National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transportation sector liquids

  1. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum...

  2. Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    held the Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas Vehicles workshop in Washington, D.C., on September 9, 2014....

  3. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An...

  4. ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANALYSIS OF MEASURES FOR REDUCING TRANSPORTATION SECTOR GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN CANADA by Rose: Analysis of Measures for Reducing Transportation Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Canada Project Number the problem of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Canadian transportation sector. Reductions

  5. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

    1993-03-16

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  6. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The...

  7. Cross-sector policy research: insights from the UK energy and transport sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peake, Stephen Robert

    1993-10-26

    : Insights from the UK energy and transport sectors Stephen Robert Peake Darwin College, Cambridge UNIVERSITY I ltBRARY J CAMBRIDGE A dissertation submitted to the University of Cambridge for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. June 1993 Dedication... . To Sarah and Charlie, for all their love and support. Declaration. I declare that except for commonly understood and accepted ideas, or where specific reference is made, the work reported in this dissertation is my own. It includes nothing which...

  8. Transportation Sector Energy Use by Mode from EIA AEO 2011 Early...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dataset is an excerpt from the spreadsheet Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011, isolating Transportation Sector energy use by Mode. Data and Resources...

  9. Transportation Sector Energy Use by Type from EIA AEO 2011 Early...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    dataset is an excerpt from the spreadsheet Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011, isolating Transportation Sector energy use by Type. Data and Resources...

  10. The role of private participation in enhancing the Indian transport sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Nand, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    The Indian transport sector, one of the largest transport networks in the world, faces some serious issues. These may be identified as follows: * Unmet demand for service and infrastructure * Conflicting responsibilities ...

  11. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G Henrik Lund Renewable energy Wind powerQ1 a b s t r a c t Large-scale sustainable energy systems will be necessary replace oil in the transportation sector, and (2) since today's inexpensive and abundant renewable energy

  12. Reducing GHG emissions in the United States' transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit [ORNL; Andress, David A [ORNL; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. DOE

    2011-01-01

    Reducing GHG emissions in the U.S. transportation sector requires both the use of highly efficient propulsion systems and low carbon fuels. This study compares reduction potentials that might be achieved in 2060 for several advanced options including biofuels, hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), assuming that technical and cost reduction targets are met and necessary fueling infrastructures are built. The study quantifies the extent of the reductions that can be achieved through increasing engine efficiency and transitioning to low-carbon fuels separately. Decarbonizing the fuels is essential for achieving large reductions in GHG emissions, and the study quantifies the reductions that can be achieved over a range of fuel carbon intensities. Although renewables will play a vital role, some combination of coal gasification with carbon capture and sequestration, and/or nuclear energy will likely be needed to enable very large reductions in carbon intensities for hydrogen and electricity. Biomass supply constraints do not allow major carbon emission reductions from biofuels alone; the value of biomass is that it can be combined with other solutions to help achieve significant results. Compared with gasoline, natural gas provides 20% reduction in GHG emissions in internal combustion engines and up to 50% reduction when used as a feedstock for producing hydrogen or electricity, making it a good transition fuel for electric propulsion drive trains. The material in this paper can be useful information to many other countries, including developing countries because of a common factor: the difficulty of finding sustainable, low-carbon, cost-competitive substitutes for petroleum fuels.

  13. Ris Energy Report 5 New and emerging technologies for renewable energy 51 in the transport sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of energy, rising oil prices and future security of supply have created strong efforts to find new transportRisų Energy Report 5 New and emerging technologies for renewable energy 51 in the transport sector 8 Energy consumption for transport accounts for approxi- mately 20% of all energy used worldwide [1

  14. Modeling the Transport Sector: The Role of Existing Fuel Taxes in Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paltsev, Sergey.

    Existing fuel taxes play a major role in determining the welfare effects of exempting the transportation sector from measures to control greenhouse gases. To study this phenomenon we modify the MIT Emissions Prediction and ...

  15. Technology detail in a multi-sector CGE model : transport under climate policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schafer, Andreas.

    A set of three analytical models is used to study the imbedding of specific transport technologies within a multi-sector, multi-region evaluation of constraints on greenhouse emissions. Key parameters of a computable general ...

  16. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  17. Energy Outlook for the Transport Sector | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Energy: A View to 2030 The Drive for Energy Diversity and Sustainability: The Impact on Transportation Fuels and Propulsion System Portfolios Algae Biofuels Technology...

  18. Accounting for Co-benefits in Asia's Transportation Sector: Methods...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.iges.or.jpencpactivity20101108.html UN Region: Eastern Asia Accounting for Co-benefits in Asia's Transportation...

  19. The Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in the Transport Sector...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and greenhouse gas emissions. References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleThePracticeofCostBenefitAnalysisintheTransportSectoraMexicanPe...

  20. Atomic Transport in Dense, Multi-Component Metallic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Meyer

    2002-06-27

    Pd43Ni10Cu27P0 has been investigated in its equilibrium liquid state with incoherent, inelastic neutron scattering. As compared to simple liquids, liquid PdNiCuP is characterized by a dense packing with a packing fraction above 0.5. The intermediate scattering function exhibits a fast relaxation process that precedes structural relaxation. Structural relaxation obeys a time-temperature superposition that extends over a temperature range of 540K. The mode-coupling theory of the liquid to glass transition (MCT) gives a consistent description of the dynamics which governs the mass transport in liquid PdNiCuP alloys. MCT scaling laws extrapolate to a critical temperature Tc at about 20% below the liquidus temperature. Diffusivities derived from the mean relaxation times compare well with Co diffusivities from recent tracer diffusion measurements and diffsuivities calculated from viscosity via the Stokes-Einstein relation. In contrast to simple metallic liquids, the atomic transport in dense, liquid PdNiCuP is characterized by a drastical slowing down of dynamics on cooling, a q^{-2} dependence of the mean relaxation times at intermediate q and a vanishing isotope effect as a result of a highly collective transport mechanism. At temperatures as high as 2Tc diffusion in liquid PdNiCuP is as fast as in simple liquids at the melting point. However, the difference in the underlying atomic transport mechanism indicates that the diffusion mechanism in liquids is not controlled by the value of the diffusivity but rather by that of the packing fraction.

  1. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  2. Toward new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Toward new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen.Solid and liquid hydrogen carriers for use in hydrogen storage and delivery.

  3. Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G Henrik Lund, DE 19716, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 18 March 2008 Accepted 2 June 2008 Keywords: V2G Vehicle to grid Energy system analysis Sustainable energy systems Electric vehicle EV

  4. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  5. Charge Transport and Glassy Dynamics in Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sangoro, Joshua R; Kremer, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) exhibit unique features such as low melting points, low vapor pressures, wide liquidus temperature ranges, high thermal stability, high ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical windows. As a result, they show promise for use in variety of applications: as reaction media, in batteries and supercapacitors, in solar and fuel cells, for electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors, for protein extraction and crystallization, and many others. Because of the ease with which they can be supercooled, ionic liquids offer new opportunities to investigate long-standing questions regarding the nature of the dynamic glass transition and its possible link to charge transport. Despite the significant steps achieved from experimental and theoretical studies, no generally accepted quantitative theory of dynamic glass transition to date has been capable of reproducing all the experimentally observed features. In this Account, we discuss recent studies of the interplay between charge transport and glassy dynamics in ionic liquids as investigated by a combination of several experimental techniques including broadband dielectric spectroscopy, pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Based on EinsteinSmoluchowski relations, we use dielectric spectra of ionic liquids to determine diffusion coefficients in quantitative agreement with independent pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, but spanning a broader range of more than 10 orders of magnitude. This approach provides a novel opportunity to determine the electrical mobility and effective number density of charge carriers as well as their types of thermal activation from the measured dc conductivity separately. We also unravel the origin of the remarkable universality of charge transport in different classes of glass-forming ionic liquids.

  6. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  7. Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers by Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak Bachelor means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion State University) Abstract Liquid water management has a major impact on the performance and durability

  8. On the Mechanism of Activated Transport in Glassy Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliy Lubchenko; Pyotr Rabochiy

    2014-12-03

    We explore several potential issues that have been raised over the years regarding the "entropic droplet" scenario of activated transport in liquids, due to Wolynes and coworkers, with the aim of clarifying the status of various approximations of the random first order transition theory (RFOT) of the structural glass transition. In doing so, we estimate the mismatch penalty between alternative aperiodic structures, above the glass transition; the penalty is equal to the typical magnitude of free energy fluctuations in the liquid. The resulting expressions for the activation barrier and the cooperativity length contain exclusively bulk, static properties; in their simplest form they contains only the bulk modulus and the configurational entropy per unit volume. The expressions are universal in that they do not depend explicitly on the molecular detail. The predicted values for the barrier and cooperativity length and, in particular, the temperature dependence of the barrier are in satisfactory agreement with observation. We thus confirm that the entropic droplet picture is indeed not only internally-consistent but is also fully constructive, consistent with the apparent success of its many quantitative predictions. A simple view of a glassy liquid as a locally metastable, degenerate pattern of frozen-in stress emerges in the present description. Finally, we derive testable relationships between the bulk modulus and several characteristics of glassy liquids and peculiarities in low-temperature glasses.

  9. Assessment of the risk of transporting liquid chlorine by rail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, W.B.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the risk of shipping liquid chlorine by rail. While chlorine is not an energy material, there are several benefits to studying chlorine transportation risks. First, chlorine, like energy materials, is widely used as a feedstock to industry. Second, it is the major purification agent in municipal water treatment systems and therefore, provides direct benefits to the public. Finally, other risk assessments have been completed for liquid chlorine shipments in the US and Europe, which provide a basis for comparison with this study. None of the previous PNL energy material risk assessments have had other studies for comparison. For these reasons, it was felt that a risk assessment of chlorine transportation by rail could provide information on chlorine risk levels, identify ways to reduce these risks and use previous studies on chlorine risks to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the PNL risk assessment methodology. The risk assessment methodology used in this study is summarized. The methodology is presented in the form of a risk assessment model which is constructed for ease of periodic updating of the data base so that the risk may be reevaluated as additional data become available. The report is sectioned to correspond to specific analysis steps identified in the model. The transport system and accident environment are described. The response of the transport system to accident environments is described. Release sequences are postulated and evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a direct comparison with other reports in this series.

  10. Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Sustained high world oil prices and the passage of the Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPACT) have encouraged the use of agriculture-based ethanol and biodiesel in the transportation sector; however, both the continued growth of the biofuels industry and the long-term market potential for biofuels depend on the resolution of critical issues that influence the supply of and demand for biofuels. For each of the major biofuelscorn-based ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and biodieselresolution of technical, economic, and regulatory issues remains critical to further development of biofuels in the United States.

  11. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  12. Corn Ethanol: The Surprisingly Effective Route for Natural Gas Consumption in the Transportation Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P.; Curran, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Proven reserves and production of natural gas (NG) in the United States have increased dramatically in the last decade, due largely to the commercialization of hydraulic fracturing. This has led to a plentiful supply of NG, resulting in a significantly lower cost on a gallon of gasoline-equivalent (GGE) basis. Additionally, NG is a domestic, non-petroleum source of energy that is less carbon-intensive than coal or petroleum products, and thus can lead to lower greenhouse gas emissions. Because of these factors, there is a desire to increase the use of NG in the transportation sector in the United States (U.S.). However, using NG directly in the transportation sector requires that several non-trivial challenges be overcome. One of these issues is the fueling infrastructure. There are currently only 1,375 NG fueling stations in the U.S. compared to 152,995 fueling stations for gasoline in 2014. Additionally, there are very few light-duty vehicles that can consume this fuel directly as dedicated or bi-fuel options. For example, in model year 2013Honda was the only OEM to offer a dedicated CNG sedan while a number of others offered CNG options as a preparation package for LD trucks and vans. In total, there were a total of 11 vehicle models in 2013 that could be purchased that could use natural gas directly. There are additional potential issues associated with NG vehicles as well. Compared to commercial refueling stations, the at-home refueling time for NG vehicles is substantial – a result of the small compressors used for home refilling. Additionally, the methane emissions from both refueling (leakage) and from tailpipe emissions (slip) from these vehicles can add to their GHG footprint, and while these emissions are not currently regulated it could be a barrier in the future, especially in scenarios with broad scale adoption of CNG vehicles. However, NG consumption already plays a large role in other sectors of the economy, including some that are important to the transportation sector. Examples include steam reforming of natural gas to provide hydrogen for hydrotreating unit operations within the refinery and production of urea for use as a reductant for diesel after treatment in selective catalytic reduction (SCR). This discussion focuses on the consumption of natural gas in the production pathway of conventional ethanol (non-cellulosic) from corn through fermentation. Though it is clear that NG would also play a significant role in the cellulosic production pathways, those cases are not considered in this analysis.

  13. The electrical transport properties of liquid Rb using pseudopotential theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, A. B., E-mail: amit07patel@gmail.com; Bhatt, N. K., E-mail: amit07patel@gmail.com; Thakore, B. Y., E-mail: amit07patel@gmail.com; Jani, A. R. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Vyas, P. R. [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad-380009, Gujarat (India)

    2014-04-24

    Certain electric transport properties of liquid Rb are reported. The electrical resistivity is calculated by using the self-consistent approximation as suggested by Ferraz and March. The pseudopotential due to Hasegawa et al for full electron-ion interaction, which is valid for all electrons and contains the repulsive delta function due to achieve the necessary s-pseudisation was used for the calculation. Temperature dependence of structure factor is considered through temperature dependent potential parameter in the pair potential. Finally, thermo-electric power and thermal conductivity are obtained. The outcome of the present study is discussed in light of other such results, and confirms the applicability of pseudopotential at very high temperature via temperature dependent pair potential.

  14. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    membranes containing ionic liquid could be designed to take advantage of the interesting gas separation

  15. Universal transport signatures of Majorana fermions in superconductor-Luttinger liquid junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Universal transport signatures of Majorana fermions in superconductor-Luttinger liquid junctions, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 3 Institute of Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 4 Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

  16. Mesoscopic modeling of liquid water transport in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Chao Yang [PENNSTATE UNIV.

    2008-01-01

    A key performance limitation in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. Liquid water leads to the coverage of the electrochemically active sites in the catalyst layer (CL) rendering reduced catalytic activity and blockage of the available pore space in the porous CL and fibrous gas diffusion layer (GDL) resulting in hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites. The cathode CL and the GDL therefore playa major role in the mass transport loss and hence in the water management of a PEFC. In this article, we present the development of a mesoscopic modeling formalism coupled with realistic microstructural delineation to study the profound influence of the pore structure and surface wettability on liquid water transport and interfacial dynamics in the PEFC catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer.

  17. Biomass and Natural Gas to Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 1: New Developments and Hot Topics Session 1-D: Natural Gas & Biomass to Liquids Josephine Elia, Graduate Student, Princeton University

  18. Thermodynamic and transport properties of sodium liquid and vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sodium liquid and vapor. Recently published Russian recommendations and results of equation of state calculations on thermophysical properties of sodium have been included in...

  19. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with...

  20. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy security through more effective utilization of our country’s resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

  1. Nanofluidic transport governed by the liquid/vapour interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jongho

    Liquid/vapour interfaces govern the behaviour of a wide range of systems but remain poorly understood, leaving ample margin for the exploitation of intriguing functionalities for applications. Here, we systematically ...

  2. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 2: Part 4, Transportation sector; Part 5, Forestry sector; Part 6, Agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This volume, the second of two such volumes, contains sector-specific guidance in support of the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration. This voluntary reporting program was authorized by Congress in Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The General Guidelines, bound separately from this volume, provide the overall rationale for the program, discuss in general how to analyze emissions and emission reduction/carbon sequestration projects, and address programmatic issues such as minimum reporting requirements, time parameters, international projects, confidentiality, and certification. Together, the General Guidelines and the guidance in these supporting documents will provide concepts and approaches needed to prepare the reporting forms. This second volume of sector-specific guidance covers the transportation sector, the forestry sector, and the agricultural sector.

  3. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    extraction, processing, refining, transport, and distribution of fossil fuels into useful energy products such as natural

  4. A historical view and proposal analysis of the strategic role of the transportation sector in the economic development of post-war Liberia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwame Corkrum, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the proposals for building and improving the transportation sector in Liberia, primarily the roads while providing immediate social opportunities and employment for many of the poor in Liberia. As ...

  5. Enhanced electrical transport in ionic liquid dispersed TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Neha [Physics Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan, India and Department of Physics, JECRC University, Jaipur-303905, Rajasthan (India); Rathore, Munesh, E-mail: adalvi@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Dalvi, Anshuman, E-mail: adalvi@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Physics Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India); Kumar, Anil [Chemistry Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2014-04-24

    A polymer composite is prepared by dispersing ionic liquid [Bmim][BF{sub 4}] in Polyethylene oxide-tetra methyl ammonium iodide composite and subsequent microwave treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the composite nature. To explore possibility of proton conductivity in these films, electrical transport is studied by impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization. It is revealed that addition of ionic liquid in host TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte enhances the conductivity by ? 2 orders of magnitude. Polarization measurements suggest that composites are essentially ion conducting in nature. The maximum ionic conductivity is found to be ?2 × 10{sup ?5} for 10 wt % ionic liquid.

  6. The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

  7. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    within fossil fuel electricity generation are (1) to shiftin electricity generation and transportation fuels. The GHGfossil fuel-based electricity generation, is assumed. After

  8. conf. International Society of Exposure Analysis, Stresa, Italy, 21-25 Sept. 2003 The stakes of air pollution in the transport sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of air pollution in the transport sector Robert JOUMARD French National Institute for Transport@inrets.fr Abstract The main pollutants are listed for today and the future according to the progression of air of public concern regarding air pollution and environment. These pollutants are headed by carbon dioxide

  9. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S.Leadership on CleanUp GeorgiaLinacLiquefactionTransportation

  10. Communication: Unusual structure and transport in ionic liquid-hexane mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Min [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Khatun, Sufia [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Castner, Edward W. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquids having a sufficiently amphiphilic cation can dissolve large volume fractions of alkanes, leading to mixtures with intriguing properties on molecular length scales. The trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion provides an ionic liquid that can dissolve large mole fractions of hexane. We present experimental results on mixtures of n-C6D14 with this ionic liquid. High- energy X-ray scattering studies reveal a persistence of the characteristic features of ionic liquid structure even for 80% dilution with n-C6D14. NMR self-diffusion results reveal decidedly non-hydrodynamic behavior where the self-diffusion of the neutral, non-polar n-C6D14 is on average a factor of 21 times faster than for the cation. Exploitation of the unique structural and transport properties of these mixtures may lead to new opportunities for designer solvents for enhanced chemical reactivity and interface science.

  11. The U. S. transportation sector in the year 2030: results of a two-part Delphi survey.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.; Stephens, T.S.

    2011-10-11

    A two-part Delphi Survey was given to transportation experts attending the Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy in August, 2011. The survey asked respondents about trends in the US transportation sector in 2030. Topics included: alternative vehicles, high speed rail construction, rail freight transportation, average vehicle miles traveled, truck versus passenger car shares, vehicle fuel economy, and biofuels in different modes. The survey consisted of two rounds -- both asked the same set of seven questions. In the first round, respondents were given a short introductory paragraph about the topic and asked to use their own judgment in their responses. In the second round, the respondents were asked the same questions, but were also given results from the first round as guidance. The survey was sponsored by Argonne National Lab (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and implemented by University of California at Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies. The survey was part of the larger Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project run by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Of the 206 invitation letters sent, 94 answered all questions in the first round (105 answered at least one question), and 23 of those answered all questions in the second round. 10 of the 23 second round responses were at a discussion section at Asilomar, while the remaining were online. Means and standard deviations of responses from Round One and Two are given in Table 1 below. One main purpose of Delphi surveys is to reduce the variance in opinions through successive rounds of questioning. As shown in Table 1, the standard deviations of 25 of the 30 individual sub-questions decreased between Round One and Round Two, but the decrease was slight in most cases.

  12. Title: Innovation of the Surface Transportation Sector Organizers: Rick Geddes and Al George

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    of transportation that achieves significant improvements in the following areas: · energy efficiency, fossil fuel and security · equitable access · urban design and land use · financial sustainability #12; and Aerospace Engineering, Computer Science, Materials Science, City and Regional Planning, Policy Analysis

  13. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent emissions constraints; we find that at carbon prices above 150$/tCO2, over 90% of biomass in the energy system is used in combination with CCS. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, it is a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. CCS is also used heavily with other fuels such as coal and natural gas, and by 2095 a total of 1530 GtCO2 has been stored in deep geologic reservoirs. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels as two representative conversion processes and shows that both technologies may be important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics.

  14. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P. (Pasco, WA); Martin, Paul F. (Richland, WA); Lindenmeier, Clark W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  15. Towards a low carbon transport sector: electricity or hydrogen?y y g

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! Development market Initial high cost of vehicle Success of alternatives (lock-in) 10 Success of alternatives · Substantial GHG emission reductions needed to limit global warming 2 1 2 needed to limit global warming · We and new actors 8 consumerand new actors #12;Sustainable innovation in road transport: Dutch case study

  16. Quantum path integral molecular dynamics simulations on transport properties of dense liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Dongdong; Sun, Huayang; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-01-01

    Transport properties of dense liquid helium under the conditions of planet's core and cool atmosphere of white dwarfs have been investigated by using the improved centroid path-integral simulations combined with density functional theory. The self-diffusion is largely higher and the shear viscosity is notably lower predicted with the quantum mechanical description of the nuclear motion compared with the description by Newton equation. The results show that nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), which depends on the temperature and density of the matter via the thermal de Broglie wavelength and the ionization of electrons, are essential for the transport properties of dense liquid helium at certain astrophysical conditions. The Stokes-Einstein relation between diffusion and viscosity in strongly coupled regime is also examined to display the influences of NQEs.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  19. The Practice of Cost Benefit Analysis in the Transport Sector a Mexican

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe Needles Geothermal AreaTransportThe

  20. GIZ Sourcebook Module 5d: The CDM in the Transport Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable Urban TransportFortistarFuelCellsEtcSilicon Co LtdGEOGHD

  1. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier, E-mail: kian.rahbarnia@ipp.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique de l'Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS and Universite de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France)

    2012-11-10

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  2. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  3. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  4. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-01-01

    The primary objective of this report is to provide estimates of volumes and development costs of known nonassociated gas reserves in selected, potentially important supplier nations, using a standard set of costing algorithms and conventions. Estimates of undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves and the cost of drilling development wells, production equipment, gas processing facilities, and pipeline construction are made at the individual field level. A discounted cash-flow model of production, investment, and expenses is used to estimate the present value cost of developing each field on a per-thousand-cubic-foot (Mcf) basis. These gas resource cost estimates for individual accumulations (that is, fields or groups of fields) then were aggregated into country-specific price-quantity curves. These curves represent the cost of developing and transporting natural gas to an export point suitable for tanker shipments or to a junction with a transmission line. The additional costs of LNG or methanol conversion are not included. A brief summary of the cost of conversion to methanol and transportation to the United States is contained in Appendix D: Implications of Gas Development Costs for Methanol Conversion.

  5. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of TRAN for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, 57(b)(1)). Third, it permits continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  6. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The attachments contained within this appendix provide additional details about the model development and estimation process which do not easily lend themselves to incorporation in the main body of the model documentation report. The information provided in these attachments is not integral to the understanding of the model`s operation, but provides the reader with opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of some of the model`s underlying assumptions. There will be a slight degree of replication of materials found elsewhere in the documentation, made unavoidable by the dictates of internal consistency. Each attachment is associated with a specific component of the transportation model; the presentation follows the same sequence of modules employed in Volume 1. The following attachments are contained in Appendix F: Fuel Economy Model (FEM)--provides a discussion of the FEM vehicle demand and performance by size class models; Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Model--describes data input sources and extrapolation methodologies; Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Stock Model--discusses the fuel economy gap estimation methodology; Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Model--presents the data development for business, utility, and government fleet vehicles; Light Commercial Truck Model--describes the stratification methodology and data sources employed in estimating the stock and performance of LCT`s; Air Travel Demand Model--presents the derivation of the demographic index, used to modify estimates of personal travel demand; and Airborne Emissions Model--describes the derivation of emissions factors used to associate transportation measures to levels of airborne emissions of several pollutants.

  7. Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Journal of Power Sources 164 (2007) 189­195 Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cell; Water transport; Mathematical modeling; Three

  8. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  9. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  10. Communication: Unusual structure and transport in ionic liquid-hexane mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liang, Min; Khatun, Sufia; Castner, Edward W.

    2015-03-28

    Ionic liquids having a sufficiently amphiphilic cation can dissolve large volume fractions of alkanes, leading to mixtures with intriguing properties on molecular length scales. The trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium cation paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide anion provides an ionic liquid that can dissolve large mole fractions of hexane. We present experimental results on mixtures of n-C6D14 with this ionic liquid. High- energy X-ray scattering studies reveal a persistence of the characteristic features of ionic liquid structure even for 80% dilution with n-C6D14. NMR self-diffusion results reveal decidedly non-hydrodynamic behavior where the self-diffusion of the neutral, non-polar n-C6D14 is on average a factor of 21more »times faster than for the cation. Exploitation of the unique structural and transport properties of these mixtures may lead to new opportunities for designer solvents for enhanced chemical reactivity and interface science.« less

  11. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    reported in IEA India transportation energy data. DifferentKeywords: India, transport, energy demand, decomposition,balance for India, transport energy consumption represents

  12. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  13. Growth Dynamics and Gas Transport Mechanism of Nanobubbles in Graphene Liquid Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Dongha; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Sang Jin; Kang, Jin Hyoun; Lee, Bora; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Hong, Byung Hee; Novoselov, Konstantin S

    2014-01-01

    Formation, evolution, and vanishing of bubbles are common phenomena in our nature, which can be easily observed in boiling or falling waters, carbonated drinks, gas-forming electrochemical reactions, etc. However, the morphology and the growth dynamics of the bubbles at nanoscale have not been fully investigated owing to the lack of proper imaging tools that can visualize nanoscale objects in liquid phase. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that the nanobubbles in water encapsulated by graphene membrane can be visualized by in situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM), showing the critical radius of nanobubbles determining its unusual long-term stability as well as two distinct growth mechanisms of merging nanobubbles (Ostwald ripening and coalescing) depending on their relative sizes. Interestingly, the gas transport through ultrathin water membranes at nanobubble interface is free from dissolution, which is clearly different from conventional gas transport that includes condensa...

  14. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  15. Operational Challenges in Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) Transportation Through Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin A. Chukwu; Santanu Khataniar; Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar

    2006-06-30

    Oil production from Alaskan North Slope oil fields has steadily declined. In the near future, ANS crude oil production will decline to such a level (200,000 to 400,000 bbl/day) that maintaining economic operation of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) will require pumping alternative products through the system. Heavy oil deposits in the West Sak and Ugnu formations are a potential resource, although transporting these products involves addressing important sedimentation issues. One possibility is the use of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) technology. Estimated recoverable gas reserves of 38 trillion cubic feet (TCF) on the North Slope of Alaska can be converted to liquid with GTL technology and combined with the heavy oils for a product suitable for pipeline transport. Issues that could affect transport of this such products through TAPS include pumpability of GTL and crude oil blends, cold restart of the pipeline following a prolonged winter shutdown, and solids deposition inside the pipeline. This study examined several key fluid properties of GTL, crude oil and four selected blends under TAPS operating conditions. Key measurements included Reid Vapor Pressure, density and viscosity, PVT properties, and solids deposition. Results showed that gel strength is not a significant factor for the ratios of GTL-crude oil blend mixtures (1:1; 1:2; 1:3; 1:4) tested under TAPS cold re-start conditions at temperatures above - 20 F, although Bingham fluid flow characteristics exhibited by the blends at low temperatures indicate high pumping power requirements following prolonged shutdown. Solids deposition is a major concern for all studied blends. For the commingled flow profile studied, decreased throughput can result in increased and more rapid solid deposition along the pipe wall, resulting in more frequent pigging of the pipeline or, if left unchecked, pipeline corrosion.

  16. Transportation Sector Module

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation7)

  17. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  18. Mathematical modeling of liquid/liquid hollow fiber membrane contactor accounting for interfacial transport phenomena: Extraction of lanthanides as a surrogate for actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, J.D.

    1994-08-04

    This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport.

  19. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  1. On the thermal neutron transport processes in liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnsal, R.M.; Tewari, S.P.

    1983-06-01

    Using the recently developed thermal neutron scattering kernels for water and heavy water, which incorporate both the collective and the molecular modes present in water and heavy water, the thermal neutron transport studies of asymptotic decay constants lambda/sub 0/, diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, diffusion cooling coefficient C, and the transport mean-free-path lambda /SUB tr/ are studied for liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures with varying molecular contents and for various assembly sizes at 21 and 5/sup 0/C. The calculated values of the physical constants, lambda/sub 0/, D/sub 0/, C, and lambda /SUB tr/ are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. Both the collective motion and the molecular modes present in the liquid H/sub 2/O-D/sub 2/O mixtures play significant roles in the thermal neutron transport processes.

  2. Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

    2013-02-20

    The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

  3. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    institute TERI. (2001) TERI Energy Data Directory & Yearbookdesigned. Unfortunately, existing energy data do not provideIndia transportation energy data. Different scenarios were

  4. Transportation Sector Market Transition: Using History and Geography to Envision Possible Hydrogen Infrastructure Development and Inform Public Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.

    2008-08-01

    This report covers the challenges to building an infrastructure for hydrogen, for use as transportation fuel. Deployment technologies and policies that could quicken deployment are addressed.

  5. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through July 1999.

  6. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

  7. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

  9. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  10. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

  11. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

  14. Transport of thermal neutrons in different forms of liquid hydrogen and the production of intense beams of cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Tewari, S.P.

    1982-10-01

    From their studies the authors find that the thermal neutron inelastic scattering kernel incorporating the chemical binding energy in liquid hydrogen is able to successfully explain various neutron transport studies such as pulsed neutron and steady-state neutron spectra. For an infinite-sized assembly, D/sub 2/ at 4 K yields a very intense flux of cold and ultracold neutrons. For the practicable finite assembly corresponding to B/sup 2/ = 0.0158 cm/sup -2/, it is found that liquid hydrogen at 11 K gives the most intense beam of cold neutrons.

  15. Charge transport and breakdown physics in liquid/solid insulation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jadidian, Jouya

    2013-01-01

    Liquid dielectrics provide superior electrical breakdown strength and heat transfer capability, especially when used in combination with liquid-immersed solid dielectrics. Over the past half-century, there has been extensive ...

  16. End-Use Sector Flowchart

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This system of energy intensity indicators for total energy covers the economy as a whole and each of the major end-use sectors—transportation, industry, commercial and residential—identified in Figure 1. By clicking on any of the boxes with the word "Sector" in the title will reveal the more detailed structure within that sector.

  17. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    consumption. As in the statistic from India Ministry ofTransport In India Ministry of Statistics (MOS), India. (Statistics 4.2 Comparison with IEA data The energy consumption estimates described above were compared with IEA India

  18. Assessment of Historic Trend in Mobility and Energy Use in India Transportation Sector Using Bottom-up Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    consumption reported in IEA India transportation energyin mobility, while the IEA data only shows a 1.7% growthWB, 2004). According to the IEA energy balance for India,

  19. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: ConocoPhillips and Nexant Corporatin

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen is most commonly transported and delivered as a liquid when high-volume transport is needed in the absence of pipelines....

  1. The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fradera, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

  2. Decoupling charge transport from the structural dynamics in room temperature ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Phillip; Agapov, Alexander L; Kisliuk, Alexander; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Novikov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2011-01-01

    Light scattering and dielectric spectroscopy measurements were performed on the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [C4mim][NTf2] in a broad temperature and frequency range. Ionic conductivity was used to estimate self-diffusion of ions, while light scattering was used to study structural relaxation. We demonstrate that the ionic diffusion decouples from the structural relaxation process as the temperature of the sample decreases toward Tg. The strength of the decoupling appears to be significantly lower than that expected for a supercooled liquid of similar fragility. The structural relaxation process in the RTIL follows well the high-temperature mode coupling theory (MCT) scenario. Using the MCT analysis we estimated the dynamic crossover temperature in [C4mim][NTf2] to be Tc 225 5 K. However, our analysis reveals no sign of the dynamic crossover in the ionic diffusion process.

  3. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  4. Transport in unconventional superconductors: Application to liquid {sup 3}He in aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einzel, Dietrich; Parpia, Jeevak M.

    2005-12-01

    We consider quite generally the transport of energy and momentum in unconventional superconductors and Fermi superfluids to which both impurity scattering (treated within the t-matrix approximation) and inelastic scattering contributes. A new interpolation scheme for the temperature dependence of the transport parameters is presented which preserves all analytical results available for T{yields}0 and T{yields}T{sub c} and allows for a particularly transparent physical representation of the results. The two scattering processes are combined using Matthiessen's rule coupling. This procedure is applied for the first time to {sup 3}He-B in aerogel. Here, at the lowest temperatures, a universal ratio of the thermal conductivity and the shear viscosity is found in the unitary limit, which is akin to the Wiedemann-Franz law.

  5. VOLUME 76, NUMBER 17 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 22 APRIL 1996 Thermal Transport in a Luttinger Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) interacting electron gas, employing the Luttinger liquid model. Both thermal conductance and thermopower for these are 1D interacting electron gas models, which exhibit a non-Fermi-liquid phase even for weak] and in the cuprate superconductors [9]. It is natural to anticipate that thermal transport in such non-Fermi-liquid

  6. Energy Intensity Indicators: Transportation Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains an overview of the aggregate transportation sector, combining both passenger and freight segments of this sector. The specific energy intensity indicators for passenger and freight can be obtained from the links, passenger transportation, or freight transportation. For further detail within the transportation sector, download the appropriate Trend Data worksheet containing detailed data and graphics for specific transportation modes.

  7. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas have continued to make small contributions to transportation,transportation actions include electric power sector actions, eg coal to natural gas

  8. Optimizing U.S. Mitigation Strategies for the Light-Duty Transportation Sector: What We Learn from a Bottom-Up Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-01-01

    22, (4), 10. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projections4. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with Projections to 2030.to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Transportation Demand

  9. Optimizing U.S. Mitigation Strategies for the Light-Duty Transportation Sector: What We Learn from a Bottom-Up Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Farrell, Alexander E.; Plevin, Richard J; Sanstad, Alan; Weyant, John

    2008-01-01

    leg/leginx.asp 4. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2007 with22, (4), 10. EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2006 with Projectionsto the Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Transportation Demand

  10. Climate forcing by the on-road transportation and power generation sectors Nadine Unger a,b,*, Drew T. Shindell a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generation (PG) sectors are major contributors to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and a host of short-lived well-mixed greenhouse gas (WMGHG) carbon dioxide (CO2). In addition, these human activities influence energy change options to date have neglected non- CO2 air pollutant impacts on radiative forcing (RF

  11. Fact #561: March 9, 2009 All Sectors' Petroleum Gap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Before 1989 the U.S. produced enough petroleum to meet the needs of the transportation sector, but was still short of meeting the petroleum needs of all the sectors, including industrial,...

  12. Fact #610: February 15, 2010 All Sectors' Petroleum Gap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Before 1989 the U.S. produced enough petroleum to meet the needs of the transportation sector, but was still short of meeting the petroleum needs of all the sectors, including industrial,...

  13. Liquid hydrogen - An alternative aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, R.O.

    1991-02-01

    This paper examines the past and current activities concerning the development of liquid hydrogen as an alternative turbine engine aviation fuel, and also provides a look at the technical and market requirements that determine the viability of substitutes for conventional jet fuel. Alternative aviation fuels must address the following issues: availability, distribution, energy density, compatibility, economics, safety, handling, and quality control. Preliminary hardware demonstrations and analyses have shown that liquid hydrogen seems to be technically feasible, and may be eventually superior to petroleum-based jet fuel. Disadvantages include low ignition energy and a high flame velocity. From the environmental standpoint, hydrogen combustion in aircraft turbine engines can be expected to eliminate smoke emissions, hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide. As to the marketing perspective, liquid hydrogen has broad applicability as a fuel in other transportation sectors that could allow multiindustry involvement in its development and commercialization.

  14. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  15. Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout / Transforming Y-12Capacity-Forum Sign InTransportation

  16. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

    2007-01-01

    With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

  18. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  19. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  20. Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Equipment (2010 MECS) Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment Sector (NAICS 336) Energy use data source:...

  1. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  2. Momentum, Heat, and Neutral Mass Transport in Convective Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Liquid Systems and Implications for Aqueous Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, Alexander; Slikboer, Elmar; Shannon, Steven; Graves, David

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge; the qualitative conclusions are generally applicable to plasma-liquid systems. The problem domain is discretized using the finite element method. The most interesting and relevant model result for application purposes is the steep gradients in reactive species at the interface. At the center of where the reactive gas stream impinges on the water surface, the aqueous concentrations of OH and ONOOH decrease by roughly 9 and 4 orders of magnitude respectively within 50 $\\mu$m of the interface. Recognizing the limited penetration of reactive plasma species into the aqueous phase is critical to discussions about the therapeutic mechanisms for direct plasma treatment of biological solutions. Other interesting results fro...

  3. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  4. Toledo Regional Economic PlanToledo Regional Economic Plan Transportation and LogisticsTransportation and Logistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Toledo Regional Economic PlanToledo Regional Economic Plan Transportation and LogisticsTransportation and Logistics Industry SectorIndustry Sector Submitted by:Submitted by: Transportation and Logistics Working GroupTransportation and Logistics Working Group September 2009September 2009 #12;22 Transportation

  5. Carrier-mediated transport of actinide ions using supported liquid membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panja, S.; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Pu{sup 3+} under varying reducing conditions was investigated from a feed containing 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} into a receiver phase containing 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} using TODGA (N,N,N',N' - tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) as the carrier ligand. A mixture of 0.2 M hydroxyl ammonium nitrate and 0.2 M hydrazinium nitrate (used in the feed as the reducing agent) has been found to be effective for quantitative (>99%) transport of the trivalent Pu in about 3 h. Transport of trivalent plutonium in 3 h (>99%) was higher as compared to that of the tetravalent plutonium (94%), though their D values followed an opposite trend. The permeability coefficient (P) of Pu{sup 3+} was (4.63 {+-} 0.26) x 10{sup -3} cm/s as compared to (2.10 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} cm/s for Pu{sup 4+} and (3.67 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3} cm/s Am{sup 3+}. P values of trivalent actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+}, and Cm{sup 3+} are compared with their distribution data. (authors)

  6. Depreciation bias, financial-sector fragility and currency risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tambakis, Demosthenes N

    2002-01-01

    , focussing on illiquidity in the banking system and adverse spillovers from the ?nancial sector to currency markets. 1 Financial fragility is manifest in the high observed correlation between exchange rate collapses and banking crises. Liquidity problems...

  7. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report, May 10, 1994--December 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    This report encompasses the first year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on LNG research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (i) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (ii) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. Since this work was for fundamental research in a number of related areas to the use of LNG as a transportation fuel for long haul trucking, many of those results have appeared in numerous refereed journal and conference papers, and significant graduate training experiences (including at least one M.S. thesis and one Ph.D. dissertation) in the first year of this project. In addition, a potential new utilization of LNG fuel has been found, as a part of this work on the fundamental nature of adsorption of LNG vent gases in higher hydrocarbons; follow on research for this and other related applications and transfer of technology are proceeding at this time.

  8. Moving beyond the limits of mass transport in liquid absorbent microfilms through the implementation of surface-induced vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, S; Yu, DZ; Chugh, D; Moghaddam, S

    2014-02-01

    The slow diffusion of an absorbate molecule into an absorbent often makes the absorption process a rate-limiting step in many applications. In cases involving an absorbate with a high heat of phase change, such as water absorption into a LiBr (lithium bromide) solution, the absorption rate is further slowed due to significant heating of the absorbent. Recently, it has been demonstrated that constraining a LiBr solution film by a hydrophobic porous structure enables manipulation of the solution flow thermohydraulic characteristics. Here, it is shown that mass transport mode in a constrained laminar solution flow can be changed from diffusive to advective. This change in mode is accomplished through stretching and folding the laminar streamlines within the solution film via the implementation of micro-scale features on the flow channel surface. The process induces vortices within the solution film, which continuously bring concentrated solution from the bottom and middle of the solution channel to its interface with the vapor phase, thus leading to a significant enhancement in the absorption rate. The detailed physics of the involved transport processes is elucidated using the LBM (Lattice Boltzmann Method). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Molecular structure of the Discotic Liquid Crystalline Phase of Hexa-peri-Hexabenzocoronene/Oligothiophene Hybrid and their Charge Transport properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bag, Saientan; Maiti, Prabal K; Yelk, Joseph; Glaser, Matthew A; Walba, David M; Clark, Noel A

    2015-01-01

    Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulation we study the discotic columnar liquid crystalline (LC) phases formed by a new organic compound having Hexa-peri-Hexabenzocoronene (HBC) core with six pendant oligothiophene units recently synthesized by Nan Hu et al. (N. Hu, R. Shao, Y. Shen, D. Chen, N. A. Clark and D. M. Walba, Adv. Mater. 26, 2066, 2014). This HBC core based LC phase was shown to have electric field responsive behavior and has important application in organic electronics. Our simulation results confirm the hexagonal arrangement of columnar LC phase with a lattice spacing consistent with that obtained from small angle X-ray diffraction data. We have also calculated various positional and orientational correlation functions to characterize the ordering of the molecules in the columnar arrangement. The molecules in a column are arranged with an average twist of 25 degrees having an average inter-molecular separation of ~5 {\\AA}. Interestingly, we find an overall tilt angle of 43 degrees between th...

  10. Fact #582: August 3, 2009 Energy Shares by Sector and Source

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The transportation sector consumed about 28% of U.S. energy in 2008, nearly all of it (95%) in petroleum use. The industrial sector used about 40% petroleum and 40% natural gas. The electric...

  11. Fact #689: August 22, 2011 Energy Use by Sector and Source

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The transportation sector consumed 28% of U.S. energy in 2010, nearly all of it (93.5%) in petroleum use. The industrial sector used about 40% petroleum and 40% natural gas. The electric utility...

  12. Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  13. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 6 44 0 3 4 41 11 1 14 8 47 16 7 5 0 480 78 195 2 0 2 Conventional Boilers 10 CHP Cogeneration Nonprocess Energy Process Cooling and Refrigeration Machine Drive Electro-Chemical...

  14. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity Export 1 Combustion Emissions (MMT CO 2 e Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Total Emissions Offsite Emissions + Onsite Emissions Energy (TBtu ...

  15. Restructuring our Transportation Sector | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct.7,Breakout SessionsEnergy ResponsesRestructuring our

  16. Advanced Vehicle Electrification & Transportation Sector Electrification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NREL Advanced PetroleumDepartment

  17. Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NREL Advanced PetroleumDepartment| Department of

  18. Advanced Vehicle Electrification and Transportation Sector Electrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NREL Advanced PetroleumDepartment| Department of|

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: Transitioning the Transportation Sector -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics Ā» USAJobs Search USAJobsAdvanced EngineFebruaryVehicle

  20. Optimization of Maritime Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    and Technology Management Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Enterprise and D. Ronen (2007). Maritime transportation. Handbooks in Operations Research and Management Science (consolidation in the manufacturing sector, increasing competition, profit margins reduced, mergers and pooling

  1. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Green Mountain Power Corp","Investor-owned",4295605,1556518,1560705,1178382,0 2,"Vermont Electric...

  2. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"South Carolina Electric&Gas Company","Investor-owne...

  3. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"First Energy Solutions Corp.","Investor-owned",49437270...

  4. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC","Investor-owned",553018...

  5. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total sales, top five providers" "Nevada" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Nevada Power...

  6. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Kentucky Utilities Co","Investor-owned",18527337,61...

  7. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Northern States Power Co - Minnesota","Investor-owned...

  8. Table 3. Top five retailers of electricity, with end use sectors...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","Type of provider","All sectors","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation" 1,"Oklahoma Gas & Electric Co","Investor-owned",242030...

  9. Fundamentals of public-private partnerships in the transportation sector : international methodologies of highway public-private partnerships and a framework to increase the probability of success and allocate risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Ryan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    In 2009 the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) gave the US infrastructure sector a grade D, based on the current and future needs of the nation's infrastructure and estimates that by year 2020, the US surface ...

  10. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  11. Simulating Impacts of Disruptions to Liquid Fuels Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Michael; Corbet, Thomas F.; Baker, Arnold B.; O'Rourke, Julia M.

    2015-04-01

    This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of events that damage or disrupt liquid fuels infrastructure. The impact of a disruption depends on which components of the infrastructure are damaged, the time required for repairs, and the position of the disrupted components in the fuels supply network. Impacts are estimated for seven stressing events in regions of the United States, which were selected to represent a range of disruption types. For most of these events the analysis is carried out using the National Transportation Fuels Model (NTFM) to simulate the system-level liquid fuels sector response. Results are presented for each event, and a brief cross comparison of event simulation results is provided.

  12. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral Approach Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable...

  13. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  14. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  15. 35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    potential means for diversifying an energy resource base for the transportation sector. Largely as a result, there is a potential for the entrance of an estimated one million alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) into the California35 Alternative Transportation Fuels in California Chapter 4 ALTERNATIVE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

  16. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  17. Modeling regional transportation demand in China and the impacts of a national carbon constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishimoto, Paul

    2015-01-30

    Climate and energy policy in China will have important and uneven impacts on the country’s regionally heterogeneous transport system. In order to simulate these impacts, transport sector detail is added to a multi-sector, ...

  18. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    the demand for energy from the supply. Vehicle efficiency isreductions in energy demand, rather than the supply of low-supply of low-carbon biofuels available for use in the transportation sector and other sectors of the energy

  19. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  20. Hepp and Speer Sectors within Modern Strategies of Sector Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Smirnov; V. A. Smirnov

    2008-12-26

    Hepp and Speer sectors were successfully used in the sixties and seventies for proving mathematical theorems on analytically or/and dimensionally regularized and renormalized Feynman integrals at Euclidean external momenta. We describe them within recently developed strategies of introducing iterative sector decompositions. We show that Speer sectors are reproduced within one of the existing strategies.

  1. Residential Demand Sector Data, Commercial Demand Sector Data, Industrial Demand Sector Data - Annual Energy Outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing consumption and prices by sector and census division for 2006 - includes residential demand, commercial demand, and industrial demand

  2. Energy Department Awards $45 Million to Deploy Advanced Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is helping to build a strong 21st century transportation sector that cuts harmful pollution, creates jobs and leads to a more sustainable energy future," said Energy Secretary...

  3. Technology Mapping of the Renewable Energy, Buildings and Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Mapping of the Renewable Energy, Buildings and Transport Sectors: Policy Drivers and International Trade Aspects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL...

  4. Mainstreaming Transport Co-benefits Approach: A Guide to Evaluating...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Focus Area: Multi-sector Impact Evaluation Topics: Best Practices Website: pub.iges.or.jpmodulesenvirolibupload3209attachtransport%20co-ben Transport Toolkit Region(s):...

  5. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    aviation, marine and rail sectors. Energy use, broken out bysuch as aviation and marine. California’s Energy Future -and marine. We believe that the CEF transportation energy

  6. Chemical Sector Analysis | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene NetworkNuclear SecurityChattan ooga EagNISACChemical Sector

  7. Searching for Dark Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-ThroughputUpcomingmagnetoresistance |Komlov,Search / Search Search EnterDark Sector

  8. Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biofuel Feedstock Inter-Island Transportation Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office Biofuels Feedstocks Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Desktop Study October 2012 Photographs, from left ........................................................................... 11 Options for liquid biofuel feedstock transport ...........................................................................

  9. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FOR PUBLIC COMMENT SEPTEMBER, 2014 ENERGY SECTOR CYBERSECURITY FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance Table of Contents...

  10. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector. Technical report twelve: Economic analysis of alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Altemative Fuels Assessment, the Department of Energy (DOE) is studying the use of derivatives of natural gas, including compressed natural gas and methanol, as altemative transportation fuels. A critical part of this effort is determining potential sources of natural gas and the economics of those sources. Previous studies in this series characterized the economics of unutilized gas within the lower 48 United States, comparing its value for methanol production against its value as a pipelined fuel (US Department of Energy 1991), and analyzed the costs of developing undeveloped nonassociated gas reserves in several countries (US Department of Energy 1992c). This report extends those analyses to include Alaskan North Slope natural gas that either is not being produced or is being reinjected. The report includes the following: A description of discovered and potential (undiscovered) quantities of natural gas on the Alaskan North Slope. A discussion of proposed altemative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. A comparison of the economics of the proposed alternative uses for Alaskan North Slope natural gas. The purpose of this report is to illustrate the costs of transporting Alaskan North Slope gas to markets in the lower 48 States as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or methanol. It is not intended to recommend one alternative over another or to evaluate the relative economics or timing of using North Slope gas in new tertiary oil recovery projects. The information is supplied in sufficient detail to allow incorporation of relevant economic relationships (for example, wellhead gas prices and transportation costs) into the Altemative Fuels Trade Model, the analytical framework DOE is using to evaluate various policy options.

  11. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrow, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); CreskoEngineering, Joe [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern University, Evanston] [Northwestern University, Evanston; Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL] [ORNL; Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  12. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  13. Quantitative analysis of alternative transportation under environmental constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval López, Reynaldo

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the transportation sector and its role in emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and conventional pollutant emissions. Specifically, it analyzes the potential for hydrogen based transportation, introducing ...

  14. Climate Action Plans and Long-Range Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Climate Action Plans and Long-Range Transportation Plans in the Pacific Northwest: A Review Climate Change and Impacts Mitigation versus Adaptation Impacts of Climate Change: Nation & the Pacific Northwest Climate Change Planning Efforts Transportation Sector Response - Survey Recommendations Continued

  15. Preliminary Analysis Framework for State Sustainable Transportation system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naganathan, Hariharan

    2013-12-31

    Sustainable practices have become the cornerstone of the transportation sector, and widely adopted by many states' transportation agencies. The nerve center of the economic development today circles around resource utilization and energy use...

  16. FEATURED SECTOR The New Zealand Sectors Report 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report consists of the Main Report covering all sectors in the economy and six additional, separate) 3 High technology manufacturing 4 Construction 5 Petroleum and minerals 6 Tourism (this report) 7 emerging high-value sectors such as information technology services and high- technology manufacturing

  17. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in...

  18. Transport properties of CO2-expanded acetonitrile from molecular dynamics simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houndonougbo, Yao; Laird, Brian Bostian; Kuczera, Krzysztof

    2007-02-21

    Carbon-dioxide-expanded liquids, which are mixtures of organic liquids and compressed CO2, are novel media used in chemical processing. The authors present a molecular simulation study of the transport properties of liquid mixtures formed...

  19. Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Systems Neima Brauner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brauner, Neima

    prediction of oil-water flow charac- teristics, such as flow pattern, water holdup and pressure gradient in the petroleum industry, where mixtures of oil and water are transported in pipes over long distances. Accurate particular extreme of two-fluid systems characterized by low-density ratio and low viscosity ratio. In liquid

  20. Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.

    2015-11-30

    We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axismore »anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.« less

  1. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    JANUARY 2015 ENERGY SECTOR CYBERSECURITY FRAMEWORK IMPLEMENTATION GUIDANCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ELECTRICITY DELIVERY AND ENERGY RELIABILITY Energy Sector...

  2. Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What's Working and Why Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What's Working and Why Presentation by...

  3. Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What's Working and Why Federal Sector Renewable Energy Project Implementation: ""What's Working and Why Presentation by Robert...

  4. Sustainable Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    THOUGHT PIECE Sustainable Transport by Melvin M. Webberwant to sustain any mode of transport only if we judge it todraconian in rejecting transport modes that have failed in

  5. Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2003-03-27

    to the slower oxygen reduction kinetics and mass transport limitations imposed by the liquid water generated by the electrochemical reaction and electro-osmotic drag. The liquid water can hinder transport of the reactant species by blocking the pores... generated by the electrochemical reaction is removed from the catalyst layer by two mechanisms namely, evaporation and diffusion of water vapor and liquid water transport. The water vapor transport process is similar to the oxygen species, i.e. diffusion...

  6. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  7. DOE studies on coal-to-liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    The US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory has issued reports that examine the feasibility of coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities, both general and site specific, which are available at www.netl.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html. The US Department of Defence has been investigating use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels. Congress is considering various CTL proposals while the private sector is building pilot plants and performing feasibility studies for proposed plants. The article includes a table listing 14 coal-to-liquids plants under consideration. The private sector has formed the coal-to-liquids coalition (www.futurecoalfuels.org). The article mentions other CTL projects in South Africa, China, Indonesia, the Philippines and New Zealand. 1 tab.

  8. Cross-sector policy research: insights from the UK energy and transport sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peake, Stephen Robert

    1993-10-26

    , to agricultural policy, imbuing their development with whatever dominant political and social culture characterises them. Yet from another point of view, penal reform, arms technology development, and farmers' agricultural subsidies have very little in common... ). 4. Policy as decisio1lS of govemment. In 'moments of choice' governments embody certain 'decisions' in legislation. For example, the British Government's early policy for nuclear power is embodied in the White Paper 'A Programme for Nuclear Power...

  9. Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular and Ionic Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular of ca. 3.5 Å. Molecular transport can be modulated by axially ligating pore- blocking moieties of studies of photophysical and photochemical processes, including solar-cell-related processes. In many

  10. FY 2016 EERE Budget Webinar—Sustainable Transportation Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) hosted a webinar series featuring our deputy assistant secretaries and the technology office directors as they dove deep into EERE’s fiscal year (FY) 2016 budget request

  11. Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector Electrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Post-2012 Climate Instruments in the transport sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) |Texas: EnergyOklahoma:Ewen,RiskInformation Post-2012

  13. Reducing Emissions Through Sustainable Transport: Proposal for a Sectoral

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/WaterEnergyRedfield Campus GeothermalApproach | Open Energy

  14. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Modeling updates in the Transportation sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979Coal Consumers4.32Elements)Grossc.:OctoberElectricity1

  15. Rail Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand Cubic Feet)698 1.873 -CoalRail

  16. Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948CaliforniaFeet) (Million

  17. DOE/EIA-M070(2010) Transportation Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0 0 0 09)6)8)10)

  18. Copenhagen Accord NAMA Submissions Implications for the Transport Sector |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar EnergyLawler,CoalConcordiaConsumer Connection JumpCooperbioOpen Energy

  19. Policies to Reduce Emissions from the Transportation Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLC JumpPhono SolarPlexus Sol JumpLowLow

  20. Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectricColorado: EnergyLamartine Navarro

  1. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation: Transport Sector | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter BatterySolarfinMarketMemberI PLLC Jump

  2. Transitioning the Transportation Sector: Exploring the Intersection of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department ofARPA-E Top 10Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Natural Gas

  3. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics Ā» USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-Saving Projects | DepartmentProgram |

  4. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics Ā» USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-Saving Projects | DepartmentProgram |Program

  5. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics Ā» USAJobs Search USAJobs SearchWater-Saving Projects | DepartmentProgram

  6. The Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet) Oil4) The

  7. The Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYearbyWithdrawalsHome6,672(MillionFeet) Oil4) The5) The

  8. Transportation Sector Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model

  9. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  10. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  11. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fuels from coal and biomass have potential to supply 2-3 MBPD of oil equivalent fuels with significantly and a carbon price, and on accelerated federal investment in essential technologies #12;BIOMASS SUPPLY by Milbrandt (2005) and Perlack et al. (2005). · Hay and wheat straws--Yield increase over time = historic

  12. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    dielectric semiconductor-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. 2. Relationships and

  13. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  14. Water Impacts of the Electricity Sector (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, J.

    2012-06-01

    This presentation discusses the water impacts of the electricity sector. Nationally, the electricity sector is a major end-user of water. Water issues affect power plants throughout the nation.

  15. Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions. Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coal consumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

  16. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  17. SEP Special Projects Report: Buildings Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    The buildings section of this Sharing Success document describes SEP special projects in the buildings sector including funding.

  18. Sector Profiles of Significant Large CHP Markets, March 2004...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sector Profiles of Significant Large CHP Markets, March 2004 Sector Profiles of Significant Large CHP Markets, March 2004 In this 2004 report, three sectors were identified as...

  19. Making Africa's Power Sector Sustainable: An Analysis of Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Making Africa's Power Sector Sustainable: An Analysis of Power Sector Reforms in Africa Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Making Africa's Power Sector...

  20. Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector: Awards | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector: Awards Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector: Awards List of Workforce Training Awards for the Electric Power Sector...

  1. Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave | 1 Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politčcnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave | 1 Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave INFORME para la Sostenibilidad Energética y Ambiental, FUNSEAM. #12;Smart Grids: Sectores y actividades clave eléctrica y los diferentes sectores que forman la smart grid. 6 Figura 2. Evolución y previsión de

  2. Fact #560: March 2, 2009 The Transportation Petroleum Gap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1989 the transportation sector petroleum consumption surpassed U.S. petroleum production for the first time, creating a gap that must be met with imports of petroleum. By the year 2030,...

  3. Fact #687: August 8, 2011 The Transportation Petroleum Gap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 1989 the transportation sector petroleum consumption surpassed U.S. petroleum production for the first time, creating a gap that must be met with imports of petroleum. By the year 2035,...

  4. Fact #609: February 8, 2010 The Transportation Petroleum Gap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 1989 the transportation sector petroleum consumption surpassed U.S. petroleum production for the first time, creating a gap that must be met with imports of petroleum. By the year 2035,...

  5. The role of natural gas as a vehicle transportation fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Paul Jarod

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyzes pathways to directly use natural gas, as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG), in the transportation sector. The thesis focuses on identifying opportunities to reduce market ...

  6. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  7. Singlet Portal to the Hidden Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clifford Cheung; Yasunori Nomura

    2010-08-30

    Ultraviolet physics typically induces a kinetic mixing between gauge singlets which is marginal and hence non-decoupling in the infrared. In singlet extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, e.g. the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, this furnishes a well motivated and distinctive portal connecting the visible sector to any hidden sector which contains a singlet chiral superfield. In the presence of singlet kinetic mixing, the hidden sector automatically acquires a light mass scale in the range 0.1 - 100 GeV induced by electroweak symmetry breaking. In theories with R-parity conservation, superparticles produced at the LHC invariably cascade decay into hidden sector particles. Since the hidden sector singlet couples to the visible sector via the Higgs sector, these cascades necessarily produce a Higgs boson in an order 0.01 - 1 fraction of events. Furthermore, supersymmetric cascades typically produce highly boosted, low-mass hidden sector singlets decaying visibly, albeit with displacement, into the heaviest standard model particles which are kinematically accessible. We study experimental constraints on this broad class of theories, as well as the role of singlet kinetic mixing in direct detection of hidden sector dark matter. We also present related theories in which a hidden sector singlet interacts with the visible sector through kinetic mixing with right-handed neutrinos.

  8. Shear Viscosity of Two-Dimensional Yukawa Systems in the Liquid State Bin Liu and J. Goree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    with liquids, including liquids near freezing, composed of molecules or particles that interact with a Yukawa a few reports of transport coef- ficients computed for 2D liquids using molecular dynamics (MD simulation uses an equilibrium method to calculate . Under equilibrium conditions, momentum transport arises

  9. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Foot; S. Vagnozzi

    2014-12-15

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken $U(1)^{'}$ gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength $\\epsilon \\sim 10 ^{-9}$ appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at Hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focussing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modelled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  10. Cross-sector Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent Bonding in Actinide SandwichCray eraSkillsCross-Sector Sign In

  11. Private Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975)Energy Technology JumpWilliam County,| OpenEIPrism SolarSector

  12. WINDExchange: Wind Energy Market Sectors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA|UpcomingVisit UsNews This pageMarket Sectors

  13. Electrofuels: Versatile Transportation Energy Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: ARPA-E’s Electrofuels Project is using microorganisms to create liquid transportation fuels in a new and different way that could be up to 10 times more energy efficient than current biofuel production methods. ARPA-E is the only U.S. government agency currently funding research on Electrofuels.

  14. BUBBLE ENTRAINMENT AND LIQUID-BUBBLE INTERACTION UNDER UNSTEADY BREAKING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, James T.

    BUBBLE ENTRAINMENT AND LIQUID-BUBBLE INTERACTION UNDER UNSTEADY BREAKING WAVES BY MORTEZA DERAKHTI Momentum Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Bubble Entrainment Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.1 Bubble Entrainment And Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.1.1 3D free

  15. Power Politics: The Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wengle, Susanne Alice

    2010-01-01

    Electricity Sector in Russia: Regional Aspects " In Economics EducationElectricity Sector in Russia: Regional Aspects " in Economics Education

  16. Non-Tracial Free Transport and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Brent Andrew

    2015-01-01

    tracial transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the transport element . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Free Transport . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  18. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  19. Table 24. Productivity and related data, business and nonfarm business sectors, 1947-2000 (Index, 1992=100)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauch, Erik

    - Non- Busi- Non- Busi- Non- Busi- Non- Busi- Non- ness farm ness farm ness farm ness farm ness farm ness farm ness farm sector busi- sector busi- sector busi- sector busi- sector busi- sector busi- sector busi- ness ness ness ness ness ness ness sector sector sector sector sector sector sector 1947

  20. November 1, 2009 20:49 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9.75in x 6.5in ICMP09Mueller5 Graphene: Relativistic transport in a nearly perfect quantum liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    electron-hole plasma Single layer graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor whose low energy quasiparticles obeyNovember 1, 2009 20:49 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9.75in x 6.5in ICMP09Mueller5 1 Graphene, charge-neutral graphene behave like a strongly coupled rel- ativistic liquid. The thermo

  1. Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Accelerating Investments in the Geothermal Sector, Indonesia (Presentation) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Accelerating...

  2. Energy Sector Cybersecurity Framework Implementation Guidance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    released guidance to help the energy sector establish or align existing cybersecurity risk management programs to meet the objectives of the Cybersecurity Framework released by...

  3. DOE Issues Energy Sector Cyber Organization NOI

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    between the federal government and energy sector stakeholders to protect the bulk power electric grid and aid the integration of smart grid technology to enhance the...

  4. Tennessee's Manufacturing Sector Before and After the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Tennessee's Manufacturing Sector Before and After the Great Recession Prepared by Matthew N. Murray....................................................................................................................................... 1 Manufacturing in the Post Great Recession Era............................................................................... 2 Manufacturing Employment Trends

  5. Decoupling limits in multi-sector supergravities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achścarro, Ana; Hardeman, Sjoerd; Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden (Netherlands); Oberreuter, Johannes M., E-mail: achucar@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: j.m.oberreuter@uva.nl, E-mail: kschalm@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: vdaalst@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Conventional approaches to cosmology in supergravity assume the existence of multiple sectors that only communicate gravitationally. In principle these sectors decouple in the limit M{sub pl}??. In practice such a limit is delicate: for generic supergravities, where sectors are combined by adding their Kähler functions, the separate superpotentials must contain non-vanishing vacuum expectation values supplementing the naļve global superpotential. We show that this requires non-canonical scaling in the naļve supergravity superpotential couplings to recover independent sectors of globally supersymmetric field theory in the decoupling limit M{sub pl} ? ?.

  6. Guam Transportation Petroleum-Use Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-04-01

    The island of Guam has set a goal to reduce petroleum use 20% by 2020. Because transportation is responsible for one-third of on-island petroleum use, the Guam Energy Task Force (GETF), a collaboration between the U.S. Department of Energy and numerous Guam-based agencies and organizations, devised a specific plan by which to meet the 20% goal within the transportation sector. This report lays out GETF's plan.

  7. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  8. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  9. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  10. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane or liquefied natural gas could form an extremely flammable mixtureGuidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature

  11. Institute of Public Sector Accounting Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Institute of Public Sector Accounting Research I·P·S·A·R In Government, Public Services and Charities http://www.business-school.ed.ac.uk/research/centres/public-sector-accounting-research CALL FOR PAPERS for a RESEARCH WORKSHOP and a special issue of QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN ACCOUNTING & MANAGEMENT

  12. Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    and simultaneous transportation of oil and natural gas from remote extraction locations to the processing units#12;Chapter 4 Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in gas-liquid two phase flow. The flow structure of different flow patterns observed in gas-liquid two

  13. California’s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    energy demand along with the potential for technologies in different transportation sectors to reduce fuelpotential for reductions in energy demand, rather than the supply of low-carbon transportation fuel.potential for reductions in fuel use is provided. California’s Energy

  14. Research in transportation: the shape of the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenea, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    The individual mobility now enjoyed due to advancements in the transportation sector is being threatened by higher fuel costs and declining petroleum resources. Transportation research approaches must address these problems. Automotive engineers must redesign existing vehicles to make them smaller, lighter, and so more fuel efficient. Alternatives to the gasoline engine, such as gas turbine and stratified charge engines, must be commercialized.

  15. Stuck with the bill, but why? : an analysis of the Portuguese public finance system with respect to surface transportation policy and investments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Joshua S

    2008-01-01

    Despite decentralization progress in other sectors, the Portuguese central government maintains significant administrative and fiscal power over national and sub-national surface transportation operations and infrastructure. ...

  16. Thermocapillary actuation of liquid flow on chemically patterned surfaces Anton A. Darhuber, Jeffrey M. Davis, and Sandra M. Troiana)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troian, Sandra M.

    of small fluid volumes, thereby minimizing waste volume and reagent cost. Different transport mechanisms a capillary pressure gradient for liquid propulsion. Electrophoresis and electro- osmosis can also induce

  17. Interaction in the dark sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Ramon Herrera; Diego Pavon

    2015-07-01

    It may well happen that the two main components of the dark sector of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, do not evolve separately but interact nongravitationally with one another. However, given our current lack of knowledge on the microscopic nature of these two components there is no clear theoretical path to determine their interaction. Yet, over the years, phenomenological interaction terms have been proposed on mathematical simplicity and heuristic arguments. In this paper, based on the likely evolution of the ratio between the energy densities of these dark components, we lay down reasonable criteria to obtain phenomenological, useful, expressions of the said term independent of any gravity theory. We illustrate this with different proposals which seem compatible with the known evolution of the Universe at the background level. Likewise, we show that two possible degeneracies with noninteracting models are only apparent as they can be readily broken at the background level. Further, we analyze some interaction terms that appear in the literature.

  18. Methods of making transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  19. AN ASSESSMENT OF DATA ON OUTPUT INDUSTRIAL SUB-SECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of that sub-sector. This typically includes the "resource" sub-sectors (chemicals, metals, pulp and paper of industry was considered a "sector" of the overall group known as Industry. Thus we spoke of the pulp and paper sector or the petroleum refining sector within industry. Because of increasing references

  20. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  1. IMF sector behavior deduced from geomagnetic data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsushita, S.; Trotter, D.E.

    1980-05-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) sector structures, such as 'toward' the sun and 'away' from the sun on each day, have been objectivly estimated from daily and monthly mean values of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic variation field at Godhavn during the period 1926--1970. The agreement between this estimation and actual satellite observations of the sector structures of the interval 1964--1970 is 88, 79, and 58% in summer, equinox, and winter, respectively. A remarkable agreement (more than 95%) is obtained for the summers of 1964, 1969, and 1970. Various types of IMF sector behavior are examined by taking this seasonal factor into consideration. Approximately 27-day recurrences of the same structure are often found, and 5- to 14-day consecutive occurrences of the same sector are frequently noted. Furthermore, the total number of occurrences for each estimated sector in each year shows an apparently good correlation with smoothed sunspot numbers and geomagnetic aa index. After a brief introduction of the production mechanism of sector effects on polar geomagnetic fields the limitations and merits of IMF sector inference from geomagnetic data are emphasized.

  2. On the Road to Transportation Efficiency (Video)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    Reducing emissions and oil consumption are crucial worldwide goals. Reducing transportation emissions, in particular, is key to reducing overall emissions. Electric vehicles driving on electrified roadways could be a significant part of the solution. E-roadways offer a variety of benefits: reduce petroleum consumption (electricity is used instead of gasoline), decrease vehicular operating costs (from about 12 cents per mile to 4 cents per mile), and extend the operational range of electric vehicles. Plus, e-roadway power can come from renewable sources. This animation was sponsored by the Clean Transportation Sector Initiative, and interagency effort between the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  4. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  5. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  6. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Morawetz

    2012-05-29

    The phenomena of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A new solution for the charged catenary is presented which allows to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length as well as the shape of the bridge is calculated showing an asymmetric profile in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges.

  7. Cosmology of hidden sector with Higgs portal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabi, Serkan

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we are investigating cosmological implications of hidden sector models which involve scalar fields that do not interact with the Standard Model gauge interactions, but couple directly to the Higgs field. ...

  8. Top partner probes of extended Higgs sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearney, John

    Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ...

  9. Electricity sector restructuring and competition : lessons learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    We now have over a decade of experience with the privatization, restructuring, regulatory reform, and wholesale and retail competition in electricity sectors around the world. The objectives and design attributes of these ...

  10. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, Bhima; Brueske, Sabine; de los Reyes, Pamela; Jamison, Keith; Justiniano, Mauricio; Margolis, Nancy; Monfort, Joe; Raghunathan, Anand; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  11. Drains Debubbler Transport Liq. Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    Drains Debubbler Transport Liq. Flow (LiF) aq. Anion Cation Waste Vacuum Pump LiF H2 O Pure H2 O 1 Denuders Cyclon 16 L/min 2.5 µm cut Sample Tubing ColourFlow, mL/minTubing green/green-1 green/green-2, and Liquid Flow Rates Are Possible Cation: metrosep 2100B-100x4.0mm Eluent: 0.250g/L Dipicolinic acid 1000 u

  12. Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to Accelerate Renewable Energy Projects Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to Accelerate...

  13. Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Private Sector Partnership to Accelerate Renewable Energy Projects Energy Department Announces New Private Sector Partnership to Accelerate Renewable Energy Projects October 9,...

  14. Power Politics: The Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wengle, Susanne Alice

    2010-01-01

    across regions. Up-stream energy conglomerates and down-the electricity sector: “up-stream” energy conglomerates areother energy sectors – for example the Nord-Stream pipeline

  15. Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and Mitigation Options Climate Change and the Transporation Sector - Challenges and Mitigation Options 2003 DEER Conference...

  16. EIA Energy Efficiency-Residential Sector Energy Intensities,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Sector Energy Intensities RESIDENTIAL SECTOR ENERGY INTENSITIES: 1978-2005 Released Date: August 2004 Page Last Modified:June 2009 These tables provide estimates of...

  17. Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector Deployment Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector Deployment Presentation covers the Combined...

  18. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    11 Calibration of the Energy Consumption Data forSectoral energy consumption data are available in publishedof the sectoral energy consumption data in the statistics

  19. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector:...

  20. Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector: Map of Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector: Map of Projects Workforce Training for the Electric Power Sector: Map of Projects Map showing the number of projects awarded in...

  1. Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector - January...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector - January 2006 Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector - January 2006 This document, the Roadmap to Secure...

  2. Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas Overcoming Multifamily Sector Barriers in Austin, Texas Presents techniques on overcoming the barriers of multifamily energy...

  3. Power Politics: The Political Economy of Russia's Electricity Sector Liberalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wengle, Susanne Alice

    2010-01-01

    Private Participation in the Electricity Sector World BankTelecommunications and Electricity Sectors." Governance 19,Power Struggle: Reforming the Electricity Industry." In The

  4. Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers James J. Feng Department theories and mole- cular theories separately. In addition, a theory for liquid crystalline materials has, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada INTRODUCTION Liquid crystallinity refers to an intermediate state

  5. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE INTRODUCTION Even thoughHPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  6. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth, intermediate levels of economic development, and less rapid and more diverse technological change (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). Data were obtained from the SRES modeling teams that provide more detail than that reported in the SRES. For the A1 marker scenario, the modeling team provided final energy demand and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by fuel for industry, buildings, and transportation for nine world regions. Final energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions for three sectors (industry, transport, buildings) for the four SRES world regions were provided for the B2 marker scenario. This report describes the results of a disaggregation of the SRES projected energy use and energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions for the industrial, transport, and buildings sectors for 10 world regions (see Appendix 1) to 2030. An example of further disaggregation of the two SRES scenarios for the residential buildings sector in China is provided, illustrating how such aggregate scenarios can be interpreted at the end use level.

  7. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  9. Transportation Plan 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boreo, Andrea; Li, Wei; Wunnenbuger, Douglas; Giusti, Cecilia; Cooper, John T.; Masterson, Jaimie

    2015-01-01

    Mobility throughout a community ensures freedom of movement and enhances quality of life. Traffic congestion, pollution, urban sprawl, social exclusion, safety and health can decrease mobility and should be a part of a sustainable transportation...

  10. electrifyingthefuture transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    programme of electrification and the potential introduction of diesel hybrids. The Department for Transport vehicles Wind turbine systems Industrial equipment The lab has full ethernet capability which will enable

  11. Technology Review: Tiny Pumps Drive Liquid Circuits http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/rnb_031204.asp 1 of 2 3/27/2004 9:07 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Computing Energy Nanotech Security Software Telecom / Internet Transportation Expanded List TOPICTechnology Review: Tiny Pumps Drive Liquid Circuits http > BIOTECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH CARE > DEVICES Tiny Pumps Drive Liquid Circuits Technology Research News March 12, 2004

  12. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  13. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  14. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  15. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  16. The climate impacts of high-speed rail and air transportation : a global comparative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clewlow, Regina Ruby Lee

    2012-01-01

    Growing concerns about the energy use and climate impacts of the transportation sector have prompted policymakers to consider a variety of options to meet the future mobility needs of the world's population, while ...

  17. Fact #699: October 31, 2011 Transportation Energy Use by Mode and Fuel Type, 2009

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highway vehicles are responsible for most of the energy consumed by the transportation sector. Most of the fuel used in light vehicles is gasoline, while most of the fuel used in med/heavy trucks...

  18. Integrating regional strategic transportation planning and supply chain management : along the path to sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgouridis, Sgouris P

    2005-01-01

    A systems perspective for regional strategic transportation planning (RSTP) for freight movements involves an understanding of Supply Chain Management (SCM). This thesis argues that private sector freight shippers and ...

  19. Experimental characterization of adsorption and transport properties for advanced thermo-adsorptive batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyunho, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage has received significant interest for delivering heating and cooling in both transportation and building sectors. It can minimize the use of on-board electric batteries for heating, ventilation and ...

  20. Fact #749: October 15, 2012 Petroleum and Natural Gas Consumption for Transportation by State, 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The map below shows the amount of petroleum and natural gas consumed in the transportation sector by state for 2010. The pie charts for each state are scaled based on total consumption of petroleum...

  1. Delivering the Green: The Future of California's Freight Transportation System Summary and Reading List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Delivering the Green: The Future of California's Freight Transportation System Summary and Reading List California's freight sector is a critical part of California's economic engine, generating. California's freight sector, including trucks, trains, and ships is also the largest contributor to ozone

  2. Energy efficiency in building sector in India through Heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Energy efficiency in building sector in India through Heat Pump Technology By Mr Pradeep Kumar sector in India · Residential building sector in India · HVAC growth in residential sector. · Heat Pump, Sustainable habitat, Biotechnology, Renewable energy, Water technology, Industrial research, Social

  3. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    number of themes about the structure of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS). For some companies

  4. Biomass Energy for Transport and Electricity: Large scale utilization under low CO2 concentration scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-01-25

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. The costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are also incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the dominant source. A key finding of this paper is the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies coupled with commercial biomass energy can play in meeting stringent emissions targets. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, the resulting negative emissions used in combination with biomass are a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels and shows that both technologies are important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics. Through application of the GCAM integrated assessment model, it becomes clear that, given CCS availability, bioenergy will be used both in electricity and transportation.

  5. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  6. More visible effects of the hidden sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori; Poland, David

    2007-09-06

    There is a growing appreciation that hidden sector dynamics may affect the supersymmetry breaking parameters in the visible sector (supersymmetric standard model), especially when the dynamics is strong and superconformal. We point out that there are effects that have not been previously discussed in the literature. For example, the gaugino masses are suppressed relative to the gravitino mass. We discuss their implications in the context of various mediation mechanisms. The issues discussed include anomaly mediation with singlets, the mu (B mu) problem in gauge and gaugino mediation, and distinct mass spectra for the superparticles that have not been previously considered.

  7. TRANSPORT AND DYNAMICS IN SUPERCOOLED CONFINED WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    , the existence of a sec- ond critical point. Our study of the anomalies of water below its melting tem- perature on top. The anomalous properties of liquid bulk water become moTRANSPORT AND DYNAMICS IN SUPERCOOLED CONFINED WATER FRANCESCO MALLAMACE,1,2 CARMELO CORSARO,2 SOW

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a part of this project, instrumentation was developed to monitor cuttings beds and characterize foams in the flow loop. An ultrasonic-based monitoring system was developed to measure cuttings bed thickness in the flow loop. Data acquisition software controls the system and processes the data. Two foam generating devices were designed and developed to produce foams with specified quality and texture. The devices are equipped with a bubble recognition system and an in-line viscometer to measure bubble size distribution and foam rheology, respectively. The 5-year project is completed. Future research activities will be under the umbrella of Tulsa University Drilling Research Projects. Currently the flow loop is being used for testing cuttings transport capacity of aqueous and polymer-based foams under elevated pressure and temperature conditions. Subsequently, the effect of viscous sweeps on cuttings transport under elevated pressure and temperature conditions will be investigated using the flow loop. Other projects will follow now that the ''steady state'' phase of the project has been achieved.

  9. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  10. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  11. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  12. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  13. The North American Forest Sector Outlook Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to consumption patterns for wood products and bioenergy. Markets for wood products, which mainly are destined in the forest sector of North America 21 3.1 Forest inventory 21 3.2 Aggregate production, consumption, Canada, carbon sequestration, climate change, consumption, demand, econometric, EFSOS, export, fellings

  14. WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WATER AND ENERGY SECTOR VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE WARMING IN THE SIERRA NEVADA: Water Year explores the sensitivity of water indexing methods to climate change scenarios to better understand how water management decisions and allocations will be affected by climate change. Many water management

  15. NATURAL GAS ADVISORY COMMITTEE Name Affiliation Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NATURAL GAS ADVISORY COMMITTEE 2011-2013 Name Affiliation Sector Dernovsek, David Bonneville Power Defenbach, Byron Intermountain Gas Distribution Dragoon, Ken NWPCC Council Friedman, Randy NW Natural Gas Distribution Gopal, Jairam Southern CA Edison Electric Utility Hamilton, Linda Shell Trading Gas & Power

  16. Retail competition in the UK electricity sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudnick, Hugh

    retail market #12;Schedule for UK market opening · 1990 large users (above 1 MW max demand) · about 30Retail competition in the UK electricity sector Stephen Littlechild Workshops on Retail Competition that in electricity · but agreed need to have further separation · Now require separate legal entities & licenses

  17. Economic Impact of the Texas Forest Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and paper products. The Texas forest sector also produces many value-added forest products such as millwork, wood kitchen cabinets, prefabricated wood buildings, wood furniture, and various paper products in terms of total industry output, value-added, employment, and labor income. Total industry output

  18. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE CLEANTECH SECTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    ! ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE CLEANTECH SECTOR In the Austin-Round Rock-San Marcos MSA Prepared by: #12 Manufacturing $2.5 Billion Cleantech contributes $2.5 Billion to Austin's regional GDP. 20,000 Jobs Cleantech directly employs 20,000 people in the Austin MSA. Rapid Growth Employment in cleantech is projected to grow

  19. Testing Higgs sector of 2HDM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maria Krawczyk

    2005-12-30

    Properties of the Higgs sector of Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) and existing constraints on its parameters are discussed. Potential of the Photon Linear Collider in testing various Higgs scenarios of 2HDM, including the MSSM, based on the realistic simulations is also presented.

  20. Industry Sector Case Study Building Technologies Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    energy supply is based on solar thermal collectors, a photovoltaic system, as well as building technologyIndustry Sector Case Study Building Technologies Division Zug (Switzerland), September 14, 2011,000 m, the New Monte Rosa Hut showcases the latest developments in the building technology field

  1. China's industrial sector in an international context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Lehman, Bryan; Sinton, Jonathan

    2000-05-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 40% of global energy use. In 1995, developing countries used an estimated 48 EJ for industrial production, over one-third of world total industrial primary energy use (Price et al., 1998). Industrial output and energy use in developing countries is dominated by China, India, and Brazil. China alone accounts for about 30 EJ (National Bureau of Statistics, 1999), or about 23% of world industrial energy use. China's industrial sector is extremely energy-intensive and accounted for almost 75% of the country's total energy use in 1997. Industrial energy use in China grew an average of 6.6% per year, from 14 EJ in 1985 to 30 EJ in 1997 (Sinton et al., 1996; National Bureau of Statistics, 1999). This growth is more than three times faster than the average growth that took place in the world during the past two decades. The industrial sector can be divided into light and heavy industry, reflecting the relative energy-intensity of the manufacturing processes. In China, about 80% of the energy used in the industrial sector is consumed by heavy industry. Of this, the largest energy-consuming industries are chemicals, ferrous metals, and building materials (Sinton et al., 1996). This paper presents the results of international comparisons of production levels and energy use in six energy-intensive subsectors: iron and steel, aluminum, cement, petroleum refining, ammonia, and ethylene. The sectoral analysis results indicate that energy requirements to produce a unit of raw material in China are often higher than industrialized countries for most of the products analyzed in this paper, reflecting a significant potential to continue to improve energy efficiency in heavy industry.

  2. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushner, Mark Jay

    2014-07-10

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  3. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  4. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolshov, L.

    2010-01-01

    models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologicSemenov. 2008b. Nonclassical transport processes in geologicand L. Matveev. 2008. Transport regimes and concentration

  5. Intelligent Transport Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deakin, Elizabeth; Frick, Karen Trapenberg; Skabardonis, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    in Sustainable Urban Transport: City Interview Synthesis (of Leeds, Institute for Transport Studies, forthcoming.I NTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS LINKING TECHNOLOGY AND

  6. Sustainability and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Gilbert is a Toronto-based transport and energy consultantof the forthcoming book Transport Revolutions: Making theand substantial transition to transport systems based on

  7. Sandia Energy - Transportation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Safety Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Risk and Safety Assessment Transportation Safety Transportation SafetyTara...

  8. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  9. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  10. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  11. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  12. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  13. Sectoral combustor for burning low-BTU fuel gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogt, Robert L. (Schenectady, NY)

    1980-01-01

    A high-temperature combustor for burning low-BTU coal gas in a gas turbine is disclosed. The combustor includes several separately removable combustion chambers each having an annular sectoral cross section and a double-walled construction permitting separation of stresses due to pressure forces and stresses due to thermal effects. Arrangements are described for air-cooling each combustion chamber using countercurrent convective cooling flow between an outer shell wall and an inner liner wall and using film cooling flow through liner panel grooves and along the inner liner wall surface, and for admitting all coolant flow to the gas path within the inner liner wall. Also described are systems for supplying coal gas, combustion air, and dilution air to the combustion zone, and a liquid fuel nozzle for use during low-load operation. The disclosed combustor is fully air-cooled, requires no transition section to interface with a turbine nozzle, and is operable at firing temperatures of up to 3000.degree. F. or within approximately 300.degree. F. of the adiabatic stoichiometric limit of the coal gas used as fuel.

  14. Faraday Discuss., 1997, 106, 205217 First principles calculations on crystalline and liquid iron at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vocadlo, Lidunka

    Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 V ienna, Austria Ab initio electronic structure calculations, based upon density on liquid iron and we present the Šrst ab initio quantum molecular dynamics calculations on the structure and transport properties of liquid iron under core conditions. Our calculations show that the structure

  15. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions

  16. The Lepton Sector of a Fourth Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavo Burdman; Leandro Da Rold; Ricardo D. Matheus

    2010-05-10

    In extensions of the standard model with a heavy fourth generation one important question is what makes the fourth-generation lepton sector, particularly the neutrinos, so different from the lighter three generations. We study this question in the context of models of electroweak symmetry breaking in warped extra dimensions, where the flavor hierarchy is generated by the localization of the zero-mode fermions in the extra dimension. In this setup the Higgs sector is localized near the infrared brane, whereas the Majorana mass term is localized at the ultraviolet brane. As a result, light neutrinos are almost entirely Majorana particles, whereas the fourth generation neutrino is mostly a Dirac fermion. We show that it is possible to obtain heavy fourth-generation leptons in regions of parameter space where the light neutrino masses and mixings are compatible with observation. We study the impact of these bounds, as well as the ones from lepton flavor violation, on the phenomenology of these models.

  17. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS #12;SUSTAINABLE;6 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS #12;1 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS

  18. Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector 2006 ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector 2006 - Presentation to the 2008 ieRoadmap Workshop Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Energy Sector 2006 - Presentation...

  19. The Changing US Electric Sector Business Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliff, G.

    2013-01-01

    uneconomical for electricity generation • Renewable portfolio standards (29 states and DC) put priority on solar, wind and energy efficiency regardless of associated economics • Forecasts of future electricity demand are debatable, and in some cases expected... on the Future and Conclusions Presentation overview 2 ESL-KT-13-12-57 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Copyright © 2013 Deloitte Development LLC. All rights reserved. Fundamentals of the US electric sector...

  20. Financing Energy Efficiency Retrofits in the Commercial Sector Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Financing Energy Efficiency Retrofits in the Commercial Sector Webinar, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings program.

  1. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Consumption iii iv Sectoral Trends in Global Energy Use andenergy consumption scenarios. In applying this approach to global

  2. Regional Power Sector Integration: Lessons from Global Case Studies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy Topics: Implementation, Market analysis, Policiesdeployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Lessons...

  3. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  4. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  5. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A study of the most desirable ways of integrating coal liquefaction liquids into existing petroleum refineries to produce transportation fuels meeting current and future, e.g., year 2000, Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) standards. This report is the 12th quarterly progress report in the series covering January 1, 1997 to March 31, 1997.

  6. Sales Tax Distribution by NAICS Commodity Sectors and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Sales Tax Distribution by NAICS Commodity Sectors and TAVT Distributions by County Analysis FIGURES #12;Sales Tax Distributions by NAICS Sectors* 2011-2012 Period 2013-2014 Period *Broken down Sales Tax Distributions by NAICS Major Commodity Sector - 50,000,000 100,000,000 150,000,000 200

  7. BUILDINGS SECTOR DEMAND-SIDE EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY SUMMARIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ........................................................................... 59 End-Use: Water Heating Sector: Residential Author: Jim Lutz VIII. Heat Pump Water Heaters) ................................................................ 5 End-Use: Lighting, HVAC Sector: Commercial, Industrial, Residential Author: Kristin Heinemeier II End-Use: Interior Lighting Sector: Commercial, Industrial Author: Ellen Franconi III. Compact

  8. Paper Submitted to 2002 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellinga, Bruce

    of this energy derived from petroleum-based fuels. Road transportation accounts for almost 80percent of petroleum. Introduction The transportation sector consumes 30 percent of all energy used in Canada, with the vast majority's dependence on non-renewable petroleum, there is increasing concern regarding the pollution generated

  9. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  10. Fact #834: August 18, 2014 About Two-Thirds of Transportation Energy Use is Gasoline for Light Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highway vehicles are responsible for the majority of the energy consumed by the transportation sector. Most of the fuel used in light vehicles is gasoline, while most of the fuel used in medium and...

  11. Beam Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & Inspections AuditsBarbara McClintockSecurityBeam Transport Beam

  12. Stochastic Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541C.3X-rays3 Prepared by:'!Transport in PPCD Discharges by

  13. Greening Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunitiesNERSC GettingGraphene's 3DGreenGreenTransportation

  14. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report.

  15. Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brigo, Damiano

    Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures GARP Seminar, London, Nov://www.capco.com/capco-insights -- Joint work with Claudio Nordio Prof. D. Brigo (Imperial College and Capco) Risk Management under Management under Liquidity Risk GARP Seminar London 2 / 60 #12;Introduction Liquidity in Risk Measurement

  16. A multi-term solution of the space-time Boltzmann equation for electrons in gaseous and liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyle, G J; Tattersall, W J; McEachran, R P; White, R D

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper [1] the scattering and transport of excess electrons in liquid argon in the hydrodynamic regime was investigated, generalizing the seminal works of Lekner and Cohen [2,3] with modern scattering theory techniques and kinetic theory. In this paper, the discussion is extended to the non-hydrodynamic regime through the development of a full multi-term space-time solution of Boltzmann's equation for electron transport in gases and liquids using a novel operator-splitting method. A Green's function formalism is considered that enables flexible adaptation to various experimental systems. The spatio-temporal evolution of electrons in liquids in the hydrodynamic regime is studied for a benchmark model Percus-Yevick liquid as well as for liquid argon. The temporal evolution of Franck-Hertz oscillations are observed for liquids, with striking differences in the spatio-temporal development of the velocity distribution function components between the uncorrelated gas and true liquid approximations in arg...

  17. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  18. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolįs

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  19. Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dudgeon, R. Greg

    1994-01-01

    This research was supported by the Department of Energy to investigate a new sampling calorimeter technology for the high intensity regions of the Superconducting Supercollider. The technology involved using liquid scintillator filled glass tubes...

  20. Fractons and Luttinger liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-10-05

    We consider the concept of fractons as particles or quasiparticles which obey a specific fractal statistics in connection with a one-dimensional Luttinger liquid theory. We obtain a dual statistics parameter ${\\tilde{\

  1. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  2. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Fuel Oil Natural Gas Electricity Total Transportation FuelHeavy Oil Natural Gas Electricity Heat Total Transportation

  3. Liquid-phase mixing in churn-turbulent bubble columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, K.J.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Ramachandran, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A physically realistic description of liquid mixing is necessary for the proper design and scale-up of bubble columns. Currently, liquid-phase mixing is almost exclusively described by the one-dimensional axial dispersion model which lacks a sound physical basis. A new phenomenological model of liquid-phase backmixing in churn-turbulent bubble columns has been proposed. This model divides the system into two regions. The first region is a gas-rich region that rises rapidly through the column transporting liquid to various points in the system. The second region is a relatively stagnant, gas-lean region that is vigorously agitated by the passage of the gas-rich region. Evaluation of most of the model parameters by physical reasoning reduces the proposed model to a one-parameter model.

  4. DOE Issues Energy Sector Cyber Organization NOI

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i pStateDOE Federal Aviation Professional|CertifyNational Energy Sector

  5. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica (San Leandro, CA); Holt, Jason (Berkeley, CA); Noy, Aleksandr (Belmont, CA); Park, Hyung Gyu (Oakland, CA)

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  6. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty Sector

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While there has been considerable research focusing on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for LDVs, much less attention has been given to non-LDV modes, even though they constitute close to half of the energy used in the transportation sector. We conducted an extensive literature review of the non-LDV modes, and in this report we bring together the salient findings concerning future energy efficiency options in the time period up to 2050. The studies reviewed provided potential energy savings for individual technologies within each mode, as well as an overall energy savings representing the case where all possible improvements are implemented.

  7. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie (North Hollywood, CA); Rader, Jeffrey A. (North Hollywood, CA); Saunders, Timothy W. (North Hollywood, CA)

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  8. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

  9. Lepton sector of a fourth generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdman, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Da Rold, L. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Bariloche (Argentina); Matheus, R. D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    In extensions of the standard model with a heavy fourth generation, one important question is what makes the fourth-generation lepton sector, particularly the neutrinos, so different from the lighter three generations. We study this question in the context of models of electroweak symmetry breaking in warped extra dimensions, where the flavor hierarchy is generated by choosing the localization of the zero-mode fermions in the extra dimension. In this setup the Higgs sector is localized near the infrared brane, whereas the Majorana mass term is localized at the ultraviolet brane. As a result, light neutrinos are almost entirely Majorana particles, whereas the fourth-generation neutrino is mostly a Dirac fermion. We show that it is possible to obtain heavy fourth-generation leptons in regions of parameter space where the light neutrino masses and mixings are compatible with observation. We study the impact of these bounds, as well as the ones from lepton flavor violation, on the phenomenology of these models.

  10. Hidden sector DM models and Higgs physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, P.

    2014-06-24

    We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark U(1){sub X} symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken U(1){sub X} case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if U(1){sub X} is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models.

  11. Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data Book...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data Book,Vehicle Technologies Market Report, and VT Fact of the Week Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data...

  12. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    Bee, M. , Quasielastic Neutron Scattering: Principles andBee, M. , Quasielastic Neutron Scattering: Principles andand Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering ii 5.1. Introduction

  13. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    imide ([Im][TFSI]) and poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (PS-behavior of mixtures of poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine) (thermal properties of poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-

  14. Ion Transport in Nanostructured Block Copolymer/Ionic Liquid Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoarfrost, Megan Lane

    2012-01-01

    the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energythe Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy

  15. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and PionExperiments (Journallithium(Journal Article)Article) |

  16. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  17. Erosion and Optimal Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birnir, Bjorn; Rowlett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    383 pp. EROSION AND OPTIMAL TRANSPORT [23] I. Ekeland and T.and D. Simons, Sediment transport capacity of overland ?ow,measure spaces via optimal transport, Ann. of Math. (2),

  18. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 ?g m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore »from 2 to 90 ?g m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 ?g m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM2.5 and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM2.5 on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.« less

  19. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM??? in Central Asia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM??? concentrations (annual mean value ~10 ?g m?³) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore »from 2 to 90 ?g m?³). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 ?g m?³) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM???, PM??, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM???. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants. Aerosols at these sites are shown to reflect dust, biomass burning, and anthropogenic sources from Europe; South, East, and Central Asia; and Russia depending on the time period. Simulations for a reference 2030 emission scenario based on pollution abatement measures already committed to in current legislation show that PM??? and BC concentrations in the region increase, with BC growing more than PM??? on a relative basis. This suggests that both the health impacts and the climate warming associated with these particles may increase over the next decades unless additional control measures are taken. The importance of observations in CA to help characterize the changes that are rapidly taking place in the region are discussed.« less

  20. Novel Fluctuations at a Constrained Liquid-Solid Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Chaudhuri; Debasish Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-19

    We study the interface between a solid trapped within a bath of liquid by a suitably shaped non-uniform external potential. Such a potential may be constructed using lasers, external electric or magnetic fields or a surface template. We study a two dimensional case where a thin strip of solid, created in this way, is surrounded on either side by a bath of liquid with which it can easily exchange particles. Since height fluctuations of the interface cost energy, this interface is constrained to remain flat at all length scales. However, when such a solid is stressed by altering the depth of the potential; beyond a certain limit, it responds by relieving stress by novel interfacial fluctuations which involve addition or deletion of entire lattice layers of the crystal. This ``layering'' transition is a generic feature of the system regardless of the details of the interaction potential. We show how such interfacial fluctuations influence mass, momentum and energy transport across the interface. Tiny momentum impulses produce weak shock waves which travel through the interface and cause the spallation of crystal layers into the liquid. Kinetic and energetic constraints prevent spallation of partial layers from the crystal, a fact which may be of some practical use. We also study heat transport through the liquid-solid interface and obtain the resistances in liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza resistance) as the solid undergoes such layering transitions. Heat conduction, which shows strong signatures of the structural transformations, can be understood using a free volume calculation.

  1. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

  2. Transporting Hazardous Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transporting Hazardous Materials The procedures given below apply to all materials that are considered to be hazardous by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Consult your...

  3. Sustainability and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01

    2005. Integrating Sustainability into the Trans- portationTHOUGHT PIECE Sustainability and Transport by Richardof the concept of sustainability to transport planning. In

  4. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project.

  5. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  6. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  8. CP nonconservation in the leptonic sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petre Dita

    2006-09-22

    In this paper we use an exact method to impose unitarity on moduli of the neutrino PMNS matrix recently determined, and show how one could obtain information on CP non-conservation from a limited experimental information. One suggests a novel type of global fit by expressing all the theoretical quantities in terms of convention independent parameters: the Jarlskog invariant $J$ and the moduli $|U_{\\alpha i}|$, able to resolve the positivity problem of $|U_{e 3}|$. In this way the fit will directly provide a value for $J$, and if it is different from zero it will prove the existence of CP violation in the available experimental data. If the best fit result, $|U_{e3}|^2<0$, from M. Maltoni {\\em et al}, New J.Phys. {\\bf 6} (2004) 122 is confirmed, it will imply a new physics in the leptonic sector.

  9. CP nonconservation in the leptonic sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petre Dita

    2011-01-21

    In this paper we use an exact method to impose unitarity on moduli of neutrino PMNS matrix recently determined, and show how one could obtain information on CP nonconservation from a limited experimental information. One suggests a novel type of global fit by expressing all theoretical quantities in terms of convention independent parameters: the Jarlskog invariant $J$ and the moduli $|U_{\\alpha i}|$, able to resolve the positivity problem of $|U_{e 3}|$. In this way the fit will directly provide a value for $J$, and if it is different from zero it will prove the existence of CP violation in the available experimental data. If the best fit result, $|U_{e3}|^2<0$, from M. Maltoni {\\em et al}, [New J.Phys. {\\bf 6} (2004) 122] is confirmed, it will imply a new physics in the leptonic sector.

  10. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Price,Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2007-10-04

    This report provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis ofenergy consumption in China. It recalibrates official Chinese governmentstatistics by reallocating primary energy into categories more commonlyused in international comparisons. It also provides an analysis of trendsin sectoral energy consumption over the past decades. Finally, itassesses the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020,based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity,availability of energy services, and energy intensities. The followingare some highlights of the study's findings: * A reallocation of sectorenergy consumption from the 2000 official Chinese government statisticsfinds that: * Buildings account for 25 percent of primary energy, insteadof 19 percent * Industry accounts for 61 percent of energy instead of 69percent * Industrial energy made a large and unexpected leap between2000-2005, growing by an astonishing 50 percent in the 3 years between2002 and 2005. * Energy consumption in the iron and steel industry was 40percent higher than predicted * Energy consumption in the cement industrywas 54 percent higher than predicted * Overall energy intensity in theindustrial sector grew between 2000 and 2003. This is largely due tointernal shifts towards the most energy-intensive sub-sectors, an effectwhich more than counterbalances the impact of efficiency increases. *Industry accounted for 63 percent of total primary energy consumption in2005 - it is expected to continue to dominate energy consumption through2020, dropping only to 60 percent by that year. * Even assuming thatgrowth rates in 2005-2020 will return to the levels of 2000-2003,industrial energy will grow from 42 EJ in 2005 to 72 EJ in 2020. * Thepercentage of transport energy used to carry passengers (instead offreight) will double from 37 percent to 52 percent between 2000 to 2020,.Much of this increase is due to private car ownership, which willincrease by a factor of 15 from 5.1 million in 2000 to 77 million in2020. * Residential appliance ownership will show signs of saturation inurban households. The increase in residential energy consumption will belargely driven by urbanization, since rural homes will continue to havelow consumption levels. In urban households, the size of appliances willincrease, but its effect will be moderated by efficiency improvements,partially driven by government standards. * Commercial energy increaseswill be driven both by increases in floor space and by increases inpenetration of major end uses such as heating and cooling. Theseincreases will be moderated somewhat, however, by technology changes,such as increased use of heat pumps. * China's Medium- and Long-TermDevelopment plan drafted by the central government and published in 2004calls for a quadrupling of GDP in the period from 2000-2020 with only adoubling in energy consumption during the same period. A bottom-upanalysis with likely efficiency improvements finds that energyconsumption will likely exceed the goal by 26.12 EJ, or 28 percent.Achievements of these goals will there fore require a more aggressivepolicy of encouraging energy efficiency.

  11. Notice of Public Comment on Electricity Sector Cybersecurity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Public Comment on Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline: Federal Register Notice Volume 76, No. 180 - Sep. 16, 2011 Notice of Public Comment on...

  12. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Sectoral Trends in Global Energy Use and Greenhouse Gasto Development of Long-Term Energy Demand Scenarios forto Development of Long-Term Energy Demand Scenarios for

  13. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook Nan Zhou, Michael A.2001, International Energy Outlook 2001 , Report No. DOE/The International Energy Outlook 2006 (IEO2006) , Washington

  14. Private Sector Outreach and Partnerships | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the sector, including electricity, oil, and natural gas. Specific mission areas, such as risk and system analysis, modeling and visualization across subsectors, and incident...

  15. Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and...

  16. Photonic portal to the hidden sector and the electroweak symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojciech Krolikowski

    2009-05-25

    A weak photon interaction with the hidden sector of the Universe, introduced recently to realize a "photonic portal", (to such a hypothetic sector responsible for cold dark matter), is conjectured to be embedded in a more extended weak interaction displaying electroweak symmetry spontaneously broken by the Standard-Model Higgs mechanism. This is a hypothetic new weak interaction between hidden and Standard-Model sectors of the Universe, appearing in our model in addition to the conventional electroweak interaction acting in the Standard-Model sector.

  17. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    of Labor Statistics. Energy Efficiency Services Sector:DC. American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy. EnergyAmerican Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Eto, J. ,

  18. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    of Labor Statistics. Energy Efficiency Services Sector:Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Economic Drivers forStatewide Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. ” San

  19. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    of Labor Statistics. Energy Efficiency Services Sector:of Energy Engineers 2009a. “Energy Independence and MarketTrends: AEE Survey of the Energy Industry 2009. ” http://

  20. Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    1987b). 2.1. Unit Energy Consumptions Data on end-use unitresidential sector energy consumption data, and typicallyNational Interim Energy Consumption Survey Data, prepared

  1. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    for nuclear energy (Prelaw 2008). Energy Efficiency ServicesEnergy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size Two implementation contractor respondents mentioned defense, semiconductor, nuclear, and

  2. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Statistics. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: WorkforceRenewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Economic Drivers forStatewide Long Term Energy Efficiency Strategic Plan. ” San

  3. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Elco Technologies that provides AMI meter device managment services in the energy efficiency sector Acorn Technology Corporation Acorn Technology Corporation Miles Road...

  4. DOE Encourages Utility Sector Nominations to the Federal Communication...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Sector Nominations to the Federal Communications Commission's Communications, Security, Reliability, and Interoperability Council March 29, 2011 - 5:22pm Addthis...

  5. Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation in the...

  6. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    of Labor Statistics. Energy Efficiency Services Sector:Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Economic Drivers forFace of Energy Efficiency and Market Transformation. ”

  7. Controlling Methane Emissions in the Natural Gas Sector: A Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Natural Gas Sector: A Review of Federal & State Regulatory Frameworks Governing Production, Processing, Transmission, and Distribution Controlling Methane Emissions in the...

  8. Energy Intensity Changes by Sector, 1985-2011 - Alternative Measures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to different definitions of energy use. Source energy attributes all the energy used for electricity generation and transmission to the specific end-use sector, addition to the...

  9. Not planning a sustainable transport system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnveden, Göran Åkerman, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    The overall objective of the Swedish transport policy is to ensure the economically efficient and sustainable provision of transport services for people and business throughout the country. More specifically, the transport sector shall, among other things, contribute to the achievement of environmental quality objectives in which the development of the transport system plays an important role in the achievement of the objectives. The aim of this study is to analyse if current transport planning supports this policy. This is done by analysing two recent cases: the National Infrastructure Plan 2010–2021, and the planning of Bypass Stockholm, a major road investment. Our results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. Another interesting aspect of the planning processes is that the long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes, neither as a clear goal nor as factor that will influence future transport systems. In this way, the long-term sustainability aspects are not present in the planning. We conclude that the two cases do not contribute to a sustainable transport system. Thus, several changes must be made in the processes, including putting up clear targets for emissions. Also, the methodology for the environmental assessments needs to be further developed and discussed. - Highlights: • Two cases are studied to analyse if current planning supports a sustainable transport system. • Results show that the plans are in conflict with several of the environmental quality objectives. • Long-term climate goals are not included in the planning processes. • Current practices do not contribute to a sustainable planning processes. • Methodology and process for environmental assessments must be further developed and discussed.

  10. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  11. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    of heat to vaporize drops. Power is supplied to coil to maintain a constant temperature. P ­ Total Power #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize;Liquid Water Content Formula Combine the Wet and Dry Power Terms PC Ts-TaPv x Mldv[Lvcw Tv-Ta] · M

  12. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  13. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  14. Bridging the Gap Between Transportation and Stationary Power: Hydrogen Energy Stations and their Implications for the Transportation Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy; Unnasch, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    and Stationary Power: Hydrogen Energy Stations and theirand Stationary Power: Hydrogen Energy Stations and their2004) for power parks & energy stations. (10) DESIGNS/

  15. Bridging the Gap Between Transportation and Stationary Power: Hydrogen Energy Stations and their Implications for the Transportation Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Lipman, Timothy; Unnasch, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Energy Station Concepts,E 2 Four Potential Types of Hydrogen Energy Stations VehicleOperational Toronto Hydrogen Energy Station Stationary PEMFC

  16. Liquids that form due to dynamics of the molecules that depend on the local density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard P. Sear

    2015-03-26

    RNA molecules in living cells form what look like liquid droplets formed by liquid/liquid phase separation. But unlike the molecules in conventional phase separating mixtures, RNA molecules are transported by molecular motors that consume energy and so are out of equilibrium. Motivated by this we consider what sort of simple rules for the dynamics of model mRNA molecules lead to liquid/liquid phase separation. We find that dynamics that slow as the local density of molecules increases, drive the formation of liquids. We also look at the analogous separation of the two blocks of a block copolymer, in which the monomers of one block have dynamics that depend on the local density of monomers of that block. We find that this block condenses and separates from the monomers of the other block. This is a simple model of the out-of-equilibrium domain formation found in the chromatin in the nucleus of cells.

  17. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Z. H. Wang* and C. Y. Wang*,z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Z. H. Wang* and C. Y. Wang for liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cells DMFC . In addition to the anode and cathode electrochemical-osmosis. This comprehensive model is solved numerically using computational fluid dynamics. The transport phenomena

  19. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  20. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-31

    The main contribution of this report is to characterize the underlying residential and transport sector end use energy consumption in India. Each sector was analyzed in detail. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in a bottom-up modeling approach. The report looks at energy used over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. Moreover, the intent of this report is also to highlight available sources of data in India for the residential and transport sectors. The analysis as performed in this way reveals several interesting features of energy use in India. In the residential sector, an analysis of patterns of energy use and particular end uses shows that biomass (wood), which has traditionally been the main source of primary energy used in households, will stabilize in absolute terms. Meanwhile, due to the forces of urbanization and increased use of commercial fuels, the relative significance of biomass will be greatly diminished by 2020. At the same time, per household residential electricity consumption will likely quadruple in the 20 years between 2000 and 2020. In fact, primary electricity use will increase more rapidly than any other major fuel -- even more than oil, in spite of the fact that transport is the most rapidly growing sector. The growth in electricity demand implies that chronic outages are to be expected unless drastic improvements are made both to the efficiency of the power infrastructure and to electric end uses and industrial processes. In the transport sector, the rapid growth in personal vehicle sales indicates strong energy growth in that area. Energy use by cars is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 11percent, increasing demand for oil considerably. In addition, oil consumption used for freight transport will also continue to increase .

  1. Transport Equations Thomas Hillen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillen, Thomas

    Transport Equations Thomas Hillen supported by NSERC University of Alberta, Edmonton Transport V , V compact and symmetric. Transport Equations ­ p.2/33 #12;Directed Movement The equation pt(t, x of v. Transport Equations ­ p.3/33 #12;With Directional Changes µ: turning rate. T(v, v ): probability

  2. Motor Transport Co. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    METROPOLITAN TRANSPORTATION PLAN Prepared by: The Longview Metropolitan Planning Organization In cooperation with: o City of Longview o City of White Oak o Gregg County o Harrison County o Texas Department of Transportation o U.S. Department... of Transportation o Federal Highway Administration o Federal Transit Administration Adopted November 12, 2009 TRANSPORTATION 2035 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION...

  3. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  4. ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

  5. Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China Claire Gavard, Niven Winchester and Sergey established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Limited Sectoral Trading between the EU ETS and China Claire Gavard

  6. Butterflies of Egypt Prepared for the Nature Conservation Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottingham, University of

    #12;#12;#12;Butterflies of Egypt ii Prepared for the Nature Conservation Sector Egyptian, Cairo, Egypt Supervisor: Dr Moustafa Fouda, Director, Nature Conservation Sector Financial Support of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal Univer- sity, Egypt. Mapping: Ahmed El-Gabbas Paintings by: Ahmed

  7. Planning Report 05-1 Measuring Service-Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planning Report 05-1 Measuring Service-Sector Research and Development Prepared by: RTI.S Department of Commerce Technology Administration #12;*RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle Institute. RTI Project Number 08236.002.004 Measuring Service-Sector Research and Development Final Report

  8. Introduction Transport in disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Ballistic transport in disordered graphene P, Gornyi, Mirlin Ballistic transport in disordered graphene #12;Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Outline 1 Introduction Model Experimental motivation Transport in clean graphene 2

  9. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. NREL: Energy Analysis: Electric Sector Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14Recent PublicationsNicholasTransportationWesleyElectric

  11. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Alexander I.; /Caltech

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |{Delta}{bar m}{sub atm}{sup 2}| = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}) = 0.860{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  12. RHIC The Perfect Liquid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

  13. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    of US Cars and Light Trucks by 2010-2015. Washington, D.C. :NHTSA), 2003. Light Truck Average Fuel Economy Standardsthat new cars and light trucks be averaged together for

  14. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Shipley, and E. Brown, 2003. CHP Five Years Later: Federaland Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies. Lawrence112 Table 27. Potential GHG mitigation from CHP

  15. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Update of States’ Combined Heat and Power Activities. ”Combined Heat and Power.M. Spurr, 1999. Combined Heat and Power: Capturing Wasted

  16. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    that still use motor gasoline and ethanol-mixing in motorstrategies. Mixing ethanol into motor gasoline in blendedAEO2007), corn-based Ethanol in motor gasoline (million

  17. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    rebound effect,” whereby a household could, after installing energymore energy. Furthermore, incorporating this rebound, or “

  18. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    C. Calwell, 2003. LED Lighting Technologies and PotentialISL) Commercial LED lighting General service halogen IRuse of more efficient LED task lighting and the installation

  19. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    develop renewable energy credit-tracking and trading systemCO 2 emissions trading scheme, and an energy-based fee wouldenergy and emissions technologies, and development of emissions trading

  20. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    and developing emissions trading mechanisms to connect andand development of emissions trading or cap-and-tradesector market-based emissions trading system in the Western

  1. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    natural gas-powered combined cycle power plants. The most recent federal energy legislation, the Energy Independence and Security

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Smith Electric Vehicles: Advanced Vehicle Electrification + Transportation Sector Electrification

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Smith Electric Vehicles at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Smith Electric...

  3. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Arlington, Va. : Arthur D Little, Inc. Khrushch, M. , E.Change Action Plan. Arthur D. Little (ADL), 2000. "Studycited in Lee, 2000). Arthur D. Little, (ADL), 2002. Guidance

  4. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    2003; Meier et al. , 2005; IEA/NEA, 2005; Williams, 2001et al. , 2005; Weissner 2007; IEA/NEA, 2005 Meier et al. ,2005; IEA/NEA, 2005; Beurskens et al. , 2005; Awerbuch et

  5. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Technology Support Unit (ETSU), 1994. "An Appraisal of UKNRC, 1992; IPCC, 1999; ETSU, 1994; CAEP, 1995; DCAD, 1997;Baseline NRC, 1992 IPCC, 1999 ETSU, 1994 (low) ETSU, 1994 (

  6. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    basis. Cost-effectiveness ($/tonne CO2 eq) Greenhouse gasperspective. Cost-effectiveness ($/tonne CO2 eq) GreenhouseAll measures Cost-effectiveness ($/tonne CO2 eq) Greenhouse

  7. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    industrial processes For 2007, the percentages of industry GHG emissions by category are industry energy use, 71%; chemical and manufacturing, 18%; waste management,

  8. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas Technology Dry Seals on Centrifugal Compressors (P&T) Fuel Gas Retrofit for Blowdown Valve

  9. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in the Pulp and Paper Industry,” Energy PolicyUS Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHPin the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry. ” LBNL-46141. July.

  10. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    and its ease of blending into gasoline fuel for use invehicles’ gasoline), increased ethanol blending hasgasoline in blended proportions of up to 10% or 15% can be done without vehicle modifications. Blending

  11. Environmental implications of trade liberalization on North American transport services: the case of the trucking sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Linda

    2010-01-01

    requires the use of ultra low-sulfur diesel, now required inthe shift toward ultra low-sulfur fuel. The nationwide plan

  12. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    CCGT ) shift With nuclear expansion (and above measure) WithCCGT ) shift With nuclear expansion (and above measure) Withforecasts small expansions in nuclear and renewable sources,

  13. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    crops Full HEV (regenerative braking, battery-electricidle-off and limited regenerative braking Closing/covering

  14. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    with Commercial Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems. SpecialSources based upon Efficient residential furnaces and boilers Ground-coupled heat pumps –

  15. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    air-conditioning units, the conventional Energy Efficiencyenergy use reductions from the deployment of improved insulation and higher-efficiency air conditioningenergy efficiency technologies over those that do not result in fuel savings (e.g. low-GWP air conditioning

  16. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    2000. “Estimating the Ancillary Benefits of Greenhouse GasToman, and C. Bloyd, 1999: Ancillary Benefits of Reduced Airinteractions; quantify ancillary impacts if possible New

  17. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    aerodynamics, and high-strength/lightweight technologies; for diesel trucks,trucks with incremental technologies (e.g. engine, transmission, aerodynamics)

  18. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    in the Pulp and Paper Industry,” Energy Policy 25 (7-9):US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHPin the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry. ” LBNL-46141. July.

  19. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    of natural gas-powered combined cycle power plants. The mostintegrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) coal plants,integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology for

  20. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in theas advanced parallel hybrid (gas or diesel) electric vehiclee.g. hybrid gasoline-electric vs. diesel vehicles). Dealing

  1. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Academy Press. National Biodiesel Board (NBB), 2007.U.S. Biodiesel Production. June 6. National Highway TrafficD.C. Radich, A. 2004. Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use.

  2. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    timing, gasoline direct injection, cylinder deactivation),spd auto, AMT), Gasoline direct injection (GDI), Tires (lowtechnologies are gasoline direct injection, lower rolling

  3. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000. U.S. Department ofEIA), 2005. Annual Energy Outlook 2005: With Projections toU.S. EIA), 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2007. U.S. Department

  4. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This Appendix consists of two unpublished reports produced by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., under contract to Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These two reports formed the basis for the subsequent development of the Fuel Economy Model described in Volume 1. They are included in order to document more completely the efforts undertaken to construct a comprehensive model of automobile fuel economy. The supplemental reports are as follows: Supplement 1--Documentation Attributes of Technologies to Improve Automotive Fuel Economy; Supplement 2--Analysis of the Fuel Economy Boundary for 2010 and Comparison to Prototypes.

  5. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Inc. (EEA). 2001. Technology and Cost of Future Fuel Economyproduction leads to lower technology costs. In the case ofpollution control technology costs. As a result, the cost-

  6. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    ethanol (with the remaining 15% gasoline). Up to now, few of these E85-ethanol’s somewhat lower energy content per volume. Increasingly so-called “flex-fuel” E85E85 vehicles would otherwise face. The reference case forecasts for the US include increases in ethanol

  7. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    large conventional hydroelectric power, municipal solidconventional large hydroelectric power in the percentage).large conventional hydroelectric power is not included (this

  8. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Anderson, J. (Ambien Climate Technologies), 2003. Personalon climate change mitigation technology alternatives fromregrets” climate change mitigation technologies – where the

  9. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    2000. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000. U.S.EIA), 2005. Annual Energy Outlook 2005: With Projections toU.S. EIA), 2007. Annual Energy Outlook 2007. U.S. Department

  10. Global Climate Change, Developing Countries and Transport Sector Options in South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    to the fuel consumption data published by DME. This servesrecommended via the DME. At present, the fuel tax componentfuel use characteristics of new vehicles (a cross-cutting issue) will be provided by DME;

  11. Prioritizing Climate Change Mitigation Alternatives: Comparing Transportation Technologies to Options in Other Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    curve analysis for biofuel production. The study is not yetThis level of biofuel production would supply approximatelynullify some biofuel production methods as viable mitigation

  12. Session 5: Ā¨Renewable Energy in the Transportation and Power SectorsĀˇ

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet)Thousand7, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR:5:

  13. Accounting for Co-benefits in Asia's Transportation Sector: Methods and

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo NewYanbu,InformationAbakusLLCApplications | Open

  14. Transportation Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,

  15. Transportation Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation

  16. Transportation Sector Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System: ModelModule of the

  17. THERMAL EFFECTS ON DROPLET TRANSPORT IN DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS WITH APPLICATIONS TO CHIP COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    THERMAL EFFECTS ON DROPLET TRANSPORT IN DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS WITH APPLICATIONS TO CHIP COOLING, on a platform we call "digital microfluidics," where nanoliter-sized discrete liquid droplets immersed in oil-dependent system parameters on droplet transport in this digital microfluidic platform. We demonstrate

  18. Small- and Large-scale Characterization and Mixing Properties in a Thermally Driven Thin Liquid Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Winkler; Markus Abel

    2015-07-28

    Thin liquid films are nanoscopic elements of foams, emulsions and suspensions, and form a paradigm for nanochannel transport that eventually test the limits of hydrodynamic descriptions. Here we use classical dynamical systems characteristics to study the complex interplay of thermal convection, interface and gravitational forces which yields turbulent mixing and transport: Lyapunov exponents and entropies. We induce a stable two eddy convection in an extremely thin liquid film by applying a temperature gradient. Experimentally, we determine the small-scale dynamics using the motion and deformation of spots of equal size/equal color, we dubbed that technique "color imaging velocimetry". The large-scale dynamics is captured by encoding the left/right motion of the liquid directed to the left or right of the separatrix between the two rolls. This way, we characterize chaos of course mixing in this peculiar fluid geometry of a thin, free-standing liquid film.

  19. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

  20. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  1. A New Probe of Dark Sector Dynamics at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arpit Gupta; Reinard Primulando; Prashant Saraswat

    2015-04-06

    We propose a LHC search for dilepton resonances in association with large missing energy as a generic probe of TeV dark sector models. Such resonances can occur if the dark sector includes a U(1) gauge boson, or Z', which kinetically mixes with the Standard Model U(1). For small mixing, direct 2 to 1 production of the Z' is not visible in standard resonance searches due to the large Drell-Yan background. However, there may be significant production of the Z' boson in processes involving other dark sector particles, resulting in final states with a Z' resonance and missing transverse momentum. Examples of such processes include cascade decays within the dark sector and radiation of the Z' off of final state dark sector particles. Even when the rate to produce a Z' boson in a dark sector process is suppressed, this channel can provide better sensitivity than traditional collider probes of dark sectors such as monojet searches. We find that data from the 8 TeV LHC run can be interpreted to give bounds on such processes; more optimized searches could extend the sensitivity and continue to probe these models in the Run II data.

  2. Risk analysis for truck transportation of high consequence cargo.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waters, Robert David

    2010-09-01

    The fixed facilities control everything they can to drive down risk. They control the environment, work processes, work pace and workers. The transportation sector drive the State and US highways with high kinetic energy and less-controllable risks such as: (1) other drivers (beginners, impaired, distracted, etc.); (2) other vehicles (tankers, hazmat, super-heavies); (3) road environments (bridges/tunnels/abutments/construction); and (4) degraded weather.

  3. U.S. Virgin Islands Transportation Petroleum Reduction Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-09-01

    This NREL technical report determines a way for USVI to meet its petroleum reduction goal in the transportation sector. It does so first by estimating current petroleum use and key statistics and characteristics of USVI transportation. It then breaks the goal down into subordinate goals and estimates the petroleum impacts of these goals with a wedge analysis. These goals focus on reducing vehicle miles, improving fuel economy, improving traffic flow, using electric vehicles, using biodiesel and renewable diesel, and using 10% ethanol in gasoline. The final section of the report suggests specific projects to achieve the goals, and ranks the projects according to cost, petroleum reduction, time frame, and popularity.

  4. Possible Pathways for Increasing Natural Gas Use for Transportation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigler, B.

    2014-10-01

    A collaborative partnership of DOE National Laboratories is working with DOE to identify critical RD&D needs to significantly increase the speed and breadth of NG uptake into the transportation sector. Drivers for increased utilization of natural gas for transportation are discussed. Key needs in research, development, and deployment are proposed, as well as possible pathways to address those needs. This presentation is intended to serve as a catalyst to solicit input from stakeholders regarding what technical areas they deem the most important.

  5. Sustainability and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. Accessedoil (all petroleum liquids) peaked in 1985 (BP 2006) and world production will peak

  6. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  7. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE...

  8. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  9. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domnita Catalina Marinescu

    2011-02-22

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  10. Macomb College Transportation and Energy Technology 126.09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    The objectives for this project were to create the laboratory facilities to deliver recently created and amended curriculum in the areas of energy creation, storage, and delivery in the transportation and stationary power sectors. The project scope was to define the modules, courses and programs in the emerging energy sectors of the stationary power and transportation industries, and then to determine the best equipment to support instruction, and procure it and install it in the laboratories where courses will be taught. Macomb Community College had a curriculum development grant through the Department of Education that ran parallel to this one where the energy curriculum at the school was revised to better permit students to gain comprehensive education in a targeted area of the renewable energy realm, as well as enhance the breadth of jobs addressed by curriculum in the transportation sector. The curriculum development and experiment and equipment definition ran in parallel, and resulted in what we believe to be a cogent and comprehensive curriculum supported with great hands-on experiments in modern labs. The project has been completed, and this report will show how the equipment purchases under the Department of Energy Grant support the courses and programs developed and amended under the Department of Education Grant. Also completed is the tagging documentation and audit tracking process required by the DOE. All materials are tagged, and the documentation is complete as required.

  11. Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation Committee Agenda Midwestern Radioactive Materials Transportation...

  12. Ion transport through a graphene nanopore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guohui Hu; Mao Mao; Sandip Ghosal

    2013-01-09

    Molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to investigate the ionic transport of NaCl in solution through a graphene nanopore under an applied electric field. Results show the formation of concentration polarization layers in the vicinity of the graphene sheet. The non-uniformity of the ion distribution gives rise to an electric pressure which drives vortical motions in the fluid if the electric field is sufficiently strong to overcome the influence of viscosity and thermal fluctuations. The relative importance of hydrodynamic transport and thermal fluctuations in determining the pore conductivity is investigated. A second important effect that is observed is the mass transport of water through the nanopore, with an average velocity proportional to the applied voltage and independent of the pore diameter. The flux arises as a consequence of the asymmetry in the ion distribution with respect to reflection about the plane of the graphene sheet. The accumulation of liquid molecules in the vicinity of the nanopore due to reorientation of the water dipoles by the local electric field is seen to result in a local increasein the liquid density. Results confirm that the electric conductance is proportional to the nanopore diameter for the parameter regimes that we simulated. The occurrence of fluid vortices is found to result in an increase in the effective electrical conductance.

  13. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  14. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

  15. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-14

    The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Supersedes DOE O 460.1B.

  16. Sustainability and Transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard

    2006-01-01

    also known there as sustainable mobility. This de?nition wasfor De?ning Sustainable Transport and Mobility. [cited 13Sustainable transporta- tion is de?ned as a means to satisfy current transport and mobility

  17. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  18. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  19. Transportation Conference Speakers - 4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Laboratory experiments were performed to study and improve longshore sediment transport rate predictions. Measured total longshore transport in the laboratory was approximately three times greater for plunging breakers than spilling breakers. Three...

  20. Transportation Energy Futures Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Transportation accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum consumption and 33% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) study examines underexplored oil-savings and...