line viscometer to measure bubble size distribution and foam rheology, respectively. The 5-year project is completed. Future research activities will be under the umbrella of Tulsa University Drilling Research Projects. Currently the flow loop is being used for testing cuttings transport capacity of aqueous and polymer-based foams under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. Subsequently, the effect of viscous sweeps on cuttings transport under elevated pressure and temperature conditions will be investigated using the flow loop. Other projects will follow now that the ''steady state'' phase of the project has been achieved.

  7. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  9. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  10. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  11. Conducting Quantitative Electrochemistry on a TEM to Study Rate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conducting Quantitative Electrochemistry on a TEM to Study Rate Dependencies in the ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conducting Quantitative Electrochemistry on a ...

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2006-07-31

    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energys Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanfords vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNLs Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste migration (e.g. BC Cribs and Trenches). The improved models have been also coupled with inverse models and newly-developed parameter scaling techniques to allow estimation of field-scale and effective transport parameters for the vadose zone. The development and utility of pedotransfer functions for describing fine-scale hydrogeochemical heterogeneity and for incorporating this heterogeneity into reactive transport models was explored. An approach based on grain-size statistics appears feasible and has been used to describe heterogeneity in hydraulic properties and sorption properties, such as the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area of Hanford sediments. This work has also led to the development of inverse modeling capabilities for time-dependent, subsurface, reactive transport with transient flow fields using an automated optimization algorithm. In addition, a number of geophysical techniques investigated for their potential to provide detailed information on the subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces; plume delineation, leak detection. High-resolution resistivity is now being used for detecting saline plumes at several waste sites at Hanford, including tank farms. Results from the field studies and associated analysis have appeared in more than 46 publications generated over the past 4 years. These publications include test plans and status reports, in addition to numerous technical notes and peer reviewed papers.

  13. Structural control of mixed ionic and electronic transport in conducting polymers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2016-04-19

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole transport properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/electronic conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently transport both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and electronic mobilities are simultaneously affected by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. Wemore » quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while electronic conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and electronic transport that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. As a result, these findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.« less

  14. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric powermore » factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.« less

  15. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric power factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.

  16. Conducting and Using Energy Efficiency Studies for States Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, given through the DOE's Technical Assistance Program (TAP), provides information on how to effectively conduct and use Energy Efficiency Studies for States.

  17. Oxygen Transport Kinetics in Infiltrated SOFCs Cathode by Electrical Conductivity Relaxation Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yihong; Gerdes, Kirk; Liu, Xingbo

    2013-07-01

    Infiltration has attracted increasing attention as an effective technique to modify SOFC cathodes to improve cell electrochemical performance while maintaining material compatibility and long-term stability. However, the infiltrated material's effect on oxygen transport is still not clear and detailed knowledge of the oxygen reduction reaction in infiltrated cathodes is lacking. In this work, the technique of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) is used to evaluate oxygen exchange in two common infiltrated materials, Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-?}. The ECR technique is also used to examine the transport processes in a composite material formed with a backbone of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-?} and possessing a thin, dense surface layer composed of the representative infiltrate material. Both the surface oxygen exchange process and the oxygen exchange coefficient at infiltrate/LSCF interface are reported. ECR testing results indicate that the application of infiltrate under certain oxygen partial pressure conditions produces a measureable increase in the fitted oxygen exchange parameter. It is presently only possible to generate hypotheses to explain the observation. However the correlation between improved electrochemical performance and increased oxygen transport measured by ECR is reliably demonstrated. The simple and inexpensive ECR technique is utilized as a direct method to optimize the selection of specific infiltrate/backbone material systems for superior performance.

  18. Effect of uncertain hydraulic conductivity on the fate and transport of BTEX compounds at a field site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Guoping; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wolfsberg, Andrew

    2002-01-05

    A Monte Carlo analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of uncertain hydraulic conductivity on the fate and transport of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene) at a field site on Hill Air Force Base, Utah. Microbially mediated BTEX degradation has occurred at the site through multiple terminal electron-accepting processes, including aerobic respiration, denitrification, Fe(III) reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis degradation. Multiple realizations of the hydraulic conductivity field were generated and substituted into a multispecies reactive transport model developed and calibrated for the Hill AFB site in a previous study. Simulation results show that the calculated total BTEX masses (released from a constant-concentration source) that remain in the aquifer at the end of the simulation period statistically follow a lognormal distribution. In the first analysis (base case), the calculated total BTEX mass varies from a minimum of 12% less and a maximum of 60% more than that of the previously calibrated model. This suggests that the uncertainty in hydraulic conductivity can lead to significant uncertainties in modeling the fate and transport of BTEX. Geometric analyses of calculated plume configurations show that a higher BTEX mass is associated with wider lateral spreading, while a lower mass is associated with longer longitudinal extension. More BTEX mass in the aquifer causes either a large depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO) and NO{sub 3}{sup -}, or a large depletion of DO and a large production of Fe{sup 2+}, with moderately depleted NO{sub 3}{sup -}. In an additional analysis, the effect of varying degrees of aquifer heterogeneity and associated uncertainty is examined by considering hydraulic conductivity with different variances and correlation lengths. An increase in variance leads to a higher average BTEX mass in the aquifer, while an increase in correlation length results in a lower average. This observation is explained by relevant partitioning of BTEX into the aquifer from the LNAPL source. Although these findings may only be applicable to the field conditions considered in this study, the methodology used and insights gained are of general interest and relevance to other fuel-hydrocarbon natural-attenuation sites.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance The thermal interface resistance at the macro scale is mainly described by the physical gap between two

  20. Conducting Quantitative Electrochemistry on a TEM to Study Rate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dependencies in the Reversible Lithiation of Silicon Nanowires. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conducting Quantitative Electrochemistry on a TEM to Study Rate Dependencies in the Reversible Lithiation of Silicon Nanowires. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conducting Quantitative Electrochemistry on a TEM to Study Rate Dependencies in the Reversible Lithiation of Silicon Nanowires. Abstract not provided. Authors: Zavadil, Kevin R. ; Liu, Yang ; Kotula, Paul G. ; Sullivan, John P [1]

  1. Electric transport through nanometric CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films investigated by conducting atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foerster, M.; Gutierrez, D. F.; Rigato, F.; Fontcuberta, J.; Rebled, J. M.; Peiro, F.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of electric transport through thin (2-8 nm) CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films deposited on epitaxial SrRuO{sub 3} bottom electrodes was performed by conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM). Experimental procedures to investigate transport through thin insulating films by CAFM are critically revised, and the potential of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films for the use as spin-filtering barriers is assessed. It is concluded that, at room-temperature, a non-tunnel channel significantly contributes to the electric transport, thus limiting the spin-filtering efficiency.

  2. TRANSPORT LOCOMOTIVE AND WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER ITS STANDARDS IDENTIFICATION STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.D. Draper

    2005-03-31

    To date, the project has established important to safety (ITS) performance requirements for structures, systems and components (SSCs) based on identification and categorization of event sequences that may result in a radiological release. These performance requirements are defined within the ''Nuclear Safety Design Basis for License Application'' (NSDB) (BSC 2005). Further, SSCs credited with performing safe functions are classified as ITS. In turn, performance confirmation for these SSCs is sought through the use of consensus code and standards. The purpose of this study is to identify applicable codes and standards for the waste package (WP) transporter and transport locomotive ITS SSCs. Further, this study will form the basis for selection and the extent of applicability of each code and standard. This study is based on the design development completed for License Application only. Accordingly, identification of ITS SSCs beyond those defined within the NSDB are based on designs that may be subject to further development during detail design. Furthermore, several design alternatives may still be under consideration to satisfy certain safety functions, and that final selection will not be determined until further design development has occurred. Therefore, for completeness, throughout this study alternative designs currently under consideration will be discussed. Further, the results of this study will be subject to evaluation as part of a follow-on gap analysis study. Based on the results of this study the gap analysis will evaluate each code and standard to ensure each ITS performance requirement is fully satisfied. When a performance requirement is not fully satisfied a ''gap'' is highlighted. Thereafter, the study will identify supplemental requirements to augment the code or standard to meet performance requirements. Further, the gap analysis will identify non-standard areas of the design that will be subject to a Development Plan. Non-standard components and non-standard design configurations are defined as areas of the design that do not follow standard industry practices or codes and standards. Whereby, performance confirmation can not be readily sought through use of consensus standards.

  3. Helium transport and ash control studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition window'' shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A best'' value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  4. Ethanol Pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    A paper discussing the various ethanol pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

  5. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2001-11-30

    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  6. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  7. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005.

  8. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a general ... VMT projections are calculated directly by the change in ... Transportation Board (STB) for Class I Railroads only. ...

  9. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  10. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

  11. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy Study 2. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to build on the findings of the Nevada Potential Repository Preliminary Transportation Strategy Study 1 (CRWMS M&O 1995b), and to provide additional information for input to the repository environmental impact statement (EIS) process. In addition, this study supported the future selection of a preferred rail corridor and/or heavy haul route based on defensible data, methods, and analyses. Study research did not consider proposed legislation. Planning was conducted according to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1994a). The specific objectives of Study 2 were to: eliminate or reduce data gaps, inconsistencies, and uncertainties, and strengthen the analysis performed in Study 1; develop a preliminary list of rail route evaluation criteria that could be used to solicit input from stakeholders during scoping meetings. The evaluation criteria will be revised based on comments received during scoping; restrict and refine the width of the four rail corridors identified in Study 1 to five miles or less, based on land use constraints and engineering criteria identified and established in Study 2; evaluate national-level effects of routing spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to the four identified branch lines, including the effects of routing through or avoiding Las Vegas; continue to gather published land use information and environmental data to support the repository EIS; continue to evaluate heavy haul truck transport over three existing routes as an alternative to rail and provide sufficient information to support the repository EIS process; and evaluate secondary uses for rail (passenger use, repository construction, shared use).

  12. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... NRELFS-5K00-65783 | January 2016 NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Highlights in Research & Development Potential profiling and layer ...

  13. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Transport ... More Documents & Publications Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power ...

  14. Energy Policy Act Transportation Rate Study: Final Report on Coal Transportation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This is the final in a series of reports prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Secretary of Energy on coal distribution and transportation rates as mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates, of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486).

  15. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution of activation energies (DAE) to calculate the corresponding conductivity and relaxation rates as a function of temperature and frequency?

  16. Plan to Conduct Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmission Congestion Study Notice of Inquiry: Federal Register Notice Volume 73, No. 108 - Jun. 4, 2008 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study - Philadelphia Workshop

  17. Radial quasiballistic transport in time-domain thermoreflectance studied using Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, D.; Chen, X.; Minnich, A. J.

    2014-04-07

    Recently, a pump beam size dependence of thermal conductivity was observed in Si at cryogenic temperatures using time-domain thermal reflectance (TDTR). These observations were attributed to quasiballistic phonon transport, but the interpretation of the measurements has been semi-empirical. Here, we present a numerical study of the heat conduction that occurs in the full 3D geometry of a TDTR experiment, including an interface, using the Boltzmann transport equation. We identify the radial suppression function that describes the suppression in heat flux, compared to Fourier's law, that occurs due to quasiballistic transport and demonstrate good agreement with experimental data. We also discuss unresolved discrepancies that are important topics for future study.

  18. A Study of Transport Protocols for Wide Area Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vishal Misra

    2011-03-01

    This is the final project report of award "A Study of Transport Protocols for Wide Area Scientific Applications", given by DOE in 2003 to Vishal Misra at Columbia University.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Transport and Storage Costs in NETL Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pipeline Costs. UCD-ITS-RR-04-35, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis. 7 McCoy, S., & Rubin, E. (2008). An Engineering-economic Model of...

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Study Reveals Potential for Deep Cuts to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Use and Carbon Emissions - News Releases | NREL Transportation Energy Futures Study Reveals Potential for Deep Cuts to Petroleum Use and Carbon Emissions Collaborative NREL and ANL project reveals opportunities for 80% reductions by 2050 March 15, 2013 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) today announced the release of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) study, an assessment of avenues to reach

  1. Screening study on high temperature energy transport systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of the study described in this document is to identify the options for transporting thermal energy over long distances. The study deals specifically and exclusively with high temperature (> 400/sup 0/C(752/sup 0/F)) energy for industrial use. Energy transport is seen as a potential solution to: high unit cost of small coal and nuclear steam generators, and opposition to siting of coal or nuclear plants near populated areas. The study is of a preliminary nature but covers many options including steam, molten salts, organics, and chemical heat pipes. The development status and potential problems of these and other energy transport methods are discussed. Energy transport concepts are compared on a fundamental level based on physical properties and also are subjected to an economic study. The economic study indicated that the chemical heat pipe, under a specific set of circumstances, appeared to be the least expensive for distances greater than about 32 km (20 miles). However, if the temperature of the energy was lowered, the heat transfer salt (sodium nitrate/nitrite) system would apparently be a better economic choice for less than about 80 km (50 miles). None of the options studied appear to be more attractive than small coal-fired boilers when the transport distance is over about 64 km (40 miles). Several recommendations are made for refining the analysis.

  2. Helium, Iron and Electron Particle Transport and Energy Transport Studies on the TFTR Tokamak

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Results from helium, iron, and electron transport on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal transport analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the electron channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the electron heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to electron heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal transport is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.

  3. NREL Studies Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    NREL scientists studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells by determining the junction structure across the solar device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. The distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates a p-n junction structure at the interface between titanium dioxide and perovskite. In addition, minority-carrier transport within the devices operates under diffusion/drift. Clarifying the fundamental junction structure provides significant guidance for future research and development. This NREL study points to the fact that improving carrier mobility is a critical factor for continued efficiency gains in perovskite solar cells.

  4. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at Hanford to: identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  5. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Resources Policies, Manuals & References Map Transportation Publications ⇒ Navigate Section Resources Policies, Manuals & References Map Transportation Publications View Larger Map Main Address 1 Cyclotron Rd‎ University of California Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 The Laboratory is in Berkeley on the hillside directly above the campus of the University of California at Berkeley. Our address is 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley CA 94720. To make the Lab easily accessible, the

  6. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace056_stewart_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

  7. Feasibility study for a transportation operations system cask maintenance facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the development of a waste management program for the disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW). The program will include a transportation system for moving the nuclear waste from the sources to a geologic repository for permanent disposal. Specially designed casks will be used to safely transport the waste. The cask systems must be operated within limits imposed by DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Department of Transportation (DOT). A dedicated facility for inspecting, testing, and maintaining the cask systems was recommended by the General Accounting Office (in 1979) as the best means of assuring their operational effectiveness and safety, as well as regulatory compliance. In November of 1987, OCRWM requested a feasibility study be made of a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF) that would perform the required functions. 46 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. transportation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    security missions undertaken by the U.S. government.

    Pantex Plant's Calvin Nelson honored as Analyst of the Year for Transportation Security http:nnsa.energy.gov...

  9. Nevada potential repository preliminary transportation strategy: Study 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1995-04-01

    Limited feasible options exist when considering the shipment of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. These options are rail or truck; because of the weight associated with transportation casks (68.0 to 113.4 tonnes/75 to 125 tons), heavy-haul trucks are also considered. Yucca Mountain currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way for rail; it also lacks a dedicated highway suitable for heavy-haul trucks. Approximately 11,230 shipments by rail are planned from waste producer sites to Nevada, with an additional 1,041 shipments by legal-weight truck from four reactor sites not capable of upgrading for rail shipment. This study identifies the reasonable alternatives for waste transport to the potential repository site, describes the evaluation process performed to identify those alternatives, and discusses the reasons for elimination of transportation routes deemed to be not reasonable. The study concluded that heavy haul truck transportation is feasible-cost is very favorable when compared to rail-but route restrictions must be further evaluated. In addition to restrictions due to seasonal weather conditions, specific routes have additional restrictions, including no travel on holidays or weekends, and travel during daylight hours only. Further restrictions will be imposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation based on routing of radioactive materials by highway. Operation and maintenance costs for heavy-haul over a 24-year period, based on preliminary information, were calculated on an estimated operational cost of $15,000 per trip, with an estimated 468 trips per year average (11,230 total trips), for an estimated cost of $171 million to $173 million, depending on the route used. Because the initial costs and the total system life cycle costs of heavy-haul are approximately 50 percent lower than the lowest rail cost, this option will continue to be evaluated.

  10. Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales, George J.; Maggs, James E.

    2014-10-25

    The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.

  11. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  12. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  13. Density functional theory and conductivity studies of boron-based anion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    receptors (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Density functional theory and conductivity studies of boron-based anion receptors Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 10, 2016 Title: Density functional theory and conductivity studies of boron-based anion receptors Anion receptors that bind strongly to fluoride anions in organic solvents can help dissolve the lithium fluoride discharge products of primary carbon monofluoride

  14. First principles studies of proton conduction in KTaO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Sung Gu; Sholl, David S.

    2014-07-14

    KTaO{sub 3} (KTO) is a useful prototypical perovskite for examining the mechanisms of proton transport in perovskites. Previously, Gomez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 194701 (2007)] reported density functional theory (DFT) calculations describing proton hopping in defect-free KTO. We use DFT calculations to extend that work in two directions, namely, understanding isotope effects in low and high temperature proton transport and the role of native point defects in KTO. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum tunneling plays a vital role in the net hopping of protons in KTO. At the elevated temperature characteristic of applications involving proton-conducting perovskites, tunneling is negligible but zero point energy effects still lead to non-negligible isotope effects for H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +}. We also use DFT to characterize the populations of relevant point defects in KTO as a function of experimental conditions, and to examine the migration of protons that are close in proximity to these defects. This information gives useful insight into the overall transport rates of protons through KTO under a variety of external environments. We also assess the overall diffusivity of protons in KTO at various ranges of oxygen vacancy concentrations by performing kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Multi-path transportation futures study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Phil; Singh, Margaret; Plotkin, Steve; Moore, Jim

    2007-03-09

    This PowerPoint briefing provides documentation and details for Phase 1 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2006, was a scoping study, aimed at identifying key analytic issues and constructing a study design. The Phase 1 analysis included an evaluation of several pathways and scenarios; however, these analyses were limited in number and scope and were designed to be preliminary.

  16. Public summaries of feasibility studies conducted for the trinidad LNG project. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    The study, conducted by The M. W. Kellog Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the National Gas Company of Trinidad and Tobago. It shows the results of Project Definition Phase which was implemented as a follow-up to two previous feasibility studies which were conducted for a LNG plant in Trinidad. The objective of this report is to develop a project design basis and implementation plan plus a cost estimate. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Project Design Basis; (3) Seismic Hazard Assessment; (4) Geotechnical; and (5) Environmental Assessment.

  17. New York state high-speed surface transportation study: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    In 1990, New York State Governor Mario M. Cuomo created an interagency task force under the leadership of Lt. Governor Stan Lundine to investigate the potential of high speed ground transportation (HSGT) systems. Building on information from previous agency activities, including consultant efforts contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), and in-house analyses performed by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the task force focused on the corridor between New York City and the Niagara Frontier. In December 1991, NYSERDA issued a contract for a study of high speed ground transportation options for New York State. The study`s objective was to assess potential rights-of-way, ridership, energy and environmental impacts, economic benefits, capital, operating, and maintenance costs, and financial viability of HSGT systems. This study builds upon and supplements previous and on-going HSGT activities conducted by the members of the interagency task force. These activities include: Maglev Technical and Economic Feasibility Study (NYSERDA); Maglev Demonstration Site Investigation (NYSTA); and New York/Massachusetts High Speed Ground Transportation Study (NYSDOT). This study is intended to verify and refine previous information and analyses and provide supplemental information and insights to be used in determining if additional investigation and activities involving HSGT are desirable for New York State. This study evaluates HSGT technologies capable of speeds significantly higher than those achieved with the present rail system. Three HSGT categories are used in this study: incremental rail improvement, very high-speed rail, and Maglev.

  18. Plan to Conduct Electric Transmission Congestion Study: Federal Register Volume 76, No. 218- Nov. 10, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 216(a)(1) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) requires the Department of Energy to complete a study of electric transmission congestion every three years. On November 10, 2011, the Department issued a plan to conduct the current Congestion Study.

  19. JLab, College of W&M researchers study radiation blockers while conducting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nuclear imaging of Iodine uptake in mouse tissues | Jefferson Lab JLab, College of W&M researchers study radiation blockers while conducting nuclear imaging of Iodine uptake in mouse tissues JLab, College of W&M researchers study radiation blockers while conducting nuclear imaging of Iodine uptake in mouse tissues April 20, 2005 Scientists have found that a dose five times higher than the FDA-recommended dosage of potassium iodide in the event of a nuclear accident is needed to

  20. WIPP Documents - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation

  1. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study - Lessons for the Transportati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, ... Act (GPRA) Analysis Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles ...

  2. Studies of Transport Properties of Fractures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen R. Brown

    2006-06-30

    We proposed to study several key factors controlling the character and evolution of fracture system permeability and transport processes. We suggest that due to surface roughness and the consequent channeling in single fractures and in fracture intersections, the tendency of a fracture system to plug up, remain permeable, or for permeability to increase due to chemical dissolution/precipitation conditions will depend strongly on the instantaneous flow channel geometry. This geometry will change as chemical interaction occurs, thus changing the permeability through time. To test this hypothesis and advance further understanding toward a predictive capability, we endeavored to physically model and analyze several configurations of flow and transport of inert and chemically active fluids through channels in single fractures and through fracture intersections. This was an integrated program utilizing quantitative observations of fractures and veins in drill core, quantitative and visual observations of flow and chemical dissolution and precipitation within replicas of real rough-walled fractures and fracture intersections, and numerical modeling via lattice Boltzmann methods.

  3. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  4. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study: Results from Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phil Patterson, P.; Singh, M.; Plotkin, S.; Moore, J.

    2007-03-09

    Presentation reporting Phase 1 results, 3/9/2007. Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance and uncertainty of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). The Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of what if questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  5. Joint DOE/NRCan Study of North American Transportation Energy Futures: Phase 2 Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Joint DOE/NRCan Study of North American Transportation Energy Futures: Discussion of the Study, Presentation of Phase 2 Results - April 30, 2003

  6. Study of the electrical conductivity at finite temperature in 2D Si- MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Limouny, L. Kaaouachi, A. El Tata, O.; Daoudi, E.; Errai, M.; Dlimi, S.; Idrissi, H. El; Zatni, A.

    2014-01-27

    We investigate the low temperature density dependent conductivity of two dimensional electron systems in zero magnetic field for sample Si-15 MOSFETs. The first purpose of this paper is to establish that the knee of the conductivity ?{sub 0} (?{sub 0} is the T = 0.3 conductivity obtained by linear extrapolation of the curves of ? (T) for different values of electron density, n{sub s}) as a function of the carrier densities n{sub s} for T = 0.3 K, observed by Lai et al. and Limouny et al. in previous work for two different samples, is independent of temperature. The second aim is the determination of the critical density, n{sub c}, of the metal-insulator transition. Many methods are used in this investigation of n{sub c} which have been already used for other samples. The motivation behind this last study is the observation of many values of n{sub c} that have been obtained from different methods and that are slightly different. We will use in this study three methods with the intention to infer which one is more appropriate to obtain n{sub c}.

  7. Study on release and transport of aerial radioactive materials in reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amano, Y.; Tashiro, S.; Uchiyama, G.; Abe, H.; Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Kodama, T.

    2013-07-01

    The release and transport characteristics of radioactive materials at a boiling accident of the high active liquid waste (HALW) in a reprocessing plant have been studied for improving experimental data of source terms of the boiling accident. In the study, a heating test and a thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) test were conducted. In the heating test using a simulated HALW, it was found that ruthenium was mainly released into the air in the form of gas and that non-volatile elements were released into the air in the form of mist. In the TG-DTA test, the rate constants and reaction heat of thermal decomposition of ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate were obtained from TG and DTA curves. (authors)

  8. Thermal conductivity studies of novel nanofluids based on metallic silver decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Metallic silver was decorated in mSiO{sub 2} with grafted hemiaminal functional groups. Synthesized nanoparticles were used for preparation of glycerol based nanofluids. The effect of temperature, weight fraction of mSiO{sub 2} and concentration of silver nanoparticles on thermal conductivity of nanofluids was investigated. - Abstract: In the present study, the mesoporous structure of silica (mSiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles as well as hemiaminal grafted mSiO{sub 2} decorated by metallic silver (Ag/mSiO{sub 2}) has been used for the preparation of glycerol based nanofluids. Structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized products have been carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVvis spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption isotherms. The thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluids have been measured as a function of temperature for various weight fractions and silver concentrations of mSiO{sub 2} and Ag/mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids increase up to 9.24% as the weight fraction of mSiO{sub 2} increases up to 4 wt%. Also, increasing the percent of the silver decorated mSiO{sub 2} (Ag/mSiO{sub 2}) up to 2.98% caused an enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the base fluid up to 10.95%. Furthermore, the results show that the nanofluids have Newtonian behavior in the tested temperature range for various concentrations of nanoparticles.

  9. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Muller, Erik

    2015-01-05

    The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary electron amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current electron sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been transported through diamond material. The transport has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge transport for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge transport is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge transport is as expected. Electron emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both electron and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for electron-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted electrons has been measured, providing insight into the electron affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping

  10. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: FY 2002 Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Zhang, Z. F.; Keller, Jason M.

    2003-01-02

    This work reported here is part of the U. S. Department of Energys Science and Technology Initiative to develop improved conceptual models of flow and transport in the vadose zone, particularly for the Hanford Site, Washington. The National Academy of Sciences has identified significant knowledge gaps in conceptual model development as one reason for discovery of subsurface contamination in unexpected places. Inadequate conceptualizations limits, not only the understanding of long-term fate and transport, but also the selection and design of remediation technologies. Current conceptual models are limited partly because they do not account for the random heterogeneity that occurs under the extremes of very nonlinear flow behavior typical of the Hanford vadose zone. A major improvement in conceptual modeling of the Hanford vadose zone includes a better understanding and description of soil anisotropy, a property that appears to control much of the subsurface flow and transport in layered sediments at the Hanford Site.

  11. Test particle study of ion transport in drift type turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.

    2013-12-15

    Ion transport regimes in drift type turbulence are determined in the frame of a realistic model for the turbulence spectrum based on numerical simulations. The model includes the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity, turbulence anisotropy, and dominant waves. The effects of the zonal flow modes are also analyzed. A semi-analytical method that is able to describe trajectory stochastic trapping or eddying is used for obtaining the transport coefficients as function of the parameters of the turbulence. Analytical approximations of the transport coefficients are derived from the results. They show the transition from Bohm to gyro-Bohm scaling as plasma size increases in very good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  12. Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1995-01-01

    This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.

  13. Density functional theory and conductivity studies of boron-based anion receptors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.; Fenton, Kyle R.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Staiger, Chad L.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-07-10

    Anion receptors that bind strongly to fluoride anions in organic solvents can help dissolve the lithium fluoride discharge products of primary carbon monofluoride (CFx) batteries, thereby preventing the clogging of cathode surfaces and improving ion conductivity. The receptors are also potentially beneficial to rechargeable lithium ion and lithium air batteries. We apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to show that an oxalate-based pentafluorophenyl-boron anion receptor binds as strongly, or more strongly, to fluoride anions than many phenyl-boron anion receptors proposed in the literature. Experimental data shows marked improvement in electrolyte conductivity when this oxalate anion receptor is present. The receptor is sufficiently electrophilic that organic solvent molecules compete with F for boron-site binding, and specific solvent effects must be considered when predicting its F affinity. To further illustrate the last point, we also perform computational studies on a geometrically constrained boron ester that exhibits much stronger gas-phase affinity for both F and organic solvent molecules. After accounting for specific solvent effects, however, its net F affinity is about the same as the simple oxalate-based anion receptor. Lastly, we propose that LiF dissolution in cyclic carbonate organic solvents, in the absence of anion receptors, is due mostly to the formation of ionic aggregates, not isolated F ions.

  14. Density functional theory and conductivity studies of boron-based anion receptors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leung, Kevin; Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Rempe, Susan B.; Fenton, Kyle R.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Staiger, Chad L.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2015-07-10

    Anion receptors that bind strongly to fluoride anions in organic solvents can help dissolve the lithium fluoride discharge products of primary carbon monofluoride (CFx) batteries, thereby preventing the clogging of cathode surfaces and improving ion conductivity. The receptors are also potentially beneficial to rechargeable lithium ion and lithium air batteries. We apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to show that an oxalate-based pentafluorophenyl-boron anion receptor binds as strongly, or more strongly, to fluoride anions than many phenyl-boron anion receptors proposed in the literature. Experimental data shows marked improvement in electrolyte conductivity when this oxalate anion receptor is present. The receptor ismore » sufficiently electrophilic that organic solvent molecules compete with F– for boron-site binding, and specific solvent effects must be considered when predicting its F– affinity. To further illustrate the last point, we also perform computational studies on a geometrically constrained boron ester that exhibits much stronger gas-phase affinity for both F– and organic solvent molecules. After accounting for specific solvent effects, however, its net F– affinity is about the same as the simple oxalate-based anion receptor. Lastly, we propose that LiF dissolution in cyclic carbonate organic solvents, in the absence of anion receptors, is due mostly to the formation of ionic aggregates, not isolated F– ions.« less

  15. Tunability of conduction at the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface: Thickness and compositional studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breckenfeld, E.; Bronn, N.; Mason, N.; Martin, L. W.

    2014-09-22

    The role of chemistry, film thickness, and oxygen pressure in influencing the electrical and thermal transport properties of LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerfaces is explored. Unit-cell precise growth was accomplished for films between 3 and 160 unit cells thick using reflection high-energy electron diffraction-assisted pulsed-laser deposition. Subsequent temperature-dependent studies of electrical resistivity reveal three important observations: (1) by tuning the laser fluence, we can systematically tune the interfacial conductance in a step-wise manner in this system, (2) all films exhibit a critical thickness of 34 unit cells for the onset of conduction, and (3) the nature of the conductance is highly influenced by the stoichiometry of the LaAlO{sub 3} film with La-deficient samples showing dramatic changes with thickness, while stoichiometric and La-excess films show little dependence. Time-domain thermoreflectance studies show a diminished interfacial thermal conductance for the La-deficient films when compared to La-excess and stoichiometric films, suggesting that the interfacial conductance is more influenced by extrinsic factors such as oxygen deficiency.

  16. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2013-03-31

    As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading electron gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the electron emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge transport modeling, and spatial uniformity.

  17. Technical, economic, and environmental impact study of converting Uzbekistan transportation fleets to natural gas operation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-30

    This study, conducted by Radian International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility (technical, economic and environmental) of converting the Uzbek transportation fleets to natural gas operation. The study focuses on the conversion of high fuel use vehicles and locomotives to liquefied natural gas (LNG) and the conversion of moderate fuel use veicles to compressed natural gas (CNG). The report is divided into the following sections: Executive Summary; (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Country Background; (3.0) Characterization of Uzbek Transportation Fuels; (4.0) Uzbek Vehicle and Locomotive Fleet Characterization; (5.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Vehicle Conversion Shops; (6.0) Uzbek Natural Gas Infrastructure; (7.0) Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) for Vehicular Fuel in Uzbekistan; (8.0) Economic Feasibility Study; (9.0) Environmental Impact Analysis; References; Appendices A - S.

  18. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Availability of data and studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-13

    Pursuant to Section 1340(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), this report presents the Secretary of Energy`s review of data collected by the Federal Government on rates for rail and pipeline transportation of domestic coal, oil, and gas for the years 1988 through 1997, and proposals to develop an adequate data base for each of the fuels, based on the data availability review. This report also presents the Energy Information Administration`s findings regarding the extent to which any Federal agency is studying the impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and other Federal policies on the transportation rates and distribution patterns of domestic coal, oil, and gas.

  19. Centrifuge study of DNAPL transport in granular media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantazidou, M.; Abu-Hassanein, Z.S.; Riemer, M.F.

    2000-02-01

    The migration potential of dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in saturated soil was investigated experimentally using the elevated acceleration field of the geotechnical centrifuge. The transport of the DNAPL was monitored with a video camera in flight, through the transparent wall of the sample box. By using measurements of the velocity of the DNAPL front from models corresponding to the same prototype and applying the technique of modeling of models, the stable infiltration of a low density, high viscosity DNAPL in saturated homogeneous media was shown to scale properly in the centrifuge. The visual observations confirmed the correlations between the DNAPL physicochemical properties and transport patterns, which have important consequences for the characterization of DNAPL-contaminated sites. Infiltrating DNAPLs of high density and low viscosity displace water in an unstable manner and create extensive contaminated areas characterized by non-uniform DNAPL distributions. In contrast, the displacement of water by DNAPLs of low density and high viscosity is stable and efficient, and hence, results in smaller contaminated areas of high DNAPL saturation. Numerical simulations yielded predictions and sensitivity analysis results that agreed well with these experimental observations.

  20. Crystallographic study of FABP5 as an intracellular endocannabinoid transporter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanson, Benot; Wang, Tao; Sun, Jing; Wang, Liqun; Kaczocha, Martin; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale; Li, Huilin

    2014-02-01

    FABP5 was recently found to intracellularly transport endocannabinoid signaling lipids. The structures of FABP5 complexed with two endocannabinoids and an inhibitor were solved. Human FABP5 was found to dimerize via a domain-swapping mechanism. This work will help in the development of inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels. In addition to binding intracellular fatty acids, fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) have recently been reported to also transport the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid derivatives that function as neurotransmitters and mediate a diverse set of physiological and psychological processes. To understand how the endocannabinoids bind to FABPs, the crystal structures of FABP5 in complex with AEA, 2-AG and the inhibitor BMS-309403 were determined. These ligands are shown to interact primarily with the substrate-binding pocket via hydrophobic interactions as well as a common hydrogen bond to the Tyr131 residue. This work advances our understanding of FABP5endocannabinoid interactions and may be useful for future efforts in the development of small-molecule inhibitors to raise endocannabinoid levels.

  1. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  2. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  3. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Spycher, N.; Xu, T.; Apps, J.; Kharaka, Y.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2010-11-05

    In this study, reactive transport simulations were used to assess the mobilization and transport of organics with supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCC), and the co-injection and transport of H{sub 2}S with SCC. These processes were evaluated at conditions of typical storage reservoirs, and for cases of hypothetical leakage from a reservoir to an overlying shallower fresh water aquifer. Modeling capabilities were developed to allow the simulation of multiphase flow and transport of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, as well as specific organic compounds (benzene), coupled with multicomponent geochemical reaction and transport. This included the development of a new simulator, TMVOC-REACT, starting from existing modules of the TOUGH2 family of codes. This work also included an extensive literature review, calculation, and testing of phase-partitioning properties for mixtures of the phases considered. The reactive transport simulations presented in this report are primarily intended to illustrate the capabilities of the new simulator. They are also intended to help evaluate and understand various processes at play, in a more qualitative than quantitative manner, and only for hypothetical scenarios. Therefore, model results are not intended as realistic assessments of groundwater quality changes for specific locations, and they certainly do not provide an exhaustive evaluation of all possible site conditions, especially given the large variability and uncertainty in hydrogeologic and geochemical parameter input into simulations. The first step in evaluating the potential mobilization and transport of organics was the identification of compounds likely to be present in deep storage formations, and likely to negatively impact freshwater aquifers if mobilized by SCC. On the basis of a literature review related to the occurrence of these organic compounds, their solubility in water and SCC, and their toxicity (as reflected by their maximum contaminant levels MCL), benzene was selected as a key compound for inclusion into numerical simulations. Note that considering additional organic compounds and/or mixtures of such compounds in the simulations was beyond the scope of this study, because of the effort required to research, calculate, and validate the phase-partitioning data necessary for simulations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was simulated, followed by modeling the leaching of benzene by SCC and transport of benzene to an overlying aquifer along a hypothetical leakage pathway. One- and two-dimensional models were set up for this purpose. The target storage formation was assumed to initially contain about 10{sup -4} ppm benzene. Model results indicate that: (1) SCC efficiently extracts benzene from the storage formation. (2) Assuming equilibrium, the content of benzene in SCC is roportional to the concentration of benzene in the aqueous and solid phases. (3) Benzene may co-migrate with CO{sub 2} into overlying aquifers if a leakage pathway is present. Because the aqueous solubility of benzene in contact with CO{sub 2} is lower than the aqueous solubility of CO{sub 2}, benzene is actually enriched in the CO{sub 2} phase as the plume advances. (4) For the case studied here, the resulting aqueous benzene concentration in the overlying aquifer is on the same order of magnitude as the initial concentration in the storage formation. This generic modeling study illustrates, in a semi-quantitative manner, the possible mobilization of benzene by SCC. The extent to which the mobilization of this organic compound evolves temporally and spatially depends on a large number of controlling parameters and is largely site specific. Therefore, for more 'truly' predictive work, further sensitivity studies should be conducted, and further modeling should be integrated with site-specific laboratory and/or field experimental data. The co-injection of H{sub 2}S with CO{sub 2} into a deep saline aquifer was also simulated. In addition, the model considered leakage of the supercritical CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}S mixture along a preferential pathway to an overlying fresh-water aquifer, followed by reaction of the CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}S mixture with that aquifer. A simple 2-D model that included a storage formation and a sealing aquitard was developed to simulate the movement of H{sub 2}S in a typical CO{sub 2} storage formation. Model results indicate that H{sub 2}S is stripped off at the edge of the advancing supercritical plume, because of the H{sub 2}S preferential solubility in water compared to CO{sub 2}. The magnitude of H{sub 2}S preferential dissolution, however, decreases with decreasing temperature and pressure. To capture this behavior and evaluate the breakthrough of H{sub 2}S through a leakage pathway (from the deep storage formation to a shallower aquifer), another model was constructed, considering a storage formation, an overlying aquifer, and a vertical leakage pathway between them.

  4. Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES DOE PAGES Search Results Published Article: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Title: Magnetic and magneto-transport studies of substrate effect on the martensitic transformation in a NiMnIn shape memory alloy Authors: Sokolov, Andrei [1] ; Kirianov, Eugene [2] ; Zlenko, Albina [2] ; Quetz, Abdiel [3] ; Aryal, Anil

  5. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace056stewart2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter ...

  6. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H. [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Boley, Aaron C., E-mail: scamicha@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: durisen@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-02-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

  7. Electronic and thermoelectric properties of InN studied using ab initio density functional theory and Boltzmann transport calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borges, P. D. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu; Scolfaro, L. E-mail: lscolfaro@txstate.edu

    2014-12-14

    The thermoelectric properties of indium nitride in the most stable wurtzite phase (w-InN) as a function of electron and hole concentrations and temperature were studied by solving the semiclassical Boltzmann transport equations in conjunction with ab initio electronic structure calculations, within Density Functional Theory. Based on maximally localized Wannier function basis set and the ab initio band energies, results for the Seebeck coefficient are presented and compared with available experimental data for n-type as well as p-type systems. Also, theoretical results for electric conductivity and power factor are presented. Most cases showed good agreement between the calculated properties and experimental data for w-InN unintentionally and p-type doped with magnesium. Our predictions for temperature and concentration dependences of electrical conductivity and power factor revealed a promising use of InN for intermediate and high temperature thermoelectric applications. The rigid band approach and constant scattering time approximation were utilized in the calculations.

  8. Atomistic study of porosity impact on phonon driven thermal conductivity: Application to uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colbert, Mehdi; Ribeiro, Fabienne; Trglia, Guy

    2014-01-21

    We present here an analytical method, based on the kinetic theory, to determine the impact of defects such as cavities on the thermal conductivity of a solid. This approach, which explicitly takes into account the effects of internal pore surfaces, will be referred to as the Phonon Interface THermal cONductivity (PITHON) model. Once exposed in the general case, this method is then illustrated in the case of uranium dioxide. It appears that taking properly into account these interface effects significantly modifies the temperature and porosity dependence of thermal conductivity with respect to that issued from either micromechanical models or more recent approaches, in particular, for small cavity sizes. More precisely, it is found that if the mean free path appears to have a major effect in this system in the temperature and porosity distribution range of interest, the variation of the specific heat at the surface of the cavity is predicted to be essential at very low temperature and small sizes for sufficiently large porosity.

  9. Heat Exchanger Design Options and Tritium Transport Study for the VHTR System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2008-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to consider heat exchanger options and tritium transport in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. The heat exchanger options include types, arrangements, channel patterns in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE), coolant flow direction, and pipe configuration in shell-and-tube designs. Study considerations include: three types of heat exchanger designs (PCHE, shell-and-tube, and helical coil); single- and two-stage unit arrangements; counter-current and cross flow configurations; and straight pipes and U-tube designs in shell-and-tube type heat exchangers. Thermal designs and simple stress analyses were performed to estimate the heat exchanger options, and the Finite Element Method was applied for more detailed calculations, especially for PCHE designs. Results of the options study show that the PCHE design has the smallest volume and heat transfer area, resulting in the least tritium permeation and greatest cost savings. It is theoretically the most reliable mechanically, leading to a longer lifetime. The two-stage heat exchanger arrangement appears to be safer and more cost effective. The recommended separation temperature between first and second stages in a serial configuration is 800oC, at which the high temperature unit is about one-half the size of the total heat exchanger core volume. Based on simplified stress analyses, the high temperature unit will need to be replaced two or three times during the plants lifetime. Stress analysis results recommend the off-set channel pattern configuration for the PCHE because stress reduction was estimated at up to 50% in this configuration, resulting in a longer lifetime. The tritium transport study resulted in the development of a tritium behavior analysis code using the MATLAB Simulink code. In parallel, the THYTAN code, previously performed by Ohashi and Sherman (2007) on the Peach Bottom data, was revived and verified. The 600 MWt VHTR core input file developed in preparation for the transient tritium analysis of VHTR systems was replaced with the original steady-state inputs for future calculations. A Finite Element Method analysis was performed using COMSOL Multiphysics software to accurately predict tritium permeation through the PCHE type heat exchanger walls. This effort was able to estimate the effective thickness for tritium permeations and develop a correlation for general channel configurations, which found the effective thickness to be much shorter than the average channel distance because of dead spots on the channel side.

  10. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Automated Mobility District Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions Impact of Automated Mobility District January 21, 2016 With emerging technologies, travel behavior may shift from personal vehicles to automated transit systems. An NREL study shows that a campus-sized -- ranging from four to 10 square miles -- automated mobility district (AMD) has the potential to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 4% to 14% depending on various operating and ridership factors.

  11. Structural and functional studies of conserved nucleotide-binding protein LptB in lipopolysaccharide transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhongshan; Xiang, Quanju; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Dong, Haohao; He, Chuan; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Yizheng; Wang, Wenjian; Dong, Changjiang

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Determination of the structure of the wild-type LptB in complex with ATP and Mg{sup 2+}. • Demonstrated that ATP binding residues are essential for LptB’s ATPase activity and LPS transport. • Dimerization is required for the LptB’s function and LPS transport. • Revealed relationship between activity of the LptB and the vitality of E. coli cells. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, which plays an essential role in protecting the bacteria from harsh conditions and antibiotics. LPS molecules are transported from the inner membrane to the outer membrane by seven LPS transport proteins. LptB is vital in hydrolyzing ATP to provide energy for LPS transport, however this mechanism is not very clear. Here we report wild-type LptB crystal structure in complex with ATP and Mg{sup 2+}, which reveals that its structure is conserved with other nucleotide-binding proteins (NBD). Structural, functional and electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the ATP binding residues, including K42 and T43, are crucial for LptB’s ATPase activity, LPS transport and the vitality of Escherichia coli cells with the exceptions of H195A and Q85A; the H195A mutation does not lower its ATPase activity but impairs LPS transport, and Q85A does not alter ATPase activity but causes cell death. Our data also suggest that two protomers of LptB have to work together for ATP hydrolysis and LPS transport. These results have significant impacts in understanding the LPS transport mechanism and developing new antibiotics.

  12. Synthesis, calorimetric, structural and conductivity studies in a new thallium selenate tellurate adduct compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ktari, L.; Abdelhedi, M.; Bouhlel, N.; Dammak, M.; Cousson, A.

    2009-08-05

    The crystal structure of the thallium selenate tellurate Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} (TlSeTe) was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The title compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with P2{sub 1}/c space group. The following parameters are: a = 12.358(3) A; b = 7.231(1) A; c = 11.986(2) A; {beta} = 111.092(2){sup o}; Z = 4. The structure can be regarded as being built of isolated TeO{sub 6} octahedra and SeO{sub 4} tetrahedra. The Tl{sup +} cations are intercalated between these kinds of polyhedra. The main feature of this structure is the coexistence of two different and independent anions (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}) in the same unit cell. The structure is stable due to O-H...O hydrogen bonds which link tetrahedral and octahedral groups. Crystals of Tl{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}.Te(OH){sub 6} undergo three endothermal transitions at 373, 395 and 437 K. These transitions are detected by DSC and analyzed by dielectric measurements with impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of conductivity versus temperature showed the presence of a protonic conduction phase transition at 437 K. The phase transition at 373 K can be related to a structural phase transition, whereas the one at 395 K is ascribed as likely due to a ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition.

  13. Guide to good practices for developing and conducting case studies: DOE handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Learning from experience is often very costly to a facility in terms of injured personnel, damaged equipment, and wasted time. Learning from the experience gained at the facility and from industry can prevent repeating costly mistakes. This guide contains a method for learning from experience to prevent mistakes from occurring; that method is the case study. This guide describes how to develop and present case studies. This guide provides the instructional developer insight on the best kind of case study to use and includes examples of the various types of case studies.

  14. Going the Distance? NRC's Response to the National Academy of Science's Transportation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easton, E.P.; Bajwa, C.S.

    2008-07-01

    In February 2006, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the results of a 3 1/2-year study, titled Going the Distance, that examined the safety of transporting spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW) in the United States. NAS initiated this study to address what it perceived to be a national need for an independent, objective, and authoritative analysis of SNF and HLW transport in the United States. The study was co-sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program. This paper addresses some of the recommendations made in the NAS study related to the performance of SNF transportation casks in long duration fires, the use of full-scale package testing, and the need for an independent review of transportation security prior to the commencement of large scale shipping campaigns to an interim storage site or geologic repository. In conclusion: The NRC believes that the current regulations in 10 CFR Part 71 for the design of SNF and HLW transportation packages provide a very high level of protection to the public for very severe accidents and credible threat scenarios. As recommended by the NAS study, additional studies of accidents involving severe fires have been completed. These studies have confirmed that spent fuel casks would be expected to withstand very severe fires without the release of any fission products from the spent fuel. Additionally, changes in rail operating procedures such as the use of dedicated trains and prohibition on the co-location of SNF and flammable liquids in rail tunnels can further reduce the already low probability of severe rail accident fires involving SNF and HLW. (authors)

  15. DFT studies of all fluorothiophenes and their cations as candidate monomers for conductive polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirani, Hossein; Jameh-Bozorghi, Saeed; Yousefi, Ali

    2015-01-22

    In this paper, electronic, structural, and properties of mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrafluorothiophenes and their radical cations are studied using the density functional theory and B3LYP method with 6-311++G** basis set. Also, the effects of the number and position of the substituent of fluorine atoms on the properties of the thiophene ring have been studied using optimized structures obtained for these molecules and their radical cations; vibrational frequencies, spin-density distribution, size and direction of the dipole moment vector, ionization potential, electric Polarizabilities, HOMOLUMO gaps and NICS values of these compounds have been calculated and analyzed.

  16. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State's Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  17. Helium transport and ash control studies. Annual progress report, 1 June 1991--31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, G.H.

    1992-06-01

    The Primary goal of this research is to develop a helium (ash) transport scaling law based on experimental data from devices such as TFTR and JET. To illustrate the importance of this, we have studied ash accumulation effects on ignition requirements using a O-D transport model. Ash accumulation is characterized in the model by the ratio of the helium particle confinement time to the energy confinement time t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. Results show that the ignition ``window`` shrinks rapidly as t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} increases, closing for high t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E}. A ``best`` value for t{sub {alpha}}/t{sub E} will ultimately be determined from our scaling law studies. A helium transport scaling law is being sought that expresses the transport coefficients (D{sub {alpha}}, V{sub {alpha}}) as a function of the local plasma parameters. This is necessary for use in transport code calculations, e.g. for BALDUR. Based on experimental data from L-mode plasma operation in TFTR, a scaling law to a power law expression has been obtained using a least-square fit method. It is found that the transport coefficients are strongly affected by the local magnetic field and safety factor q. A preliminary conclusion from this work is that active control of ash buildup must be developed. To study control, we have developed a O-D plasma model which employs a simple pole-placement control model. Some preliminary calculations with this model are presented.

  18. Theoretical study of intraband optical transitions in conduction band of dot-in-a-well system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaganti, Venkata R.; Apalkov, Vadym

    2014-02-15

    We study numerically absorption optical spectra of n-doped InAs/In{sub 015}Ga{sub 085}As/GaAs quantum dot-in-a-well systems. The absorption spectra are mainly determined by the size of a quantum dot and have weak dependence on the thickness of quantum well and position of the dot in a well. The dot-in-a-well system is sensitive to both in-plane and out-of-plane polarizations of the incident light with much stronger absorption intensities for the in-plane-polarized light. The absorption spectrum of in-plane-polarized light has also a multi-peak structure with two or three peaks of comparable intensities, while the absorption spectrum of out-of-plane polarized light has a single well-pronounced peak.

  19. Hanford site: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-06

    The primary purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records which pertains to studies of worker health and mortality funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford site. Additionally, the guide provides information on the location and classification of the records and how they may be accessed. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and the Hanford site, and Hanford`s organizational structure. It provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe pertinent records stored in various onsite offices, in Hanford`s Records Holding Area (RHA), and at the Seattle Federal Records Center (SFRC). Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the record Series descrimations, and information on accessing records repositories.

  20. Working Group 7.0 Environmental Transport and Health Effects, Chernobyl Studies Project. Progress report, October 1994 -- March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1995-06-01

    This document presents the details from the working group 7.0 Chernobyl Studies Project. This working group looked at the environmental transport and health effects from the fallout due to the meltdown of Chernobylsk-4 reactor. Topics include: hydrological transport; chromosome painting dosimetry; EPR, TL and OSL dosimetry; stochastic effects; thyroid studies; and leukemia studies.

  1. Natural analogue studies of the role of colloids, natural organics and microorganisms on radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1994-10-01

    Colloids may be important as a geochemical transport mechanism for radionuclides at geological repositories if they are (1) present in the groundwater, (2) stable with respect to both colloidal and chemical stabilities, (3) capable of adsorbing radionuclides, especially if the sorption is irreversible, and (4) mobile in the subsurface. The available evidence from natural analogue and other field studies relevant to these issues is reviewed, as is the potential role of mobile microorganisms ({open_quotes}biocolloids{close_quotes}) on radionuclide migration. Studies have demonstrated that colloids are ubiquitous in groundwater, although colloid concentrations in deep, geochemically stable systems may be too low to affect radionuclide transport. However, even low colloid populations cannot be dismissed as a potential concern because colloids appear to be stable, and many radionuclides that adsorb to colloids are not readily desorbed over long periods. Field studies offer somewhat equivocal evidence concerning colloid mobility and cannot prove or disprove the significance of colloid transport in the far-field environment. Additional research is needed at new sites to properly represent a repository far-field. Performance assessment would benefit from natural analogue studies to examine colloid behavior at sites encompassing a suite of probable groundwater chemistries and that mimic the types of formations selected for radioactive waste repositories.

  2. Study of Long-Term Transport Action Plan for ASEAN | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partner Nippon Foundation, Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Transport Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Greenhouse Gas, People and Policy, Transportation Topics Background...

  3. Coastal energy transportation study, phase ii, volume 1: a study of OCS onshore support bases and coal export terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cribbins, P.D.

    1981-08-01

    This study concentrates on siting alternatives for on-shore support bases for Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas exploration and coal export terminals. Sixteen alternative OCS sites are described, and a parametric analysis is utilized to select the most promising sites. Site-specific recommendations regarding infrastructure requirements and transportation impacts are provided. Eleven alternative coal terminal sites are identified and assessed for their potential impacts.

  4. STUDY OF TRANSPORTATION OF GTL PRODUCTS FROM ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE (ANS) TO MARKETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu, Ph.D., P.E.

    2002-09-01

    The Alaskan North Slope is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the US where Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) technology can be successfully implemented. The proven and recoverable reserves of conventional natural gas in the developed and undeveloped fields in the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) are estimated to be 38 trillion standard cubic feet (TCF) and estimates of additional undiscovered gas reserves in the Arctic field range from 64 TCF to 142 TCF. Transportation of the natural gas from the remote ANS is the key issue in effective utilization of this valuable and abundance resource. The throughput of oil through the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) has been on decline and is expected to continue to decline in future. It is projected that by the year 2015, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level that there will be a critical need for pumping additional liquid from GTL process to provide an adequate volume for economic operation of TAPS. The pumping of GTL products through TAPS will significantly increase its economic life. Transporting GTL products from the North Slope of Alaska down to the Marine terminal at Valdez is no doubt the great challenge facing the Gas to Liquids options of utilizing the abundant natural gas resource of the North Slope. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate and assess the economic feasibility of transporting GTL products through the TAPS. Material testing program for GTL and GTL/Crude oil blends was designed and implemented for measurement of physical properties of GTL products. The measurement and evaluation of the properties of these materials were necessary so as to access the feasibility of transporting such materials through TAPS under cold arctic conditions. Results of the tests indicated a trend of increasing yield strength with increasing wax content. GTL samples exhibited high gel strengths at temperatures as high as 20 F, which makes it difficult for cold restart following winter shutdowns. Simplified analytical models were developed to study the flow of GTL and GTL/crude oil blends through TAPS in both commingled and batch flow models. The economics of GTL transportations by either commingled or batching mode were evaluated. The choice of mode of transportation of GTL products through TAPS would depend on the expected purity of the product and a trade-off between loss in product value due to contamination and cost of keeping the product pure at the discharge terminal.

  5. Theoretical study of electronic transport properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Bahlouli, H.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-06-14

    Electronic transport properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer system are studied using density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Depending on the energy of the electrons, the transmission can be larger in this system as compared to the sum of the transmissions of separated graphene and silicene monolayers. This effect is related to the increased electron density of states in the bilayer sample. At some energies, the electronic states become localized in one of the layers, resulting in the suppression of the electron transmission. The effect of an applied voltage on the transmission becomes more pronounced in the layered sample as compared to graphene due to the larger variation of the electrostatic potential profile. Our findings will be useful when creating hybrid nanoscale devices where enhanced transport properties will be desirable.

  6. Pore and Continuum Scale Study of the Effect of Subgrid Transport Heterogeneity on Redox Reaction Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Zhang, Changyong; Yang, Xiaofan; Zachara, John M.

    2015-08-01

    A micromodel system with a pore structure for heterogeneous flow and transport was used to investigate the effect of subgrid transport heterogeneity on redox reaction rates. Hematite reductive dissolution by injecting a reduced form of flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) at variable flow rates was used as an example to probe the variations of redox reaction rates in different subgrid transport domains. Experiments, pore-scale simulations, and macroscopic modeling were performed to measure and simulate in-situ hematite reduction and to evaluate the scaling behavior of the redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. The results indicated that the measured pore-scale rates of hematite reduction were consistent with the predictions from a pore scale reactive transport model. A general trend is that hematite reduction followed reductant transport pathways, starting from the advection-dominated pores toward the interior of diffusion-dominated domains. Two types of diffusion domains were considered in the micromodel: a micropore diffusion domain, which locates inside solid grains or aggregates where reactant transport is limited by diffusion; and a macropore diffusion domain, which locates at wedged, dead-end pore spaces created by the grain-grain contacts. The rate of hematite reduction in the advection-dominated domain was faster than those in the diffusion-controlled domains, and the rate in the macropore diffusion domain was faster than that in the micropore domain. The reduction rates in the advection and macropore diffusion domains increased with increasing flow rate, but were affected by different mechanisms. The rate increase in the advection domain was controlled by the mass action effect as a faster flow supplied more reactants, and the rate increase in the macropore domain was more affected by the rate of mass exchange with the advection domain, which increased with increasing flow rate. The hematite reduction rate in the micropore domain was, however, not affected by the flow rate because molecular diffusion limits reductant supply to the micropore domain interior. Domain-based macroscopic models were evaluated to scale redox reaction rates from the pore to macroscopic scales. A single domain model, which ignores subgrid transport heterogeneity deviated significantly from the pore-scale results. Further analysis revealed that the rate expression for hematite reduction was not scalable from the pore to porous media using the single domain model. A three-domain model, which effectively considers subgrid reactive diffusion in the micropore and macropore domains, significantly improved model description. Overall this study revealed the importance of subgrid transport heterogeneity in the manifestation of redox reaction rates in porous media and in scaling reactions from the pore to porous media. The research also supported that the domain-based scaling approach can be used to directly scale redox reactions in porous media with subgrid transport heterogeneity.

  7. International Round-Robin Study on Thermoelectric Transport Properties of n-type Half-Heusler from 300 K to 773 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; Konig, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; Porter, Wallace D.; Ren, Zhifeng; Salvador, James R.; Sharp, Jeff W.; Taylor, Patrick; Thompson, Alan J.; Tseng, Yu -Chih

    2015-09-03

    International transport property measurement round-robins have been conducted by the Thermoelectric Annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). The previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the testing material, with the goals of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. The current round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data of thermoelectric materials for power generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in this study. Half-Heusler (n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selected for the round-robin. The measured transport properties showed narrower distribution on uncertainties compared to previous round-robin efforts. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies on the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±1.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.

  8. International Round-Robin Study on Thermoelectric Transport Properties of n-type Half-Heusler from 300 K to 773 K

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; Konig, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; et al

    2015-01-01

    International transport property measurement round-robins have been conducted by the Thermoelectric Annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). The previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the testing material, with the goals of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. The current round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data of thermoelectric materials for power generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in this study. Half-Heusler (n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selectedmore » for the round-robin. The measured transport properties showed narrower distribution on uncertainties compared to previous round-robin efforts. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies on the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±1.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.« less

  9. International Round-Robin Study on Thermoelectric Transport Properties of n-type Half-Heusler from 300 K to 773 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Bai, Shengqiang; Chen, Lidong; Cuenat, Alexander; Joshi, Giri; Kleinke, Holger; Konig, Jan; Lee, Hee Woong; Martin, Joshua; Oh, Min-Wook; Porter, Wallace D.; Ren, Zhifeng; Salvador, James R.; Sharp, Jeff W.; Taylor, Patrick; Thompson, Alan J.; Tseng, Yu -Chih

    2015-01-01

    International transport property measurement round-robins have been conducted by the Thermoelectric Annex under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement on Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT). The previous round-robins used commercially available bismuth telluride as the testing material, with the goals of understanding measurement issues and developing standard testing procedures. The current round-robin extended the measurement temperature range to 773 K. It was designed to meet the increasing demands for reliable transport data of thermoelectric materials for power generation applications. Eleven laboratories from six IEA-AMT member countries participated in this study. Half-Heusler (n-type) material prepared by GMZ Energy was selected for the round-robin. The measured transport properties showed narrower distribution on uncertainties compared to previous round-robin efforts. The study intentionally included multiple testing methods and instrument types. Over the full temperature range, the measurement discrepancies on the figure of merit, ZT, in this round-robin were ±1.5 to ±16.4% from the averages.

  10. A Comparative Study of the Harmonic and Arithmetic Averaging of Diffusion Coefficients for Non-linear Heat Conduction Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Robert R. Nourgaliev; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-03-01

    We perform a comparative study for the harmonic versus arithmetic averaging of the heat conduction coefficient when solving non-linear heat transfer problems. In literature, the harmonic average is the method of choice, because it is widely believed that the harmonic average is more accurate model. However, our analysis reveals that this is not necessarily true. For instance, we show a case in which the harmonic average is less accurate when a coarser mesh is used. More importantly, we demonstrated that if the boundary layers are finely resolved, then the harmonic and arithmetic averaging techniques are identical in the truncation error sense. Our analysis further reveals that the accuracy of these two techniques depends on how the physical problem is modeled.

  11. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  12. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spectroscopy: FTIR, Raman * Scattering: SANS, SAXS * Crystallinity WAXSXRD * Microscopy * Structure-property relationships * Structure-property-processing relationships * ...

  13. Analytical Plans Supporting The Sludge Batch 8 Glass Variability Study Being Conducted By Energysolutions And Cua's Vitreous State Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

    2012-11-26

    EnergySolutions (ES) and its partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA), are to provide engineering and technical services support to Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) for ongoing operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet as well as for modifications to improve overall plant performance. SRR has requested via a statement of work that ES/VSL conduct a glass variability study (VS) for Sludge Batch 8. SRR issued a technical task request (TTR) asking that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide planning and data reduction support for the ES/VSL effort. This document provides two analytical plans for use by ES/VSL: one plan is to guide the measurement of the chemical composition of the study glasses while the second is to guide the measurement of the durability of the study glasses. The measurements generated by ES/VSL are to be provided to SRNL for data reduction and evaluation. SRNL is to review the results of its evaluation with ES/VSL and SRR. The results will subsequently be incorporated into a joint report with ES/VSL as a deliverable to SRR to support the processing of SB8 at DWPF.

  14. Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A.

    2014-05-15

    Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

  15. In-Situ TEM and DFT Study of Large Cation Transport and Failure Mechanism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Single SnO2 Nanowire - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research July 18, 2013, Research Highlights In-Situ TEM and DFT Study of Large Cation Transport and Failure Mechanism In Single SnO2 Nanowire (Top)Captured in-situ TEM movie frame showing the pristine SnO2 nanowire, displacement reaction upon Na insertion leads to two phases materials and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. Upon desodiation, pore forms, leading to high impedence of the electrode. (Bottom) High resolution

  16. Real-time study of fast-electron transport inside dense hot plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandhu, A.S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sengupta, S.; Das, A.; Kaw, P.K.

    2006-03-15

    We offer a method to study transport of fast electrons in dense hot media. The technique relies on temporal profiling of the laser induced magnetic fields and offers a unique capability to map the hot electron currents and their neutralization (or lack of it) by the return currents in the plasma. We report direct quantitative measurements of strong electric inhibition in insulators and turbulence induced anomalous stopping of hot electrons in conductors. The present technique can prove extremely important from the point of view of fast ignition scheme, which relies on the penetration of fast electrons into the fusion core.

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  18. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Jin Jung; Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui; Jung, Seunho; Kwon, Chanho

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  19. Improving chemical vapor deposition graphene conductivity using molybdenum trioxide: An in-situ field effect transistor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Cheng; Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 ; Lin, Jiadan; Xiang, Du; Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li; Chen, Wei; Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 and Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542

    2013-12-23

    By using in situ field effect transistor characterization integrated with molecular beam epitaxy technique, we demonstrate the strong surface transfer p-type doping effect of single layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene, through the surface functionalization of molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) layer. After doping, both the hole and electron mobility of CVD graphene are nearly retained, resulting in significant enhancement of graphene conductivity. With coating of 10 nm MoO{sub 3}, the conductivity of CVD graphene can be increased by about 7 times, showing promising application for graphene based electronics and transparent, conducting, and flexible electrodes.

  20. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  1. Redox probing study of the potential dependence of charge transport through Li2O2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudsen, Kristian B.; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren H.; Vegge, Tejs; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-11-20

    In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li–O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state-of-the-art Li-ion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li–O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous electron transfer exchange rate as amore » function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (~depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing evidence that hole transport is the dominant process for charge transfer through Li2O2 and showing that the origin of the sudden death observed upon discharge is due to charge transport limitations.« less

  2. Thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tilted nanowires, a molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shen Lacroix, David; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Chaput, Laurent; Stein, Nicolas; Frantz, Cedric

    2015-06-08

    Evidence for an excellent compromise between structural stability and low thermal conductivity has been achieved with tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires. The latter ones were recently fabricated and there is a need in modeling and characterization. The structural stability and the thermal conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires along the tilted [015]* direction and along the [010] direction have been explored. For the two configurations of nanowires, the effect of the length and the cross section on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The thermal conductivity of infinite size tilted nanowire is 0.34?W/m K, significantly reduced compared to nanowire along the [010] direction (0.59?W/m K). This reveals that in Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowires the structural anisotropy can be as important as size effects to reduce the thermal conductivity. The main reason is the reduction of the phonon mean free path which is found to be 1.7?nm in the tilted nanowires, compared to 5.3?nm for the nanowires along the [010] direction. The fact that tilted Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanowire is mechanically stable and it has extremely low thermal conductivity suggests these nanowires as a promising material for future thermoelectric generation application.

  3. Multi-path transportation futures study : vehicle characterization and scenario analyses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Singh, M. K.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering; ORNL

    2009-12-03

    Projecting the future role of advanced drivetrains and fuels in the light vehicle market is inherently difficult, given the uncertainty (and likely volatility) of future oil prices, inadequate understanding of likely consumer response to new technologies, the relative infancy of several important new technologies with inevitable future changes in their performance and costs, and the importance - and uncertainty - of future government marketplace interventions (e.g., new regulatory standards or vehicle purchase incentives). This Multi-Path Transportation Futures (MP) Study has attempted to improve our understanding of this future role by examining several scenarios of vehicle costs, fuel prices, government subsidies, and other key factors. These are projections, not forecasts, in that they try to answer a series of 'what if' questions without assigning probabilities to most of the basic assumptions.

  4. DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 460.1C Packaging and Transportation Safety and DOE O 460.2A Departmental Materials Transportation and Packaging Management

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    60.1C PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION SAFETY DOE O 460.2A DEPARTMENTAL MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION AND PACKAGING MANAGEMENT DOE O 460.1C and 460.2A Familiar Level June 2011 1 DOE O 460.1C PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION SAFETY DOE O 460.2A DEPARTMENTAL MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION AND PACKAGING MANAGEMENT FAMILIAR LEVEL _________________________________________________________________________ OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources, you will be able to perform the following: 1.

  5. Nonlocal Thermal Transport across Embedded Few-Layer Graphene Sheets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Ying; Huxtable, Scott T; Yang, Bao; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Thermal transport across the interfaces between few-layer graphene sheets and soft materials exhibits intriguing anomalies when interpreted using the classical Kapitza model, e.g., the conductance of the same interface differs greatly for different modes of interfacial thermal transport. Using atomistic simulations, we show that such thermal transport follows a nonlocal flux-temperature drop constitutive law and is characterized jointly by a quasi-local conductance and a nonlocal conductance instead of the classical Kapitza conductance. The nonlocal model enables rationalization of many anomalies of the thermal transport across embedded few-layer graphene sheets and should be used in studies of interfacial thermal transport involvingmore » few-layer graphene sheets or other ultra-thin layered materials.« less

  6. Atomistic Studies of Cation Transport in Tetragonal ZrO2 During Zirconium Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xian-Ming Bai; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks

    2013-10-01

    Zirconium alloys are the major fuel cladding materials in current reactors. The water-side corrosion is one of the major degradation mechanisms of these alloys. During corrosion the transport of oxidizing species in zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) determines the corrosion kinetics. Previously it has been argued that the outward diffusion of cation ions is important for forming protective oxides. In this work, the migration of Zr defects in tetragonal ZrO2 is studied with temperature accelerated dynamics and molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that Zr interstitials have anisotropic diffusion and migrate preferentially along the [001] or c direction in tetragonal ZrO2. The compressive stresses can increase the Zr interstitial migration barrier significantly. The migration barriers of some defect clusters can be much lower than those of point defects. The migration of Zr interstitials at some special grain boundaries is much slower than in a bulk oxide. The implications of these atomistic simulation results in the Zr corrosion are discussed.

  7. Morphology-dependent optical absorption and conduction properties of photoelectrochemical photocatalysts for H{sub 2} production: A case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huda, Muhammad N.; Turner, John A.

    2010-06-15

    Efficient photoelectrochemical H{sub 2} production by solar irradiation depends not only on the photocatalyst's band gap and its band-edge positions but also on the detailed electronic nature of the bands, such as the localization or delocalization of the band edges and their orbital characteristics. These determine the carrier transport properties, reactivity, light absorption strength, etc. and significantly impact the material's efficiency as a photoconverter. The localization or delocalization of the band edges may arise either due to the orbital nature of the bands or the structural morphology of the material. A recent experimental report on a photocatalyst based on s/p orbitals showed very poor performance for H{sub 2} production despite the delocalized nature of the s/p bands as compared to the d-bands of transition metal oxides. It is then important to examine whether this poor performance is inherent to these materials or rather arises from some experimental limitations. A theoretical analysis by first-principle methods is well suited to shed light on this question.

  8. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  9. Temperature dependent DC electrical conductivity studies of ZnO nanoparticle thick films prepared by simple solution combustion method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naveen, C. S. Jayanna, H. S. Lamani, Ashok R. Rajeeva, M. P.

    2014-04-24

    ZnO nanoparticles of different size were prepared by varying the molar ratio of glycine and zinc nitrate hexahydrate as fuel and oxidizer (F/O = 0.8, 1.11, 1.7) by simple solution combustion method. Powder samples were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer, Scanning electron microscope (SEM). DC electrical conductivity measurements at room temperature and in the temperature range of 313-673K were carried out for the prepared thick films and it was found to increase with increase of temperature which confirms the semiconducting nature of the samples. Activation energies were calculated and it was found that, F/O molar ratio 1.7 has low E{sub AL} (Low temperature activation energy) and high E{sub AH} (High temperature activation energy) compared to other samples.

  10. The Sorption/Desorption Behavior of Uranium in Transport Studies Using Yucca Mountain Alluvium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. D. Scism

    2006-02-15

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the proposed site of a geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. In the event repository engineered barriers fail, the saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain is expected to serve as a natural barrier to the migration of radionuclides to the accessible environment. The purpose of this study is to improve the characterization of uranium retardation in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain to support refinement of an assessment model. The distribution of uranium desorption rates from alluvium obtained from Nye County bore holes EWDP-19IM1, EWDP-10SA, EWDP-22SA were studied to address inconsistencies between results from batch sorption and column transport experiments. The alluvium and groundwater were characterized to better understand the underlying mechanisms of the observed behavior. Desorption rate constants were obtained using an activity based mass balance equation and column desorption experiments were analyzed using a mathematical model utilizing multiple sorption sites with different first-order forward and reverse reaction rates. The uranium desorption rate constants decreased over time, suggesting that the alluvium has multiple types of active sorption sites with different affinities for uranium. While a significant fraction of the initially sorbed uranium desorbed from the alluvium quite rapidly, a roughly equivalent amount remained sorbed after several months of testing. The information obtained through this research suggests that uranium may experience greater effective retardation in the alluvium than simple batch sorption experiments would suggest. Electron Probe Microanalysis shows that uranium is associated with both clay minerals and iron oxides after sorption to alluvial material. These results provide further evidence that the alluvium contains multiple sorption sites for uranium.

  11. Detection and characterization of uranium-humic complexes during 1D transport studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesher, Emily K.; Honeyman, Bruce D.; Ranville, James F.

    2013-05-01

    The speciation and transport of uranium (VI) through porous media is highly dependent on solution conditions, the presence of complexing ligands, and the nature of the porous media. The dependency on many variables makes prediction of U transport in bench-scale experiments and in the field difficult. In particular, the identification of colloidal U phases poses a technical challenge. Transport of U in the presence and absence of natural organic matter (Suwannee River humic acid, SRHA) through silica sand and hematite coated silica sand was tested at pH 4 and 5 using static columns, where flow is controlled by gravity and residence time between advective pore volume exchanges can be strictly controlled. The column effluents were characterized by traditional techniques including ICPMS quantification of total [U] and [Fe], TOC analysis of [DOC], and pH analysis, and also by non-traditional techniques: flow field flow fractionation with online ICPMS detection (FlFFF-ICPMS) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) characterization of effluent fractions. Key results include that the transport of U through the columns was enhanced by pre-equilibration with SRHA, and previously deposited U was remobilized by the addition of SRHA. The advanced techniques yielded important insights on the mechanisms of transport: FlFFF-ICPMS identified a U-SRHA complex as the mobile U species and directly quantified relative amounts of the complex, while specific UV absorbance (SUVA) measurements indicated a composition-based fractionation onto the porous media.

  12. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modification of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.

  13. Thermal conductivity of tubrostratic carbon nanofiber networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Matthew L.; Saltonstall, Chris B.; Leseman, Zayd C.; Beechem, Thomas E.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.

    2016-01-01

    Composite material systems composed of a matrix of nano materials can achieve combinations of mechanical and thermophysical properties outside the range of traditional systems. While many reports have studied the intrinsic thermal properties of individual carbon fibers, to be useful in applications in which thermal stability is critical, an understanding of heat transport in composite materials is required. In this work, air/ carbon nano fiber networks are studied to elucidate the system parameters influencing thermal transport. Sample thermal properties are measured with varying initial carbon fiber fill fraction, environment pressure, loading pressure, and heat treatment temperature through a bidirectional modificationmore » of the 3ω technique. The nanostructures of the individual fibers are characterized with small angle x-ray scattering and Raman spectroscopy providing insight to individual fiber thermal conductivity. Measured thermal conductivity varied from 0.010 W/(m K) to 0.070 W/(m K). An understanding of the intrinsic properties of the individual fibers and the interactions of the two phase composite is used to reconcile low measured thermal conductivities with predictive modeling. This methodology can be more generally applied to a wide range of fiber composite materials and their applications.« less

  14. A NUMERICAL STUDY OF DIFFUSIVE COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT WITH ADIABATIC FOCUSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.; Noble, P. L.

    2013-03-01

    Focused particle transport in a nonuniform large-scale magnetic field is investigated numerically in the case of isotropic pitch-angle scattering. Evolving particle density profiles and distribution moments are computed from solutions of a system of stochastic differential equations, equivalent to the original Fokker-Planck equation for the particle distribution. Conflicting analytical predictions for the transport coefficients in the diffusion limit, independently calculated by Beeck and Wibberenz and Shalchi, are compared with the numerical results. The reasons for the discrepancies among the analytical and numerical treatments, as well as the general limitations of the diffusion model, are discussed. The telegraph equation, derived in a higher-order expansion of the particle distribution function, is shown to describe the particle transport much more accurately than the diffusion model, especially ahead of a moving density pulse.

  15. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study: Vehicle Characterization and Scenario Analyses. Appendix E. Other NEMS-MP Results or the Base Case and Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, Steve; Singh, Margaret; Patterson, Phil; Ward, Jake; Wood, Frances; Kydes, Niko; Holte, John; Moore, Jim; Miller, Grant; Das, Sujit; Greene, David

    2009-07-22

    This appendix examines additional findings beyond the primary results reported in the report for Phase 2 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study.

  16. The Development and Application of Reactive Transport Modeling Techniques to Study Radionuclide Migration at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Hari Selvi

    1999-09-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been chosen as a possible site for the first high level radioactive waste repository in the United States. As part of the site investigation studies, we need to make scientifically rigorous estimations of radionuclide migration in the event of a repository breach. Performance assessment models used to make these estimations are computationally intensive. We have developed two reactive transport modeling techniques to simulate radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain: (1) the selective coupling approach applied to the convection-dispersion-reaction (CDR) model and (2) a reactive stream tube approach (RST). These models were designed to capture the important processes that influence radionuclide migration while being computationally efficient. The conventional method of modeling reactive transport models is to solve a coupled set of multi-dimensional partial differential equations for the relevant chemical components in the system. We have developed an iterative solution technique, denoted the selective coupling method, that represents a versatile alternative to traditional uncoupled iterative techniques and the filly coupled global implicit method. We show that selective coupling results in computational and memory savings relative to these approaches. We develop RST as an alternative to the CDR method for solving large two- or three-dimensional reactive transport simulations for cases in which one is interested in predicting the flux across a specific control plane. In the RST method, the multidimensional problem is reduced to a series of one-dimensional transport simulations along streamlines. The key assumption with RST is that mixing at the control plane approximates the transverse dispersion between streamlines. We compare the CDR and RST approaches for several scenarios that are relevant to the Yucca Mountain Project. For example, we apply the CDR and RST approaches to model an ongoing field experiment called the Unsaturated Zone Transport Test.

  17. Environmental effects on composite airframes: A study conducted for the ARM UAV Program (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noguchi, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    Composite materials are affected by environments differently than conventional airframe structural materials are. This study identifies the environmental conditions which the composite-airframe ARM UAV may encounter, and discusses the potential degradation processes composite materials may undergo when subjected to those environments. This information is intended to be useful in a follow-on program to develop equipment and procedures to prevent, detect, or otherwise mitigate significant degradation with the ultimate goal of preventing catastrophic aircraft failure.

  18. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Hawkins, Beth A.

    2014-09-01

    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  19. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State`s Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  20. Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation From modeling and simulation programs to advanced electric powertrains, engines, biofuels, lubricants, and batteries, Argonne's transportation research is vital to the development of next-generation vehicles. Revolutionary advances in transportation are critical to reducing our nation's petroleum consumption and the environmental impact of our vehicles. Some of the most exciting new vehicle technologies are being ushered along by research conducted at Argonne National Laboratory.

  1. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail: kxu2006@sinano.ac.cn; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-01-07

    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  2. Parametric study of radiation dose rates from rail and truck spent fuel transport casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Knight, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma dose rates from typical rail and truck spent fuel transport casks are reported for a variety of spent PWR fuel sources and cask conditions. The IF 300 rail cask and NLI 1/2 truck cask were selected for use as appropriate cask models. All calculations (cross section preparation, generation of spent fuel source terms, radiation transport calculations, and dose evaluation) were performed using various modules of the SCALE computational system. Conditions or parameters for which there were variations between cases include: detector distance from cask, spent fuel cooling time, the setting of fuel or neutron shielding cavities to either wet or dry, the cobalt content of assembly materials, normal fuel assemblies and consolidated cannisters, the geometry mesh interval size, and the order of the angular quadrature set. 13 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M.

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  4. A CASE STUDY OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ACCIDENTAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Whiteside, M.; Chen, K.; Mazzola, C.

    2012-08-01

    A train derailment that occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning hours of 06 January, 2005 resulted in the prompt release of approximately 60 tons of chlorine to the environment. Comprehensive modeling of the transport and fate of this release was performed including the characterization of the initial three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of the local atmospheric conditions acting to generate, disperse, and deplete the chlorine vapor cloud, the establishment of physical exchange mechanisms between the airborne vapor and local surface waters, and local aquatic dilution and mixing.

  5. Application of ECH to the study of transport in ITER baseline scenario-like discharges in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Ernst, D. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Luce, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; McKee, G. R.; Perkins, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G.; Turco, F.

    2015-03-12

    Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ~0.42 to IBS discharges with ~3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS), beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and phase-contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB)-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.

  6. Application of ECH to the study of transport in ITER baseline scenario-like discharges in DIII-D

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Austin, M. E.; Ernst, D. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Luce, T. C.; Marinoni, A.; McKee, G. R.; Perkins, R. J.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Recent DIII-D experiments in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) have shown strong increases in fluctuations and correlated reduction of confinement associated with entering the electron-heating-dominated regime with strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The addition of 3.2 MW of 110 GHz EC power deposited at ρ~0.42 to IBS discharges with ~3 MW of neutral beam injection causes large increases in low-k and medium-k turbulent density fluctuations observed with Doppler backscatter (DBS), beam emission spectroscopy (BES) and phase-contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostics, correlated with decreases in the energy, particle, and momentum confinement times. Power balance calculations show the electron heat diffusivity χe more » increases significantly in the mid-radius region 0.4<ρ<0.8, which is roughly the same region where the DBS and BES diagnostics show the increases in turbulent density fluctuations. Confinement of angular momentum is also reduced during ECH. Studies with the TGYRO transport solver show that the model of turbulent transport embodied in the TGLF code quantitatively reproduces the measured transport in both the neutral beam (NB)-only and in the NB plus EC cases. A simple model of the decrease in toroidal rotation with EC power is set forth, which exhibits a bifurcation in the rotational state of the discharge.« less

  7. Transportation Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transportation-research TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Transportation Research Current Research Overview The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and

  8. First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both ... SILICENE; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; TRANSPORT THEORY; TWO-DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS; VISIBLE ...

  9. ETA-NAC002 - Control of Test Conduct

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: ... APPENDICES Appendix A - Test Exception Report 10 Appendix B - Non-Conformance Report 11 ...

  10. Chernobyl Studies Project - working group 7.0 environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, October 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project was begun as part of a cooperative agreement between the US and the former USSR, (quote) To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future reactor accident (quote). Most of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus has now turned primarily to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are extensively engaged in case-control and cohort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children and in the Ukraine. A major part of the effort is providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and providing support and equipment for the medical teams. This document contains reports on progress in the following task areas: Management; External Dose; Hydrological Transport; Chromosome Painting Dosimetry; Stochastic Effects; Thyroid Studies; and Leukemia Studies.

  11. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y. Lu, W.; Fang, X.; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 ; Sun, L. T.; Hu, Q.; Cao, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 1824 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110 analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110 analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper.

  12. Study on Shielding Requirements for Radioactive Waste Transportation in a Mo-99 Production Plant - 13382

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melo Rego, Maria Eugenia de; Kazumi Sakata, Solange; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)] [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Brazil is currently planning to produce {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. The planned end of irradiation activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 185 TBq (5 kCi) per week to meet the present domestic demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators. The radioactive wastes from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the wastes can be predicted based on the yields of fission and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production schedule, etc., which were in principle already established by the project management. The transportation of the wastes from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. An assessment of the shielding required for the packages has been done and the results are presented here, aiming at contributing to the design of the waste management facility for the {sup 99}Mo production plant. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of atmospheric transport models for use in Phase II of the historical public exposures studies at the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; Killough, G.G.; Till, J.E.

    1999-08-01

    Five atmospheric transport models were evaluated for use in Phase II of the Historical Public Exposures Studies at the Rocky Flats Plant. Models included a simple straight-line Gaussian plume model (ISCST2), several integrated puff models (RATCHET, TRIAD, and INPUFF2), and a complex terrain model (TRAC). Evaluations were based on how well model predictions compared with sulfur hexafluoride tracer measurements taken in the vicinity of Rocky Flats in February 1991. Twelve separate tracer experiments were conducted, each lasting 9 hr and measured at 140 samplers in arcs 8 and 16 km from the release point at Rocky Flats. Four modeling objectives were defined based on the endpoints of the overall study: (1) the unpaired maximum hourly average concentration, (2) paired time-averaged concentration, (3) unpaired time-averaged concentration, and (4) arc-integrated concentration. Performance measures were used to evaluate models and focused on the geometric mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-observed ratio and the correlation coefficient between predicted and observed concentrations. No one model consistently outperformed the others in all modeling objectives and performance measures. The overall performance of the RATCHET model was somewhat better than the other models.

  14. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  15. Chernobyl Studies Project: Working group 7.0, Environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, March--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    In April 1988, the US and the former-USSR signed a Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety; this MOC was a direct result of the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 and the following efforts by the two countries to implement a joint program to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. A Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS) was formed to implement the MOC. The JCCCNRS established many working groups; most of these were the responsibility of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as far as the US participation was concerned. The lone exception was Working Group 7 on Environmental Transport and Health Effects, for which the US participation was the responsibility of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of Working Group 7 was succintly stated to be, ``To develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` To implement the work DOE then formed two subworking groups: 7.1 to address Environmental Transport and 7.2 to address Health Effects. Thus, the DOE-funded Chernobyl Studies Project began. The majority of the initial tasks for this project are completed or near completion. The focus is now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are currently working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  16. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  17. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of cell biologist Don Francis Petersen, Ph.D., conducted November 29, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This report is a transcript of an interview of Dr. Don Francis Petersen by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Petersen was selected for this interview because of his long research career at Los Alamos and his knowledge of the Atomic Energy Commission`s biomedical program. Dr. Petersen did not personally conduct research on human subjects. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Petersen discusses his remembrances of the early use of radionuclides as biological tracers, aspects of nuclear weapons testing in the 1940`s and 1950`s including fallout studies, the means by which research projects were approved, use of humans in the whole-body counter, and the Health Division Biomedical responsibilities.

  18. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Model Recovery Procedure contains the recommended elements for developing and conducting recovery planning at transportation incident scene...

  19. Photo-induced conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic Ge/Si systems with quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.

    2014-08-20

    We study the evolution of electron transport in strongly localized mesoscopic system with quantum dots under small photon flux. Exploring devices with narrow transport channels lead to the observation of giant fluctuations of the photoconductance, which is attributed to the strong dependence of hopping current on the filling of dots by holes. In our experiments, single-photon mode operation is indicated by the linear dependence of the frequency of photo-induced fluctuations on the light intensity and the step-like response of conductance on the pulse excitation. The effect of the light wavelength, measurement temperature, size of the conductive channel on the device efficiency are considered.

  20. Code of Conduct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it conducts business in a trustworthy manner. What is LANL's Code of Conduct? Charlie McMillan 1:46 Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan introduces the code LANL's Code of...

  1. Control of Test Conduct

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric ......... 4 6.1 Test Activities ......

  2. Borehole Fluid Conductivity Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-03-15

    Dynamic wellbore electrical conductivity logs provide a valuable means to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersectin a wellbore, in order to study the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. To expedite the analysis of log data, a computer program called BORE II has been deveoloped that considers multiple inflow or outflow points along the wellbore, including the case of horizontal flow across the wellbore, BORE II calculates the evolution of fluid electrical conducivity (FEC) profilesmorein a wellbore or wellbore section, which may be pumped at a low rate, and compares model results to log data in a variety of ways. FEC variations may arise from inflow under natural-state conditions or due to tracer injected in a neighboring well (interference tests). BORE II has an interactive, graphical user interface and runs on a personal computer under the Windows operating system. BORE II is a modification and extension of older codes called BORE and BOREXT, which considered inflow points only. Finite difference solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with explicit time stepping; feed points treated as prescribed-mass sources or sinks; assume quadratic relationship between fluid electrical conductivity and ion consentration. Graphical user interface; interactive modification of model parameters and graphical display of model results and filed data in a variety of ways. Can examine horizontal flow or arbitarily complicated combination of upflow, downflow, and horizontal flow. Feed point flow rate and/or concentration may vary in time.less

  3. Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is saturation-dependent. Accurate characterization of soil anisotropy is very important in simulating flow and contaminant (e.g., radioactive nuclides in Hanford) transport. A recently developed tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept describes the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the unsaturated anisotropic soils as the product of a scalar variable, the symmetric connectivity tortuosity tensor, and the hydraulic conductivity tensor at saturation. In this study, the TCT model is used to quantify soil anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The TCT model can describe different types of soil anisotropy; e.g., the anisotropy coefficient, C, can be monotonically increase or decrease with saturation and can vary from greater than unity to less than unity and vice versa. Soil anisotropy is independent of soil water retention properties and can be characterized by the ratio of the saturated hydraulic conductivities and the difference of the tortuosity-connectivity coefficients in two directions. ln(C) is linearly proportional to ln(Se) with Se being the effective saturation. The log-linear relationship between C and Se allows the saturation-dependent anisotropy to be determined using linear regression with the measurements of the directional hydraulic conductivities at a minimum of two water content levels, of which one may be at full saturation. The model was tested using measurements of directional hydraulic conductivities.

  4. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  5. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  6. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  7. Effect of coolant chemistry on PWR radiation transport processes. Progress report on reactor loop studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.J.; Flynn, G.; Haynes, J.W.; Kitt, G.P.; Large, N.R.; Lawson, D.; Mead, A.P.; Nichols, J.L.; Woodwark, D.R.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of various PWR-type coolant chemistry regimes on the behavior of corrosion products has been studied in the DIDO Water Loop at Harwell. There are strong indications that the in-core deposition behavior of corrosion product species is not fully accounted for by the solubility model based on nickel ferrite; boric acid plays a role apart from its influence on pH, and corrosion products are adsorbed to some extent in the zirconium oxide film on the fuel cladding. In DWL, soluble species appear to be dominant in deposition processes. A most important factor governing deposition behavior is surface condition; the influence of weld regions and the effect of varying pretreatment conditions have both been demonstrated. 13 figs.

  8. Lipid-Based Nanodiscs as Models for Studying Mesoscale Coalescence A Transport Limited Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Andrew; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Katsaras, John; Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Nieh, Mu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lipid-based nanodiscs (bicelles) are able to form in mixtures of long- and short-chain lipids. Initially, they are of uniform size but grow upon dilution. Previously, nanodisc growth kinetics have been studied using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (SANS), a technique which is not well suited for probing their change in size immediately after dilution. To address this, we have used dynamic light scattering (DLS), a technique which permits the collection of useful data in a short span of time after dilution of the system. The DLS data indicate that the negatively charged lipids in nanodiscs play a significant role in disc stability and growth. Specifically, the charged lipids are most likely drawn out from the nanodiscs into solution, thereby reducing interparticle repulsion and enabling the discs to grow. We describe a population balance model, which takes into account Coulombic interactions and adequately predicts the initial growth of nanodiscs with a single parameter i.e., surface potential. The results presented here strongly support the notion that the disc coalescence rate strongly depends on nanoparticle charge density. The present system containing low-polydispersity lipid nanodiscs serves as a good model for understanding how charged discoidal micelles coalesce.

  9. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping The most conspicuous feature of boron carbides' electronic transport properties is their having both high carrier densities and large Seebeck coefficients. The magnitudes and temperature dependencies of

  10. WIPP Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across tribal lands. Transportation Centralized Procurement Program - The Centralized Procurement Program provides a common method to procure standard items used in the packaging and handling of transuranic wasted destined for WIPP. Transuranic Waste Transportation Routes - A map showing transuranic waste generator sites and

  11. Electrical conductivity of pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teoh, H.; Metz, P.D.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Using ultrapure samples of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) of 485,000 or 150,000 average molecular weight solution cast in dimethylformamide, the dc conductivity (sigma) of pyrolyzed PAN (PANP) films has been studied for pyrolysis temperatures (T/ sub p/) of 280 to 435/sup 0/C. Conductivity measurements made during pyrolysis indicate the onset of a dramatic increase in sigma for T/sub p/ of 390 to 435/sup 0/C. Conductivities as high as 5 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ have been observed for T/sub p/ < 435/sup 0/C.

  12. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  13. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Matthew M.; Wilfong, Dennis H.; Lomax, Ralph E.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  14. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  15. Office of Secure Transportation Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Our MissionTo provide safe and secure ground and air transportation of nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons components, and special nuclear materials and conduct other missions supporting the national...

  16. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductivity Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.E.

    2003-01-06

    Equations by Marshall and by Millington and Quirk for calculating hydraulic conductivity from pore-size distribution data are dependent on an arbitrary choice of the exponent on the porosity term and a correct estimate of residual water. This study showed that a revised equation, based on the pore-interaction model of Marshall, accurately predicts hydraulic conductivity for glass beads and a loam soil from the pressure-water content relationships of these porous materials.

  17. Residential Transportation Historical Publications reports, data...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    May 2008 The Energy Information Administration conducts several core consumption surveys. Among them was the Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS)....

  18. Energy Information Administration - Transportation Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption Transportation Energy Consumption Surveys energy used by vehicles EIA conducts numerous energy-related surveys and other information programs. In general, the...

  19. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  20. Summary of studies conducted under LANL subcontracts: 9-X73-4229J-1 and 9-XC3-9739K-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, C.A.; Chandra, S.; Fan, B.; Muyshondt, A.; Parulian, A.; McFarland, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    Under the scope of the ventilation stack study, 1/3 scale models of the TA-55 facility FE- 15 and FE-16 stacks were fabricated and tested. Tests were conducted to achieve stack and plenum configurations that would produce adequate mixing, flow uniformity and particulate concentration uniformity. This should enable effective single point sampling in these exhaust stacks at the existing sampling locations during normal and emergency operating conditions. Velocity profiles were obtained at the current sampling location. Flow mixing was evaluated via a tracer gas technique. Gas concentration profiles were measured with the help of the tracer gas technique while releasing the tracer gas in the different inlet ducts. Finally, aerosol particle concentration profiles were measured at the existing sampling locations. The results indicated that the present field configurations of the two stacks produced poor mixing. Adjustments and modifications of the model configurations were carried out to arrive at uniform velocity, gas and aerosol particle concentrations profiles at the present sampling location. The modified models typically produced profile coefficients of variations that were less than 10%, suggesting that the present sampling locations could effectively be used for single-point sampling. The filter air sampler research is concerned with the development of a filter air sampler to ease filter changing efficiency and to provide a built in flow indicator. Testing was done on the new sampler to find the effect on the entrance efficiency by variations in the parameter-air speed, particle size, flow rate, and orientations. It was found that the aerosol sampling efficiencies of the new unit are no different from the filter air sampler currently used by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  1. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  2. Conductive fabric seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  3. Carrier Separation and Transport in Perovskite Solar Cells Studied by Nanometre-Scale Profiling of Electrical Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Mengjin; Zhou, Yuanyuan; To, Bobby; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Luther, Joseph M.; Zhou, Weilie; Berry, Joseph J.; van de Lagemaat, Jao; Padture, Nitin P.; Zhu, Kai; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.

    2015-09-28

    Organometal–halide perovskite solar cells have greatly improved in just a few years to a power conversion efficiency exceeding 20%. This technology shows unprecedented promise for terawatt-scale deployment of solar energy because of its low-cost, solution-based processing and earth-abundant materials. We have studied charge separation and transport in perovskite solar cells—which are the fundamental mechanisms of device operation and critical factors for power output—by determining the junction structure across the device using the nanoelectrical characterization technique of Kelvin probe force microscopy. Moreover, the distribution of electrical potential across both planar and porous devices demonstrates p–n junction structure at the TiO2/perovskite interfaces and minority-carrier diffusion/drift operation of the devices, rather than the operation mechanism of either an excitonic cell or a p-i-n structure. When we combined the potential profiling results with solar cell performance parameters measured on optimized and thickened devices, we find that carrier mobility is a main factor that needs to be improved for further gains in efficiency of the perovskite solar cells.

  4. Parallel transport studies of high-Z impurities in the core of Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Rice, J. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Terry, J. L.; Wolfe, S. M. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Measurements of poloidal variation, {sub z}/, in high-Z impurity density have been made using photodiode arrays sensitive to vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray emission in Alcator C-Mod plasmas. In/out asymmetries in the range of ?0.2<0.3 are observed for r/a<0.8, and accumulation on both the high-field side, n{sub z,cos}<0, and low-field side, n{sub z,cos}>0, of a flux surface is found to be well described by a combination of centrifugal, poloidal electric field, and ion-impurity friction effects. Up/down asymmetries, ?0.05<0.10, are observed over 0.50 corresponding to accumulation opposite the ion ?B drift direction. Measurements of the up/down asymmetry of molybdenum are found to disagree with predictions from recent neoclassical theory in the trace limit, n{sub z}Z{sup 2}/n{sub i}?1. Non-trace levels of impurities are expected to modify the main-ion poloidal flow and thus change friction-driven impurity density asymmetries and impurity poloidal rotation, v{sub ?,z}. Artificially modifying main-ion flow in parallel transport simulations is shown to impact both {sub z}/ and v{sub ?,z}, but simultaneous agreement between measured and predicted up/down and in/out asymmetry as well as impurity poloidal rotation is not possible for these C-Mod data. This link between poloidal flow and poloidal impurity density variation outlines a more stringent test for parallel neoclassical transport theory than has previously been performed. Measurement and computational techniques specific to the study of poloidal impurity asymmetry physics are discussed as well.

  5. Effect of Biogeochemical Redox Processes on the Fate and Transport of As and U at an Abandoned Uranium Mine Site: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Stone, James J.; Borch, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Although As can occur in U ore at concentrations up to 10 wt-%, the fate and transport of both U and As at U mine tailings have not been previously investigated at a watershed scale. The major objective of this study was to determine primary chemical and physical processes contributing to transport of both U and As to a down gradient watershed at an abandoned U mine site in South Dakota. Uranium is primarily transported by erosion at the site, based on decreasing concentrations in sediment with distance from the tailings. equential extractions and U X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) fitting indicate that U is immobilised in a near-source sedimentation pond both by prevention of sediment transport and by reduction of UVI to UIV. In contrast to U, subsequent release of As to the watershed takes place from the pond partially due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides. However, As is immobilised by adsorption to clays and Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in oxic zones and by formation of Assulfide mineral phases in anoxic zones down gradient, indicated by sequential extractions and As XANES fitting. This study indicates that As should be considered during restoration of uranium mine sites in order to prevent transport.

  6. EFFECT OF TRANSPORTING SALTSTONE SAMPLES PRIOR TO SET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.

    2013-05-21

    The Saltstone Sampling and Analyses Plan provides a basis for the quantity (and configuration) of saltstone grout samples required for conducting a study directed towards correlation of the Performance Assessment (PA) related properties of field-emplaced samples and samples processed and cured in the laboratory. The testing described in the saltstone sampling and analyses plan will be addressed in phases. The initial testing (Phase I) includes collecting samples from the process room in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and transporting them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they will cure under a temperature profile that mimics the temperature in the Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) and then be analyzed. SRNL has previously recommended that after the samples of fresh (uncured) saltstone are obtained from the SPF process room, they are allowed to set prior to transporting them to SRNL for curing. The concern was that if the samples are transported before they are set, the vibrations during transport may cause artificial delay of structure development which could result in preferential settling or segregation of the saltstone slurry. However, the results of this testing showed there was no clear distinction between the densities of the cylinder sections for any of the transportation scenarios tested (1 day, 1 hour, and 0 minutes set time prefer to transportation) . The bottom section of each cylinder was the densest for each transportation scenario, which indicates some settling in all the samples. Triplicate hydraulic conductivity measurements on samples from each set of time and transportation scenarios indicated that those samples transported immediately after pouring had the highest hydraulic conductivity. Conversely, samples that were allowed to sit for an hour before being transported had the lowest hydraulic conductivity. However, the hydraulic conductivities of all three samples fell within an acceptable range. Based on the cured property analysis of the three samples, there is no clear conclusion about transporting the samples before they are set; however, experience with saltstone grout indicates the samples should sit and develop some structure before being transported to SRNL for curing.

  7. Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon, Esther F.A.; Bosch, Tessa M.; Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique; Beijnen, Jos H. |; Schellens, Jan H.M. |; Meijerman, Irma . E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

    2006-02-15

    Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

  8. Greening Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Goal 2: Greening Transportation LANL supports and encourages employees to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions by offering various commuting and work schedule options. Our goal is to reduce emissions related to employee travel and commuting to and from work by 13 percent. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science

  9. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S.; Nair, Balakrishnan G.; Small, Troy; Heck, Brian

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  10. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  11. Transportation Shock and Vibration Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Lahti, Erik A.; Ross, Steven B.

    2013-06-06

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT-13OR08220112, "Report Documenting Experimental Activities." The purpose of this report is to document the results of a literature review conducted of studies related to the vibration and shock associated with the normal conditions of transport for rail shipments of used nuclear fuel from commercial light-water reactors. As discussed in Adkins (2013), the objective of this report is to determine if adequate data exist that would enable the impacts of the shock and vibration associated with the normal conditions of transport on commercial light-water reactor used nuclear fuel shipped in current generation rail transportation casks to be realistically modeled.

  12. Three-dimensional transport and concentration of SF{sub 6} - a model intercomparison study (transcom 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denning, A.S.; Holzer, M.; Burney, K.R.; Heimann, M.; Law, R.M.; Rayner, P.J.; Fund, I.Y.; Fan, S.M.; Taguchi, S.; Friedlingstein, P.; Balkanski, Y.; Taylor, J.; Maiss, M.; Levin, I.

    1999-01-02

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an excellent tracer of large-scale atmospheric transport, because it has slowly increasing sources mostly confined to northern midlatitudes, and has a lifetime of thousands of years. We have simulated the emissions, transport, and concentration of SF, for a 5-year period, and compared the results with atmospheric observations. In addition, we have performed an intercomparison of interhemispheric transport among 11 models to investigate the reasons for the differences among the simulations. Most of the models are reasonably successful at simulating the observed meridional gradient of SF6 in the remote marine boundary layer, though there is less agreement at continental sites. Models that compare well to observations in the remote marine boundary layer tend to systematically overestimate SF6 at continental locations in source regions, suggesting that vertical trapping rather than meridional transport may be a dominant control on the simulated meridional gradient. The vertical structure of simulated SF6 in the models supports this interpretation. Some of the models perform quite well in terms of the simulated seasonal cycle at remote locations, while others do not. Interhemispheric exchange time varies by a factor of 2 when estimated from 1-dimensional meridional profiles at the surface, as has been done for observations. The agreement among models is better when the global surface mean mole fraction is used, and better still when the full 3-dimensional mean mixing ratio is used. The ranking of the interhemispheric exchange time among the models is not sensitive to the change From station values to surface means, but is very sensitive to the change from surface means to the full 3-dimensional tracer fields. This strengthens the argument that vertical redistribution dominates over interhemispheric transport in determining the meridional gradient at the surface. Vertically integrated meridional transport in the models is divided roughly equally into transport by the mean motion, the standing eddies, and the transient eddies. The vertically integrated mass flux is a good index of the degree to which resolved advection vs. parameterized diffusion accomplishes the meridional transport of SF6. Observational programs could provide a much better constraint on simulated chemical tracer transport if they included regular sampling of vertical profiles of nonreactive trace gases over source regions and meridional profiles in the middle to upper troposphere. Further analysis of the SF6 simulations will focus on the subgrid-scale parameterized transports.

  13. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  14. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  15. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Admin Chg 2, dated 12-3-14, supersedes Admin Chg 1.

  16. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Jitendra P.; Bosak, Andrea L.; McPheeters, Charles C.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  17. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  18. Conducting fiber compression tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeTeresa, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    The invention measures the resistance across a conductive fiber attached to a substrate place under a compressive load to determine the amount of compression needed to cause the fiber to fail.

  19. Conductive open frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  20. Temperature dependence of structural parameters in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}: single crystal X-ray studies from 295 to 900K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okudera, Hiroki [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, DE-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: h.okudera@fkf.mpg.de; Yoshiasa, Akira [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Masubuchi, Yuuji [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Higuchi, Mikio [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kikkawa, Shinichi [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Crystallographic space group, structural parameters and their thermal changes in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} were investigated using high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in the temperature range of 295=conductivity. Virtually full occupation of the 6h Nd site and highly anisotropic displacements of oxide ion inside the hexagonal channel were maintained over the temperature range examined. This result confirms that oxide-ion transport inside the hexagonal channel is the dominant process of conduction in the title compound.

  1. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The {sup 132}Sn{sup +} case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, F. Bouquerel, E.; Boutin, D.; Dinkov, A.; Sellam, A.

    2014-12-15

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards.

  2. Disorder-free localization around the conduction band edge of crossing and kinked silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kele?, mit; akan, Asl?; Bulutay, Ceyhun

    2015-02-14

    We explore ballistic regime quantum transport characteristics of oxide-embedded crossing and kinked silicon nanowires (NWs) within a large-scale empirical pseudopotential electronic structure framework, coupled to the Kubo-Greenwood transport analysis. A real-space wave function study is undertaken and the outcomes are interpreted together with the findings of ballistic transport calculations. This reveals that ballistic transport edge lies tens to hundreds of millielectron volts above the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, with a substantial number of localized states appearing in between, as well as above the former. We show that these localized states are not due to the oxide interface, but rather core silicon-derived. They manifest the wave nature of electrons brought to foreground by the reflections originating from NW junctions and bends. Hence, we show that the crossings and kinks of even ultraclean Si NWs possess a conduction band tail without a recourse to atomistic disorder.

  3. CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY Revision 1 10/31/07 Approved by: DOE Records Management Division, IM-23 PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY 1. GENERAL. A records inventory is compiling a descriptive list of each record series or system, including the location of the records and any other pertinent data. A records inventory is not a list of each document or each folder. 2. DEFINE THE RECORDS INVENTORY GOAL(S). The goals of a records inventory should be to: a. Gather

  4. ETA-HAC02 - Control of Test Conduct

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: ... 5 6.0 Activity Requirements 5 6.1 Test Activities 5 6.2 Test Exceptions 6 7.0 ...

  5. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  7. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  9. Conductance matrix of multiterminal semiconductor devices with edge channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilovskii, E. Yu. Bagraev, N. T.

    2014-12-15

    A method for determining the conductance matrix of multiterminal semiconductor structures with edge channels is proposed. The method is based on the solution of a system of linear algebraic equations based on Kirchhoff equations, made up of potential differences U{sub ij} measured at stabilized currents I{sub kl}, where i, j, k, l are terminal numbers. The matrix obtained by solving the system of equations completely describes the structure under study, reflecting its configuration and homogeneity. This method can find wide application when using the known Landauer-Buttiker formalism to analyze carrier transport in the quantum Hall effect and quantum spin Hall effect modes. Within the proposed method, the contribution of the contact area resistances R{sub c} to the formation of conductance matrix elements is taken into account. The possibilities of practical application of the results obtained in developing analog cryptographic devices are considered.

  10. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  11. Origin of the smaller conductances of Rh, Pb, and Co atomic junctions in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xue; Chen, Mingyan; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yi-qun; Ke, San-huang

    2015-02-14

    We study theoretically the structural and electronic origins of the smaller conductances (one conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, and smaller) of Rh, Pb, and Co metal atomic junctions (MAJs) in a hydrogen environment, as were measured in recent experiments. For the Rh MAJs, the 1G{sub 0} conductance is attributed to a stable contact bridged by a single hydrogen molecule whose antibonding state provides a single transport channel. For the Pb and Co MAJs the 1G{sub 0} conductance is, however, ascribed to a linear atomic chain adsorbing two dissociated H atoms, which largely reduces the density of states at the Fermi energy with respect to the pure ones. On the other hand, the small conductances of 0.3G{sub 0} (Rh) and 0.2G{sub 0} (Co) are due to H-decorated atomic chains connected to electrodes by a H atom.

  12. A study in three-dimensional chaotic dynamics: Granular flow and transport in a bi-axial spherical tumbler

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Ottino, Julio M.; Sturman, Rob

    2014-05-22

    We study three-dimensional (3D) chaotic dynamics through an analysis of transport in a granular flow in a half-full spherical tumbler rotated sequentially about two orthogonal axes (a bi-axial “blinking” tumbler). The flow is essentially quasi-two-dimensional in any vertical slice of the sphere during rotation about a single axis, and we provide an explicit exact solution to the model in this case. Hence, the cross-sectional flow can be represented by a twist map, allowing us to express the 3D flow as a linked twist map (LTM). We prove that if the rates of rotation about each axis are equal, then (inmore » the absence of stochasticity) particle trajectories are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) surfaces consisting of a portion of a hemispherical shell closed by a “cap''; if the rotation rates are unequal, then particles can leave the surface they start on and traverse a volume of the tumbler. The period-one structures of the governing LTM are examined in detail: analytical expressions are provided for the location of period-one curves, their extent into the bulk of the granular material, and their dependence on the protocol parameters (rates and durations of rotations). Exploiting the restriction of trajectories to 2D surfaces in the case of equal rotation rates about the axes, a method is proposed for identifying and constructing 3D Kolmogorov--Arnold--Moser (KAM) tubes around the normally elliptic period-one curves. The invariant manifold structure arising from the normally hyperbolic period-one curves is also examined. When the motion is restricted to 2D surfaces, the structure of manifolds of the hyperbolic points in the bulk differs from that corresponding to hyperbolic points in the flowing layer. Each is reminiscent of a template provided by a non-integrable perturbation to a Hamiltonian system, though the governing LTM is not. This highlights the novel 3D chaotic behaviors observed in this model dynamical system.« less

  13. A study in three-dimensional chaotic dynamics: Granular flow and transport in a bi-axial spherical tumbler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Ottino, Julio M.; Sturman, Rob

    2014-05-22

    We study three-dimensional (3D) chaotic dynamics through an analysis of transport in a granular flow in a half-full spherical tumbler rotated sequentially about two orthogonal axes (a bi-axial blinking tumbler). The flow is essentially quasi-two-dimensional in any vertical slice of the sphere during rotation about a single axis, and we provide an explicit exact solution to the model in this case. Hence, the cross-sectional flow can be represented by a twist map, allowing us to express the 3D flow as a linked twist map (LTM). We prove that if the rates of rotation about each axis are equal, then (in the absence of stochasticity) particle trajectories are restricted to two-dimensional (2D) surfaces consisting of a portion of a hemispherical shell closed by a cap''; if the rotation rates are unequal, then particles can leave the surface they start on and traverse a volume of the tumbler. The period-one structures of the governing LTM are examined in detail: analytical expressions are provided for the location of period-one curves, their extent into the bulk of the granular material, and their dependence on the protocol parameters (rates and durations of rotations). Exploiting the restriction of trajectories to 2D surfaces in the case of equal rotation rates about the axes, a method is proposed for identifying and constructing 3D Kolmogorov--Arnold--Moser (KAM) tubes around the normally elliptic period-one curves. The invariant manifold structure arising from the normally hyperbolic period-one curves is also examined. When the motion is restricted to 2D surfaces, the structure of manifolds of the hyperbolic points in the bulk differs from that corresponding to hyperbolic points in the flowing layer. Each is reminiscent of a template provided by a non-integrable perturbation to a Hamiltonian system, though the governing LTM is not. This highlights the novel 3D chaotic behaviors observed in this model dynamical system.

  14. Beam Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into the storage ring with the time structure shown here. The beam is accumulated in the PSR and then transported to Target-1. beamtransport1 Simplified drawing of the beam...

  15. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Home/Transportation Energy Robert Kolasinki Permalink Gallery Robert Kolasinski wins DOE Early Career Award Transportation Energy Robert Kolasinski wins DOE Early Career Award By Michael Padilla Robert Kolasinski (8366) has received a $2.5 million, five-year Early Career Research Program award from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science to support his work on how intense fusion plasmas interact with the interior surfaces of fusion reactors. Robert's research will develop the

  16. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman; Volin, Kenneth J.

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  17. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  18. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  19. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  20. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  1. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  2. Sandia National Laboratories conducts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conducts research and development (R&D) in solar power, including photovoltaics and concentrating solar power, to strengthen the U.S. solar industry and improve the manufacturability, reliability, and cost competitiveness of solar energy technologies and systems. Researchers at Sandia partner with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other government agencies, industry, academia, and other laboratories to accelerate development and acceptance of current and emerging solar power

  3. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi; Smith, James L.; Embury, John David

    1998-01-01

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  4. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  5. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C.; Becht, IV, Charles

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  6. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  7. Direct Internal Reformation and Mass Transport in the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode: A Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Study with Detailed Reaction Kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Joshi, Abhijit S.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2010-11-30

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) allows the conversion of chemical energy that is stored in a given fuel, including light hydrocarbons, to electrical power. Hydrocarbon fuels, such as methane, are logistically favourable and provide high energy densities. However, the use of these fuels often results in a decreased efficiency and life. An improved understanding of the reactive flow in the SOFC anode can help address these issues. In this study, the transport and heterogeneous internal reformation of a methane based fuel is addressed. The effect of the SOFC anode's complex structure on transport and reactions is shown to exhibit a complicated interplay between the local molar concentrations and the anode structure. Strong coupling between the phenomenological microstructures and local reformation reaction rates are recognised in this study, suggesting the extension to actual microstructures may provide new insights into the reformation processes.

  8. Program Evaluation: Planning and Conducting Evaluations | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Conducting a successful study requires an evaluator experienced in both the art and ... databases needed for analyzing knowledge creation and dissemination Trace pathways of ...

  9. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  10. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation News The following news stories highlight transportation research at NREL. May 3, 2016 NREL Convenes Gathering of U.S.-China Electric Vehicle Battery Experts On April 25-26, NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) hosted the 11th United States (U.S.)-China Electric Vehicle and Battery Technology Information Exchange to share insights on battery technology advancements and identify opportunities to collaborate on electric vehicle battery research. The meeting represents the 11th

  11. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z.; Davey, John R.; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Ren, Xiaoming

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  12. Development of an analysis capability for the National Transportation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anson, D.; Nelson, R.

    1997-10-24

    The purpose of this report is to examine the Department of Transportation`s (DOT) National Transportation System (NTS) initiative, to document what has been learned, and to outline a National Transportation Network Analysis Capability (NTNAC) based on a ``TRANSIMS-like`` approach. This study was conducted over a two month period at the end of FY1997. The scope of the effort was carefully defined to accommodate the short time horizon and to provide focus to a very large analytical problem. The objectives were to: (1) define the NTS and the NTS problem; (2) identify problem characteristics; (3) describe an analytical solution based on the TRANSIMS approach; (4) identify data requirements and availability; (5) develop criteria for a scenario to be used in a prototype demonstration; and (6) select a scenario for the prototype demonstration.

  13. Fast-ignition transport studies: Realistic electron source, integrated particle-in-cell and hydrodynamic modeling, imposed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strozzi, D. J.; Tabak, M.; Larson, D. J.; Divol, L.; Kemp, A. J.; Bellei, C.; Marinak, M. M.; Key, M. H.

    2012-07-15

    Transport modeling of idealized, cone-guided fast ignition targets indicates the severe challenge posed by fast-electron source divergence. The hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) code Zuma is run in tandem with the radiation-hydrodynamics code Hydra to model fast-electron propagation, fuel heating, and thermonuclear burn. The fast electron source is based on a 3D explicit-PIC laser-plasma simulation with the PSC code. This shows a quasi two-temperature energy spectrum and a divergent angle spectrum (average velocity-space polar angle of 52 Degree-Sign ). Transport simulations with the PIC-based divergence do not ignite for >1 MJ of fast-electron energy, for a modest (70 {mu}m) standoff distance from fast-electron injection to the dense fuel. However, artificially collimating the source gives an ignition energy of 132 kJ. To mitigate the divergence, we consider imposed axial magnetic fields. Uniform fields {approx}50 MG are sufficient to recover the artificially collimated ignition energy. Experiments at the Omega laser facility have generated fields of this magnitude by imploding a capsule in seed fields of 50-100 kG. Such imploded fields will likely be more compressed in the transport region than in the laser absorption region. When fast electrons encounter increasing field strength, magnetic mirroring can reflect a substantial fraction of them and reduce coupling to the fuel. A hollow magnetic pipe, which peaks at a finite radius, is presented as one field configuration which circumvents mirroring.

  14. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energyadmin2015-05-14T22:34:50+00:00 Transportation Energy The national-level objective for the future is to create a carbon-neutral fleet that is powered by low-carbon US sources. Sandia delivers advanced technologies and design tools to the broad transportation sector in the following areas: Predictive Simulation of Engines Fuel sprays and their transition from the liquid to gas phase and computationally tractable models that capture the physics of combustion. Convergence of Biofuels and

  15. Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study. Vehicle Characterization and Scenario Analyses: Main Text and Appendices A, B, C, D, and F

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, Steve; Singh, Margaret; Patterson, Phil; Ward, Jake; Wood, Frances; Kydes, Niko; Holte, John; Moore, Jim; Miller, Grant; Das, Sujit; Greene, David

    2009-07-22

    This report provides details for Phase 2 of the Multi-Path Transportation Futures Study, which compares alternative ways to make significant reductions in oil use and carbon emissions from U.S. light vehicles to 2050. Phase I, completed in 2009, examined the full range of pathways of interest to EERE, with multiple scenarios aimed at revealing the issues and impacts associated with a national effort to reduce U.S. dependence on oil use in transportation. Phase 2 expanded the scope of the analysis by examining the interactive effects of multiple pathways on each other and on oil and feedstock prices, focusing far more on costs; and substantially increasing the number of metrics used to compare pathways and scenarios.

  16. Study of Risk Assessment Programs at Federal Agencies and Commercial Industry Related to the Conduct or Regulation of High Hazard Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bari, R.; Rosenbloom, S.; O'Brien, J.

    2011-03-13

    In the Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 2009-1, the DOE committed to studying the use of quantitative risk assessment methodologies at government agencies and industry. This study consisted of document reviews and interviews of senior management and risk assessment staff at six organizations. Data were collected and analyzed on risk assessment applications, risk assessment tools, and controls and infrastructure supporting the correct usage of risk assessment and risk management tools. The study found that the agencies were in different degrees of maturity in the use of risk assessment to support the analysis of high hazard operations and to support decisions related to these operations. Agencies did not share a simple, 'one size fits all' approach to tools, controls, and infrastructure needs. The agencies recognized that flexibility was warranted to allow use of risk assessment tools in a manner that is commensurate with the complexity of the application. The study also found that, even with the lack of some data, agencies application of the risk analysis structured approach could provide useful insights such as potential system vulnerabilities. This study, in combination with a companion study of risk assessment programs in the DOE Offices involved in high hazard operations, is being used to determine the nature and type of controls and infrastructure needed to support risk assessments at the DOE.

  17. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phase membranes have been evaluated for structural properties. An increasing crack growth resistance was observed for the membranes heat-treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} with increasing crack length. The combined effect of thermal and elastic mismatch stresses on the crack path was studied and the fracture behavior of the dual phase composite at the test conditions was analyzed. Ceramic/metal (C/M) seals are needed to form a leak-tight interface between the OTM and a nickel-base super alloy. It was concluded that Ni-based brazing alloys provided the best option in terms of brazing temperature and final operating conditions after analyzing several possible brazing systems. A mechanical testing procedure has been developed. This model was tested with model ceramic/metal systems but it is expected to be useful for testing concentric perovskite/metal seals.

  18. Is spin transport through molecules really occurring in organic spin valves? A combined magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbiati, Marta; Tatay, Sergio; Delprat, Sophie; Khanh, Hung Le; Deranlot, Cyrile; Collin, Sophie; Seneor, Pierre Mattana, Richard Petroff, Frédéric

    2015-02-23

    Molecular and organic spintronics is an emerging research field which combines the versatility of chemistry with the non-volatility of spintronics. Organic materials have already proved their potential as tunnel barriers (TBs) or spacers in spintronics devices showing sizable spin valve like magnetoresistance effects. In the last years, a large effort has been focused on the optimization of these organic spintronics devices. Insertion of a thin inorganic tunnel barrier (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO) at the bottom ferromagnetic metal (FM)/organic interface seems to improve the spin transport efficiency. However, during the top FM electrode deposition, metal atoms are prone to diffuse through the organic layer and potentially short-circuit it. This may lead to the formation of a working but undesired FM/TB/FM magnetic tunnel junction where the organic plays no role. Indeed, establishing a protocol to demonstrate the effective spin dependent transport through the organic layer remains a key issue. Here, we focus on Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Alq{sub 3}/Co junctions and show that combining magnetoresistance and inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy measurements one can sort out working “organic” and short-circuited junctions fabricated on the same wafer.

  19. Divertor impurity injection using high voltage arcs for impurity transport studies on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggate, H. J. Turner, M. M.; Lisgo, S. W.; Harrison, J. R.; Elmore, S.; Allan, S. Y.; Gaffka, R. C.; Stephen, R. C.

    2014-12-15

    The operation of next-generation fusion reactors will be significantly affected by impurity transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL). Current modelling efforts are restricted by a lack of detailed data on impurity transport in the SOL. In order to address this, a carbon injector has been designed and installed on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The injector creates short lived carbon plumes originating at the MAST divertor lasting less than 50 μs. High voltage capacitor banks are used to create a discharge across concentric carbon electrodes located in a probe mounted on the Divertor Science Facility in the MAST lower divertor. This results in a very short plume duration allowing observation of the evolution of the plume and precise localisation of the plume relative to the X-point on MAST. The emission from the carbon plume was imaged using fast visible cameras filtered in order to isolate the carbon II and carbon III emission lines centered around 514 nm and 465 nm.

  20. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  1. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  2. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore » one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  3. Observation of complete space-charge-limited transport in metal-oxide-graphene heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Wang, Guang; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn; Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn

    2015-01-12

    The metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures have abundant physical connotations. As one of the most important physical properties, the electric transport property of the gold-chromium oxide-graphene heterostructure has been studied. The experimental measurement shows that the conductive mechanism is dominated by the space-charge-limited transport, a kind of bulk transport of an insulator with charge traps. Combining the theoretical analysis, some key parameters such as the carrier mobility and trap energy also are obtained. The study of the characteristics of the metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures is helpful to investigate the graphene-based electronic and photoelectric devices.

  4. Aerosol transport and wet scavenging in deep convective clouds: a case study and model evaluation using a multiple passive tracer analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Easter, Richard C.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Jimenez, Jose L.; Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Hailong; Berg, Larry K.; Barth, Mary; Liu, Ying; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Singh, Balwinder; Morrison, H.; Fan, Jiwen; Ziegler, Conrad L.; Bela, Megan; Apel, Eric; Diskin, G. S.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Wisthaler, Armin

    2015-08-20

    The effect of wet scavenging on ambient aerosols in deep, continental convective clouds in the mid-latitudes is studied for a severe storm case in Oklahoma during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign. A new passive-tracer based transport analysis framework is developed to characterize the convective transport based on the vertical distribution of several slowly reacting and nearly insoluble trace gases. The passive gas concentration in the upper troposphere convective outflow results from a mixture of 47% from the lower level (0-3 km), 21% entrained from the upper troposphere, and 32% from mid-atmosphere based on observations. The transport analysis framework is applied to aerosols to estimate aerosol transport and wet-scavenging efficiency. Observations yield high overall scavenging efficiencies of 81% and 68% for aerosol mass (Dp < 1μm) and aerosol number (0.03< Dp < 2.5μm), respectively. Little chemical selectivity to wet scavenging is seen among observed submicron sulfate (84%), organic (82%), and ammonium (80%) aerosols, while nitrate has a much lower scavenging efficiency of 57% likely due to the uptake of nitric acid. Observed larger size particles (0.15 - 2.5μm) are scavenged more efficiently (84%) than smaller particles (64%; 0.03 - 0.15μm). The storm is simulated using the chemistry version of the WRF model. Compared to the observation based analysis, the standard model underestimates the wet scavenging efficiency for both mass and number concentrations with low biases of 31% and 40%, respectively. Adding a new treatment of secondary activation significantly improves simulation results, so that the bias in scavenging efficiency in mass and number concentrations is reduced to <10%. This supports the hypothesis that secondary activation is an important process for wet removal of aerosols in deep convective storms.

  5. Edge transport studies in the edge and scrape-off layer of the National Spherical Torus Experiment with Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boedo, J. A. Rudakov, D. L.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.; Zweben, S.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R. J.; Bell, R.; Kugel, H.; Leblanc, B.; Roquemore, L. A.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J. W.; Canik, J.; Crocker, N.

    2014-04-15

    Transport and turbulence profiles were directly evaluated using probes for the first time in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] in low (L) and high (H) confinement, low power (P{sub in}? 1.3?MW), beam-heated, lower single-null discharges. Radial turbulent particle fluxes peak near the last closed flux surface (LCFS) at ?410{sup 21}?s{sup ?1} in L-mode and are suppressed to ?0.210{sup 21}?s{sup ?1} in H mode (80%90% lower) mostly due to a reduction in density fluctuation amplitude and of the phase between density and radial velocity fluctuations. The radial particle fluxes are consistent with particle inventory based on SOLPS fluid modeling. A strong intermittent component is identified. Hot, dense plasma filaments 410?cm in diameter, appear first ?2?cm inside the LCFS at a rate of ?110{sup 21}?s{sup ?1} and leave that region with radial speeds of ?35?km/s, decaying as they travel through the SOL, while voids travel inward toward the core. Profiles of normalized fluctuations feature levels of 10% inside LCFS to ?150% at the LCFS and SOL. Once properly normalized, the intermittency in NSTX falls in similar electrostatic instability regimes as seen in other devices. The L-H transition causes a drop in the intermittent filaments velocity, amplitude and number in the SOL, resulting in reduced outward transport away from the edge and a less dense SOL.

  6. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  7. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years: Oral history of physician James S. Robertson, M.D., Ph.D., conducted January 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This report is a transcript of in interview of Dr. James S. Robertson by representatives of the DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Dr. Robertson was chosen for this interview because of his research at Brookhaven National Laboratory, especially on Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT); his work at the United States Naval Defense Laboratory; and his work at the Atomic Energy Commission. After a brief biographical sketch Dr. Robertson discusses research on human subjects at Berkeley, his contributions to the beginnings of Neutron Capture Therapy at Brookhaven, his participation with the Brookhaven Human Use Committee, his involvement in the study of the effects of Castle Bravo event on the Marshallese, and his work with the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory.

  8. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  9. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education: A guide to record series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-17

    This guide describes record series that pertain to epidemiologic and health-related studies at the Center for Epidemiologic Research (CER) of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). These records document the health and safety monitoring of employees and contract employees of the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED), the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of the DOE and its epidemiologic research program, and the history of the Oak Ridge Reservation and the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. It also furnishes information on the procedures that HAI sued to select, inventory, and describe pertinent records; the methodology used to produce the guide; the arrangement of the record series descriptions; the location of the records; and procedures for accessing records repositories.

  10. Report on the research conducted under the funding of the Sloan foundation postdoctoral fellowship in Computational Molecular Biology [Systematic study of protein-protein complexes] Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheinerman, Felix

    2001-06-01

    A central question in molecular biology is what structural features are common at protein-protein interfaces and what energetic factors define the affinity and specificity of protein-protein association. Analysis of structural and mutational data on protein-protein interfaces revealed that protein-protein interfaces of different functional classes contain many more energetically important charged and polar residues than was previously thought. Since, in the context of protein folding studies, polar interactions are believed to destabilize the folded proteins, this observation raised the question as to the forces that determine the stability of protein complexes. To investigate this issue in detail, the authors developed a number of partitioning schemes that allowed them to investigate the role of selected residues, ion pairs, and networks of polar interactions in protein-protein association. The methods developed were applied to the analysis of four different protein-protein interfaces: the ribonuclease barnase and its inhibitor barstar, the human growth hormone and its receptor, subtype N9 influenze virus neuraminidase and NC41 antibody, and the Ras Binding Domain of kinase cRaf and a Ras homologue Rap1A. The calculations revealed a surprising variability in how polar interactions affect the stability of different complexes. The finding that positions of charged and polar residues on protein-protein interfaces are optimized with respect to electrostatic interactions suggests that this property can be employed for the discrimination between native conformations and trial complexes generated by a docking algorithm. Analysis indicated the presence of SH2 domains in Janus family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases.

  11. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  12. Multiscale modeling of thermal conductivity of high burnup structures in UO2 fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bai, Xian -Ming; Tonks, Michael R.; Zhang, Yongfeng; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-12-22

    The high burnup structure forming at the rim region in UO2 based nuclear fuel pellets has interesting physical properties such as improved thermal conductivity, even though it contains a high density of grain boundaries and micron-size gas bubbles. To understand this counterintuitive phenomenon, mesoscale heat conduction simulations with inputs from atomistic simulations and experiments were conducted to study the thermal conductivities of a small-grain high burnup microstructure and two large-grain unrestructured microstructures. We concluded that the phonon scattering effects caused by small point defects such as dispersed Xe atoms in the grain interior must be included in order to correctlymore » predict the thermal transport properties of these microstructures. In extreme cases, even a small concentration of dispersed Xe atoms such as 10-5 can result in a lower thermal conductivity in the large-grain unrestructured microstructures than in the small-grain high burnup structure. The high-density grain boundaries in a high burnup structure act as defect sinks and can reduce the concentration of point defects in its grain interior and improve its thermal conductivity in comparison with its large-grain counterparts. Furthermore, an analytical model was developed to describe the thermal conductivity at different concentrations of dispersed Xe, bubble porosities, and grain sizes. Upon calibration, the model is robust and agrees well with independent heat conduction modeling over a wide range of microstructural parameters.« less

  13. Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly This report describes a test of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly on a truck trailer conducted to simulate normal conditions of truck transport. The purpose of the test was to measure strains and accelerations on a Zircaloy-4 fuel rod during the transport of the assembly on the truck. This test complements tests conducted

  14. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  16. Numerical and experimental study of atomic transport and Balmer line intensity in Linac4 negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, T. Nishida, K.; Hatayama, A.; Mattei, S.; Lettry, J.

    2015-04-08

    Time structure of Balmer H{sub ?} line intensity in Linac4 RF plasma has been analyzed by the combined simulation model of atomic transport and Collisional-Radiative models. As a preliminary result, time variation of the line intensity in the ignition phase of RF plasma is calculated and compared with the experimental results by photometry. For the comparison, spatial distribution of the local H{sub ?} photon emission rate at each time is calculated from the numerical model. The contribution of the local photon emission rates to the observed line intensity via optical viewing port is also investigated by application of the mock-up of the optical viewing port and the known light source. It has been clarified from the analyses that the higher and the lower peaks of the H{sub ?} line intensity observed during 1 RF cycle is mainly due to the different spatial distributions in the electron energy distribution function and the resultant local photon emission rate. These results support previous suggestion that the existence of the capacitive electric field in axial direction leads to the higher/lower peaks of the line intensity.

  17. Neutron diffraction and electrical transport studies on magnetic ordering in terbium at high pressures and low temperatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; Chesnut, Gary N.; Weir, Samuel T.; Tulk, Christopher A.; dos Santos, Antonio M.

    2013-06-11

    Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been carried out on the heavy rare earth metal terbium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate the onset of ferromagnetic order as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in slope as the temperature is lowered through the ferromagnetic Curie temperature. The temperature of this ferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 240 K at ambient pressure at a rate of –16.7 K/GPa up to a pressure of 3.6 GPa, at which point the onset of ferromagnetic order is suppressed. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function ofmore » pressure at temperatures ranging from 90 K to 290 K confirm that the change of slope in the resistance is associated with the ferromagnetic ordering, since this occurs at pressures similar to those determined from the resistance results at these temperatures. Furthermore, a change in ferromagnetic ordering as the pressure is increased above 3.6 GPa is correlated with the phase transition from the ambient hexagonal close packed (hcp) structure to an α-Sm type structure at high pressures.« less

  18. Computed tomography and optical remote sensing: Development for the study of indoor air pollutant transport and dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, A.C.

    1995-06-01

    This thesis investigates the mixing and dispersion of indoor air pollutants under a variety of conditions using standard experimental methods. It also extensively tests and improves a novel technique for measuring contaminant concentrations that has the potential for more rapid, non-intrusive measurements with higher spatial resolution than previously possible. Experiments conducted in a sealed room support the hypothesis that the mixing time of an instantaneously released tracer gas is inversely proportional to the cube root of the mechanical power transferred to the room air. One table-top and several room-scale experiments are performed to test the concept of employing optical remote sensing (ORS) and computed tomography (CT) to measure steady-state gas concentrations in a horizontal plane. Various remote sensing instruments, scanning geometries and reconstruction algorithms are employed. Reconstructed concentration distributions based on existing iterative CT techniques contain a high degree of unrealistic spatial variability and do not agree well with simultaneously gathered point-sample data.

  19. Structural and conductivity studies of CsK(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.32}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.68}Te(OH){sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djemel, M.; Abdelhedi, M.; Dammak, M.; Kolsi, A.W.

    2012-12-15

    The compound CsK(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.32}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.68}Te(OH){sub 6} crystallizes in the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/n space group. It was analyzed, at room temperature, using X-ray diffractometer data. The main feature of these atomic arrangements is the coexistence of three and different anions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and TeO{sub 6}{sup 6-}groups) in the unit cell, connected by hydrogen bonds which make the building of the crystal. The thermal analysis of the title compound shows three distinct endothermal peaks at 435, 460 and 475 K. Complex impedance measurements are performed on this material as a function of both temperature and frequency. The electric conduction has been studied. The temperature dependence on the conductivity indicates that the sample became an ionic conductor at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: Projection of crystal structure CsK(SO{sub 4}){sub 0.32}(SeO{sub 4}){sub 0.68}Te(OH){sub 6} on the ab plane. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied the results of the crystal structure of the new mixed compound. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have characterized the phase transition observed in DSC curve. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protonic conduction in our material is probably due to a hopping mechanism.

  20. Fermilab | Visit Fermilab | Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Transportation to and from Chicago O'Hare Airport or Midway Airport is available by limousine, taxi or car rental. Transportation to and from the Geneva local...

  1. Transportation Infrastructure

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 Archive Transportation Fact of the Week - 2009 Archive #603 Where Does Lithium Come From? December 28, 2009 #602 Freight Statistics by Mode, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey December 21, 2009 #601 World Motor Vehicle Production December 14, 2009 #600 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 December 7, 2009 #599 Historical Trend for Light Vehicle Sales November 30, 2009 #598 Hybrid Vehicle Sales by Model November 23, 2009 #597 Median Age of Cars and Trucks Rising in 2008 November 16, 2009

  2. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport properties of liquid sodium that have been assessed include: viscosity and thermal conductivity. For each property, recommended values and their uncertainties are graphed ...

  3. Chernobyl Studies Project. Working Group 7.0, environmental transport and health effects. Progress report, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, S.M.

    1994-04-01

    The focus of the Chernobyl Studies Project has now turned to the issue of health effects from the Chernobyl accident. Currently, we are involved in and making progress on the case-control and co-hort studies of thyroid diseases among Belarussian children. Dosimetric aspects are a fundamental part of these studies. We are working to implement similar studies in Ukraine. A major part of the effort of these projects is supporting these studies, both by providing methods and applications of dose reconstruction and by providing support and equipment for the medical teams.

  4. Reliability of Transport Properties for Bulk Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents international round-robin study to ensure quality of transport data and figure of merit of thermoelectric materials

  5. Guide for Conducting Energy Efficiency Potential Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    Provides guidance on determining the efficiency potential in a utility footprint, state, or region; evaluating efficiency as a supply-side resource; and developing detailed efficiency program plans.

  6. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marat Khafizov; Clarissa Yablinsky; Todd Allen; David Hurley

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the influence of proton irradiation on thermal conductivity in single crystal silicon. We apply laser based modulated thermoreflectance technique to extract the change in conductivity of the thin layer damaged by proton irradiation. Unlike time domain thermoreflectance techniques that require application of a metal film, we perform our measurement on uncoated samples. This provides greater sensitivity to the change in conductivity of the thin damaged layer. Using sample temperature as a parameter provides a means to deduce the primary defect structures that limit thermal transport. We find that under high temperature irradiation the degradation of thermal conductivity is caused primarily by extended defects.

  7. First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui

    2015-01-14

    There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ?10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

  8. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-08-23

    TRANSIMS version 3.1 is an integrated set of analytical and simulation models and supporting databases. The system is designed to create a virtual metropolitan region with representation of each of the region’s individuals, their activities and the transportation infrastructure they use. TRANSIMS puts into practice a new, disaggregate approach to travel demand modeling using agent-based micro-simulation technology. TRANSIMS methodology creates a virtual metropolitan region with representation of the transportation infrastructure and the population, at themore » level of households and individual travelers. Trips a planned to satisfy the population’s activity pattems at the individual traveler level. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of travelers and vehicles across the transportation network using multiple modes, including car, transit, bike and walk, on a second-by-second basis. Metropolitan planners must plan growth of their cities according to the stringent transportation system planning requirements of the Interniodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other similar laws and regulations. These require each state and its metropotitan regions to work together to develop short and long term transportation improvement plans. The plans must (1) estimate the future transportation needs for travelers and goods movements, (2) evaluate ways to manage and reduce congestion, (3) examine the effectiveness of building new roads and transit systems, and (4) limit the environmental impact of the various strategies. The needed consistent and accurate transportation improvement plans require an analytical capability that properly accounts for travel demand, human behavior, traffic and transit operations, major investments, and environmental effects. Other existing planning tools use aggregated information and representative behavior to predict average response and average use of transportation facilities. They do not account for individual traveler response to the dynamic transportation environment. In contrast, TRANSIMS provides disaggregated information that more explicitly represents the complex nature of humans interacting with the transportation system. It first generates a synthetic population that represents individuals and their households in the metropolitan region in a statistically valid way. The demographic makeup and spatial distribution of this synthetic population is derived from census data so that it matches that of the region’s real population. From survey data, a model is built of household and individual activities that may occur at home, in the workplace, school or shopping centers, for example. Trip plans including departure times, travel modes, and specific routes are created for each individual to get to his or her daily activities. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of millions of individuals, following their trip plans throughout the transportation network, including their use of vehicles such as cars or buses, on a second-by-second basis. The virtual travel in TRANSIMS mimics the traveling and driving behavior of real people in the metropolitan region. The interactions of individual vehicles produce realistic traffic dynamics from which analysts can judge to performance of the transportation sysime and estimate vehicle emissions. Los Alamos, in cooperation with the Department of Transportation, Federal HIghway Administration and the local Metropolitan Planning Offices, has done TRANSIMS micro-simulations of auto traffic patterns in these two urban areas and completed associated scenario-based studies.« less

  9. Redox probing study of the potential dependence of charge transport through Li2O2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudsen, Kristian B.; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren H.; Vegge, Tejs; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-11-20

    In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li–O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state-of-the-art Li-ion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li–O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous electron transfer exchange rate as a function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (~depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing evidence that hole transport is the dominant process for charge transfer through Li2O2 and showing that the origin of the sudden death observed upon discharge is due to charge transport limitations.

  10. Transportation Fuel Supply | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment Sector (NAICS 336) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint PDF icon Transportation Equipment More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Transportation Equipment

    SheetsTransportation Fuel Supply content top

  11. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  12. Unusual Enhancement in Intrinsic Thermal Conductivity of Multilayer Graphene by Tensile Strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Youdi; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Huang, Baoling

    2015-01-01

    High basal plane thermal conductivity k of multi-layer graphene makes it promising for thermal management applications. Here we examine the effects of tensile strain on thermal transport in this system. Using a first principles Boltzmann-Peierls equation for phonon transport approach, we calculate the room-temperature in-plane lattice k of multi-layer graphene (up to four layers) and graphite under different isotropic tensile strains. The calculated in-plane k of graphite, finite mono-layer graphene and 3-layer graphene agree well with previous experiments. The dimensional transitions of the intrinsic k and the extent of the diffusive transport regime from mono-layer graphene to graphite are presented. We find a peak enhancement of intrinsic k for multi-layer graphene and graphite with increasing strain and the largest enhancement amplitude is about 40%. In contrast the calculated intrinsic k with tensile strain decreases for diamond and diverges for graphene, we show that the competition between the decreased mode heat capacities and the increased lifetimes of flexural phonons with increasing strain contribute to this k behavior. Similar k behavior is observed for 2-layer hexagonal boron nitride systems, suggesting that it is an inherent thermal transport property in multi-layer systems assembled of purely two dimensional atomic layers. This study provides insights into engineering k of multi-layer graphene and boron nitride by strain and into the nature of thermal transport in quasi-two-dimensional and highly anisotropic systems.

  13. Experimental and numerical study of gas dynamic window for electron beam transport into the space with increased pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skovorodko, P. A.; Sharafutdinov, R. G.

    2014-12-09

    The paper is devoted to experimental and numerical study of the gas jet technical device for obtaining axisymmetric flow with low pressure in its near axis region. The studied geometry of the device is typical of that used in the plasma generator consisting of an electron gun with a hollow (plasma) cathode and a double supersonic ring nozzle. The geometry of the nozzles as well as the relation between the gas flow rates through the nozzles providing the electron beam extraction into the region with increased pressure are tested both experimentally and numerically. The maximum external pressure of about 0.25 bar that does not disturb the electron beam is achieved.

  14. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  15. Tunnel magnetoresistance and linear conductance of double quantum dots

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    strongly coupled to ferromagnetic leads (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Tunnel magnetoresistance and linear conductance of double quantum dots strongly coupled to ferromagnetic leads Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Tunnel magnetoresistance and linear conductance of double quantum dots strongly coupled to ferromagnetic leads We analyze the spin-dependent linear-response transport properties of double quantum dots strongly coupled to external ferromagnetic leads. By using the

  16. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  17. TEMPEST Simulations of the Plasma Transport in a Single-Null Tokamak Geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    X. Q. Xu; Bodi, K.; Cohen, R. H.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2010-05-28

    We present edge kinetic ion transport simulations of tokamak plasmas in magnetic divertor geometry using the fully nonlinear (full-f) continuum code TEMPEST. Besides neoclassical transport, a term for divergence of anomalous kinetic radial flux is added to mock up the effect of turbulent transport. In order to study the relative roles of neoclassical and anomalous transport, TEMPEST simulations were carried out for plasma transport and flow dynamics in a single-null tokamak geometry, including the pedestal region that extends across the separatrix into the scrape-off layer and private flux region. In a series of TEMPEST simulations were conducted to investigate themore » transition of midplane pedestal heat flux and flow from the neoclassical to the turbulent limit and the transition of divertor heat flux and flow from the kinetic to the fluid regime via an anomalous transport scan and a density scan. The TEMPEST simulation results demonstrate that turbulent transport (as modelled by large diffusion) plays a similar role to collisional decorrelation of particle orbits and that the large turbulent transport (large diffusion) leads to an apparent Maxwellianization of the particle distribution. Moreover, we show the transition of parallel heat flux and flow at the entrance to the divertor plates from the fluid to the kinetic regime. For an absorbing divertor plate boundary condition, a non-half-Maxwellian is found due to the balance between upstream radial anomalous transport and energetic ion endloss.« less

  18. Size effects on the thermal conductivity of amorphous silicon thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thomas Edwin Beechem; Braun, Jeffrey L.; Baker, Christopher H.; Elahi, Miraz; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Norris, Pamela M.; Leseman, Zayd Chad; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E.; Giri, Ashutosh

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigate thickness-limited size effects on the thermal conductivity of amorphous silicon thin films ranging from 3 to 1636 nm grown via sputter deposition. While exhibiting a constant value up to ~100 nm, the thermal conductivity increases with film thickness thereafter. The thickness dependence we demonstrate is ascribed to boundary scattering of long wavelength vibrations and an interplay between the energy transfer associated with propagating modes (propagons) and nonpropagating modes (diffusons). A crossover from propagon to diffuson modes is deduced to occur at a frequency of ~1.8 THz via simple analytical arguments. These results provide empirical evidencemore » of size effects on the thermal conductivity of amorphous silicon and systematic experimental insight into the nature of vibrational thermal transport in amorphous solids.« less

  19. Field studies of the potential for wind transport of plutonium- contaminated soils at sites in Areas 6 and 11, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, N.; Bamford, R.; Metzger, S.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes and documents a series of field experiments carried out in Areas 6 and 11 of the Nevada Test Site in June and July 1994 to determine parameters of boundary layer winds, surface characteristics, and vegetation cover that can be used to predict dust emissions from the affected sites. Aerodynamic roughness of natural sites is determined largely by the lateral cover of the larger and more permanent roughness elements (shrubs). These provide a complete protection of the surface from wind erosion. Studies using a field-portable wind tunnel demonstrated that natural surfaces in the investigated areas of the Nevada Test Site are stable except at very high wind speeds (probably higher than normally occur, except perhaps in dust devils). However, disturbance of silty-clay surfaces by excavation devices and vehicles reduces the entrainment threshold by approximately 50% and makes these areas potentially very susceptible to wind erosion and transport of sediments.

  20. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk

    2014-02-15

    The RHIC polarized H{sup ?} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ?0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce geometrical beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  1. Dependence of dynamic magnetization and magneto-transport properties of FeAlSi films with oblique sputtering studied via spin rectification effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, C. K.; Zhong, Xiaoxi

    2014-09-15

    FeAlSi (Sendust) is known to possess excellent soft magnetic properties comparable to traditional soft magnetic alloys such as NiFe (Permalloy), while having a relatively higher resistance for lower eddy current losses. However, their dynamic magnetic and magneto-transport properties are not well-studied. Via the spin rectification effect, we electrically characterize a series of obliquely sputtered FeAlSi films at ferromagnetic resonance. The variations of the anisotropy fields and damping with oblique angle are extracted and discussed. In particular, two-magnon scattering is found to dominate the damping behavior at high oblique angles. An analysis of the results shows large anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magneto-resistance across all samples, which decreases sharply with increasing oblique incidence.

  2. Structure, magnetic, and transport properties of epitaxial ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films: An experimental and first-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Chao; Li, Peng; Mi, Wenbo; Bai, Haili

    2014-06-07

    We investigated the structure, magnetic, and transport properties of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (ZFO) by both experimental and first-principles study. The epitaxial ZFO films prepared with various oxygen partial pressures show clear semiconducting behavior and room-temperature ferrimagnetism. A large magnetoresistance of −21.2% was observed at 75 K. The room-temperature ferrimagnetism is induced by the cation disordering. The calculated results indicate that under cation disordering, the ZFO with various oxygen vacancies is a half-metal semiconductor with both possible positive and negative signs of the spin polarization, while ZFO with no oxygen vacancies is an insulator and can be acted as the spin filter layer in spintronic devises.

  3. Contributions of anharmonic phonon interactions to thermal boundary conductance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Patrick E.; Norris, Pamela M.; Duda, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Continued reduction of characteristic dimensions in nanosystems has given rise to increasing importance of material interfaces on the overall system performance. With regard to thermal transport, this increases the need for a better fundamental understanding of the processes affecting interfacial thermal transport, as characterized by the thermal boundary conductance. When thermal boundary conductance is driven by phononic scattering events, accurate predictions of interfacial transport must account for anharmonic phononic coupling as this affects the thermal transmission. In this paper, a new model for phononic thermal boundary conductance is developed that takes into account anharonic coupling, or inelastic scattering events, at the interface between two materials. Previous models for thermal boundary conductance are first reviewed, including the Diffuse Mismatch Model, which only consdiers elastic phonon scattering events, and earlier attempts to account for inelastic phonon scattering, namely, the Maximum Transmission Model and the Higher Harmonic Inelastic model. A new model is derived, the Anharmonic Inelastic Model, which provides a more physical consideration of the effects of inelastic scattering on thermal boundary conductance. This is accomplished by considering specific ranges of phonon frequency interactions and phonon number density conservation. Thus, this model considers the contributions of anharmonic, inelastically scattered phonons to thermal boundary conductance. This new Anharmonic Inelastic Model shows excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data at the Pb/diamond interface due to its ability to account for the temperature dependent changing phonon population in diamond, which can couple anharmonically with multiple phonons in Pb.

  4. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn withinmore » the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  5. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  6. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  7. Bounds on Transport Coefficients of Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J G

    2005-03-21

    An analytical formulation of conductivity bounds by Bergman and Milton is used in a different way to obtain rigorous bounds on the real transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and/or fluid permeability) of a fluid-saturated porous medium. These bounds do not depend explicitly on the porosity, but rather on two formation factors--one associated with the pore space and the other with the solid frame. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for transport in random polycrystals of porous-material laminates will also be discussed.

  8. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil...

  9. Twenty-channel bolometer array for studying impurity radiation and transport in the TCS field-reversed configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostora, M. R.; Hsu, S. C.; Wurden, G. A.

    2006-10-15

    A bolometer array diagnostic has been developed for the University of Washington Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment (TCS) field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment in order to measure radially resolved total radiated power per unit length of the FRC. This will provide radiation energy loss information, useful in power balance and impurity studies. The 20-element photodiode bolometer will be mounted at the midplane of the TCS cylindrical vacuum chamber to view the rotating magnetic field (RMF) generated FRC plasma. Key features of this new bolometer array are (1) extensive electrical shielding against the RMF, (2) robust electrical isolation, (3) trans-impedance amplifiers using a microcoax interface at the array and a fiber optic interface to the screen room, and (4) a custom glass-on-metal socket for the 20-element photodiode chip to ensure high vacuum compatibility. The bolometer array can be retracted behind a gate valve using a stepper motor to protect it during vacuum chamber bakeout. The slit assembly housing is interchangeable to provide flexibility for the viewing sightlines.

  10. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transportation Security Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security PDF icon Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transportation Security More Documents & Publications Enterprise Assessments Assessment of Selected Conduct of Operations Processes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - April 2016 Accident Investigation of the February 5, 2014, Underground Salt Haul Truck Fire at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad NM Accident Investigation Report - Fire Report

  11. EO 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Management (2007) | Department of Energy 423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management (2007) EO 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management (2007) It is the policy of the United States that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities under the law in support of their respective missions in an environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continuously

  12. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  13. Modeling non-steady state radioisotope transport in the vadose zone--A case study using uranium isotopes at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, T. L.; Luo, S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Chu, W. L.; Dobson, P. F.

    2009-06-01

    Current models using U- and Th-series disequilibria to study radioisotope transport in groundwater systems mostly consider a steady-state situation. These models have limited applicability to the vadose zone (UZ) where the concentration and migratory behavior of radioisotopes in fluid are often transitory. We present here, as a first attempt of its kind, a model simulating the non-steady state, intermittent fluid transport in vadose layers. It provides quantitative constraints on in-situ migration of dissolved and colloidal radioisotopes in terms of retardation factor and rock-water interaction (or water transit) time. For uranium, the simulation predicts that intermittent flushing in the UZ leads to a linear relationship between reciprocal U concentration and {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratio in percolating waters, with the intercept and slope bearing information on the rates of dissolution and {alpha}-recoil of U isotopes, respectively. The general validity of the model appears to be borne out by the measurement of uranium isotopes in UZ waters collected at various times over a period during 1995-2006 from a site in the Pena Blanca mining district, Mexico, where the Nopal I uranium deposit is located. Enhanced {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U ratios in vadose-zone waters resulting from lengthened non-flushing time as prescribed by the model provide an interpretative basis for using {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U in cave calcites to reconstruct the regional changes in hydrology and climate. We also provide a theoretical account of the model's potential applications using radium isotopes.

  14. Transportation Systems Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MODELING Overview of TSM Transportation systems modeling research at TRACC uses the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis SIMulation System) traffic micro simulation code developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The TRANSIMS code represents the latest generation of traffic simulation codes developed jointly under multiyear programs by USDOT, the

  15. Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials (Prop. 2004-067)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Sharp, J

    2006-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important material property of the bulk thermoelectrics. To improve ZT a reduced thermal conductivity is always desired. However, there is no standard material for thermoelectrics and the test results, even on the same material, often show significant scatter. The scatter in thermal conductivity made reported ZT values uncertain and sometime unrepeatable. One of the reasons for the uncertainty is due to the microstructure differences resulting from sintering, heat treatment and other processing parameters. They selected commonly used bulk thermoelectric materials and conducted thermal conductivity measurements using the laser flash diffusivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. Thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature of temperature from room temperature to 500 K and back to room temperature. The effect of thermal cycling on the bulk thermoelectric was studied. Comnbined with measurements on electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient, they show the use of a ZT map in selecting thermoelectrics. The commercial bulk material showed very good consistency and reliability compared to other bulk materials. The goal is to develop a thermal transport properties database for the bulk thermoelectrics and make the information available to the research community and industry.

  16. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Koren, Amy B.; Dourado, Sunil K.; Dulebohn, Joel I.; Hanchar, Robert J.

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  17. Thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, H.A.; Jury, S.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The three-region approximate solution for coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer and an exact solution for uncoupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in a grey semitransparent medium bounded by infinite parallel isothermal plates are employed to establish the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials on other material properties and boundary conditions. An application of the analyses which uses apparent thermal conductivity versus density data to predict the dependence of apparent thermal conductivity on temperature is demonstrated. The predictions for seven sets of R-11 fiberglass and rock wool insulations agree with published measured values to within the limits of experimental error (+- 3%). Agreement for three sets of R-19 fiberglass insulations was, however, not good.

  18. Electrical conductivity spectra of Sn doped BaTi{sub 0.95}Zr{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalal, Biswajit; Sarkar, Babusona; De, S. K.

    2014-05-28

    The alternating current (ac) conductivity spectra of Sn doped BaTi{sub 0.95}Zr{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} prepared by solid state reaction have been studied in the temperature range of 373–473 K. Mixed valency of Sn atoms and the oxygen vacancy controls electrical transport process. The ac conductivity follows Jonscher type power law as a function of frequency. Derived dc conductivity and hopping frequency follow Arrhenius type temperature dependency and have same activation energy. Almost temperature independent nature of frequency exponent indicates that the electrical conduction in Zr and Sn co-doped BaTiO{sub 3} relaxor is quantum mechanical electron tunneling. The conductivity spectra are perfectly scaled using the scaling parameters as dc conductivity and hopping frequency.

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power Electronics and Thermal Management Thermal Management This is the March 2016 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. March 31, 2016 Photo of a man seated before a microphone and speaking. NREL's Chris Gearhart provides congressional testimony on sustainable transportation. U.S. Senate Hears of Role National Labs Play in Sustainable Transportation Innovation On January 12, 2016, NREL's Chris Gearhart, director of the Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center, provided

  20. Gas sensing properties of magnesium doped SnO{sub 2} thin films in relation to AC conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deepa, S.; Skariah, Benoy Thomas, Boben; Joseph, Anisha

    2014-01-28

    Conducting magnesium doped (0 to 1.5 wt %) tin oxide thin films prepared by Spray Pyrolysis technique achieved detection of 1000 ppm of LPG. The films deposited at 304 C exhibit an enhanced response at an operating temperature of 350 C. The microstructural properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction. AC conductivity measurements are carried out using precision LCR meter to analyze the parameters that affect the variation in sensing. The results are correlated with compositional parameters and the subsequent modification in the charge transport mechanism facilitating an enhanced LPG sensing action.

  1. Morphology and Conductivity Relationship of Single-Ion-Conducting Block

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copolymer Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research May 15, 2014, Research Highlights Morphology and Conductivity Relationship of Single-Ion-Conducting Block Copolymer Electrolytes (Left) Microphase separation of PEO (red) and PSLiTFSI (blue) blocks at low temperature. Lithium ions are trapped in ion clusters (green). (Right) At high temperatures, block mixing occurs and lithium ions are released from clusters. Scientific Achievement Showed that an order to disorder transition

  2. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  3. Synchrotron micro-scale study of trace metal transport and distribution in Spartina alterniflora root system in Yangtze River intertidal zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Huan; Tappero, Ryan; Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Wenliang; Yu, Lizhong; Qian, Yu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jia -Jun; Eng, Christopher; Liu, Chang -Jun; Jones, Keith W.

    2015-07-26

    This study is focused on micro-scale measurement of metal (Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) distributions in Spartina alterniflora root system. The root samples were collected in the Yangtze River intertidal zone in July 2013. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF), computed microtomography (CMT), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques, which provide micro-meter scale analytical resolution, were applied to this study. Although it was found that the metals of interest were distributed in both epidermis and vascular tissue with the varying concentrations, the results showed that Fe plaque was mainly distributed in the root epidermis. Other metals (e.g., Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were correlated with Fe in the epidermis possibly due to scavenge by Fe plaque. Relatively high metal concentrations were observed in the root hair tip. As a result, this micro-scale investigation provides insights of understanding the metal uptake and spatial distribution as well as the function of Fe plaque governing metal transport in the root system.

  4. Synchrotron micro-scale study of trace metal transport and distribution in Spartina alterniflora root system in Yangtze River intertidal zone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feng, Huan; Tappero, Ryan; Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Wenliang; Yu, Lizhong; Qian, Yu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jia -Jun; Eng, Christopher; Liu, Chang -Jun; et al

    2015-07-26

    This study is focused on micro-scale measurement of metal (Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn) distributions in Spartina alterniflora root system. The root samples were collected in the Yangtze River intertidal zone in July 2013. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF), computed microtomography (CMT), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques, which provide micro-meter scale analytical resolution, were applied to this study. Although it was found that the metals of interest were distributed in both epidermis and vascular tissue with the varying concentrations, the results showed that Fe plaque was mainly distributed in the root epidermis. Other metals (e.g.,more » Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were correlated with Fe in the epidermis possibly due to scavenge by Fe plaque. Relatively high metal concentrations were observed in the root hair tip. As a result, this micro-scale investigation provides insights of understanding the metal uptake and spatial distribution as well as the function of Fe plaque governing metal transport in the root system.« less

  5. Parallel heat transport in integrable and chaotic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego B [ORNL; Chacon, Luis [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The study of transport in magnetized plasmas is a problem of fundamental interest in controlled fusion, space plasmas, and astrophysics research. Three issues make this problem particularly chal- lenging: (i) The extreme anisotropy between the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field), , and the perpendicular, , conductivities ( / may exceed 1010 in fusion plasmas); (ii) Magnetic field lines chaos which in general complicates (and may preclude) the construction of magnetic field line coordinates; and (iii) Nonlocal parallel transport in the limit of small collisionality. Motivated by these issues, we present a Lagrangian Green s function method to solve the local and non-local parallel transport equation applicable to integrable and chaotic magnetic fields in arbitrary geom- etry. The method avoids by construction the numerical pollution issues of grid-based algorithms. The potential of the approach is demonstrated with nontrivial applications to integrable (magnetic island chain), weakly chaotic (devil s staircase), and fully chaotic magnetic field configurations. For the latter, numerical solutions of the parallel heat transport equation show that the effective radial transport, with local and non-local closures, is non-diffusive, thus casting doubts on the appropriateness of the applicability of quasilinear diffusion descriptions. General conditions for the existence of non-diffusive, multivalued flux-gradient relations in the temperature evolution are derived.

  6. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-10-04

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established.

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Viswanathan; P. Reimus

    2003-09-05

    Colloid retardation is influenced by the attachment and detachment of colloids from immobile surfaces. This analysis demonstrates the development of parameters necessary to estimate attachment and detachment of colloids and, hence, retardation in both fractured tuff and porous alluvium. Field and experimental data specific to fractured tuff are used for the analysis of colloid retardation in fractured tuff. Experimental data specific to colloid transport in alluvial material from Yucca Mountain as well as bacteriophage field studies in alluvial material, which are thought to be good analogs for colloid transport, are used to estimate attachment and detachment of colloids in the alluvial material. There are no alternative scientific approaches or technical methods for calculating these retardation factors.

  8. GEOCENTRIFUGE STUDIES OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA, FINAL REPORT FOR GRANT NUMBER DE-FG02-03ER63567 TO THE UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO (RW SMITH), ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SCIENCE PROGRAM PROJECT NUMBER 86598, COUPLED FLOW AND REACTIVITY IN VARIABLY SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Smith; Carl D. Palmer; Earl D. Mattson

    2007-06-15

    Improved models of contaminant migration in heterogeneous, variably saturated porous media are required to better define the long-term stewardship requirements for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) lands and to assist in the design of effective vadose-zone barriers to contaminant migrations. The development of these improved models requires field and laboratory results to evaluate their efficacy. However, controlled laboratory experiments simulating vadose conditions can require extensive period of time, and often are conducted at condition near saturation rather than the much drier conditions common in many contaminated arid vadose zone sites. Collaborative research undertaken by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Idaho as part of this Environmental Management Science Program project focused on the development and evaluation of geocentrifuge techniques and equipment that allows vadose zone experiments to be conducted for relevant conditions in time frames not possible in conventional bench top experiments. A key and novel aspect of the research was the use of the 2-meter radius geocentrifuge capabilities at the Idaho National Laboratory to conduct unsaturated transport experiments. Specifically, the following activities were conducted ** Reviewing of the theory of unsaturated flow in the geocentrifuge to establish the range of centrifuge accelerations/experimental conditions and the translation of centrifuge results to 1 gravity applications. ** Designing, constructing, and testing of in-flight experimental apparatus allowing the replication of traditional bench top unsaturated transport experiments on the geocentrifuge. ** Performing unsaturated 1-dimenstional column geocentrifuge experiments using conservative tracers to evaluate the effects of increased centrifugal acceleration on derived transport properties and assessing the scaling relationships for these properties. Because the application of geocentrifuge techniques to vadose transport is in its infancy experimental apparatus such as pumps, flow meters, columns, fraction collectors, etc. that would reliably function under the increased self weight experienced on the centrifuge had to be developed and tested as part of this project. Although, we initially planed to conduct experiments using reactive tracer and 2-dimensional heterogeneities, the cost and time associated with designing, building, and testing of experimental apparatus limited our experimental program to conservative tracer experiments using 1-dimensional columns. The results we obtained in this study indicate that the geocentrifuge technique is a viable experimental method for the study of subsurface processes where gravitational acceleration is important. The geocentrifuge allows experiments to be completed more quickly than tests conducted at 1-g, can be used to experimentally address important scaling issues, and permits experiments under a range of conditions that would be difficult or impossible using conventional approaches. The application of the geocentrifuge approaches and associated models developed in this project allows more meaningful investigation of DOE relevant vadose-zone issues under scalable conditions in time frames previously not obtainable.

  9. Quantum transport through aromatic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojeda, J. H.; Rey-Gonzlez, R. R.; Laroze, D.

    2013-12-07

    In this paper, we study the electronic transport properties through aromatic molecules connected to two semi-infinite leads. The molecules are in different geometrical configurations including arrays. Using a nearest neighbor tight-binding approach, the transport properties are analyzed into a Green's function technique within a real-space renormalization scheme. We calculate the transmission probability and the Current-Voltage characteristics as a function of a molecule-leads coupling parameter. Our results show different transport regimes for these systems, exhibiting metal-semiconductor-insulator transitions and the possibility to employ them in molecular devices.

  10. Collapse of ferromagnetism in itinerant-electron system: A magnetic, transport properties, and high pressure study of (Hf,Ta)Fe{sub 2} compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diop, L. V. B. Isnard, O.; Kastil, J.; Arnold, Z.; Kamarad, J.

    2014-10-28

    The magnetism and transport properties were studied for Laves (Hf,Ta)Fe{sub 2} itinerant-electron compounds, which exhibit a temperature-induced first-order transition from the ferromagnetic (FM) to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state upon heating. At finite temperatures, the field-induced metamagnetic phase transition between the AFM and FM has considerable effects on the transport properties of these model metamagnetic compounds. A large negative magnetoresistance of about 14% is observed in accordance with the metamagnetic transition. The magnetic phase diagram is determined for the Laves Hf{sub 1?x}Ta{sub x}Fe{sub 2} series and its Ta concentration dependence discussed. An unusual behavior is revealed in the paramagnetic state of intermediate compositions, it gives rise to the rapid increase and saturation of the local spin fluctuations of the 3d electrons. This new result is analysed in the frame of the theory of Moriya. For a chosen composition Hf{sub 0.825}Ta{sub 0.175}Fe{sub 2}, exhibiting such remarkable features, a detailed investigation is carried out under hydrostatic pressure up to 1?GPa in order to investigate the volume effect on the magnetic properties. With increasing pressure, the magnetic transition temperature T{sub FM-AFM} from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic order decreases strongly non-linearly and disappears at a critical pressure of 0.75?GPa. In the pressure-induced AFM state, the field-induced first-order AFM-FM transition appears and the complex temperature dependence of the AFM-FM transition field is explained by the contribution from both the magnetic and elastic energies caused by the significant temperature variation of the amplitude of the local Fe magnetic moment. The application of an external pressure leads also to the progressive decrease of the Nel temperature T{sub N}. In addition, a large pressure effect on the spontaneous magnetization M{sub S} for pressures below 0.45?GPa, dln(M{sub s})/dP?=??6.3??10{sup ?2?}GPa{sup ?1} was discovered. The presented results are consistent with Moriya's theoretical predictions and can significantly help to better understand the underlying physics of itinerant electron magnetic systems nowadays widely investigated for both fundamental and applications purposes.

  11. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacementmore » damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.« less

  12. Thermal conductivity measurements via time-domain thermoreflectance for the characterization of radiation induced damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheaito, Ramez; Gorham, Caroline S.; Misra, Amit; Hattar, Khalid; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-05-01

    The progressive build up of displacement damage and fission products inside different systems and components of a nuclear reactor can lead to significant defect formation, degradation, and damage of the constituent materials. This structural modification can highly influence the thermal transport mechanisms and various mechanical properties of solids. In this paper we demonstrate the use of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR), a non-destructive method capable of measuring the thermal transport in material systems from nano to bulk scales, to study the effect of radiation damage and the subsequent changes in the thermal properties of materials. We use TDTR to show that displacement damage from ion irradiation can significantly reduce the thermal conductivity of Optimized ZIRLO, a material used as fuel cladding in several current nuclear reactors. We find that the thermal conductivity of copper-niobium nanostructured multilayers does not change with helium ion irradiation doses of up to 1015 cm-2 and ion energy of 200 keV suggesting that these structures can be used and radiation tolerant materials in nuclear reactors. We compare the effect of ion doses and ion beam energies on the measured thermal conductivity of bulk silicon. Results demonstrate that TDTR thermal measurements can be used to quantify depth dependent damage.

  13. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  14. Devices, systems, and methods for conducting sandwich assays using sedimentation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaff, Ulrich Y; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Hatch, Anson V

    2015-02-03

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting sandwich assays using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes on a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a capture agent, a target analyte, and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  15. Voltage tunability of thermal conductivity in ferroelectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Hopkins, Patrick Edward

    2016-02-09

    A method to control thermal energy transport uses mobile coherent interfaces in nanoscale ferroelectric films to scatter phonons. The thermal conductivity can be actively tuned, simply by applying an electrical potential across the ferroelectric material and thereby altering the density of these coherent boundaries to directly impact thermal transport at room temperature and above. The invention eliminates the necessity of using moving components or poor efficiency methods to control heat transfer, enabling a means of thermal energy control at the micro- and nano-scales.

  16. Enhanced ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto; Varela del Arco, Maria; Sefrioui, Z.; Iborra, Enrique; Leon, C.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Santamaria, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices used to generate energy out of hydrogen. In a fuel cell, two conducting electrodes are separated by an electrolyte that is permeable to ions (either hydrogen or oxygen, depending on the fuel-cell category) but not to electrons. An electrode catalytic process yields the ionic species, which are transported through the electrolyte, while electrons blocked by the electrolyte pass through the external circuit. Polymeric membrane (PEMFC) or phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operating at low temperatures are the preferred option for transportation because of their quite large efficiencies (50%), compared with gasoline combustion engines (25%). Other uses are also being considered, such as battery replacements for personal electronics and stationary or portable emergency power. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), operating at high temperatures, are a better option for stationary power generation because of their scalability. Here O{sup 2-} ions are the mobile species that travel at elevated temperatures (800-1000 C) through a solid electrolyte material to react with H{sup +} ions in the anode to produce water (Fig. 1). The high operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells are a major impediment to their widespread use in power generation. Thus, reducing this operating temperature is currently a major materials research goal, involving the search for novel electrolytes as well as active catalysts for electrode kinetics (oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation). Among oxide-ion conductors, those of anion-deficient fluorite structures such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), xY{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(1-x) ZrO{sub 2}, are extensively used as electrolytes in SOFCs. Doping with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is known to stabilize the cubic fluorite structure of ZrO{sub 2} and to supply the oxygen vacancies responsible for the ionic conduction. These materials are characterized by a large number of mobile oxygen vacancies, which are randomly distributed in the structure, and thus give rise to a completely disordered anion (oxygen) sublattice. Traditionally, the main strategy to reduce the operating temperature has been to search for novel electrolyte materials with larger oxide-ion conductivity values. Only recently has the use of artificial nanostructures appeared as a promising new direction for dramatically improved properties.

  17. Career Map: Transportation Worker

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wind Program's Career Map provides job description information for Transportation Worker positions.

  18. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  19. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Transportation Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Basics Compare Vehicle Technologies 3-D illustration of electric car diagramming energy storage, power electronics, and climate control components. The following links to the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provide an introduction to sustainable transportation. NREL research supports development of electric, hybrid, hydrogen fuel cell, biofuel, natural gas, and propane vehicle technologies. Learn more about vehicles, fuels, and transportation

  1. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation Deployment Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Deployment Support Photo of a car parked in front of a monument. A plug-in electric vehicle charges near the Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. Photo from Julie Sutor, NREL NREL's transportation deployment team works with vehicle fleets, fuel providers, and other transportation stakeholders to help deploy alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, fuel economy improvements, and fleet-level efficiencies that reduce emissions and petroleum dependence. In

  2. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter The Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter is a monthly electronic newsletter that provides information on NREL's research, development, and deployment of transportation and hydrogen technologies. Photo of a stack of newspapers March 2016 Issue Power Electronics and Thermal Management Read the latest issue of the newsletter. Subscribe: To receive new issues by email, subscribe to the newsletter. Archives: For past issues, read the newsletter archives.

  3. NREL: Transportation Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News NREL provides a number of transportation and hydrogen news sources. Transportation News Find news stories that highlight NREL's transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities, including work on vehicles and fuels. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells News Find news stories that highlight NREL's hydrogen RD&D activities, including work on fuel cell electric vehicle technologies. Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter Stay up to date on NREL's RD&D of transportation and

  4. DOE - Fossil Energy: Coal Mining and Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mining Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal Mining and Transportation Coal Miners - One type of mining, called "longwall mining", uses a rotating blade to shear coal away from the ...

  5. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  6. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  7. Planning and Conducting Readiness Reviews

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-06

    This Standard provides standardized methods and approaches for planning and conducting RRs. This Standard also provides guidance for preparation of exemption requests in accordance with DOE O 251.1C. DOE O 425.1D requirements for RRs apply both to responsible contractors and to DOE

  8. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; et al

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domainmore » thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.« less

  9. Measuring phonon mean free path distributions by probing quasiballistic phonon transport in grating nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Lingping; Collins, Kimberlee C.; Hu, Yongjie; Luckyanova, Maria N.; Maznev, Alexei A.; Huberman, Samuel; Chiloyan, Vazrik; Zhou, Jiawei; Huang, Xiaopeng; Nelson, Keith A.; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-27

    Heat conduction in semiconductors and dielectrics depends upon their phonon mean free paths that describe the average travelling distance between two consecutive phonon scattering events. Nondiffusive phonon transport is being exploited to extract phonon mean free path distributions. Here, we describe an implementation of a nanoscale thermal conductivity spectroscopy technique that allows for the study of mean free path distributions in optically absorbing materials with relatively simple fabrication and a straightforward analysis scheme. We pattern 1D metallic grating of various line widths but fixed gap size on sample surfaces. The metal lines serve as both heaters and thermometers in time-domain thermoreflectance measurements and simultaneously act as wiregrid polarizers that protect the underlying substrate from direct optical excitation and heating. We demonstrate the viability of this technique by studying length-dependent thermal conductivities of silicon at various temperatures. The thermal conductivities measured with different metal line widths are analyzed using suppression functions calculated from the Boltzmann transport equation to extract the phonon mean free path distributions with no calibration required. Furthermore, this table-top ultrafast thermal transport spectroscopy technique enables the study of mean free path spectra in a wide range of technologically important materials.

  10. Introducing thermally stable inter-tube defects to assist off-axial phonon transport in carbon nanotube films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Di; Wallace, Joseph; Gigax, Jonathan; Wang, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    Through integrated molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental studies, we demonstrated the feasibility of an ion-irradiation-and-annealing based phonon engineering technique to enhance thermal conductivity of carbon nanotube (CNT) films. Upon ion irradiation of CNT films, both inter-tube defects and intra-tube defects are introduced. Our MD simulations show that inter-tube defects created between neighboring tubes are much more stable than intra-tube defects created on tube graphitic planes. Upon thermal annealing, intra-tube defects are preferentially removed but inter-tube defects stay. Consequently, axial phonon transport increases due to reduced phonon scattering and off-axial phonon transport is sustained due to the high stability of inter-tube defects, leading to a conductivity enhancement upon annealing. The modeling predictions agree with experimental observations that thermal conductivities of CNT films were enhanced after 2?MeV hydrogen ion irradiations and conductivities were further enhanced upon post irradiation annealing.

  11. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  12. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung-Guen; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  13. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  14. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  15. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  16. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  17. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  18. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less

  19. Phase coherent transport in hollow InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenz, T.; Rosien, M.; Haas, F.; Rieger, T.; Lepsa, M. I.; Lüth, H.; Grützmacher, D.; Schäpers, Th.; Demarina, N.

    2014-09-15

    Hollow InAs nanowires are produced from GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires by wet chemical etching of the GaAs core. At room temperature, the resistivity of several nanowires is measured before and after removal of the GaAs core. The observed change in resistivity is explained by simulating the electronic states in both structures. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum transport in hollow InAs nanowires is studied. Flux periodic conductance oscillations are observed when the magnetic field is oriented parallel to the nanowire axis.

  20. Unusual Enhancement in Intrinsic Thermal Conductivity of Multilayer Graphene by Tensile Strains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuang, Youdi; Lindsay, Lucas R.; Huang, Baoling

    2015-01-01

    High basal plane thermal conductivity k of multi-layer graphene makes it promising for thermal management applications. Here we examine the effects of tensile strain on thermal transport in this system. Using a first principles Boltzmann-Peierls equation for phonon transport approach, we calculate the room-temperature in-plane lattice k of multi-layer graphene (up to four layers) and graphite under different isotropic tensile strains. The calculated in-plane k of graphite, finite mono-layer graphene and 3-layer graphene agree well with previous experiments. The dimensional transitions of the intrinsic k and the extent of the diffusive transport regime from mono-layer graphene to graphite are presented.more » We find a peak enhancement of intrinsic k for multi-layer graphene and graphite with increasing strain and the largest enhancement amplitude is about 40%. In contrast the calculated intrinsic k with tensile strain decreases for diamond and diverges for graphene, we show that the competition between the decreased mode heat capacities and the increased lifetimes of flexural phonons with increasing strain contribute to this k behavior. Similar k behavior is observed for 2-layer hexagonal boron nitride systems, suggesting that it is an inherent thermal transport property in multi-layer systems assembled of purely two dimensional atomic layers. This study provides insights into engineering k of multi-layer graphene and boron nitride by strain and into the nature of thermal transport in quasi-two-dimensional and highly anisotropic systems.« less

  1. STUDENTS WHO RECEIVED GRADUATE DEGREES FROM THESIS WORK CONDUCTED...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONDUCTED AT THE CYCLOTRON INSTITUTE April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2001 Name Year Thesis Title Advisor First Position Present Position Douglas Rowland 2000 A Study of the Projectile...

  2. Transportation scenarios for risk analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Ruth F.

    2010-09-01

    Transportation risk, like any risk, is defined by the risk triplet: what can happen (the scenario), how likely it is (the probability), and the resulting consequences. This paper evaluates the development of transportation scenarios, the associated probabilities, and the consequences. The most likely radioactive materials transportation scenario is routine, incident-free transportation, which has a probability indistinguishable from unity. Accident scenarios in radioactive materials transportation are of three different types: accidents in which there is no impact on the radioactive cargo, accidents in which some gamma shielding may be lost but there is no release of radioactive material, and accident in which radioactive material may potentially be released. Accident frequencies, obtainable from recorded data validated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, are considered equivalent to accident probabilities in this study. Probabilities of different types of accidents are conditional probabilities, conditional on an accident occurring, and are developed from event trees. Development of all of these probabilities and the associated highway and rail accident event trees are discussed in this paper.

  3. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2013-09-24

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  4. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2011-04-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  5. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-14

    The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Supersedes DOE O 460.1B.

  6. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials andor modal transport. Cancels DOE 1540.2 and DOE 5480.3

  7. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

  8. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-02

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

  9. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  10. PROTON-CONDUCTING DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. S. Lin; Scott Cheng; Vineet Gupta

    2003-12-01

    Dense perovskite-type structured ceramic membranes, SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm), of different thickness, were prepared by the dry-press method. Membrane thickness was varied from 3 mm to 150 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation flux was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the dense films, indicating that the bulk diffusion rather than the surface reaction played a dominant role in the H{sub 2} transport through these dense membranes within the studied thickness range. Hydrogen permeation flux increases with increasing upstream hydrogen partial pressure and decreasing downstream hydrogen partial pressure. The activation energy for hydrogen permeation through the SCTm membrane is about 116 kJ/mol in 600-700 C and 16 kJ/mol in 750-950 C. This indicates a change in the electrical and protonic conduction mechanism at around 700 C. Pd-Cu thin films were synthesized with elemental palladium and copper targets by the sequential R.F. sputter deposition on porous substrates. Pd-Cu alloy films could be formed after proper annealing. The deposited Pd-Cu films were gas-tight. This result demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an ultrathin SCTm film by the sequential sputter deposition of Sr, Ce and Tm metals followed by proper annealing and oxidation. Such ultrathin SCTm membranes will offer sufficiently high hydrogen permeance for practical applications.

  11. NREL: Innovation Impact - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration Improved transportation technologies are essential for reducing U.S. petroleum dependence. Close The United States consumes roughly 19 million barrels of petroleum per day, but replacing petroleum-based liquid fuels is difficult because of their high energy density, which helps

  12. Natural Gas Transportation Resiliency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Resiliency Anders Johnson Director Pipeline System Design April 29, 2014 ... Pipeline Resiliency Considerations * Climate Weather * Cyber Issues * Physical Impacts * ...

  13. Fate and Transport of Uranium (VI) in Weathered Saprolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Brooks, Scott C; Zhang, Fan; Parker, Jack C.; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul

    2015-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate sorption and transport of uranium (U) in the presence of saprolite derived from interbedded shale, limestone, and sandstone sequences. Sorption kinetics were measured at two initial concentrations (C0; 1, 10 mM) and three soil:solution ratios (Rs/w; 0.005, 0.25, 2 kg/L) at pH 4.5 (pH of the saprolite). The rate of U loss from solution (mmole/L/h) increased with increasing Rs/w. Uranium sorption exhibited a fast phase with 80% sorption in the first eight hours for all C0 and Rs/w values and a slow phase during which the reaction slowly approached (pseudo) equilibrium over the next seven days. The pH-dependency of U sorption was apparent in pH sorption edges. U(VI) sorption increased over the pH range 4e6, then decreased sharply at pH > 7.5. U(VI) sorption edges were well described by a surface complexation model using calibrated parameters and the reaction network proposed by Waite et al. (1994). Sorption isotherms measured using the same Rs/w and pH values showed a solids concentration effect where U(VI) sorption capacity and affinity decreased with increasing solids concentration. This effect may have been due to either particle aggregation or competition between U(VI) and exchangeable cations for sorption sites. The surface complexation model with calibrated parameters was able to predict the general sorption behavior relatively well, but failed to reproduce solid concentration effects, implying the importance of appropriate design if batch experiments are to be utilized for dynamic systems. Transport of U(VI) through the packed column was significantly retarded. Transport simulations were conducted using the reactive transport model HydroGeoChem (HGC) v5.0 that incorporated the surface complexation reaction network used to model the batch data. Model parameters reported by Waite et al. (1994) provided a better prediction of U transport than optimized parameters derived from our sorption edges. The results presented in this study highlight the challenges in defining appropriate conditions for batch-type experiments used to extrapolate parameters for transport models, and also underline a gap in our ability to transfer batch results to transport simulations.

  14. Fate and Transport of Uranium (VI) in Weathered Saprolite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Brooks, Scott C; Zhang, Fan; Parker, Jack C.; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul

    2015-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate sorption and transport of uranium (U) in the presence of saprolite derived from interbedded shale, limestone, and sandstone sequences. Sorption kinetics were measured at two initial concentrations (C0; 1, 10 mM) and three soil:solution ratios (Rs/w; 0.005, 0.25, 2 kg/L) at pH 4.5 (pH of the saprolite). The rate of U loss from solution (mmole/L/h) increased with increasing Rs/w. Uranium sorption exhibited a fast phase with 80% sorption in the first eight hours for all C0 and Rs/w values and a slow phase during which the reaction slowly approached (pseudo) equilibrium overmore » the next seven days. The pH-dependency of U sorption was apparent in pH sorption edges. U(VI) sorption increased over the pH range 4e6, then decreased sharply at pH > 7.5. U(VI) sorption edges were well described by a surface complexation model using calibrated parameters and the reaction network proposed by Waite et al. (1994). Sorption isotherms measured using the same Rs/w and pH values showed a solids concentration effect where U(VI) sorption capacity and affinity decreased with increasing solids concentration. This effect may have been due to either particle aggregation or competition between U(VI) and exchangeable cations for sorption sites. The surface complexation model with calibrated parameters was able to predict the general sorption behavior relatively well, but failed to reproduce solid concentration effects, implying the importance of appropriate design if batch experiments are to be utilized for dynamic systems. Transport of U(VI) through the packed column was significantly retarded. Transport simulations were conducted using the reactive transport model HydroGeoChem (HGC) v5.0 that incorporated the surface complexation reaction network used to model the batch data. Model parameters reported by Waite et al. (1994) provided a better prediction of U transport than optimized parameters derived from our sorption edges. The results presented in this study highlight the challenges in defining appropriate conditions for batch-type experiments used to extrapolate parameters for transport models, and also underline a gap in our ability to transfer batch results to transport simulations.« less

  15. quantifying and Predicting Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Burns, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame

    2009-12-04

    This project was led by Dr. Jiamin Wan at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Peter Burns provided expertise in uranium mineralogy and in identification of uranium minerals in test materials. Dr. Wan conducted column tests regarding uranium transport at LBNL, and samples of the resulting columns were sent to Dr. Burns for analysis. Samples were analyzed for uranium mineralogy by X-ray powder diffraction and by scanning electron microscopy, and results were provided to Dr. Wan for inclusion in the modeling effort. Full details of the project can be found in Dr. Wan's final reports for the associated effort at LBNL.

  16. NREL: Transportation Research - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications NREL researchers document their findings in technical reports, conference papers, journal articles, and fact sheets. Visit the following online resources to find publications about sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment. Capabilities Overviews These recent publications highlight some of our capabilities, facilities, and projects: Image of fact sheet cover. Sustainable Transportation This overview fact sheet describes NREL's sustainable transportation

  17. 2016 Sustainable Transportation Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), the first ever Sustainable Transportation Summit will bring together transportation and mobility leaders to discuss the technology, policy, and market innovations that hold the potential to shape the transportation system of the future.

  18. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF GASES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, W.J.

    1949-06-01

    This patent describes apparatus for the quantitative analysis of a gaseous mixture at subatmospheric pressure by measurement of its thermal conductivity. A heated wire forms one leg of a bridge circuit, while the gas under test is passed about the wire at a constant rate. The bridge unbalance will be a measure of the change in composition of the gas, if compensation is made for the effect due to gas pressure change. The apparatus provides a voltage varying with fluctuations of pressure in series with the indicating device placed across the bridge, to counterbalance the voltage change caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the gaseous mixture.

  19. Coal transportation: a comparative spatial analysis between unit train and slurry pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltanmohammadi-Sarab, M.

    1986-01-01

    After the 1973 Arab oil embargo and a drastic price rise in crude oil, the demand for coal and, subsequently, the price of coal rose to a new high, thus encouraging further production of coal. The increase in production occurred in most of the coal fields except those in some specific areas, such as West Virginia. Preliminary studies indicate that the high transportation cost of coal contributes to this slacking coal-production pattern. Three related objectives are studied in this dissertation: (a) finding the least-cost mode of coal transportation; (b) determining the new pattern of trade under the chosen mode of coal transportation; and (c) conducting a comparative static analysis of the coal market in the US. Engineering models are used to calculate the average costs of transportation. These models are adjusted for the appropriate economic applications. The mainland US is divided into five regions and the demand and supply of coal in each region is estimated. The estimated cost of coal transportation for both the slurry pipeline and the unit train reveals that the slurry is the lower cost mode of coal transportation for any given distance or amount of coal handled by the system.

  20. Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feser, Joseph P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Liu, Jun; Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We previously demonstrated an extension of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) which utilizes offset pump and probe laser locations to measure in-plane thermal transport properties of multilayers. However, the technique was limited to systems of transversely isotropic materials studied using axisymmetric laser intensities. Here, we extend the mathematics so that data reduction can be performed on non-transversely isotropic systems. An analytic solution of the diffusion equation for an N-layer system is given, where each layer has a homogenous but otherwise arbitrary thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles. As a demonstration, we use both TDTR and time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements to obtain thermal conductivity tensor elements of <110> ?-SiO{sub 2}. We show that the out-of-phase beam offset sweep has full-width half-maxima that contains nearly independent sensitivity to the in-plane thermal conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate a Nb-V alloy as a low thermal conductivity TDTR transducer layer that helps improve the accuracy of in-plane measurements.

  1. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A heat transport system, method and composite material in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure.

  2. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  3. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  4. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  5. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, Ralph H.; Maranas, Janna K; Mueller, Karl T; Runt, James; Winey, Karen I

    2015-03-05

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li, Na, Cs or polycations that conduct small anions F, OH, Br. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials charactization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li is -60 C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ~ -75C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  6. Transport NAMA submissions to the UNFCCC: Domestic frameworks...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the broader domestic context in which a selection of these intentions to conduct NAMAs in the land transport...

  7. Executive Order 13423 Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the United States that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities under the law in support of their respective missions in an...

  8. CRAD, NNSA- Packaging and Transportation (P&T)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CRAD for Packaging and Transportation (P&T). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: Data and Analysis for Transportation Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) — in conjunction with the national laboratories — conducts a wide range of statistical research on energy use, economics, and trends in transportation.

  10. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-14

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ?18?K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ?3?K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. These macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed by soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.

  11. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-08

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO3 substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ~18K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ~3K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. As a result, these macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed by soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.

  12. Electronic and magnetic properties of manganite thin films with different compositions and its correlation with transport properties: An X-ray resonant magnetic scattering study

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Surendra; Freeland, J. W.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Jeen, H.; Biswas, A.

    2014-12-08

    Here, we present x-ray resonant magnetic dichroism and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements of the temperature dependence of magnetism in Pr-doped La-Ca-Mn-O films grown on (110) NdGaO3 substrates. We observed thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism in one film that also showed large thermal hysteresis of ~18K in transport measurements. While in a second film of a different nominal chemistry, which showed very small thermal hysteresis ~3K in transport measurements, no thermal hysteresis of the ferromagnetism was observed. As a result, these macroscopic properties are correlated with evolution of surface magnetization across metal insulator transition for these films as observed bymore » soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering measurements.« less

  13. Sustainable Transportation Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On July 11–12, the U.S. Department of Energy will host the first-ever Sustainable Transportation Summit. The summit brings together transportation and mobility leaders to discuss the technology, policy, and market innovations that hold the potential to shape the transportation system of the future. The Sustainable Transportation Summit seeks to engage a diverse stakeholder community whose interests span a broad technology portfolio, from fuel cells and vehicle electrification to the bioenergy supply chain. This year’s summit will highlight progress and achievements in transportation research and development and bring new transportation technologies to market. *Receive 10% off admission when you register for both Bioenergy 2016 and the Sustainable Transportation Summit together!

  14. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport Using Decimeter-Scale Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Derrick

    2015-01-28

    Experimental work was used to validate modeling studies and develop multicontinuum models of U(VI) transport in a contaminated aquifer. At the bench scale, it has been shown that U(VI) desorption is rate-limited and that rates are dependent on the bicarbonate concentration. Two decimeter-scale experiments were conducted in order to help establish rigorous upscaling approaches that could be tested at the tracer test and plume scales.

  15. Upscaling of U(VI) Desorption and Transport Using Decimeter-Scale Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Derrick

    2014-12-22

    Experimental work was used to validate modeling studies and develop multicontinuum models of U(VI) transport in a contaminated aquifer. At the bench scale, it has been shown that U(VI) desorption is rate-limited and that rates are dependent on the bicarbonate concentration. Two decimeter-scale experiments were conducted in order to help establish rigorous upscaling approaches that could be tested at the tracer test and plume scales.

  16. Conduction in alumina with atomic scale copper filaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xu; Liu, Jie; Anantram, M. P.

    2014-10-28

    The conductance of atomic scale filaments with three and seven Cu atoms in ?-alumina are calculated using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the filament with 3 Cu atoms is sufficient to increase the conductance of 1.3?nm thick alumina film by more than 10{sup 3} times in linear response. As the applied voltage increases, the current quickly saturates and differential resistance becomes negative. Compared to the filament with three Cu atoms, while the conductance of the filament with seven Cu atoms is comparable in linear response, they carry as much as twenty times larger current at large biases. The electron transport is analyzed based on local density of states, and the negative differential resistance in the seven Cu filaments occurs due to their narrow bandwidth.

  17. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingwu; Li, Wenguang; Jiang, Hua

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  18. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  19. Final Report for DE-FG02-93ER14376,Ionic Transport in Electrochemical Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Halley

    2009-05-20

    This project was a molecular dynamics study of the relevant issues associated with the structure and transport of lithium in polymer electrolytes such as polyethylene oxide(PEO). In close collaboration with quantum chemist Larry Curtiss and neutron scatterers David Lee Price and Marie-Louise Saboungi at Argonne, we used molecular dynamics to study the local structure and dynamics and ion transport in the polymer. The studies elucidated the mechanism of Li transport in PEO, revealing that the rate limiting step is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the torsion forces in the backbone of the polymer. Because the torsion forces are difficult to manipulate chemically, this makes it easier to understand why improving the conductivity of PEO based electrolytes has proven to be very difficult. We studied the transport properties of cations in ionic liquids as possible additives to polymer membranes for batteries and fuel cells and found preliminary indications that the transport is enhanced near phase separation in acid-ionic liquid mixtures.

  20. Suspension chemistry and electrophoretic deposition of zirconia electrolyte on conducting and non-conducting substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Debasish; Basu, Rajendra N.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Stable suspension of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) obtained in isopropanol medium. Suspension chemistry and process parameters for electrophoretic deposition optimized. Deposited film quality changed with iodine and water (dispersants) concentration. Dense YSZ film (?5 ?m) fabricated onto non-conducting porous NiO-YSZ anode substrate. - Abstract: Suspensions of 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particulates in isopropanol medium are prepared using acetylacetone, iodine and water as dispersants. The effect of dispersants concentration on suspension stability, particle size distribution, electrical conductivity and pH of the suspensions are studied in detail to optimize the suspension chemistry. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been conducted to produce thin and dense YSZ electrolyte films. Deposition kinetics have been studied in depth and good quality films on conducting substrate are obtained at an applied voltage of 15 V for 3 min. YSZ films are also fabricated on non-conducting NiO-YSZ anode substrate using a steel plate on the reverse side of the substrate. Upon co-firing at 1400 C for 6 h a dense YSZ film of thickness ?5 ?m is obtained. Such a half cell (anode + electrolyte) can be used to fabricate a solid oxide fuel cell on applying a suitable cathode layer.

  1. Final Technical Report - Investigation into the Relationship between Heterogeneity and Heavy-Tailed Solute Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weissmann, Gary S

    2013-12-06

    The objective of this project was to characterize the influence that naturally complex geologic media has on anomalous dispersion and to determine if the nature of dispersion can be estimated from the underlying heterogeneous media. The UNM portion of this project was to provide detailed representations of aquifer heterogeneity through producing highly-resolved models of outcrop analogs to aquifer materials. This project combined outcrop-scale heterogeneity characterization (conducted at the University of New Mexico), laboratory experiments (conducted at Sandia National Laboratory), and numerical simulations (conducted at Sandia National Laboratory and Colorado School of Mines). The study was designed to test whether established dispersion theory accurately predicts the behavior of solute transport through heterogeneous media and to investigate the relationship between heterogeneity and the parameters that populate these models. The dispersion theory tested by this work was based upon the fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) model. Unlike most dispersion studies that develop a solute transport model by fitting the solute transport breakthrough curve, this project explored the nature of the heterogeneous media to better understand the connection between the model parameters and the aquifer heterogeneity. We also evaluated methods for simulating the heterogeneity to see whether these approaches (e.g., geostatistical) could reasonably replicate realistic heterogeneity. The UNM portion of this study focused on capturing realistic geologic heterogeneity of aquifer analogs using advanced outcrop mapping methods.

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  3. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide ...

  4. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and ... transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) to large panel displays and photovoltaic (PV) cells. ...

  5. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  6. Transportation Infrastructure Requirement Resources | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Requirement Resources Transportation Infrastructure Requirement Resources ... Establish Alternative Fuel Infrastructure. Back to Transportation Policies and Programs.

  7. Modeling the Transport and Radiative Forcing of Taklimakan Dust over the Tibetan Plateau: A case study in the summer of 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Ben

    2013-01-30

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate an intense dust storm event during 26 to 30 July 2006 that originated over the Taklimakan Desert (TD) and transported to the northern slope of Tibetan Plateau (TP). The dust storm is initiated by the approach of a strong cold frontal system over the TD. In summer, the meridional transport of TD dust to the TP is favored by the thermal effect of the TP and the weakening of the East Asian westerly winds. During this dust storm, the transport of TD dust over the TP is further enhanced by the passage of the cold front. As a result, TD dust breaks through the planetary boundary layer and extends to the upper troposphere over the northern TP. TD dust flux arrived at the TP with a value of 6.6 Gg/day in this 5 day event but decays quickly during the southward migration over the TP due to dry deposition. The simulations show that TD dust cools the atmosphere near the surface and heats the atmosphere above with a maximum heating rate of 0.11 K day-1 at ~7 km over the TP. The event-averaged net radiative forcings of TD dust over the TP are -3.97, 1.61, and -5.58 Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), in the atmosphere, and at the surface, respectively. The promising performance of WRF-Chem in simulating dust and its radiative forcing provides confidence for use in further investigation of climatic impact of TD dust over the TP.

  8. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1997-04-01

    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  10. A way for studying the impact of PEDOT:PSS interface layer on carrier transport in PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk hetero junction solar cells by electric field induced optical second harmonic generation measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Zubair Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Taguchi, Dai; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2015-04-28

    Electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement was employed to study the impact of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) interface layer on the carrier transport mechanism of the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). We revealed that the electric fields in the PCDTBT and PC{sub 71}BM were allowed to be measured individually by choosing fundamental laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 1060 nm, respectively, in dark and under illumination. The results showed that the direction of the internal electric fields in the PCDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM BHJ layer is reversed by introducing the PEDOT:PSS layer, and this results in longer electron transport time in the BHJ layer. We conclude that TR-EFISHG can be used as a novel way for studying the impact of interfacial layer on the transport of electrons and holes in the bulk-heterojunction OSCs.

  11. Federal Register Notice: Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congestion Study | Department of Energy Federal Register Notice: Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission Congestion Study Federal Register Notice: Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission Congestion Study November 10, 2011 - 1:42pm Addthis The Department has issued a Federal Register Notice initiating preparations for development of the 2012 National Electric Transmission Congestion Study. The Department is seeking comments on what publicly-available data and information should

  12. Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Influencing the future of vehicles, fuels Argonne's transportation research efforts bring together scientists and engineers from many disciplines to find cost-effective solutions to critical issues like foreign-oil dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. As one of the U.S. Department of Energy's lead laboratories for research in hybrid powertrains, batteries, and fuel-efficient technologies, Argonne's transportation program is critical to advancing the development of

  13. Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intelligent Transportation Systems This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - TRACC Director Background The development and deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the United States is an effort of national importance. Through the use of advanced computing, control, and communication technologies, ITS promises to greatly improve the efficiency and safety of the existing surface transportation system and reduce the

  14. integrated-transportation-models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Archive Integrated Transportation Models Workshop at ITM 2012 April 29, 2012 Hyatt Regency Tampa Hosted by: The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center at Argonne National Laboratory This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. The aim of the workshop was to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to discuss recent research results that can support a wider application of integrated transportation models,

  15. Future of Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation In the coming decades, transportation in the U.S. is expected to change radically in response to environmental constraints, fluctuating oil availability and economic factors. Future Decision-Makers The transportation systems that emerge in the 21 st century will be defined largely by the choices, skills and imaginations of today's youth. Future Workforce As scientists and engineers, they will develop new vehicle and fuel technologies. As citizens, they will make decisions

  16. National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    N ti l T t ti National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Chicago, IL, May 26, 2010 Ahmad Al-Daouk Date and page number - 1 Director, National Security Department National Nuclear Security Administration Service Center - Albuquerque, NM National Transportation Stakeholders Forum OSRP * NNSA Contractors transporting in commerce, are required law to comply with applicable regulations required law to comply with applicable regulations (e.g. federal, local, tribal) * Great majority of NNSA shipments

  17. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data ... The initial report on coal transportation rates covered the years 2001 through 2008, ...

  18. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  19. Transportation Energy Futures Snapshot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    modes, manage the demand for transportation, and shift the fuel mix to more sustainable sources necessary to reach these significant outcomes. Coordinating a...

  20. Transportation Storage Interface

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    transportation * High priority technical information needs have * Overall low level of knowledge * Overall high regulatory impact 12 Extended Spent Fuel Storage and...

  1. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. McGraw

    2000-04-13

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

  2. Sustainable Transportation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Snapshot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This snapshot is a summary of the EERE reports that provide a detailed analysis of opportunities and challenges along the path to a more sustainable transportation energy future.

  4. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  5. Evaluation of solitary waves as a mechanism for oil transport in poroelastic media: A case study of the South Eugene Island field, Gulf of Mexico basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joshi, Ajit; Appold, Martin S.; Nunn, Jeffrey A.

    2012-11-01

    Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330 field in the Gulf of Mexico basin are thought to have migrated rapidly along low permeability sediments of the Red fault zone as discrete pressure pulses from source rocks at depths of about 4.5 km. The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that these pressure pulses represent solitary waves by investigating the mechanics of solitary wave formation and motion and wave oil transport capability. A two-dimensional numerical model of Eugene Island minibasin formation predicted overpressures at the hydrocarbon source depth to increase at an average rate of 30 Pa/yr, reaching 52 MPa by the present day and oil velocities of 1E?¢????12 m/yr, far too low for kilometer scale oil transport to fill shallow Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs within the 3.6 million year minibasin history. Calculations from a separate one-dimensional model that used the pressure generation rate from the two-dimensional model showed that solitary waves could only form and migrate within sediments that have very low permeabilities between 1E?¢????25 to 1E?¢????24 m2 and that are highly overpressured to 91-93% of lithostatic pressure. Solitary waves were found to have a maximum pore volume of 105 m3, to travel a maximum distance of 1-2 km, and to have a maximum velocity of 1E?¢????3 m/yr. Based on these results, solitary waves are unlikely to have transported oil to the shallowest reservoirs in the Eugene Island field in a poroelastic fault gouge rheology at the pressure generation rates likely to have been caused by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation. However, solitary waves could perhaps be important agents for oil transport in other locations where reservoirs are closer to the source rocks, where the pore space is occupied by more than one fluid, or where sudden fracturing of overpressured hydrocarbon source sediments would allow the solitary waves to propagate as shock waves. Hydrocarbons in shallow reservoirs of the Eugene Island 330 field in the Gulf of Mexico basin are thought to have migrated rapidly along low permeability sediments of the Red fault zone as discrete pressure pulses from source rocks at depths of about 4.5 km. The aim of this research was to evaluate the hypothesis that these pressure pulses represent solitary waves by investigating the mechanics of solitary wave formation and motion and wave oil transport capability. A two-dimensional numerical model of Eugene Island minibasin formation predicted overpressures at the hydrocarbon source depth to increase at an average rate of 30 Pa/yr, reaching 52 MPa by the present day and oil velocities of 1E?¢????12 m/yr, far too low for kilometer scale oil transport to fill shallow Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs within the 3.6 million year minibasin history. Calculations from a separate one-dimensional model that used the pressure generation rate from the two-dimensional model showed that solitary waves could only form and migrate within sediments that have very low permeabilities between 1E?¢????25 to 1E?¢????24 m2 and that are highly overpressured to 91-93% of lithostatic pressure. Solitary waves were found to have a maximum pore volume of 100,000 m3, to travel a maximum distance of 1-2 km, and to have a maximum velocity of 1E?¢????3 m/yr. Based on these results, solitary waves are unlikely to have transported oil to the shallowest reservoirs in the Eugene Island field in a poroelastic fault gouge rheology at the pressure generation rates likely to have been caused by disequilibrium compaction and hydrocarbon generation. However, solitary waves could perhaps be important agents for oil transport in other locations where reservoirs are closer to the source rocks, where the pore space is occupied by more than one fl

  6. Large piezoresistive effect in surface conductive nanocrystalline diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, S. D. Haenen, K.; Drijkoningen, S.

    2014-09-08

    Surface conductivity in hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond is an intriguing phenomenon for fundamental reasons as well as for application driven research. Surface conductivity is also observed in hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond although the electronic transport mechanisms remain unclear. In this work, the piezoresistive properties of intrinsic surface conductive nanocrystalline diamond are investigated. A gauge factor of 35 is calculated from bulging a diamond membrane of 350 nm thick, with a diameter of 656 μm and a sheet resistance of 1.45 MΩ/sq. The large piezoresistive effect is reasoned to originate directly from strain-induced changes in the resistivity of the grain boundaries. Additionally, we ascribe a small time-dependent fraction of the piezoresistive effect to charge trapping of charge carriers at grain boundaries. In conclusion, time-dependent piezoresistive effect measurements act as a tool for deeper understanding the complex electronic transport mechanisms induced by grain boundaries in a polycrystalline material or nanocomposite.

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  8. Charge and Spin Transport in Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2009-07-23

    This proposal to the DOE outlines a three-year plan of research in theoretical and computational condensed-matter physics, with the aim of developing a microscopic theory for charge and spin dynamics in disordered materials with magnetic impurities. Important representatives of this class of materials are the dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), which have attracted great attention as a promising basis for spintronics devices. There is an intense experimental effort underway to study the transport properties of ferromagnetic DMS such as (Ga,Mn)As, and a number of interesting features have emerged: negative magnetoresistance, anomalous Hall effect, non-Drude dynamical conductivity, and resistivity maxima at the Curie temperature. Available theories have been able to account for some of these features, but at present we are still far away from a systematic microscopic understanding of transport in DMS. We propose to address this challenge by developing a theory of charge and spin dynamics based on a combination of the memory-function formalism and time-dependent density functional theory. This approach will be capable of dealing with two important issues: (a) the strong degree of correlated disorder in DMS, close to the localization transition (which invalidates the usual relaxation-time approximation to the Boltzmann equation), (b) the essentially unknown role of dynamical many-body effects such as spin Coulomb drag. We will calculate static and dynamical conductivities in DMS as functions of magnetic order and carrier density, which will advance our understanding of recent transport and infrared absorption measurements. Furthermore, we will study collective plasmon excitations in DMS (3D, 2D and quantum wells), whose linewidths could constitute a new experimental probe of the correlation of disorder, many-body effects and charge and spin dynamics in these materials.

  9. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R; Kremer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  10. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-04-04

    To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

  11. Transport Version 3

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-16

    The Transport version 3 (T3) system uses the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to move data from sources to a Data Reporisoty (DR). Interested recipients subscribe to newsgroups to retrieve data. Data in transport is protected by AES-256 and RSA cryptographic services provided by the external OpenSSL cryptographic libraries.

  12. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of prospective organic liquid fuels was studied. During EFRC program various types of electrocatalysts, classes of fuels, and membranes have been investigated.

  13. Calculation of room temperature conductivity and mobility in tin-based topological insulator nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandenberghe, William G. Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2014-11-07

    Monolayers of tin (stannanane) functionalized with halogens have been shown to be topological insulators. Using density functional theory (DFT), we study the electronic properties and room-temperature transport of nanoribbons of iodine-functionalized stannanane showing that the overlap integral between the wavefunctions associated to edge-states at opposite ends of the ribbons decreases with increasing width of the ribbons. Obtaining the phonon spectra and the deformation potentials also from DFT, we calculate the conductivity of the ribbons using the Kubo-Greenwood formalism and show that their mobility is limited by inter-edge phonon backscattering. We show that wide stannanane ribbons have a mobility exceeding 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Contrary to ordinary semiconductors, two-dimensional topological insulators exhibit a high conductivity at low charge density, decreasing with increasing carrier density. Furthermore, the conductivity of iodine-functionalized stannanane ribbons can be modulated over a range of three orders of magnitude, thus rendering this material extremely interesting for classical computing applications.

  14. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Anthony H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  15. Transportation needs assessment: Emergency response section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-05-01

    The transportation impacts of moving high level nuclear waste (HLNW) to a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada are of concern to the residents of the State as well as to the residents of other states through which the nuclear wastes might be transported. The projected volume of the waste suggests that shipments will occur on a daily basis for some period of time. This will increase the risk of accidents, including a catastrophic incident. Furthermore, as the likelihood of repository construction and operation and waste shipments increase, so will the attention given by the national media. This document is not to be construed as a willingness to accept the HLNW repository on the part of the State. Rather it is an initial step in ensuring that the safety and well-being of Nevada residents and visitors and the State`s economy will be adequately addressed in federal decision-making pertaining to the transportation of HLNW into and across Nevada for disposal in the proposed repository. The Preferred Transportation System Needs Assessment identifies critical system design elements and technical and social issues that must be considered in conducting a comprehensive transportation impact analysis. Development of the needs assessment and the impact analysis is especially complex because of the absence of information and experience with shipping HLNW and because of the ``low probability, high consequence`` aspect of the transportation risk.

  16. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  17. Iodine transport analysis in the ESBWR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinich, Donald A.; Gauntt, Randall O.; Young, Michael Francis; Longmire, Pamela

    2009-03-01

    A simplified ESBWR MELCOR model was developed to track the transport of iodine released from damaged reactor fuel in a hypothesized core damage accident. To account for the effects of iodine pool chemistry, radiolysis of air and cable insulation, and surface coatings (i.e., paint) the iodine pool model in MELCOR was activated. Modifications were made to MELCOR to add sodium pentaborate as a buffer in the iodine pool chemistry model. An issue of specific interest was whether iodine vapor removed from the drywell vapor space by the PCCS heat exchangers would be sequestered in water pools or if it would be rereleased as vapor back into the drywell. As iodine vapor is not included in the deposition models for diffusiophoresis or thermophoresis in current version of MELCOR, a parametric study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a range of iodine removal coefficients in the PCCS heat exchangers. The study found that higher removal coefficients resulted in a lower mass of iodine vapor in the drywell vapor space.

  18. Property Valuation and Radioactive Materials Transportation: A Legal, Economic and Public Perception Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, J. A.; Thrower, A. W.; Widmayer, D. A.; Portner, W.

    2003-02-26

    The shipment of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico raised a serious socioeconomic issue - the potential devaluation of property values due to the transportation of TRU waste from generator sites to the disposal facility. In 1992, the New Mexico Supreme Court held in City of Santa Fe v. Komis that a loss in value from public perception of risk was compensable. This issue has become an extremely important one for the development of the Yucca Mountain repository in Nevada for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much research has been conducted about the potential impacts of transportation of spent fuel and radioactive waste. This paper examines the pertinent studies conducted since the Komis case. It examines how the public debate on radioactive materials transportation continues and is now focused on transportation of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. Finally, the paper suggests a path forward DOE can take to address this issue.

  19. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-world Data for Planning, Modeling, and Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC) at www.nrel.gov/tsdc provides free, web-based access to detailed transportation data from a variety of travel surveys conducted across the nation. While preserving the privacy of survey participants, this online repository makes vital transportation data broadly available to users from the comfort of their own desks via a secure online connection.

  20. Spin transport in normal metal/insulator/topological insulator coupled to ferromagnetic insulator structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, Kenji

    2014-05-07

    In this study, we investigate the spin transport in normal metal (NM)/insulator (I)/topological insulator (TI) coupled to ferromagnetic insulator (FI) structures. In particular, we focus on the barrier thickness dependence of the spin transport inside the bulk gap of the TI with FI. The TI with FI is described by two-dimensional (2D) Dirac Hamiltonian. The energy profile of the insulator is assumed to be a square with barrier height V and thickness d along the transport-direction. This structure behaves as a tunnel device for 2D Dirac electrons. The calculation is performed for the spin conductance with changing the barrier thickness and the components of magnetization of FI layer. It is found that the spin conductance decreases with increasing the barrier thickness. Also, the spin conductance is strongly dependent on the polar angle ?, which is defined as the angle between the axis normal to the FI and the magnetization of FI layer. These results indicate that the structures are promising candidates for novel tunneling magnetoresistance devices.

  1. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology This is the May 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. May 28, 2015 Photo of a car refueling at a hydrogen dispensing station. DOE's H2FIRST project focuses on accelerating the acceptance of hydrogen infrastructure. Photo by John De La Rosa, NREL 33660 New H2FIRST Reports Detail Hydrogen Station Designs, Contaminant Detection Two new reports have been published by NREL and Sandia National Laboratories

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  3. Dynamic conductivity of the bulk states of n-type HgTe/CdTe quantum well topological insulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qinjun; Sanderson, Matthew; Cao, J. C.; Zhang, Chao

    2014-11-17

    We theoretically studied the frequency-dependent current response of the bulk state of topological insulator HgTe/CdTe quantum well. The optical conductivity is mainly due to the inter-band process at high frequencies. At low frequencies, intra-band process dominates with a dramatic drop to near zero before the inter-band contribution takes over. The conductivity decreases with temperature at low temperature and increases with temperature at high temperature. The transport scattering rate has an opposite frequency dependence in the low and high temperature regime. The different frequency dependence is due to the interplay of the carrier-impurity scattering and carrier population near the Fermi surface.

  4. CRAD, NNSA- Conduct of Operations (OP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CRAD for Conduct of Operations (OP). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  5. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 10:17am ...

  6. Model for assessing bronchial mucus transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, J.E.; Bateman, J.R.M.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1984-02-01

    The authors propose a scheme for the assessment of regional mucus transport using inhaled Tc-99m aerosol particles and quantitative analysis of serial gamma-camera images. The model treats input to inner and intermediate lung regions as the total of initial deposition there plus subsequent transport into these regions from more peripheral airways. It allows for interregional differences in the proportion of particles deposited on the mucus-bearing conducting airways, and does not require a gamma image 24 hr after particle inhalation. Instead, distribution of particles reaching the respiratory bronchioles or alveoli is determined from a Kr-81m ventilation image, while the total amount of such deposition is obtained from 24-hr Tc-99m retention measured with a sensitive counter system. The model is applicable to transport by mucociliary action or by cough, and has been tested in ten normal and ten asthmatic subjects.

  7. WIPP Transportation (FINAL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIPP TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM Waste Isolation Pilot Plant U.S. Department Of Energy The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established an elaborate system for safely transporting transuranic, or TRU, radioactive waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for permanent disposal, or between generator sites. The waste is transported in four shipping casks approved for use by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three shipping casks, the TRUPACT-II, HalfPACT and TRUPACT-III, are designed

  8. Tuning Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Graphene Embedded in Soft Materials by Vacancy Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Chongze; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on graphene dispersed in matrices of soft materials are promising thermal management materials. Their effective thermal conductivity depends on both the thermal conductivity of graphene and the conductance of the thermal transport across graphene-matrix interfaces. Here we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal transport across the interfaces between defected graphene and soft materials in two different modes: in the across mode, heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and leaves through the other side; in the non-across mode, heat enters or leaves a graphene simultaneously from both sides of its basal plane. We show that, as the density of vacancy defects in graphene increases from 0 to 8%, the conductance of the interfacial thermal transport in the across mode increases from 160.4 16 to 207.8 11 MW/m2K, while that in the non-across mode increases from 7.2 0.1 to 17.8 0.6 MW/m2K. The molecular mechanisms for these variations of thermal conductance are clarified by using the phonon density of states and structural characteristics of defected graphenes. On the basis of these results and effective medium theory, we show that it is possible to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of thermal nanocomposites by tuning the density of vacancy defects in graphene despite the fact that graphene s thermal conductivity always decreases as vacancy defects are introduced.

  9. Tuning Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Graphene Embedded in Soft Materials by Vacancy Defects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Chongze; Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on graphene dispersed in matrices of soft materials are promising thermal management materials. Their effective thermal conductivity depends on both the thermal conductivity of graphene and the conductance of the thermal transport across graphene-matrix interfaces. Here we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal transport across the interfaces between defected graphene and soft materials in two different modes: in the across mode, heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and leaves through the other side; in the non-across mode, heat enters or leaves a graphene simultaneously from both sides of its basal plane. Wemore » show that, as the density of vacancy defects in graphene increases from 0 to 8%, the conductance of the interfacial thermal transport in the across mode increases from 160.4 16 to 207.8 11 MW/m2K, while that in the non-across mode increases from 7.2 0.1 to 17.8 0.6 MW/m2K. The molecular mechanisms for these variations of thermal conductance are clarified by using the phonon density of states and structural characteristics of defected graphenes. On the basis of these results and effective medium theory, we show that it is possible to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of thermal nanocomposites by tuning the density of vacancy defects in graphene despite the fact that graphene s thermal conductivity always decreases as vacancy defects are introduced.« less

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  11. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  12. Transport properties of multicomponent thermal plasmas: Grad method versus Chapman-Enskog method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porytsky, P. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Krivtsun, I.; Demchenko, V. [Paton Welding Institute, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Reisgen, U.; Mokrov, O.; Zabirov, A. [RWTH Aachen University, ISF-Welding and Joining Institute, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Gorchakov, S.; Timofeev, A.; Uhrlandt, D. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Transport properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, and electrical conductivity) for multicomponent Ar-Fe thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure have been determined by means of two different methods. The transport coefficients set based on Grad's method is compared with the data obtained when using the Chapman-Enskog's method. Results from both applied methods are in good agreement. It is shown that the Grad method is suitable for the determination of transport properties of the thermal plasmas.

  13. Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data Book...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Data Book,Vehicle Technologies Market Report, and VT Fact of the Week Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data Book,Vehicle Technologies ...

  14. The Geography of Transport Systems-Maritime Transportation |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    report Website: people.hofstra.edugeotransengch3enconc3ench3c4en.html Cost: Free Language: English References: Maritime Transportation1 "Maritime transportation, similar to...

  15. The Workshop on Conductive Polymers: Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1985-10-01

    Reports are made by groups on: polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyaniline, and related systems; molecular, crystallographic, and defect structures in conducting polymers; heterocyclic polymers; synthesis of new and improved conducting polymers; future applications possibilities for conducting polymers; and challenges for improved understanding of properties. (DLC)

  16. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  17. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Arthur J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor overcoated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  18. Heat transport system, method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musinski, D.L.

    1987-04-28

    A heat transport system, method and composite material are disclosed in which a plurality of hollow spherical shells or microspheres having an outside diameter of less than or equal to 500 microns are encapsulated or embedded within a bulk material. Each shell has captured therein a volatile working fluid, such that each shell operates as a microsized heat pipe for conducting heat through the composite structure. 1 fig.

  19. Thermal transport in UO2 with defects and fission products by molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Cooper, Michael William Donald; Mcclellan, Kenneth James; Lashley, Jason Charles; Byler, Darrin David; Stanek, Christopher Richard; Andersson, Anders David Ragnar

    2015-10-14

    The importance of the thermal transport in nuclear fuel has motivated a wide range of experimental and modelling studies. In this report, the reduction of thermal transport in UO2 due to defects and fission products has been investigated using non-equilibrium MD simulations, with two sets of empirical potentials for studying the degregation of UO2 thermal conductivity including a Buckingham type interatomic potential and a recently developed EAM type interatomic potential. Additional parameters for U5+ and Zr4+ in UO2 have been developed for the EAM potential. The thermal conductivity results from MD simulations are then corrected for the spin-phonon scattering through Callaway model formulations. To validate the modelling results, comparison was made with experimental measurements on single crystal hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x samples.

  20. PBA Transportation Websites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PBA Transportation Websites presented to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

  1. Accident resistant transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andersen, John A.; Cole, James K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  2. Transportation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data From AEO2011 report . Market Trends From 2009 to 2035, transportation sector energy consumption grows at an average annual rate of 0.6 percent (from 27.2 quadrillion Btu...

  3. Transportation Baseline Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kramer, George Leroy Jr.

    1999-12-01

    The National Transportation Program 1999 Transportation Baseline Report presents data that form a baseline to enable analysis and planning for future Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) waste and materials transportation. In addition, this Report provides a summary overview of DOEs projected quantities of waste and materials for transportation. Data presented in this report were gathered as a part of the IPABS Spring 1999 update of the EM Corporate Database and are current as of July 30, 1999. These data were input and compiled using the Analysis and Visualization System (AVS) which is used to update all stream-level components of the EM Corporate Database, as well as TSD System and programmatic risk (disposition barrier) information. Project (PBS) and site-level IPABS data are being collected through the Interim Data Management System (IDMS). The data are presented in appendices to this report.

  4. Accident resistant transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  5. Program Analyst (Transportation Safety)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will serve as a Program Analyst(Transportation Safety) supporting and advising management on safety and health matters for nuclear and non-nuclear activities.

  6. Electron Heat Transport Measured

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transport Measured in a Stochastic Magnetic Field T. M. Biewer, * C. B. Forest, ... limit of s &29; 1, RR assumed the electron heat flux to be diffusive, obeying Fourier's ...

  7. NREL: Transportation Research - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities A Vision for Sustainable Transportation Line graph illustrating three pathways (biofuel, hydrogen, and electric vehicle) to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Electric Vehicle Technologies & Targets 3-D illustration of electric car diagramming energy storage, power electronics, and climate control components. NREL uses 100% of its considerable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) capabilities to pursue sustainable solutions that deliver

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Projects Illustration of aerodynamic light-, medium, and heavy-duty vehicles. NREL research helps optimize the energy efficiency of a wide range of vehicle technologies and applications. NREL's innovative transportation research, development, and deployment projects accelerate widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. The following NREL transportation projects are propelling

  9. Transportation Data Archiving

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Data Archiving This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - TRACC Director Background Urban and regional transportation planning and operations applications, (e.g. traffic modeling) require a large volume of accurate traffic-related data for a wide range of conditions. Significant real-time data on traffic volumes, highway construction, accidents, weather, airline flights, commuter and rail schedules, etc., are recorded each day by

  10. Transportation Politics and Policy

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation Steven Plotkin, Argonne National Laboratory (co-author is David Greene of Oak Ridge) 2011 EIA Energy Conference May 26-27, 2011 Washington, DC Overview  Presentation based on recent report from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change  Task: Assess the potential to substantially reduce transportation's GHG emissions by 2035 & 2050.  Base Case: Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference Case, extended to 2050  Three scenarios

  11. Transportation Representation | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Transportation Steven Plotkin, Argonne National Laboratory (co-author is David Greene of Oak Ridge) 2011 EIA Energy Conference May 26-27, 2011 Washington, DC Overview  Presentation based on recent report from the Pew Center on Global Climate Change  Task: Assess the potential to substantially reduce transportation's GHG emissions by 2035 & 2050.  Base Case: Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference Case, extended to 2050  Three scenarios with

  12. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  13. Fluid transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRoos, Bradley G.; Downing, Jr., John P.; Neal, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  14. Tape transport mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groh, Edward F.; McDowell, William; Modjeski, Norbert S.; Keefe, Donald J.; Groer, Peter

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer.

  15. Fluid transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRoos, B.G.; Downing, J.P. Jr.; Neal, M.P.

    1995-11-14

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitting for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container. 13 figs.

  16. Oxygen transport in off-stoichiometric uranium dioxide mediated by defect clustering dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Jianguo; Bai, Xian -Ming; El-Azab, Anter; Allen, Todd R.

    2015-03-05

    In this study, oxygen transport is central to many properties of oxides such as stoichiometric changes, phase transformation and ionic conductivity. In this paper, we report a mechanism for oxygen transport in uranium dioxide (UO2) in which the kinetics is mediated by defect clustering dynamics. In particular, the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been used to investigate the kinetics of oxygen transport in UO2 under the condition of creation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies and interstitials as well as oxygen interstitial clustering, with variable offstoichiometry and temperature conditions. It is found that in hypo-stoichiometric UO2-x, oxygen transport is wellmore » described by the vacancy diffusion mechanism while in hyper-stoichiometric UO2+x, oxygen interstitial cluster diffusion contributes significantly to oxygen transport kinetics, particularly at high temperatures and high off-stoichiometry levels. It is also found that diinterstitial clusters and single interstitials play dominant roles in oxygen diffusion while other larger clusters have negligible contributions. However, the formation, coalescence and dissociation of these larger clusters indirectly affects the overall oxygen diffusion due to their interactions with mono and di-interstitials, thus providing a explanation of the experimental observation of saturation or even drop of oxygen diffusivity at high off-stoichiometry.« less

  17. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. KELLER

    2004-11-03

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086-2.20-00) (LANL 2003 [DIRS 161725]) and is described in Section 6.4 of this report. FEHM is a three-dimensional (3-D), finite-volume, finite-element, heat and mass flow-and-transport code. This report documents the features and capabilities of the site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the SZ at Yucca Mountain in support of the TSPA-LA. Correlative flow-model calculations using FEHM are carried out and documented in the model report ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). The velocity fields are calculated by the flow model independent of the transport processes and supplied as a part of the output package from the flow model, which is then used as inputs to the transport model. Several SZ analysis model reports provide information and data needed as feed-ins for this report, and this report in turn provides technical product outputs that feed into other SZ reports. The details of inputs to the site-scale transport model are provided in Section 4.

  18. Transportation and Program Management Services

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Atlanta, Georgia Transportation and Program Management Services Secured Transportation Services, LLC Founded: December, 2003 ff Staff: 7 Experience: Over 145 years combined experience in Nuclear Transportation, Security, HP & Operations Services Transportation The largest Transportation Coordinators of Spent Nuclear Fuel in North America On-Site, Hands-On Assistance (Before & During both Loading & Transport) P d A i t (W iti d/ R i ) Procedure Assistance (Writing and/or Review)

  19. Badger Transport | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transport Jump to: navigation, search Name: Badger Transport Place: Clintonville, Wisconsin Zip: 54929 Product: Heavy haul and specialty trucking company active in the US Midwest....

  20. Transportation Resources | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Resources The following means of transportation are available for getting to Argonne. Airports Argonne is located within 25 miles of two major Chicago airports:...

  1. Washington: Integrated Transportation Programs & Coordinated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Transportation Programs & Coordinated Regional Planning Washington: Integrated Transportation Programs & Coordinated Regional Planning November 6, 2013 - 5:42pm Addthis ...

  2. CASL - Radiation Transport Methods Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Transport Methods Update The Radiation Transport Methods (RTM) focus area is responsible for the development of methods, algorithms, and implementations of radiation...

  3. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Energy Consumption Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining ...

  4. Spring 2016 National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Meeting, Florida Spring 2016 National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Meeting, Florida Spring 2016 National Transportation ...

  5. National Transportation Stakeholders Forum (NTSF) Charter | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services Waste Management Packaging and Transportation National Transportation Stakeholders Forum National Transportation Stakeholders Forum (NTSF) Charter National ...

  6. Transportation Storage Interface | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage Interface Transportation Storage Interface Regulation of Future Extended Storage and Transportation. PDF icon Transportation Storage Interface More Documents & Publications...

  7. Spring 2015 National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Stakeholders Forum Meeting, New Mexico Spring 2015 National Transportation Stakeholders Forum Meeting, New Mexico Spring 2015 National Transportation Stakeholders ...

  8. Transportation Efficiency Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Transportation Efficiency Resources Transportation efficiency reduces travel demand as measured by vehicle miles traveled (VMT). While transportation efficiency policies ...

  9. California Department of Transportation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transportation Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Department of Transportation Place: Sacramento, California References: California Department of Transportation1 This...

  10. The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory The Complex Systems Landscape of Future Urban Transportation In an effort "to examine the nexus of energy and mobility for future transportation systems," the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has launched the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility consortium. By studying mobility as a system researchers can predict future trends, an invaluable asset to policymakers as they prepare for the future of transportation. This

  11. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore, to estimate the transportation-related fuel used off-highway, transportation equipment is defined to include all devices that have wheels, can move or be moved from one point to another, and use fuel. An attempt has been made to exclude off-highway engines that do not meet all three of these criteria (e.g., chain saws and generators). The following approach was used to determine the current off-highway fuel use. First, a literature review was conducted to ensure that all sources with appropriate information would be considered. Secondly, the fuel use data available from each source were compiled and compared in so far as possible. Comparable data sets (i.e., same fuel type; same application) were evaluated. Finally, appropriate data sets were combined to provide a final tally.

  12. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage This is the November 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. November 6, 2015 Photo of a light blue car with a pump nozzle in front of a fuel dispenser. Hydrogen is pumped into a fuel cell electric vehicle at NREL's new station. Image by Dennis Schroeder/NREL 34598 New H2 Station Launched In fuel cell electric vehicles, energy is stored in hydrogen gas and then converted to electricity in a fuel cell. In October, NREL dedicated a 700-bar

  13. Effect of annealing on local composition and electrical transport correlations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiaramonti, A. N.; Schreiber, D. K.; Egelhoff, W. F.; Seidman, D. N.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Materials Science Division; NIST; Northwestern Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of annealing on the electrical transport behavior of CoFe/MgO/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions have been studied using a combination of site-specific in situ transmission electron microscopy and three-dimensional atom-probe tomography. Annealing leads to an increase in the resistance of the junctions. A shift in the conductance curve (dI/dV) minimum from 0 V for the as-grown specimen correlates with a sharply defined layer of CoFe oxide at the lower ferromagnetic interface. Annealing decreases the asymmetry in the conductance by making the interfaces more diffuse and the tunnel barrier more chemically homogeneous.

  14. Motor carrier safety evaluation conducted at University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory (UC/LANL), Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, R.F.

    1992-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration (DOT) conducts motor carrier safety evaluations for the purpose of determining a motor carrier`s safety fitness rating. Because it was believed that DOT or the State of New Mexico may not recognize UC/LANL exempt status and desire to inspect its transportation system and evaluate compliance with applicable laws and regulations, the lab contracted Garrison Associates to conduct a simulated motor carrier safety evaluation. This report enumerates the goals of this evaluation relevant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Uniform Safety Act (HMTUSA) of 1990. The report describes the methodology of the evaluation and lists observations in order of importance.

  15. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-10

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.

  16. Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.

    2015-04-10

    There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  18. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  19. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J.

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.

  20. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; He, J.

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Nas diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.

  1. Superior thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary. Extremely low thermal conductivity and modulated carrier concentration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, D.; Zhao, L. -D.; Tong, X.; Li, W.; Wu, L.; Tan, Q.; Pei, Y.; Huang, L.; Li, J. -F.; Zhu, Y.; et al

    2015-05-19

    Lead chalcogenides have exhibited their irreplaceable role as thermoelectric materials at the medium temperature range, owing to highly degenerate electronic bands and intrinsically low thermal conductivities. PbTe-PbS pseudo-binary has been paid extensive attentions due to the even lower thermal conductivity which originates largely from the coexistence of both alloying and phase-separated precipitations. To investigate the competition between alloying and phase separation and its pronounced effect on the thermoelectric performance in PbTe-PbS, we systematically studied Spark Plasma Sintered (SPSed), 3 at% Na- doped (PbTe)1-x(PbS)x samples with x=10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observationsmore » and theoretical calculations. Corresponding to the lowest lattice thermal conductivity as a result of the balance between point defect- and precipitates- scattering, the highest figure of merit ZT~2.3 was obtained at 923 K when PbS phase fraction x is at 20%. The consistently lower lattice thermal conductivities in SPSed samples compared with corresponding ingots, resulting from the powdering and follow-up consolidation processes, also contribute to the observed superior ZT. Notably, the onset of carrier concentration modulation ~600 K due to excessive Na’s diffusion and re-dissolution leads to the observed saturations of electrical transport properties, which is believed equally crucial to the outstanding thermoelectric performance of SPSed PbTe-PbS samples.« less

  2. Transparent Conducting Oxide - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transparent Conducting Oxide National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology <em>Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) have varying optical and electrical qualities. The optimal TCO for photovoltaic applications is one that maximizes both optical transparency and electrical conductivity as both of these attributes contribute to greater

  3. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G.; Saxena, Ram R.

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  4. Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts The holiday season is here again, and we need to remember our responsibilities as Laboratory employees. Code of Conduct regarding holiday gifts The holiday season is here again, and we need to remember our responsibilities as Laboratory employees. The holiday season brings gifts and invitations to open houses from customers, suppliers, and vendors that we do business with all year. It is important that we all

  5. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities,...

  6. Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Ion Conducting ... electrolytes which combine lithium salts with high molecular weight anionic polymers. ...

  7. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:'...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BORON CARBIDES; STABILIZATION; THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY; SEEBECK EFFECT Word Cloud More Like This ...

  8. Thermal boundary conductance accumulation and interfacial phonon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal boundary conductance accumulation and interfacial phonon transmission: Measurements and theory Authors: ...

  9. Conductance Steamflow relationship (Dataset) | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These histograms represent our calibration of conductance of a volcanic geothermal field ... Value of information analysis using geothermal field data: accounting for multiple ...

  10. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

    1992-04-28

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol. 2 figs.

  11. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Israel; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Sabatani, Eyal

    1992-01-01

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventioonally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol.

  12. CRAD, Conduct of Operations Assessment Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this assessment is to verify programmatic implementation of DOE O 5480.19, "Conduct of Operations Requirements of DOE Facilities"

  13. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Inventors: ...

  14. EPA -- Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EPA -- Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act EPA -- Addressing Children's ...

  15. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R.; Payzant, Edward A.; Speakman, Scott A.; Greenblatt, Martha

    2008-08-19

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  16. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conductivity polyethylene fibers and sheets will be developed to replace metals and ceramics in heat-transfer devices. Project innovations include using massively parallel...

  17. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    process to make high molecular weight, high thermal conductivity polyethylene fibers and sheets will be developed to replace metals and ceramics in heat-transfer devices. ...

  18. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles | Department of Energy Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Light Duty Vehicle Workshop in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 2010. PDF icon alt_trans_study.pdf More Documents & Publications An Energy

  19. Study of electrical conduction behavior of the system La[sub 1[minus]x]Na[sub x]Co[sub 1[minus]x]Nb[sub x]O[sub 3] (x [gt] 0. 05)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkash, O. . School of Materials Science and Technology); Tewari, H.S.; Tare, V.B. . Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering); Kumar, D. ); Pandey, L. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on electrical behavior of a few compositions with x [ge] 0.50 in the system La[sub 1 [minus] x]Na[sub x]Co[sub 1 [minus] x]Nb[sub x]O[sub 3] that has been studied by complex-plane-impedance analysis in the temperature range 300-525 K. Three depressed semicircular arcs have been observed in the complex impedance plot of the composition with x = 0.50. These arcs represent the contributions of bulk, grain boundaries, and electrode polarization to the total observed resistance. Two semicircular arcs have been observed in the complex-impedance plot of the compositions with x = 0.70 and 0.80. They represent the bulk and the grain boundaries contribution to the total observed resistance. The values of the resistance for the bulk and grain boundaries in each sample indicate the formation of barrier layers in these mathese materials.

  20. Fabrication of back-contacted silicon solar cells using thermomigration to create conductive vias

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M; Schmit, Russell R.

    2007-01-30

    Methods of manufacturing back-contacted silicon solar cells fabricated using a gradient-driven solute transport process, such as thermomigration or electromigration, to create n-type conductive vias connecting the n-type emitter layer on the front side to n-type ohmic contacts located on the back side.