National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transportation fuels modeling

  1. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Best, Ralph E.; Maheras, Steven J.; Jensen, Philip J.; England, Jeffery L.; LeDuc, Dan

    2014-09-24

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  2. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing and Design Optimization | Department of Energy in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 2_cfd.pdf (21.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material

  3. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  4. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  5. Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics C. Welch Prepared under Task Nos. HS04.2000 and HS06.1002 Technical Report NREL/TP-540-39446 February 2006 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of

  6. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Xu, Hui; Brawn, Shelly

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  7. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in PEM fuel cells, was given by CFDRC's J. Vernon Cole at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007. newfccolecfd.pdf (976.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Water Transport in ...

  8. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization ... Optimization Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on ...

  9. Fuel Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Model This model informs analyses of the availability of transportation fuel in the event the fuel supply chain is disrupted. The portion of the fuel supply system...

  10. GREET 1.0 -- Transportation fuel cycles model: Methodology and use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M.Q.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the development and use of the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. The model, developed in a spreadsheet format, estimates the full fuel-cycle emissions and energy use associated with various transportation fuels for light-duty vehicles. The model calculates fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants (volatile organic compounds, Co, NOx, SOx, and particulate matter measuring 10 microns or less) and three greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide). The model also calculates the total fuel-cycle energy consumption, fossil fuel consumption, and petroleum consumption using various transportation fuels. The GREET model includes 17 fuel cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, clean diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; uranium to electricity; renewable energy (hydropower, solar energy, and wind) to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; and landfill gases to methanol. This report presents fuel-cycle energy use and emissions for a 2000 model-year car powered by each of the fuels that are produced from the primary energy sources considered in the study.

  11. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  12. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on water transport in PEM fuel cells, was given by CFDRC's J. Vernon Cole at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007.

  13. Transportation Fuel Supply | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment Sector (NAICS 336) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Transportation Equipment (125.57 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Transportation Equipment

    SheetsTransportation Fuel Supply content top

  14. Lessons Learned from Alternative Transportation Fuels: Modeling Transition Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, C.

    2006-02-01

    Report focuses on understanding how analytical system modeling and data from AFV experiences could improve our understanding of the dynamic forces governing the transition to a hydrogen future.

  15. Modeling Gas-Phase Transport in Polymer-Electrolyte FuelCells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, A.Z.; Newman, J.

    2006-08-17

    In this transaction, the equations and methodology for modeling convection and ordinary, Knudsen, and pressure diffusion of gases in a fuel-cell gas-diffusion layer are described. Some results examining the magnitudes of the various terms are also made. This derivation results in a self-consistent description of the various transport mechanisms and is robust for numerical solutions, especially for conditions involving different flow regimes or where the regime is not known a priori.

  16. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  17. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    presentation, which focuses on fuel cell water transport, was given by Satish Kandlikar at a ... Startup and Operation Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material ...

  18. hydrogen-fueled transportation systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... materials to store hydrogen onboard vehicles, leading to more reliable, economic hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles. "Hydrogen, as a transportation fuel, has great potential to ...

  19. Urban airshed modeling of air quality impacts of alternative transportation fuel use in Los Angeles and Atlanta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The main objective of NREL in supporting this study is to determine the relative air quality impact of the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative transportation fuel when compared to low Reid vapor pressure (RVP) gasoline and reformulated gasoline (RFG). A table lists the criteria, air toxic, and greenhouse gas pollutants for which emissions were estimated for the alternative fuel scenarios. Air quality impacts were then estimated by performing photochemical modeling of the alternative fuel scenarios using the Urban Airshed Model Version 6.21 and the Carbon Bond Mechanism Version IV (CBM-IV) (Geary et al., 1988) Using this model, the authors examined the formation and transport of ozone under alternative fuel strategies for motor vehicle transportation sources for the year 2007. Photochemical modeling was performed for modeling domains in Los Angeles, California, and Atlanta, Georgia.

  20. Recent Advances in Detailed Chemical Kinetic Models for Large Hydrocarbon and Biodiesel Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Herbinet, O; Mehl, M

    2009-03-30

    n-Hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane represent the primary reference fuels for diesel that are used to determine cetane number, a measure of the ignition property of diesel fuel. With the development of chemical kinetics models for these two primary reference fuels for diesel, a new capability is now available to model diesel fuel ignition. Also, we have developed chemical kinetic models for a whole series of large n-alkanes and a large iso-alkane to represent these chemical classes in fuel surrogates for conventional and future fuels. Methyl decanoate and methyl stearate are large methyl esters that are closely related to biodiesel fuels, and kinetic models for these molecules have also been developed. These chemical kinetic models are used to predict the effect of the fuel molecule size and structure on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  1. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels: An Overview

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Provides background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels, and furnishes preliminary estimates of the use of these fuels and of alternative fueled vehicles.

  2. APEC-Alternative Transport Fuels: Implementation Guidelines ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    APEC-Alternative Transport Fuels: Implementation Guidelines Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: APEC-Alternative Transport Fuels: Implementation Guidelines...

  3. Renewable Transportation Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Transportation Fuels Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  4. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal ...

  5. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fuel vehicles produced, the number of alternative fuel vehicles in use, and the amount of alternative transportation fuels consumed in the United States. References Retrieved from...

  6. PADD 5 Transportation Fuels Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PADD 5 Transportation Fuels Markets September 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | PADD 5 Transportation Fuels Markets i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Used Nuclear Fuel During Transportation with Consideration of Hydride Effects and Cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Sabharwall, Piyush; Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh; Sener, Kadir; Varma, Amit H.

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this work is to understand the integrity of Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) during transportation. Previous analysis work has been performed to look at the integrity of UNF during transportation but these analyses have neglected to analyze the effect of hydrides and flaws (fracture mechanics models to capture radial cracking in the cladding). In this study, the clad regions of interest are near the pellet-pellet interfaces. These regions can experience more complex stress-states than the rest of the clad during cooling and have a greater possibility to develop radially reoriented hydrides during vacuum drying.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Transportation System Efficiency to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Transportation System Efficiency on Digg Find More places to share

  9. GREET 1.5 - transportation fuel-cycle model - Vol. 1 : methodology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SYSTEMS; FUEL CONSUMPTION; ETHERS; GREENHOUSE GASES; LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS; AIR POLLUTION; FLY ASH; DIESEL FUELS; GASOLINE; LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES; METHANOL; FUEL ...

  10. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askew, W.S.; McNamara, T.M.; Maxfield, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  11. WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

    2012-10-02

    Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated

  12. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  13. Used Fuel Disposition Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Overview Steve Marschman Field Demonstration Lead Idaho National Laboratory NEET ASI Review Meeting September 17, 2014 Used Fuel ...

  14. Pore Scale Modeling of the Reactive Transport of Chromium in the Cathode of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Emily M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Amon, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We present a pore scale model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode. Volatile chromium species are known to migrate from the current collector of the SOFC into the cathode where over time they decrease the voltage output of the fuel cell. A pore scale model is used to investigate the reactive transport of chromium species in the cathode and to study the driving forces of chromium poisoning. A multi-scale modeling approach is proposed which uses a cell level model of the cathode, air channel and current collector to determine the boundary conditions for a pore scale model of a section of the cathode. The pore scale model uses a discrete representation of the cathode to explicitly model the surface reactions of oxygen and chromium with a cathode material. The pore scale model is used to study the reaction mechanisms of chromium by considering the effects of reaction rates, diffusion coefficients, chromium vaporization, and oxygen consumption on chromiums deposition in the cathode. The study shows that chromium poisoning is most significantly affected by the chromium reaction rates in the cathode and that the reaction rates are a function of the local current density in the cathode.

  15. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Breakout Session 1C-Fostering Technology ...

  16. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2009 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LAUNCH TOOL Name: Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 2009 Focus Area: Propane Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eia.govrenewablealternativetransportvehicles...

  17. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  18. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report presents the first compilation by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of information on alternatives to gasoline and diesel fuel. The purpose of the report is: (1) to provide background information on alternative transportation fuels and replacement fuels compared with gasoline and diesel fuel, and (2) to furnish preliminary estimates of alternative transportation fuels and alternative fueled vehicles as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), Title V, Section 503, ``Replacement Fuel Demand Estimates and Supply Information.`` Specifically, Section 503 requires the EIA to report annually on: (1) the number and type of alternative fueled vehicles in existence the previous year and expected to be in use the following year, (2) the geographic distribution of these vehicles, (3) the amounts and types of replacement fuels consumed, and (4) the greenhouse gas emissions likely to result from replacement fuel use. Alternative fueled vehicles are defined in this report as motorized vehicles licensed for on-road use, which may consume alternative transportation fuels. (Alternative fueled vehicles may use either an alternative transportation fuel or a replacement fuel.) The intended audience for the first section of this report includes the Secretary of Energy, the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the automobile manufacturing industry, the transportation fuel manufacturing and distribution industries, and the general public. The second section is designed primarily for persons desiring a more technical explanation of and background for the issues surrounding alternative transportation fuels.

  19. Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation (5 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Gasoline is the most commonly used fuel for transportation; however, there are multiple alternative fuels that are making their way to the market. These alternative fuels include propane, natural gas, electric hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells, and bio-diesel. Students will probably have heard of some of these alternative fuels, but they may not understand how and why they are better then ordinary gasoline.

  20. Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot-Scale Biorefinery: Sustainable Transport Fuels from Biomass via Integrated ... renewable biomass feedstocks to sustainable and fungible transportation fuels * ...

  1. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  2. Methods of making transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  3. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Low-Carbon Scenarios TRANSPORTATION ENERGY FUTURES SERIES: Alternative Fuel ... A Study Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable ...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation

  7. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Used Fuel Disposition Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Overview Steve Marschman Field Demonstration Lead Idaho National Laboratory NEET ASI Review Meeting September 17, 2014 Used Fuel Disposition Today's Discussion n Our R&D Objectives n What Guides Our Work n FY14 and FY15 Work - Full-Scale High Burn-Up Demo - Experiments - Transportation - Analysis Used Fuel Disposition 3 Overall Objectives * Develop the technical bases to demonstrate the continued safe and secure storage of used nuclear

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuels Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Performance Photo of a man working with laboratory equipment. NREL fuel performance chemists evaluate a broad range of performance criteria, including storage stability. ...

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles California Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: California Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Louisiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Louisiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Minnesota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Minnesota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Jersey Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Jersey Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Mexico Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Mexico Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Tennessee Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tennessee Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Washington Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Washington Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Wisconsin Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming

  7. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  8. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  9. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-04-01

    Under current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation, it is not sufficient for used nuclear fuel (UNF) to simply maintain its integrity during the storage period, it must maintain its integrity in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and moving it to treatment or recycling facilities, or a geologic repository. Hence it is necessary to understand the performance characteristics of aged UNF cladding and ancillary components under loadings stemming from transport initiatives. Researchers would like to demonstrate that enough information, including experimental support and modeling and simulation capabilities, exists to establish a preliminary determination of UNF structural performance under normal conditions of transport (NCT). This research, development and demonstration (RD&D) plan describes a methodology, including development and use of analytical models, to evaluate loading and associated mechanical responses of UNF rods and key structural components. This methodology will be used to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance characteristics of UNF cladding and ancillary components under rail-related NCT loading. The methodology couples modeling and simulation and experimental efforts currently under way within the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC). The methodology will involve limited uncertainty quantification in the form of sensitivity evaluations focused around available fuel and ancillary fuel structure properties exclusively. The work includes collecting information via literature review, soliciting input/guidance from subject matter experts, performing computational analyses, planning experimental measurement and possible execution (depending on timing), and preparing a variety of supporting documents that will feed into and provide the basis for future initiatives. The methodology demonstration will focus on structural performance evaluation of

  10. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Connecticut Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Connecticut Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: District of Columbia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Massachusetts Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Massachusetts Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Massachusetts Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Massachusetts Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Massachusetts Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Mississippi Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Mississippi Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Hampshire Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New Hampshire Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Dakota Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: North Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Pennsylvania Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pennsylvania Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Rhode Island Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Carolina Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Carolina Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Dakota Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: South Dakota Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: West Virginia Transportation Data for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels and Vehicles West Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: West Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: West Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: West Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark

  3. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-09-28

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell and receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and uses water and air for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor. 3 figures.

  4. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  5. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 3 (April 2016) Archived Editions: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 2 (Jan 2016) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 2, Issue 1 (Oct 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol. 1, Issue 4 (July 2015) Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.

  6. Transportation Systems Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MODELING Overview of TSM Transportation systems modeling research at TRACC uses the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis SIMulation System) traffic micro simulation code developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The TRANSIMS code represents the latest generation of traffic simulation codes developed jointly under multiyear programs by USDOT, the

  7. Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST) Program Status Nuclear Fuels Storage and Transportation Planning Project (NFST) Program Status Presentation made by Jeff ...

  8. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

  9. Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical Gap Analysis Review of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Technical Gap Analysis While both wet and dry...

  10. Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report Developing Advanced PEM Fuel Cell Technologies for Transportation Power Systems 156.pdf (5.82 MB) More Documents & ...

  11. Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment SFTRA Overview Contents Project and review teams Purpose and goals Basic methodology ...

  12. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characteriz...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing ... More Documents & Publications Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and ...

  13. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    This report provides information on transportation fuels other than gasoline and diesel, and the vehicles that use these fuels. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) provides this information to support the U.S. Department of Energy`s reporting obligations under Section 503 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT). The principal information contained in this report includes historical and year-ahead estimates of the following: (1) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles (AFV`s) in use; (2) the consumption of alternative transportation fuels and {open_quotes}replacement fuels{close_quotes}; and (3) the number and type of alterative-fueled vehicles made available in the current and following years. In addition, the report contains some material on special topics. The appendices include a discussion of the methodology used to develop the estimates (Appendix A), a map defining geographic regions used, and a list of AFV suppliers.

  14. Fuel Cells For Transportation - 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transportation 10.pdf (4.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report

  15. PADDs 1 and 3 Transportation Fuels Markets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    PADDs 1 and 3 Transportation Fuels Markets A report prepared by ICF International for EIA Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 February 2016 February 2016 ICF International, LLC for EIA | PADDs 1 and 3 Transportation Fuels Markets i Acknowledgements This report was prepared by ICF International for the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) under the general guidance of Lynn Westfall, Director of Office of Energy Markets and

  16. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, W.N.

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H{sub 2}CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recycled from the H{sub 2}-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H{sub 2}CAR process. The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. Whereras the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce {approx}30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H{sub 2}CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. The synthesized liquid provides H{sub 2} storage in an open loop system. Reduction to practice of the H{sub 2}CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H{sub 2} in the H{sub 2}CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H{sub 2}CAR is that there is no additional CO{sub 2} release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO{sub 2}.

  17. Heated transportable fuel cell cartridges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lance, Joseph R. (N. Huntingdon, PA); Spurrier, Francis R. (Whitehall, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A fuel cell stack protective system is made where a plurality of fuel cells, each containing liquid electrolyte subject to crystallization, is enclosed by a containing vessel, and where at least one electric heater is placed in the containing vessel and is capable of preventing electrolyte crystallization.

  18. Fact #634: August 2, 2010 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption | Department of Energy 4: August 2, 2010 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption Fact #634: August 2, 2010 Off-highway Transportation-related Fuel Consumption The Environmental Protection Agency's NONROAD2008a model estimates fuel use for off-highway equipment. Construction and mining equipment using diesel fuel account for the majority of this fuel use. Nearly all of the alternative fuel used in off-highway equipment is consumed by forklifts. Off-highway

  19. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  20. Analysis of near-term spent fuel transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Engel, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer model was developed to quantify the transportation hardware requirements and transportation costs associated with shipping spent fuel in the commercial nucler fuel cycle in the near future. Results from this study indicate that alternative spent fuel shipping systems (consolidated or disassembled fuel elements and new casks designed for older fuel) will significantly reduce the transportation hardware requirements and costs for shipping spent fuel in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle, if there is no significant change in their operating/handling characteristics. It was also found that a more modest cost reduction results from increasing the fraction of spent fuel shipped by truck from 25% to 50%. Larger transportation cost reductions could be realized with further increases in the truck shipping fraction. Using the given set of assumptions, it was found that the existing spent fuel cask fleet size is generally adequate to perform the needed transportation services until a fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) begins to receive fuel (assumed in 1987). Once the FRP opens, up to 7 additional truck systems and 16 additional rail systems are required at the reference truck shipping fraction of 25%. For the 50% truck shipping fraction, 17 additional truck systems and 9 additional rail systems are required. If consolidated fuel only is shipped (25% by truck), 5 additional rail casks are required and the current truck cask fleet is more than adequate until at least 1995. Changes in assumptions could affect the results. Transportation costs for a federal interim storage program could total about $25M if the FRP begins receiving fuel in 1987 or about $95M if the FRP is delayed until 1989. This is due to an increased utilization of federal interim storage facility from 350 MTU for the reference scenario to about 750 MTU if reprocessing is delayed by two years.

  1. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Used nuclear fuel (UNF) must maintain its integrity during the storage period in such a way that it can withstand the physical forces of handling and transportation associated with restaging the fuel and transporting it to treatment or recycling facilities, or to a geologic repository.

  2. Fuel cell assembly with electrolyte transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chi, Chang V.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly wherein electrolyte for filling the fuel cell matrix is carried via a transport system comprising a first passage means for conveying electrolyte through a first plate and communicating with a groove in a second plate at a first point, the first and second plates together sandwiching the matrix, and second passage means acting to carry electrolyte exclusively through the second plate and communicating with the groove at a second point exclusive of the first point.

  3. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  4. Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities) Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 5-8, 9-12 Subject Hydrogen and Fuel Cells, Bioenergy, Vehicles Summary This teacher guide provides extensive background information on transportation fuels to help your students learn about conventional and alternative transportation fuels by evaluating their advantages and disadvantages.

  5. Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Documents |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Technologies » Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project » Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Documents Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Documents October 1, 2014 Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Shutdown Sites In January 2013, the Department of Energy issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste. Among

  6. Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Planning Project Overview |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuel Storage and Transportation Planning Project Overview Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Planning Project Overview Nuclear Fuel Storage and Transportation Planning Project Overview (956.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Section 180(c) Ad Hoc Working Group DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Transportation Plan Ad Hoc Working Group

  7. Fuels Performance Group: Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    Describes R&D and analysis in advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum-based transportation fuels done by NREL's Fuels Performance Group.

  8. List of Renewable Transportation Fuels Incentives | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Biomass Renewable Transportation Fuels Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Community Energy Project Grants (Michigan) State Grant Program...

  9. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which includes automotive and energy companies, specifically the Fuel Cell Technical Team. ... Technical Targets for Automotive Applications: 80-kWe (net) Integrated Transportation Fuel ...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Fees as Transportation Funding

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternatives Fees as Transportation Funding Alternatives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Fees as Transportation Funding Alternatives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Fees as Transportation Funding Alternatives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Fees as Transportation Funding Alternatives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Fees as Transportation Funding Alternatives on Delicious Rank

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Veolia Transportation Converts Taxi Fleet to Propane on

  12. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternative power sources for transportation and stationary applications. The degradation of commonly used electrode catalysts (e.g. Pt, Ag, and others) and corrosion of carbon substrates are making commercialization of fuel cells incorporating present day technologies economically problematic. Furthermore, due to the instability of the Pt catalyst, the performance of fuel cells declines on long-term operation. When methanol is used as the fuel, a voltage drop, as well as significant thermal management problems can be encountered, the later being due to chemical oxidation of methanol at the platinized carbon at the cathode. Though extensive work was conducted on platinized electrodes for both the oxidation and reduction reactions, due to the problems mentioned above, fuel cells have not been fully developed for widespread commercial use. Several investigators have previously evaluated metal macrocyclic complexes as alternative catalysts to Pt and Pt/Ru in fuel cells. Unfortunately, though they have demonstrated catalytic activity, these materials were found to be unstable on long term use in the fuel cell environment. In order to improve the long-term stability of metal macrocyclic complexes, we have chemically bonded these complexes to the carbon substrate, thereby enhancing their catalytic activity as well as their chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. We have designed, synthesized, and evaluated these catalysts for O{sub 2} reduction, H{sub 2} oxidation, and direct methanol oxidation in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) and aqueous carbonate fuel cells. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic activity and long-term stability. In this paper we confine our discussion to the initial performance results of some of these catalysts in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells, including their long-term performance characteristics as well as CO poisoning effects on these catalysts.

  13. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. McGraw

    2000-04-13

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

  14. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ... further results Find Another Tool FIND TRANSPORTATION TOOLS This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil...

  15. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2012/fiscal year 2013.

  16. integrated-transportation-models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    support a wider application of integrated transportation models, especially focusing on travel demand and network ... irrevocable worldwide license in said article to ...

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Company Rolling Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep Kansas City Transportation Company Rolling on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vans Keep

  18. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Freezing Conditions | Department of Energy Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell water transport, was given by Satish Kandlikar at a DOE fuel cell meeting in February 2007. new_fc_kandlikar_rit.pdf (1.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Water Transport Exploratory Studies Fundamental Issues in Subzero

  19. Fuel Cells For Transportation - 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Team | Department of Energy 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy Conversion Team Fuel Cells For Transportation - 1999 Annual Progress Report Energy Conversion Team Developing Advanced PEM Fuel Cell Technologies for Transportation 10.pdf (4.77 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells For Transportation - 2001 Annual Progress Report

  20. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets: Frequently Asked Questions (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-03-01

    This brochure provides answers to frequently asked questions about the EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program's State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleets.

  1. NREL Transportation Project to Reduce Fuel Usage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Project to Reduce Fuel Usage For more information contact: Sarah Holmes Barba, 303-275-3023 email: Sarah Barba Golden, Colo., Mar. 23, 2001 - The Jefferson County Seniors Resource Center (SRC) Paratransit Service has become an important part of Eulalia Gaillard's life since her stroke in 1996. She calls on SRC to drive her to cardiologist, neurologist and chiropractor appointments each week. "It's wonderful," Gaillard says. "I'd give this program 150 plus in regards

  2. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    under Freezing Conditions | Department of Energy Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 2_rit.pdf (20.71 KB) More Documents & Publications Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions

  3. Off-Highway Transportation-Related Fuel Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, S.C.

    2004-05-08

    The transportation sector includes many subcategories--for example, on-highway, off-highway, and non-highway. Use of fuel for off-highway purposes is not well documented, nor is the number of off-highway vehicles. The number of and fuel usage for on-highway and aviation, marine, and rail categories are much better documented than for off-highway land-based use. Several sources document off-highway fuel use under specific conditions--such as use by application (e.g., recreation) or by fuel type (e.g., gasoline). There is, however, no single source that documents the total fuel used off-highway and the number of vehicles that use the fuel. This report estimates the fuel usage and number of vehicles/equipment for the off-highway category. No new data have been collected nor new models developed to estimate the off-highway data--this study is limited in scope to using data that already exist. In this report, unless they are being quoted from a source that uses different terminology, the terms are used as listed below. (1) ''On-highway/on-road'' includes land-based transport used on the highway system or other paved roadways. (2) ''Off-highway/off-road'' includes land-based transport not using the highway system or other paved roadways. (3) ''Non-highway/non-road'' includes other modes not traveling on highways such as aviation, marine, and rail. It should be noted that the term ''transportation'' as used in this study is not typical. Generally, ''transportation'' is understood to mean the movement of people or goods from one point to another. Some of the off-highway equipment included in this study doesn't transport either people or goods, but it has utility in movement (e.g., a forklift or a lawn mower). Along these lines, a chain saw also has utility in movement, but it cannot transport itself (i.e., it must be carried) because it does not have wheels. Therefore, to estimate the transportation-related fuel used off-highway, transportation equipment is defined to

  4. Alternative Motor Fuel Use Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-11-16

    AMFU is a tool for the analysis and prediction of motor fuel use by highway vehicles. The model advances the art of vehicle stock modeling by including a representation of the choice of motor fuel for flexible and dual fuel vehicles.

  5. Railroad transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooden, D.G.

    1986-03-01

    This report documents a detailed analysis of rail operations that are important for assessing the risk of transporting high-level nuclear waste. The major emphasis of the discussion is towards ''general freight'' shipments of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide a basis for selecting models and parameters that are appropriate for assessing the risk of rail transportation of nuclear waste.

  6. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for integrated polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems and fuel cell stacks operating on direct hydrogen for transportation applications.

  7. Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cell Stacks | Department of Energy Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Transport Studies Enabling Efficiency Optimization of Cost-Competitive Fuel Cell Stacks Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 cross_nuvera_transport_kickoff.pdf (952.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Durability of Low Pt Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM

  8. Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the shutdown Connecticut Yankee site. The ISFSI includes 40 multi-purpose canisters, within vertical concrete storage casks, containing 1019 used nuclear fuel assemblies [412.3 metric ton heavy metal (MTHM)] and 3 canisters of greater-than-class-C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. Photo courtesy of Connecticut

  9. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly. McConnell, Paul E.; Wauneka, Robert; Saltzstein, Sylvia J.; Sorenson, Ken B. Abstract not provided. Sandia...

  10. PADD 5 Transportation Fuels Markets - Energy Information Administratio...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    EIA retained Stillwater Associates, an Irvine, California-based transportation fuels consultant, to conduct the research and analysis for the PADD 5 study. Stillwater analyzed data ...

  11. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Successful Transportation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On display at the National Lab Impact Summit, a Toyota Mirai fuel cell electric vehicle from ... needs," said NREL Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center Director Chris Gearhart. ...

  12. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to ...

  13. Systems Approach to New Transportation Fuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Approach to New Transportation Fuels Systems Approach to New Transportation Fuels Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_brinkman.pdf (512.22 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office: 2008-2009 Fuels Technologies R&D Progress Report The Non-Petroleum Based Fuel Initiative - NPBF Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Fuel

  14. Climate Impact of Transportation A Model Comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Grahn, Maria; Kitous, Alban; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page

    2013-06-01

    Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global service demand (passenger-kilometers, ton-kilometers), fuel use, and CO2 emissions of five different global transport models using harmonized input assumptions on income and population. For four models we also evaluate the impact of a carbon tax. All models project a steep increase in service demand over the century. Technology is important for limiting energy consumption and CO2 emissions, but quite radical changes in the technology mix are required to stabilize or reverse the trend. While all models project liquid fossil fuels dominating up to 2050, they differ regarding the use of alternative fuels (natural gas, hydrogen, biofuels, and electricity), because of different fuel price projections. The carbon tax of US$200/tCO2 in 2050 stabilizes or reverses global emission growth in all models. Besides common findings many differences in the model assumptions and projections indicate room for improvement in modeling and empirical description of the transport system.

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Alternative Fuels Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Fuels Characterization Find out about other biomass research projects at NREL. NREL alternative fuels projects help overcome technical barriers and expand markets for renewable, biodegradable vehicle fuels. These liquid fuels include higher-level ethanol blends, butanol, biodiesel, renewable diesel, other biomass-derived fuels, and natural gas. By studying the fuel chemistry as well as combustion and emissions impacts of alternative fuels, NREL helps improve engine efficiency, reduce

  16. Uranium Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, William D.

    2008-01-15

    Uranium contamination is prevalent at many of the U.S. DOE facilities and at several civilian sites that have supported the nuclear fuel cycle. The potential off-site mobility of uranium depends on the partitioning of uranium between aqueous and solid (soil and sediment) phases. Hexavalent U (as uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) is relatively mobile, forming strong complexes with ubiquitous carbonate ion which renders it appreciably soluble even under mild reducing conditions. In the presence of carbonate, partition of uranyl to ferri-hydrate and select other mineral phases is usually maximum in the near-neutral pH range {approx} 5-8. The surface complexation reaction of uranyl with iron-containing minerals has been used as one means to model subsurface migration, used in conjunction with information on the site water chemistry and hydrology. Partitioning of uranium is often studied by short-term batch 'equilibrium' or long-term soil column testing ; MCLinc has performed both of these methodologies, with selection of method depending upon the requirements of the client or regulatory authority. Speciation of uranium in soil may be determined directly by instrumental techniques (e.g., x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS; x-ray diffraction, XRD; etc.) or by inference drawn from operational estimates. Often, the technique of choice for evaluating low-level radionuclide partitioning in soils and sediments is the sequential extraction approach. This methodology applies operationally-defined chemical treatments to selectively dissolve specific classes of macro-scale soil or sediment components. These methods recognize that total soil metal inventory is of limited use in understanding bioavailability or metal mobility, and that it is useful to estimate the amount of metal present in different solid-phase forms. Despite some drawbacks, the sequential extraction method can provide a valuable tool to distinguish among trace element fractions of different solubility related to

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - Alternative Fuel Fleet Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... gas (LNG) is a non-toxic, non-corrosive alternative fuel that offers reduced emissions and similar fuel economy compared to conventional fuels. Norcal Waste Systems LNG Refuse ...

  18. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Tr anspor tation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and ... technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid fuels that are deployable by ...

  19. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: Success Story (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    This success story highlights the EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program's series of workshops that bring fleets regulated under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) together with Clean Cities stakeholders and fuel providers to form and strengthen regional partnerships and initiate projects that will deploy more alternative fuel infrastructure.

  20. PADD 1 and PADD 3 Transportation Fuels Markets

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes states from Maine to Florida along the U.S. Atlantic Coast. The Gulf Coast region comprises states between New Mexico in the west to Alabama in the east along the Gulf of Mexico. For this study, transportation fuels include gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. Residual fuel oil supply is also analyzed where applicable.

  1. Transport Modeling Working Group | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for and understanding of transport phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks. ... to the efficient and cost-effective operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. ...

  2. Analysis of Fuel Ethanol Transportation Activity and Potential Distribution Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sujit; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of fuel ethanol transportation activity and potential distribution constraints if the total 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel use by 2022 is mandated by EPA under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. Ethanol transport by domestic truck, marine, and rail distribution systems from ethanol refineries to blending terminals is estimated using Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL s) North American Infrastructure Network Model. Most supply and demand data provided by EPA were geo-coded and using available commercial sources the transportation infrastructure network was updated. The percentage increases in ton-mile movements by rail, waterways, and highways in 2022 are estimated to be 2.8%, 0.6%, and 0.13%, respectively, compared to the corresponding 2005 total domestic flows by various modes. Overall, a significantly higher level of future ethanol demand would have minimal impacts on transportation infrastructure. However, there will be spatial impacts and a significant level of investment required because of a considerable increase in rail traffic from refineries to ethanol distribution terminals.

  3. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a Light Duty Vehicle Workshop in Washington, D.C. on July 26, 2010. liquid_trans_tech.pdf (584.34 KB) More Documents & Publications February GBTL Webinar GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions HEFA and Fischer-Tropsch Jet Fuel Cost Analyses

  4. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion Laboratory NREL's Fuel Combustion Laboratory focuses on characterizing fuels at the molecular level. This information can then be used to understand and predict a fuel's effect on engine performance and emissions. By understanding the effects of fuel chemistry on ignition, as well as the potential emissions impacts, we can develop fuels that enable more efficient engine designs, using both today's technology and future advanced combustion concepts. This lab supports the Renewable

  5. Fuel Cells for Transportation - FY 2001 Progress Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FY 2001 Progress Report Fuel Cells for Transportation - FY 2001 Progress Report V. PEM STACK COMPONENT COST REDUCTION 159.pdf (4.54 MB) More Documents & Publications 2013 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell Technologies Program 2012 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell

  6. Modeling the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; G. E. Matthern; S. J. Piet; A. Moisseytsev

    2005-07-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative is developing a system dynamics model as part of their broad systems analysis of future nuclear energy in the United States. The model will be used to analyze and compare various proposed technology deployment scenarios. The model will also give a better understanding of the linkages between the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle that includes uranium resources, reactor number and mix, nuclear fuel type and waste management. Each of these components is tightly connected to the nuclear fuel cycle but usually analyzed in isolation of the other parts. This model will attempt to bridge these components into a single model for analysis. This work is part of a multi-national laboratory effort between Argonne National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory and United States Department of Energy. This paper summarizes the basics of the system dynamics model and looks at some results from the model.

  7. National Transportation Fuels Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organizational Chart » National Training Center National Training Center MISSION The National Training Center (NTC), the Department's Center of Excellence for Security and Safety Training and Professional Development, designs, develops, and implements state-of-the-art security and safety training programs for Department federal and contractor personnel nationwide, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Conducts on-going job analysis, and develops and delivers training in

  8. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, Harold T. Wight, Gregory Dreier, Ken Borland, Nicholas

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable

  9. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  10. Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Breakout ...

  11. High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Brian West, Deputy Director, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  12. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  13. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Chemistry Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry Research Photo of a hand holding a beaker containing a clear yellow liquid. NREL ... Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's fuel chemistry research explores how biofuels, ...

  14. NREL: Transportation Research - Renewable Fuels and Lubricants...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory Photo of a heavy-duty truck being driven on a chassis ... prototype engines, and hybrid powertrains for next-generation vehicle technologies. ...

  15. PADD 1 and PADD 3 Transportation Fuels Markets - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Regions Overview New England Central Atlantic Southeast Florida North Louisiana-Arkansas Louisiana Gulf Coast Texas Gulf Coast Texas Inland New Mexico PADD 1 and PADD 3 Transportation Fuels Markets Release date: February 3, 2016 Introduction This study examines supply, consumption, and distribution of transportation fuels in Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) 1 and 3, or the U.S. East Coast and the Gulf Coast, respectively. The East Coast region includes

  16. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology in Connecticut | Department of Energy with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Overview of strengths, weaknesses, and barriers, deployment phases, military sites, environmental value, and potential partnerships tspi_rinebold.pdf (2.22 MB) More Documents & Publications Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Second Evaluation Report and Appendices

  17. Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    08 1 Ford - Chrysler - General Motors DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs January 23, 2008 Golden, CO USCAR / FreedomCAR Fuel Cell Tech Team Industry Members James Waldecker, Shinichi Hirano and Mark Mehall Ford Motor Company Craig Gittleman, David Masten and Scott Jorgensen General Motors Jesse Schneider and Scott Freeman Chrysler LLC January 08 2 Ford - Chrysler - General Motors Overview * Purpose: To provide automotive OEM perspective on topics

  18. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  19. INL Site Executable Plan for Energy and Transportation Fuels Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest L. Fossum

    2008-11-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that sustainable energy and transportation fuels management will be integrated into DOE operations to meet obligations under Executive Order (EO) 13423 "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management," the Instructions for Implementation of EO 13423, as well as Guidance Documents issued in accordance thereto and any modifcations or amendments that may be issued from time to time. In furtherance of this obligation, DOE established strategic performance-based energy and transportation fuels goals and strategies through the Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Initiative, which were incorporated into DOE Order 430.2B "Departmental Energy, Renewable energy, and Transportation Management" and were also identified in DOE Order 450.1A, "Environmental Protection Program." These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of energy and transportation fuels management into site Environmental Management Systems (EMS).

  20. Parametric study of radiation dose rates from rail and truck spent fuel transport casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Knight, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    Neutron and gamma dose rates from typical rail and truck spent fuel transport casks are reported for a variety of spent PWR fuel sources and cask conditions. The IF 300 rail cask and NLI 1/2 truck cask were selected for use as appropriate cask models. All calculations (cross section preparation, generation of spent fuel source terms, radiation transport calculations, and dose evaluation) were performed using various modules of the SCALE computational system. Conditions or parameters for which there were variations between cases include: detector distance from cask, spent fuel cooling time, the setting of fuel or neutron shielding cavities to either wet or dry, the cobalt content of assembly materials, normal fuel assemblies and consolidated cannisters, the geometry mesh interval size, and the order of the angular quadrature set. 13 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  2. Fuel Cells for Transportation- Research and Development: Program Abstracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Remarkable progress has been achieved in the development of proton-exchange-membrane(PEM) fuel cell technology since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a significant developmental program in the early 1990s. This progress has stimulated enormous interest worldwide in developing fuel cell products for transportation as well as for stationary and portable power applications. The potential markets are huge, but so are the R&D risks. Given the potential for PEM fuel cells to deliver large economic and environmental benefits to the Nation, DOE continues to take a leadership role in developing and validating this technology. DOE’s strategy to implement its Fuel Cells for Transportation program has three components: an R&D strategy, a fuels strategy, and a management strategy.

  3. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  4. ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2013-06-17

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  5. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  6. High Burnup Fuel Behavior Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jahingir, M.; Rand, R.; Stachowski, R.; Miles, B.; Kusagaya, K.

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and qualification of the PRIME03 code to address high burnup mechanisms and to improve uranium utilization in current and new reactor designs. Materials properties and behavioral models have been updated from previous thermal-mechanical codes to reflect the effects of burnup on fuel pellet thermal conductivity, Zircaloy creep, fuel pellet relocation, and fission gas release. These new models are based on results of in-pool and post irradiation examination (PIE) of commercial boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel rods at high burnup and results from international experimental programs. The new models incorporated into PRIME03 also address specific high burnup effects associated with formation of pellet rim porosity at high exposure. The PRIME03 code is qualified by comparison of predicted and measured fuel performance parameters for a large number of high, low, and moderate burnup test and commercial reactor rod. The extensive experimental qualification of the PRIME03 prediction capabilities confirms that it is a reliable best-estimate predictor of fuel rod thermal-mechanical performance over a wide range of design and operating conditions. (authors)

  7. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport – Demonstration of Approach and Results of Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and transport (NCT).

  8. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Michael

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, and herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.

  9. Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation fuel-cyl

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-20

    The GREET model estimates the full fuel-cycle energy use and emissions associated with various transportation fuels and advanced vehile technologies applied to motor vehicles. GREET 1.5 includes the following cycles: petroleum to conventional gasoline, reformulated gasoline, conventional diesel, reformulated diesel, liquefied petroleum gas, and electricity via residual oil; natural gas to compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, and electricity; coal to electricity; corn, woody biomass, andmore » herbaceous biomass to ethanol; soybeans to biodiesel; flared gas to methanol, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and dimethyl ether; and landfill gases to methanol. For a given fuel/transportation technology combination, GREET 1.5 calculates (1) the fuel-cycle consumption of total energy (all energy sources), fossil fuels (petroleum, natural gas, and coal), and petroleum; (2) the fuel-cycle emissions of GHGs -- primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N20); and (3) the fuel-cycle emissions of five criteria pollutants: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (C0), nitrogen oxides (N0x), sulfur oxides (S0x), and particulate matter with a diameter measuring 10 micrometers or less (PM10). The model is designed to readily allow researchers to input their own assumptions and generate fuel-cycle energy and emission results for specified fuel/technology combinations.« less

  10. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  11. Modeling Deep Burn TRISO Particle Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Schuck, Paul C [ORNL; Rudin, Sven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wills, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wirth, Brian D. [University of California, Berkeley; Kim, Sungtae [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Under the DOE Deep Burn program TRISO fuel is being investigated as a fuel form for consuming plutonium and minor actinides, and for greater efficiency in uranium utilization. The result will thus be to drive TRISO particulate fuel to very high burn-ups. In the current effort the various phenomena in the TRISO particle are being modeled using a variety of techniques. The chemical behavior is being treated utilizing thermochemical analysis to identify phase formation/transformation and chemical activities in the particle, including kernel migration. First principles calculations are being used to investigate the critical issue of fission product palladium attack on the SiC coating layer. Density functional theory is being used to understand fission product diffusion within the plutonia oxide kernel. Kinetic Monte Carlo techniques are shedding light on transport of fission products, most notably silver, through the carbon and SiC coating layers. The diffusion of fission products through an alternative coating layer, ZrC, is being assessed via DFT methods. Finally, a multiscale approach is being used to understand thermal transport, including the effect of radiation damage induced defects, in a model SiC material.

  12. CONVERTING PYROLYSIS OILS TO RENEWABLE TRANSPORT FUELS: PROCESSING CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmgren, Jennifer; Nair, Prabhakar N.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Bain, Richard; Marinangelli, Richard

    2008-03-11

    To enable a sustained supply of biomass-based transportation fuels, the capability to process feedstocks outside the food chain must be developed. Significant industry efforts are underway to develop these new technologies, such as converting cellulosic wastes to ethanol. UOP, in partnership with U.S. Government labs, NREL and PNNL, is developing an alternate route using cellulosic feedstocks. The waste biomass is first subjected to a fast pyrolysis operation to generate pyrolysis oil (pyoil for short). Current efforts are focused on developing a thermochemical platform to convert pyoils to renewable gasoline, diesel and jet fuel. The fuels produced will be indistinguishable from their fossil fuel counterparts and, therefore, will be compatible with existing transport and distribution infrastructure.

  13. Solar Energy for Transportation Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lewis, Nate

    2011-04-28

    Nate Lewis' talk looks at the challenge of capturing solar energy and storing it as an affordable transportation fuel - all on a scale necessary to reduce global warming. Overcoming this challenge will require developing new materials that can use abundant and inexpensive elements rather than costly and rare materials. He discusses the promise of new materials in the development of carbon-free alternatives to fossil fuel.

  14. PEM fuel cells for transportation and stationary power generation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleghorn, S.J.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1996-05-01

    We describe recent activities at LANL devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells in the contexts of stationary power generation and transportation applications. A low cost/high performance hydrogen or reformate/air stack technology is being developed based on ultralow Pt loadings and on non-machined, inexpensive elements for flow-fields and bipolar plates. On board methanol reforming is compared to the option of direct methanol fuel cells because of recent significant power density increases demonstrated in the latter.

  15. A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

    1995-04-14

    The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

  16. Recent Developments on the Production of Transportation Fuels via Catalytic Conversion of Microalgae: Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Ping; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-08-02

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize food versus fuel concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  17. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  18. AEO2017 Modeling updates in the transportation sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 For AEO2017 Transportation Working Group August 31, 2016 | Washington, DC By Melissa Lynes, John Maples, Mark Schipper, and David Stone Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector Updates to the Annual Energy Outlook 2017 * Transportation demand model highlights - 10-year extension of last-year projection, AEO2016 is 2040 and AEO2017 is 2050 - Battery costs for electric vehicles - Phase 2 greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency standards for

  19. Fossil fuel conversion--measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale-up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifiers and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifiers (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas).

  20. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunting, Bruce G

    2012-01-01

    Abundance of energy can be improved both by developing new sources of fuel and by improving efficiency of energy utilization, although we really need to pursue both paths to improve energy accessibility in the future. Currently, 2.7 billion people or 38% of the world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung and 1.4 billion people or 20% do not have access to electricity. It is estimated that correcting these deficiencies will require an investment of $36 billion dollars annually through 2030. In growing economies, energy use and economic growth are strongly linked, but energy use generally grows at a lower rate due to increased access to modern fuels and adaptation of modern, more efficient technology. Reducing environmental impacts of increased energy consumption such as global warming or regional emissions will require improved technology, renewable fuels, and CO2 reuse or sequestration. The increase in energy utilization will probably result in increased transportation fuel diversity as fuels are shaped by availability of local resources, world trade, and governmental, environmental, and economic policies. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the recently emerging trends, but not to suggest winners. This paper will focus on liquid transportation fuels, which provide the highest energy density and best match with existing vehicles and infrastructure. Data is taken from a variety of US, European, and other sources without an attempt to normalize or combine the various data sources. Liquid transportation fuels can be derived from conventional hydrocarbon resources (crude oil), unconventional hydrocarbon resources (oil sands or oil shale), and biological feedstocks through a variety of biochemical or thermo chemical processes, or by converting natural gas or coal to liquids.

  1. Air Transport Optimization Model | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACAir Transport Optimization Model content top Network Optimization Models (RNAS and ATOM) Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Many critical infrastructures can be represented by a network of interconnected nodes and links. Mathematically sound nonlinear optimization techniques can then be applied to these networks to understand their behavior under normal and disrupted situations. Network optimization models are particularly useful for evaluating transportation system

  2. transportation-system-modeling-webinar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Webinar Announcement Webinar for the Intelligent Transportation Society of the Midwest (ITS Midwest) May 16, 2011 1:00 PM(CST) Hubert Ley Director, TRACC Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois High Performance Computing in Transportation Research - High Fidelity Transportation Models and More The Role of High-Performance Computing Because ITS relies on a very diverse collection of technologies, including communication and control technologies, advanced computing, information management

  3. Transport Modeling Working Group Meeting Reports | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Working Group Meeting Reports Transport Modeling Working Group Meeting Reports View reports from meetings of the Transport Modeling Working Group, which meets twice per ...

  4. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I.

    2013-07-01

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  5. Producing Transportation Fuels via Photosynthetically-derived Ethylene

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2015 Technology Area Review: Algae Principal Investigator: Jianping Yu DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Producing Transportation Fuels via Photosynthetically- derived Ethylene This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Goal Statement To develop a novel photosynthetic ethylene production technology using cyanobacteria. This technology has potential to produce biofuels and green chemicals (1) at cost

  6. Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2015-05-01

    This report describes testing designed to determine the ability of high burnup (HBU) (>45 GWd/MTU) spent fuel to maintain its integrity under normal conditions of transportation. An innovative system, Cyclic Integrated Reversible-bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to test and evaluate the mechanical behavior of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under conditions relevant to storage and transportation. The CIRFT system is composed of a U-frame equipped with load cells for imposing the pure bending loads on the SNF rod test specimen and measuring the in-situ curvature of the fuel rod during bending using a set up with three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs).

  7. Transportation fuels from biomass via fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2013-09-21

    Biomass is a renewable source of carbon, which could provide a means to reduce the greenhouse gas impact from fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Biomass is the only renewable source of liquid fuels, which could displace petroleum-derived products. Fast pyrolysis is a method of direct thermochemical conversion (non-bioconversion) of biomass to a liquid product. Although the direct conversion product, called bio-oil, is liquid; it is not compatible with the fuel handling systems currently used for transportation. Upgrading the product via catalytic processing with hydrogen gas, hydroprocessing, is a means that has been demonstrated in the laboratory. By this processing the bio-oil can be deoxygenated to hydrocarbons, which can be useful replacements of the hydrocarbon distillates in petroleum. While the fast pyrolysis of biomass is presently commercial, the upgrading of the liquid product by hydroprocessing remains in development, although it is moving out of the laboratory into scaled-up process demonstration systems.

  8. Lessons Learned from the Alternative Fuels Experience and How They Apply to the Development of a Hydrogen-Fueled Transportation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Theis, K.; Johnson, C.

    2007-08-01

    Report describes efforts to deploy alternative transportation fuels and how those experiences might apply to a hydrogen-fueled transportation system.

  9. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D.; Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Jordan, H.; Duffey, T.A.; Sutherland, S.H.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs.

  10. Fire and materials modeling for transportation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skocypec, R.D.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.; Nicolette, V.F.; Tieszen, S.R.; Thomas, R.

    1994-10-01

    Fire is an important threat to the safety of transportation systems. Therefore, understanding the effects of fire (and its interaction with materials) on transportation systems is crucial to quantifying and mitigating the impact of fire on the safety of those systems. Research and development directed toward improving the fire safety of transportation systems must address a broad range of phenomena and technologies, including: crash dynamics, fuel dispersion, fire environment characterization, material characterization, and system/cargo thermal response modeling. In addition, if the goal of the work is an assessment and/or reduction of risk due to fires, probabilistic risk assessment technology is also required. The research currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in each of these areas is summarized in this paper.

  11. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Truck Transports Capitol...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Clean Cities Helps National Parks Model Sustainable Transportation July 27, 2015 Photo of a locomotive engine carrying passenger cars. New Hampshire Railway Makes Tracks With ...

  13. Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly Normal Conditions of Transport Truck Test of a Surrogate Fuel Assembly This report describes a test of an instrumented surrogate PWR fuel assembly on a truck trailer conducted to simulate normal conditions of truck transport. The purpose of the test was to measure strains and accelerations on a Zircaloy-4 fuel rod during the transport of the assembly on the truck. This test complements tests conducted

  14. Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Analysis Models and Tools: Systems Analysis of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's systems ...

  15. COMBINED MODELING OF ACCELERATION, TRANSPORT, AND HYDRODYNAMIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: COMBINED MODELING OF ACCELERATION, TRANSPORT, AND HYDRODYNAMIC RESPONSE IN SOLAR FLARES. I. THE NUMERICAL MODEL Acceleration and transport of high-energy particles and fluid ...

  16. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  17. Site Specific Analyses of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B. M.; Chen, S. Y.

    2003-02-24

    The number of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments is expected to increase significantly during the time period that the United States' inventory of SNF is sent to a final disposal site. Prior work estimated that the highest accident risks of a SNF shipping campaign to the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain were in the corridor states, such as Illinois. The largest potential human health impacts would be expected to occur in areas with high population densities such as urban settings. Thus, our current study examined the human health impacts from the most plausible severe SNF transportation accidents in the Chicago metropolitan area. The RISKIND 2.0 program was used to model site-specific data for an area where the largest impacts might occur. The results have shown that the radiological human health consequences of a severe SNF rail transportation accident on average might be similar to one year of exposure to natural background radiation for those persons living a nd working in the most affected areas downwind of the actual accident location. For maximally exposed individuals, an exposure similar to about two years of exposure to natural background radiation was estimated. In addition to the accident probabilities being very low (approximately 1 chance in 10,000 or less during the entire shipping campaign), the actual human health impacts are expected to be lower if any of the accidents considered did occur, because the results are dependent on the specific location and weather conditions, such as wind speed and direction, that were selected to maximize the results. Also, comparison of the results of longer duration accident scenarios against U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines was made to demonstrate the usefulness of this site-specific analysis for emergency planning purposes.

  18. Fuel cells for transportation program: FY1997 national laboratory annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cells for Transportation Program is structured to effectively implement the research and development (R and D) required for highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems to be a viable replacement for the internal combustion engine in automobiles. The Program is part of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a government-industry initiative aimed at development of an 80 mile-per-gallon vehicle. This Annual Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of the laboratories during 1997. Participants include: Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). During 1997, the laboratory R and D included one project on solid oxide fuel cells; this project has since been terminated to focus Department resources on PEM fuel cells. The technical component of this report is divided into five key areas: fuel cell stack research and development; fuel processing; fuel cell modeling, testing, and evaluation; direct methanol PEM fuel cells; and solid oxide fuel cells.

  19. transportation-systems-modeling-training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Table of Contents Date Location Integrated Transportation Models Workshop at ITM 2012 April 29, 2012 Hyatt Regency Tampa, FL TRANSIMS Training Course April 14-15, 2011 James E. Clyburn University Transportation Center Orangeburg, SC TRANSIMS RTSTEP Guest Lecturer March 29, 2011 Argonne TRACC Argonne, IL TRANSIMS Training Course January 19-21 2011 Argonne TRACC Argonne, IL TRANSIMS Training Course September 7-8, 2010 Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center Washington D.C. Network

  20. Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of this

  1. Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, China has experienced tremendous growth in its transportation sector. By the end of 2010, China's road infrastructure had emerged as the second-largest transportation system in the world after the United States. Passenger vehicle sales are dramatically increasing from a little more than half a million in 2000, to 3.7 million in 2005, to 13.8 million in 2010. This represents a twenty-fold increase from 2000 to 2010. The unprecedented motorization development in China led to a significant increase in oil demand, which requires China to import progressively more petroleum from other countries, with its share of petroleum imports exceeding 50% of total petroleum demand since 2009. In response to growing oil import dependency, the Chinese government is adopting a broad range of policies, including promotion of fuel-efficient vehicles, fuel conservation, increasing investments in oil resources around the world, and many others.

  2. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, David J.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Zhichao; Keisman, Jennifer; Wu, May; Han, Jeongwoo; Dunn, Jennifer; Sullivan, John L.; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael; Keisman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  3. Direct Conversion of Biomass into Transportation Fuels - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Direct Conversion of Biomass into Transportation Fuels Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryLos Alamos National Laboratory is developing a portfolio of technologies related to catalytic processes for converting oligosaccharides into hydrocarbons under mild conditions.DescriptionWe are seeking a co-development partner interested in teaming to further develop the technology, including pursuit of Federal-funding opportunities, and

  4. NREL: Transportation Research - Driverless Cars and Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spotlighted in Scientific American Driverless Cars and Fuel Efficiency Spotlighted in Scientific American January 25, 2016 The potential to slow pollution through deployment of automated vehicles is gaining more and more traction in the news. In a recent Scientific American article, reporter Camille von Kaenel asked NREL's Jeff Gonder for a transportation researcher's thoughts on both the sustainability benefits and uncertainties that will accompany an increase in driverless cars. "The

  5. Integrated Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Canister

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    System - Energy Innovation Portal Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Integrated Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation, and Disposal Canister System Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00239_ID2603 (2).pdf (847 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at ORNL have developed an integrated system that

  6. Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from lwr fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, R. Dean; Ackerman, John P.; Battles, James E.; Johnson, Terry R.; Miller, William E.

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including Mg Cl.sub.2 to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy.

  7. Salt transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierce, R.D.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Miller, W.E.

    1992-11-03

    A process is described for separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl[sub 2] and a Cu--Mg alloy containing not less than about 25% by weight Mg at a temperature in the range of from about 750 C to about 850 C to precipitate uranium metal and some of the noble metal fission products leaving the Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and some of the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl[sub 2] having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO[sub 2]. The Ca metal and CaCl[sub 2] is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The Cu--Mg alloy having transuranium metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with a transport salt including MgCl[sub 2] to transfer Mg values from the transport salt to the Cu--Mg alloy while transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product metals transfer from the Cu--Mg alloy to the transport salt. Then the transport salt is mixed with a Mg--Zn alloy to transfer Mg values from the alloy to the transport salt while the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission product values dissolved in the salt are reduced and transferred to the Mg--Zn alloy. 2 figs.

  8. VISION: Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Abdellatif M. Yacout; Gretchen E. Matthern; Steven J. Piet; David E. Shropshire

    2009-04-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a very complex system that includes considerable dynamic complexity as well as detail complexity. In the nuclear power realm, there are experts and considerable research and development in nuclear fuel development, separations technology, reactor physics and waste management. What is lacking is an overall understanding of the entire nuclear fuel cycle and how the deployment of new fuel cycle technologies affects the overall performance of the fuel cycle. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives systems analysis group is developing a dynamic simulation model, VISION, to capture the relationships, timing and delays in and among the fuel cycle components to help develop an understanding of how the overall fuel cycle works and can transition as technologies are changed. This paper is an overview of the philosophy and development strategy behind VISION. The paper includes some descriptions of the model and some examples of how to use VISION.

  9. Oxygen reduction and transportation mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li YH, Gemmen R, Liu XB

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, various models have been developed for describing the reaction mechanisms in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) especially for the cathode electrode. However, many fundamental issues regarding the transport of oxygen and electrode kinetics have not been fully understood. This review tried to summarize the present status of the SOFC cathode modeling efforts, and associated experimental approaches on this topic. In addition, unsolved problems and possible future research directions for SOFC cathode kinetics had been discussed

  10. DOE and the Department of Transportation Announce Collaboration to Support Smart Transportation Systems and Alternative Fuel Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) announced a collaboration to accelerate research, development, demonstration, and deployment of innovative smart transportation systems and alternative fuel technologies.

  11. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2008/fiscal year 2009.

  12. Used Fuel Degradation: Experimental and Modeling Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The report describes the strategy for coupling process level models to produce an integrated Used Fuel Degradation Model (FDM), and addresses fractional degradation rate, instant release fractions, other continuum modeling approaches, and experimental support.

  13. Model Year 2012 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  14. Model Year 2013 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  15. Model Year 2011 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles.

  16. Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-10

    This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Commercialization strategies for coal-derived transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomlinson, G.; Gray, D.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to analyze a program that can stimulate the development of a synthetic liquid transportation fuels from coal industry, by requiring that the products be bought at their true cost of production. These coal-derived liquids will then be assimulated into the nation`s fuel supply system. The cost of this program will be borne by increased cost of all fuels in the marketplace. The justification of the program is the assumption that, because of increasing demand, the world oil price (WOP) will increase to a level that will make coal-derived fuels economical in the relatively near future. However, as noted in the International Energy Outlook of 1990: ``Given current costs and Technologies, it is estimated the cost of crude oil would have to exceed $35 per barrel in 1989 dollars for at least four consecutive years for commercial production, in the range of 100,000 barrels per day, of synthetic liquids to occur. This delayed response of production to price increases reflects the planning and construction time required to complete a coal liquefaction plant``. This program is designed to reduce this time lag so that coal-derived fuels will be available when they are needed. This timely production capability of coal liquids may be able to limit future world oil prices to the actual cost of synthetic alternatives. In addition, the program is structured so that it will provide synthetic fuel producers with a cushion in the event that the WOP continues to remain low.

  18. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  19. Fact #699: October 31, 2011 Transportation Energy Use by Mode and Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type, 2009 | Department of Energy 9: October 31, 2011 Transportation Energy Use by Mode and Fuel Type, 2009 Fact #699: October 31, 2011 Transportation Energy Use by Mode and Fuel Type, 2009 Highway vehicles are responsible for most of the energy consumed by the transportation sector. Most of the fuel used in light vehicles is gasoline, while most of the fuel used in med/heavy trucks and buses is diesel. Transportation Energy Use by Mode and Fuel Type, 2009 Graph showing transporation energy

  20. Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    tool for analyzing high-temperature, fuel cell-based tri- generation systems. 1 Key ... Performs hourly energy analysis and detailed grid time of use cost evaluations, which ...

  1. Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts for selective transportation fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, W.E.; Cilen, N.; Withers, H.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The future use of coal as a source of conventional transportation fuel will depend on the development of an economical and energy efficient liquefaction process. Technologies that have been commercially proven or that are close to commercialization include the fixed- and fluidized-bed Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol synthesis (fixed-bed and slurry-phase) and the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline process. Of these technologies, the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis produces the widest slate of products and has been in operation for the longest period.

  2. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  3. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  4. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  5. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems and Stacks for Transportation Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for integrated polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems and fuel cell stacks operating on direct hydrogen for transportation applications.

  6. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O'Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  7. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-04-01

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R&D issues.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed, as am the major R D issues.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  10. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  11. Evaluation of FSV-1 cask for the transport of LWR irradiated fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The Model FSV-1 spent fuel shipping cask was designed by General Atomic Company (GA) to service the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) nuclear generating station, a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). This report presents an evaluation of the suitability of the FSV-1 cask for the transport of irradiated Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies from both Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). The FSV-1 cask evaluation parameters covered a wide spectrum of LWR fuel assemblies, based on burnup in Megawatt Days/Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MWD/MTHM) and years of decay since irradiation. The criteria for suitability included allowable radiation dose rates, cask surface and interior temperatures and the Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) of the complete shipping system.

  12. Ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate, a new component of the transportation renewable fuel portfolio

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bunce, Michael P.; Storey, John M. E.; Edmonds, Jennifer W.; Findlay, Robert H.; Ritchie, Stephen M. C.; Eyers, Laurent; McMurry, Zackery A.; Smoot, James C.

    2015-12-01

    The vast majority of energy that powers our global economy is from combustion of fossil fuels with the unintended consequence of increased deposition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and oceans. The scientific and technical challenges for the energy sector are to develop renewable energy sources that are sufficient to meet human energy consumption, are economically viable, and are ecologically sustainable. We investigated ethyl 3-ethoxybutyrate (EEB) as a fuel oxygenate in ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) with a bench-scale research engine and determined its economic potential as a renewable fuel with technoeconomic modeling using wastewater treatment plant biosolids as themore » feedstock for poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHB), a bacterial storage polymer from which EEB can be synthesized. EEB blended well with ULSD, and cetane values of 10% and 20% v/v EEB-ULSD blends exceeded 40. A diesel internal combustion engine fueled with 5%, 10%, and 20% EEB-ULSD blends met or exceeded all tested transportation diesel fuel emissions criteria. Inedible organic feedstocks may be used to produce PHB; and thus, EEB might contribute to carbon reductions without compromising performance or air pollutant emissions. However, further research is needed to determine its role in the overall fuel portfolio. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.« less

  13. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Wenbin

    2015-02-05

    This report documents the work performed by General Motors (GM) under the Cooperative agreement No. DE-EE0000470, “Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance,” in collaboration with the Penn State University (PSU), University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), and University of Rochester (UR) via subcontracts. The overall objectives of the project are to investigate and synthesize fundamental understanding of transport phenomena at both the macro- and micro-scales for the development of a down-the-channel model that accounts for all transport domains in a broad operating space. GM as a prime contractor focused on cell level experiments and modeling, and the Universities as subcontractors worked toward fundamental understanding of each component and associated interface.

  14. Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel: Benefits, Challenges, and Implementation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-07-01

    Presentation for the Clean Cities Website highlighting the benefits, challenges, and implementation considerations when utilizing natural gas as a transportation fuel.

  15. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  16. Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  17. Model Year 2014 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  18. Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  19. Model Year 2007 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  20. Model Year 2010 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-10-14

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  1. Model Year 2009 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  2. Model Year 2005 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  3. Model Year 2008 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  4. Model Year 2006 Fuel Economy Guide: EPA Fuel Economy Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-11-01

    The Fuel Economy Guide is published by the U.S. Department of Energy as an aid to consumers considering the purchase of a new vehicle. The Guide lists estimates of miles per gallon (mpg) for each vehicle available for the new model year. These estimates are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in compliance with Federal Law. By using this Guide, consumers can estimate the average yearly fuel cost for any vehicle. The Guide is intended to help consumers compare the fuel economy of similarly sized cars, light duty trucks and special purpose vehicles. The vehicles listed have been divided into three classes of cars, three classes of light duty trucks, and three classes of special purpose vehicles.

  5. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  6. Atomistic Simulations of Mass and Thermal Transport in Oxide Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders D.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Du, Shiyu; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Nerikar, Pankaj; Stanek, Christopher R.; Tonks, Michael; Millet, Paul; Biner, Bulent

    2012-06-04

    In this talk we discuss simulations of the mass and thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. Redistribution of fission gases such as Xe is closely coupled to nuclear fuel performance. Most fission gases have low solubility in the fuel matrix, specifically the insolubility is most pronounced for large fission gas atoms such as Xe, and as a result there is a significant driving force for segregation of gas atoms to grain boundaries or dislocations and subsequently for nucleation of gas bubbles at these sinks. The first step of the fission gas redistribution is diffusion of individual gas atoms through the fuel matrix to existing sinks, which is governed by the activation energy for bulk diffusion. Fission gas bubbles are then formed by either separate nucleation events or by filling voids that were nucleated at a prior stage; in both cases their formation and latter growth is coupled to vacancy dynamics and thus linked to the production of vacancies via irradiation or thermal events. In order to better understand bulk Xe behavior (diffusion mechanisms) in UO{sub 2{+-}x} we first calculate the relevant activation energies using density functional theory (DFT) techniques. By analyzing a combination of Xe solution thermodynamics, migration barriers and the interaction of dissolved Xe atoms with U, we demonstrate that Xe diffusion predominantly occurs via a vacancy-mediated mechanism, though other alternatives may exist in high irradiation fields. Since Xe transport is closely related to diffusion of U vacancies, we have also studied the activation energy for this process. In order to explain the low value of 2.4 eV found for U migration from independent damage experiments (not thermal equilibrium) the presence of vacancy clusters must be included in the analysis. Next a continuum transport model for Xe and U is formulated based on the diffusion mechanisms established from DFT. After combining this model with descriptions of the interaction between Xe and grain

  7. VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: VISION Model for Vehicle Technologies and Alternative Fuels...

  8. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Authors: Talou, Patrick 1 + ...

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More September 4, 2014 - ...

  10. Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale modeling of fuel restructuring. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dingreville, Remi...

  11. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New ...

  12. Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theory, modeling and evaluations for the fuel cycle You are accessing a ...

  13. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  14. NREL - Advanced Vehicles and Fuels Basics - Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems 2010

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    We can improve the fuel economy of our cars, trucks, and buses by designing them to use the energy in fuels more efficiently. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are helping the nation achieve these goals by developing transportation technologies like: advanced vehicle systems and components; alternative fuels; as well as fuel cells, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid vehicles. For a text version of this video visit http://www.nrel.gov/learning/advanced_vehicles_fuels.html

  15. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UM,SUKKEE; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

    2000-02-11

    A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The numerical model is validated against published experimental data with good agreement. Subsequently, the model is applied to explore hydrogen dilution effects in the anode feed. The predicted polarization cubes under hydrogen dilution conditions are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent experiments reported in the literature. The detailed two-dimensional electrochemical and flow/transport simulations further reveal that in the presence of hydrogen dilution in the fuel stream, hydrogen is depleted at the reaction surface resulting in substantial kinetic polarization and hence a lower current density that is limited by hydrogen transport from the fuel stream to the reaction site.

  16. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  17. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2005-07-01

    Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the ninth quarter of work performed under this agreement. The design of the vessel for pressure testing has been completed. The design will be finalized and purchased in the next quarter.

  18. Fuel Conditioning Facility Electrorefiner Process Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeeEarl Vaden

    2005-10-01

    The Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II using electro-metallurgical treatment. To process fuel without waiting for periodic sample analyses to assess process conditions, an electrorefiner process model predicts the composition of the electrorefiner inventory and effluent streams. For the chemical equilibrium portion of the model, the two common methods for solving chemical equilibrium problems, stoichiometric and non stoichiometric, were investigated. In conclusion, the stoichiometric method produced equilibrium compositions close to the measured results whereas the non stoichiometric method did not.

  19. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident This Transportation Emergency...

  20. Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1995-11-01

    A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

  1. A Life-Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Life Cycle Assessment Comparing Select Gas-to-Liquid Fuels with Conventional Fuels in the Transportation Sector Robert E. Abbott, Ph.D. ConocoPhillips Paul Worhach, Ph.D. Nexant Corporation Diesel Engines Emission Reduction Conference Loews Coronado Bay Resort Coronado, CA August 29 - September 2, 2004 Study Purpose * Evaluate GTL energy use and emissions in comparison to alternative fuel production processes and end-uses * Education and communication with peers and stakeholders * Assess and

  2. Regulatory Perspective on Potential Fuel Reconfiguration and Its Implication to High Burnup Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation - 13042

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhian; Rahimi, Meraj; Tang, David; Aissa, Mourad; Flaganan, Michelle; Wagner, John C.

    2013-07-01

    The recent experiments conducted by Argonne National Laboratory on high burnup fuel cladding material property show that the ductile to brittle transition temperature of high burnup fuel cladding is dependent on: (1) cladding material, (2) irradiation conditions, and (3) drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature) [1]. The experiment results also show that the ductile to brittle temperature increases as the fuel burnup increases. These results indicate that the current knowledge in cladding material property is insufficient to determine the structural performance of the cladding of high burnup fuel after it has been stored in a dry cask storage system for some time. The uncertainties in material property and the elevated ductile to brittle transition temperature impose a challenge to the storage cask and transportation packaging designs because the cask designs may not be able to rely on the structural integrity of the fuel assembly for control of fissile material, radiation source, and decay heat source distributions. The fuel may reconfigure during further storage and/or the subsequent transportation conditions. In addition, the fraction of radioactive materials available for release from spent fuel under normal condition of storage and transport may also change. The spent fuel storage and/or transportation packaging vendors, spent fuel shippers, and the regulator may need to consider this possible fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the packages' ability to meet the safety requirements of Part 72 and Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is working with the scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the impact of fuel reconfiguration on the safety of the dry storage systems and transportation packages. The NRC Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation has formed a task force to work on the safety and regulatory concerns in relevance to high burnup

  3. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  4. Alternative Fuels Used in Transportation: Science Projects in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are making their ways to the market. These alternative fuels include such things as propane, natural gas, electric hybrids, hydrogen fuel cells, and biodiesel. Students will...

  5. NREL: Transportation Research - Co-Optimization of Fuels and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo of silver sedan in front of silver fuel pump. Co-Optima is simultaneously transforming vehicle fuels and engines to maximize performance and energy efficiency. NREL is ...

  6. Testing of a Transport Cask for Research Reactor Spent Fuel - 13003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Leite da Silva, Luiz; Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel; Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O.; Novara, Oscar E.

    2013-07-01

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries that operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the TRIGA and MTR reactors operated in the region. A main drive in this initiative, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the fact that no definite solution regarding the back end of the research reactor fuel cycle has been taken by any of the participating country. However, any long-term solution - either disposition in a repository or storage away from reactor - will involve at some stage the transportation of the spent fuel through public roads. Therefore, a licensed cask that provides adequate shielding, assurance of subcriticality, and conformance to internationally accepted safety, security and safeguards regimes is considered a strategic part of any future solution to be adopted at a regional level. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel for MTR and TRIGA research reactors was designed by the tri-national team and a half-scale model equipped with the MTR version of the internal basket was constructed in Argentina and Brazil and tested in Brazil. Three test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. After failing the tests in the first two test series, the specimen successfully underwent the last test sequence. A second specimen, incorporating the structural improvements in view of the previous tests results, will be tested in the near future. Numerical simulations of the free drop and thermal tests are being carried out in parallel, in order to validate the computational modeling that is going to be used as a support for the package certification. (authors)

  7. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  8. Full-Scale Accident Testing in Support of Used Nuclear Fuel Transportation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Lindgren, Eric R.; Rechard, Rob P.; Sorenson, Ken B.

    2014-09-01

    The safe transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste is an important aspect of the waste management system of the United States. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently certifies spent nuclear fuel rail cask designs based primarily on numerical modeling of hypothetical accident conditions augmented with some small scale testing. However, NRC initiated a Package Performance Study (PPS) in 2001 to examine the response of full-scale rail casks in extreme transportation accidents. The objectives of PPS were to demonstrate the safety of transportation casks and to provide high-fidelity data for validating the modeling. Although work on the PPS eventually stopped, the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future recommended in 2012 that the test plans be re-examined. This recommendation was in recognition of substantial public feedback calling for a full-scale severe accident test of a rail cask to verify evaluations by NRC, which find that risk from the transport of spent fuel in certified casks is extremely low. This report, which serves as the re-assessment, provides a summary of the history of the PPS planning, identifies the objectives and technical issues that drove the scope of the PPS, and presents a possible path for moving forward in planning to conduct a full-scale cask test. Because full-scale testing is expensive, the value of such testing on public perceptions and public acceptance is important. Consequently, the path forward starts with a public perception component followed by two additional components: accident simulation and first responder training. The proposed path forward presents a series of study options with several points where the package performance study could be redirected if warranted.

  9. MODELING ASSUMPTIONS FOR THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR FRESH FUEL SHIPPING CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick J. Migliore

    2009-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor Fresh Fuel Shipping Container (ATR FFSC) is currently licensed per 10 CFR 71 to transport a fresh fuel element for either the Advanced Test Reactor, the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II). During the licensing process, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) raised a number of issues relating to the criticality analysis, namely (1) lack of a tolerance study on the fuel and packaging, (2) moderation conditions during normal conditions of transport (NCT), (3) treatment of minor hydrogenous packaging materials, and (4) treatment of potential fuel damage under hypothetical accident conditions (HAC). These concerns were adequately addressed by modifying the criticality analysis. A tolerance study was added for both the packaging and fuel elements, full-moderation was included in the NCT models, minor hydrogenous packaging materials were included, and fuel element damage was considered for the MURR and MITR-II fuel types.

  10. Life-cycle assessment of corn-based butanol as a potential transportation fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Liu, J.; Huo, H.; Energy Systems

    2007-12-31

    Butanol produced from bio-sources (such as corn) could have attractive properties as a transportation fuel. Production of butanol through a fermentation process called acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been the focus of increasing research and development efforts. Advances in ABE process development in recent years have led to drastic increases in ABE productivity and yields, making butanol production worthy of evaluation for use in motor vehicles. Consequently, chemical/fuel industries have announced their intention to produce butanol from bio-based materials. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential life-cycle energy and emission effects associated with using bio-butanol as a transportation fuel. The study employs a well-to-wheels analysis tool--the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory--and the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} model developed by AspenTech. The study describes the butanol production from corn, including grain processing, fermentation, gas stripping, distillation, and adsorption for products separation. The Aspen{reg_sign} results that we obtained for the corn-to-butanol production process provide the basis for GREET modeling to estimate life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. The GREET model was expanded to simulate the bio-butanol life cycle, from agricultural chemical production to butanol use in motor vehicles. We then compared the results for bio-butanol with those of conventional gasoline. We also analyzed the bio-acetone that is coproduced with bio-butanol as an alternative to petroleum-based acetone. Our study shows that, while the use of corn-based butanol achieves energy benefits and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, the results are affected by the methods used to treat the acetone that is co-produced in butanol plants.

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions and Fuel Economy Analysis Photo of a man hooking up test instruments to an engine mounted on an engine dynamometer. An NREL engineer maintains an engine fuel economy and emissions test stand at the ReFUEL Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's emissions and fuel economy testing and analysis projects help address greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions by advancing the development of new fuels and engines that deliver both high efficiency and reduced emissions. Emissions that

  12. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A.

    1991-11-01

    This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

  14. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation: Assessment of hydrogen storage technologies. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report documents a portion of the work performed Multi-fuel Reformers for Fuel Cells Used in Transportation. One objective for development is to develop advanced fuel processing systems to reform methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons into hydrogen for use in transportation fuel cell systems, while a second objective is to develop better systems for on-board hydrogen storage. This report examines techniques and technology available for storage of pure hydrogen on board a vehicle as pure hydrogen of hydrides. The report focuses separately on near- and far-term technologies, with particular emphasis on the former. Development of lighter, more compact near-term storage systems is recommended to enhance competitiveness and simplify fuel cell design. The far-term storage technologies require substantial applied research in order to become serious contenders.

  15. Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the U.S.

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation L. Bromberg and W.K. Cheng Prepared by the Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 September 27, 2010 Finalized November 2, 2010 Revised November 28, 2010 Final report UT-Battelle Subcontract Number:4000096701 1 Abstract Methanol has been promoted as an alternative transportation fuel from time to time over the past forty years. In

  16. Uranium Transport in a High-Throughput Electrorefiner for EBR-II Blanket Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.; Vaden, DeeEarl

    2004-01-15

    A unique high-throughput Mk-V electrorefiner is being used in the electrometallurgical treatment of the metallic sodium-bonded blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II. Over many cycles, it transports uranium back and forth between the anodic fuel dissolution baskets and the cathode tubes until, because of imperfect adherence of the dendrites, it all ends up in the product collector at the bottom. The transport behavior of uranium in the high-throughput electrorefiner can be understood in terms of the sticking coefficients for uranium adherence to the cathode tubes in the forward direction and to the dissolution baskets in the reverse direction. The sticking coefficients are inferred from the experimental voltage and current traces and are correlated in terms of a single parameter representing the ratio of the cell current to the limiting current at the surface acting as the cathode. The correlations are incorporated into an engineering model that calculates the transport of uranium in the different modes of operation. The model also uses the experimentally derived electrorefiner operating maps that describe the relationship between the cell voltage and the cell current for the three principal transport modes. It is shown that the model correctly simulates the cycle-to-cycle variation of the voltage and current profiles. The model is used to conduct a parametric study of electrorefiner throughput rate as a function of the principal operating parameters. The throughput rate is found to improve with lowering of the basket rotation speed, reduction of UCl{sub 3} concentration in salt, and increasing the maximum cell current or cut-off voltage. Operating conditions are identified that can improve the throughput rate by 60 to 70% over that achieved at present.

  17. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  18. FY 2012 USED FUEL DISPOSITION CAMPAIGN TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON INL EFFORTS SUPPORTING THE MODERATOR EXCLUSION CONCEPT AND STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. K. Morton

    2012-08-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for a longer time period than initially assumed. Previous transportation task work in FY 2011, under the Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Used Fuel Disposition Campaign, proposed an alternative for safely transporting used fuel regardless of the structural integrity of the used fuel, baskets, poisons, or storage canisters after an extended period of storage. This alternative assures criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). By relying upon a component inside of the transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal or hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. This Transportation Task report addresses the assigned FY 2012 work that supports the proposed moderator exclusion concept as well as a standardized transportation system. The two tasks assigned were to (1) promote the proposed moderator exclusion concept to both regulatory and nuclear industry audiences and (2) advance specific technical issues in order to improve American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 3 rules for storage and transportation containments. The common point behind both of the assigned tasks is to provide more options that can be used to resolve current issues being debated regarding the future transportation of used fuel after extended storage.

  19. Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This report addresses Task 1.1, model development and application, and Task 1.2, vehicle mission definition. Overall intent is to produce a methanol-fueled 10-kW power source, and to evaluate electrochemical engine (ECE) use in transportation. Major achievements include development of an ECE power source model and its integration into a comprehensive power source/electric vehicle propulsion model, establishment of candidate FCV (fuel cell powered electric vehicle) mission requirements, initial FCV studies, and a candidate FCV recommendation for further study.

  20. The dieselization of America: An integrated strategy for future transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Diesel Cycle engine has already established itself as the engine-of-choice for the heavy duty transport industry because of its fuel efficiency, durability, and reliability. In addition, it has also been shown to be capable of using alternative fuels, albeit at efficiencies lower than that achieved with petroleum-derived diesel fuel. Alternative fuel dedicated engines have not made significant penetration of the heavy duty truck market because truck fleet operators need a cost-competitive fuel and reliable supply and fueling infrastructure. In lieu of forcing diverse fuels from many diverse domestic feedstocks onto the end-users, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies envisions that a future fuels strategy for the heavy duty transport sector is one where the diverse feedstocks are utilized to provide a single fuel specification (dispensed from the existing fueling infrastructure) that would run efficiently in a single high efficiency energy conversion device, the Diesel Cycle engine. In so doing, the US Commercial transport industry may gain a measure of security from the rapid fuel price increases by relying less on a single feedstock source to meet its increasing fuel requirements.

  1. REDUCING ULTRA-CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FUEL COSTS WITH HYMELT HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2005-01-01

    This report describes activities for the seventh quarter of work performed under this agreement. We await approval from the Swedish pressure vessel board to allow us to proceed with the procurement of the vessel for super atmospheric testing. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consists of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream will be gasified. DOE and EnviRes will evaluate the results of this work to determine the feasibility and desirability of proceeding to Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, which is gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  2. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  5. On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01

    Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

  6. Driving it home: choosing the right path for fueling North America's transportation future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann Bordetsky; Susan Casey-Lefkowitz; Deron Lovaas; Elizabeth Martin-Perera; Melanie Nakagawa; Bob Randall; Dan Woynillowicz

    2007-06-15

    North America faces an energy crossroads. With the world fast approaching the end of cheap, plentiful conventional oil, we must choose between developing ever-dirtier sources of fossil fuels -- at great cost to our health and environment -- or setting a course for a more sustainable energy future of clean, renewable fuels. This report explores the full scale of the damage done by attempts to extract oil from liquid coal, oil shale, and tar sands; examines the risks for investors of gambling on these dirty fuel sources; and lays out solutions for guiding us toward a cleaner fuel future. Table of contents: Executive Summary; Chapter 1: Transportation Fuel at a Crossroads; Chapter 2: Canadian Tar Sands: Scraping the Bottom of the Barrel in Endangered Forests; Chapter 3: Oil Shale Extraction: Drilling Through the American West; Chapter 4: Liquid Coal: A 'Clean Fuel' Mirage; Chapter 5: The Investment Landscape: Dirty Fuels Are Risky Business; Chapter 6: The Clean Path for Transportation and Conclusion.

  7. Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Response to the Caldecott Tunnel Fire Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Cuta, Judith M.

    2007-01-01

    On April 7, 1982, a tank truck and trailer carrying 8,800 gallons of gasoline was involved in an accident in the Caldecott tunnel on State Route 24 near Oakland, California. The tank trailer overturned and subsequently caught fire. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook analyses to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by truck. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was used to determine the thermal environment in the Caldecott tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used to define boundary conditions for a thermal transient model of a truck transport cask containing spent nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Assurance Corporation (NAC) Legal Weight Truck (LWT) transportation cask was selected for this evaluation, as it represents a typical truck (over-the-road) cask, and can be used to transport a wide variety of spent nuclear fuels. Detailed analysis of the cask response to the fire was performed using the ANSYS® computer code to evaluate the thermal performance of the cask design in this fire scenario. This report describes the methods and approach used to assess the thermal response of the selected cask design to the conditions predicted in the Caldecott tunnel fire. The results of the analysis are presented in detail, with an evaluation of the cask response to the fire. The staff concluded that some components of smaller transportation casks resembling the NAC LWT, despite placement within an ISO container, could degrade significantly. Small transportation casks similar to the NAC LWT would probably experience failure of seals in this severe accident scenario. USNRC staff evaluated the radiological consequences of the cask response to the Caldecott tunnel fire. Although some

  8. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, Harold; Geelhood, Ken; Koeppel, Brian; Coleman, Justin; Bignell, John; Flores, Gregg; Wang, Jy-An; Sanborn, Scott; Spears, Robert; Klymyshyn, Nick

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  9. Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Power Generation from Fuel Cells with Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Hydrogen Demand for the Transportation Sector Sector Fred Joseck U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop (TSPI) Transportation

  10. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  11. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

  12. Advances in HTGR fuel performance models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stansfield, O.M.; Goodin, D.T.; Hanson, D.L.; Turner, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Fuel performance models based on empirical evidence are used to predict particle failure and fission product release in the design of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Advances in HTGR fuel performance models have improved the agreement between observed and predicted performance and contributed to an enhanced position of the HTGR with regard to investment risk and passive safety. Heavy metal contamination is the source of about 55% of the circulating activity in the HTGR during normal operation, and the remainder comes primarily from particles which failed because of defective or missing buffer coatings. These failed particles make up about 5 x 10/sup -4/ fraction of the total core inventory. In addition to prediction of fuel performance during normal operation, the models are used to determine fuel failure and fission product release during core heat-up accident conditions. The mechanistic nature of the models, which incorporate all important failure modes, permits the prediction of performance from the relatively modest accident temperatures of a passively safe HTGR to the much more severe accident conditions of the larger 2240-MW(t) HTGR.

  13. Production and Optimization of Direct Coal Liquefaction derived Low Carbon-Footprint Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Markovich

    2010-06-30

    This report summarizes works conducted under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-05NT42448. The work scope was divided into two categories - (a) experimental program to pretreat and refine a coal derived syncrude sample to meet transportation fuels requirements; (b) system analysis of a commercial scale direct coal liquefaction facility. The coal syncrude was derived from a bituminous coal by Headwaters CTL, while the refining study was carried out under a subcontract to Axens North America. The system analysis included H{sub 2} production cost via six different options, conceptual process design, utilities requirements, CO{sub 2} emission and overall plant economy. As part of the system analysis, impact of various H{sub 2} production options was evaluated. For consistence the comparison was carried out using the DOE H2A model. However, assumptions in the model were updated using Headwaters database. Results of Tier 2 jet fuel specifications evaluation by the Fuels & Energy Branch, US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RZPF) located at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Ohio) are also discussed in this report.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Combustion and Engine Performance Photo of a gasoline direct injection piston with injector. NREL studies the effects of new fuel properties on performance and emissions in advanced engine technologies. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's combustion research and development bridges fundamental chemical kinetics and applied engine research to investigate how new engine technologies can be co-developed with fuels and lubricants to maximize energy-efficient vehicle performance. Through

  16. Review of Transportation Issues & Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the inter-regional transportation issues and associated costs for increased distribution of renewable fuels with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the standards.

  17. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro; Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  18. Fuel Cell System Cost for Transportation-2008 Cost Estimate (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Independent review prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) Program Manager.

  19. Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace056stewart2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter ...

  20. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report; Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2013/FY 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    Compliance rates for covered state government and alternative fuel provider fleets under the Alternative Fuel Transportation Program (pursuant to the Energy Policy Act or EPAct) are reported for MY 2013/FY 2014 in this publication.

  1. Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Micro- and Macro-Scale Transport Investigation of Micro and Macro Scale Transport Processes for Improved Fuel Cell Performance 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Jon O Owej jan (PI) ( ) General Motors Electrochemical Energy Research Lab September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information * arriers addressed - Overview Timeline Project start date: June 2010 Project start date: June 2010 *

  2. Heavy-Duty Trucks Poised to Accelerate Growth of American Alternative Transportation Fuels Market

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Background Since 1988, federal and state legislation has mandated the adoption of alternative transportation fuels, primarily because of environmental and energy security concerns. Recently, however, much of the alternative fuels activity has shifted. With the electoral revolution of 1992, Congress is rethinking environmental regulation and cutting federal appro- priations for alternative fueled vehi- cles (AFVs). The U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency (EPA) may delay implementation of

  3. TN-68 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop-impact event onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC certified transportation casks, the TN-68 [3], for drop-impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the cask body and the closure lid, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop-impact event. Analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified TN-68 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop-impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the lid surfaces may occur under some conditions, the seals would close at the end of the drop events, because the materials remain elastic during the duration of the event.

  4. Development of fuel processors for transportation and stationary fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, W.L.; Bentley, J.M.; Thijssen, J.H.J.

    1996-12-31

    Five years of development effort at Arthur D. Little have resulted in a family of low-cost, small-scale fuel processor designs which have been optimized for multiple fuels, applications, and fuel cell technologies. The development activities discussed in this paper involve Arthur D. Little`s proprietary catalytic partial oxidation fuel processor technology. This technology is inherently compact and fuel-flexible, and has been shown to have system efficiencies comparable to steam reformers when integrated properly with a wide range of fuel cell types.

  5. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 42 ENGINEERING; BERYLLIUM; BURNUP; DEPLETED URANIUM; ... SALTS; NEUTRONS; NUCLEAR ENERGY; OPTIMIZATION; PRESSURE VESSELS; SIMULATION; ...

  6. Air pollution transport modeling. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paal, D.M.

    1993-12-01

    This research effort addresses modeling of the transportation of air pollution in the atmosphere and the numerical analysis of the partial differential equations used in such modeling. Three Gaussian models are examined and compared using example problems. Several finite difference schemes are developed to solve the partial differential equations used in air pollution transport modeling. This study examines three Gaussian models: SCREEN, AFTOX, and the program GAUSPLUM. The model GAUSPLUM is developed in this study and uses the Ada programming language and the analytic solution to the advection-diffusion equation. Numerical analysis of the partial differential equations (PDE) used in air pollution modeling is also examined. The equations are generally parabolic or hyperbolic PDE's. The following are examined in this research: the advection equation; the one-, two-, and three-dimensional advection-diffusion equations; and the two-dimensional steady-state equation. Air Pollution Transport, Modeling, Finite Difference Scheme, Stability, Consistency, Convergence, Advection-Diffusion Equations.

  7. The low-temperature partial oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Argonne`s partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) is a compact, lightweight, rapid-start, and dynamically responsive device to convert liquid fuels to H{sub 2} for use in automotive fuel cells. An APOR catalyst for methanol has been developed and tested; catalysts for other fuels are being evaluated. Simple in design, operation, and control, the APOR can help develop efficient fuel cell propulsion systems.

  8. Assessment of costs and benefits of flexible and alternative fuel use in the US transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The DOE is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis of a flexible-fuel transportation system in the United States -- that is, a system that could easily switch between petroleum and another fuel, depending on price and availability. The DOE Alternative Fuels Assessment is aimed directly at questions of energy security and fuel availability, but covers a wide range of issues. This report examines environmental, health, and safety concerns associated with a switch to alternative- and flexible-fuel vehicles. Three potential alternatives to oil-based fuels in the transportation sector are considered: methanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and electricity. The objective is to describe and discuss qualitatively potential environmental, health, and safety issues that would accompany widespread use of these three fuels. This report presents the results of exhaustive literature reviews; discussions with specialists in the vehicular and fuel-production industries and with Federal, State, and local officials; and recent information from in-use fleet tests. Each chapter deals with the end-use and process emissions of air pollutants, presenting an overview of the potential air pollution contribution of the fuel --relative to that of gasoline and diesel fuel -- in various applications. Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, ozone precursors, and carbon dioxide are emphasized. 67 refs., 6 figs. , 8 tabs.

  9. Hydrogen as a transportation fuel: Costs and benefits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.D.

    1996-03-01

    Hydrogen fuel and vehicles are assessed and compared to other alternative fuels and vehicles. The cost, efficiency, and emissions of hydrogen storage, delivery, and use in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) are estimated. Hydrogen made thermochemically from natural gas and electrolytically from a range of electricity mixes is examined. Hydrogen produced at central plants and delivered by truck is compared to hydrogen produced on-site at filling stations, fleet refueling centers, and residences. The impacts of hydrogen HEVs, fueled using these pathways, are compared to ultra-low emissions gasoline internal-combustion-engine vehicles (ICEVs), advanced battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), and HEVs using gasoline or natural gas.

  10. Vertical transport and sources in flux models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical transport in flux models in examined and shown to reproduce expected limits for densities and fluxes. Disparities with catalog distributions are derived and inverted to find the sources required to rectify them.

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL to Offer Fuel Cell Electric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Offer Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Ride and Drive at Sustainable Smart Home Opening on July 9 July 7, 2016 The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will showcase several ...

  12. RECENT TRENDS IN EMERGING TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    world s population do not have access to modern cooking fuel and depend on wood or dung ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND ...

  13. Fuel Cells for Transportation - Research and Development: Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Remarkable progress has been achieved in the development of proton-exchange-membrane(PEM) fuel cell technology since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a significant ...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transports Students in...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Regional Heavy-Duty LNG Fueling Station March 21, 2015 Photo of a street sweeper New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas March 7, 2015 Photo of a truck pulling into a CNG ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Pittsburgh Livery Company Transports...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... Regional Heavy-Duty LNG Fueling Station March 21, 2015 Photo of a street sweeper New Hampshire Fleet Revs up With Natural Gas March 7, 2015 Photo of a truck pulling into a CNG ...

  16. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  17. NREL: Transportation Research - NREL Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Automated Mobility District Study Predicts Fuel and Emissions Impact of Automated Mobility District January 21, 2016 With emerging technologies, travel behavior may shift from personal vehicles to automated transit systems. An NREL study shows that a campus-sized -- ranging from four to 10 square miles -- automated mobility district (AMD) has the potential to reduce fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by 4% to 14% depending on various operating and ridership factors.

  18. The Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration NEMS Transportation Demand Model Documentation Report 2005 25 manufacturing, and design advances. Manufacturing advances can generally be thought of as...

  19. The low-temperature partial-oxidation reforming of fuels for transportation fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-12-31

    Passenger cars powered by fuel cell propulsion systems with high efficiency offer superior fuel economy, very low to zero pollutant emissions, and the option to operate on alternative and/or renewable fuels. Although the fuel cell operates on hydrogen, a liquid fuel such as methanol or gasoline is more attractive for automotive use because of the convenience in handling and vehicle refueling. Such a liquid fuel must be dynamically converted (reformed) to hydrogen on board the vehicle in real time to meet fluctuating power demands. This paper describes the low-temperature Argonne partial-oxidation reformer (APOR) developed for this application. The APOR is a rapid-start, compact, lightweight, catalytic device that is efficient and dynamically responsive. The reformer is easily controlled by varying the feed rates of the fuel, water, and air to satisfy the rapidly changing system power demands during the vehicle`s driving cycle.

  20. Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    63 No. 8 * JOM 49 www.tms.org/jom.html Advanced Fuel Performance: Modeling and Simulation Light Water Reactor Fuel Performance: Current Status, Challenges, and Future High Fidelity Modeling K. Edsinger, C.R. Stanek, and B.D. Wirth How would you... ...describe the overall signifcance of this paper? This paper provides a concise description of the nuclear fuel used in pressurized water nuclear reactors and the most commonly observed fuel failure mechanisms. ...describe this work to a materials

  1. HI-STAR 100 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop impact event on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC-certified transportation casks, the HI-STAR 100 [3], for drop impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the “overpack” top flange and the closure plate, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop impact event. The term “overpack” refers to the cask that receives and contains a sealed multi-purpose canister (MPC) containing spent nuclear fuel. The analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified HI-STAR 100 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free-drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the closure plate surfaces may occur, the seals would

  2. Fuel cells for transportation: Status, opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, A.C.; Leonard, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues will become important drivers influencing technology in the years ahead. For example, air quality legislation and regulation - locally, regionally, and globally - will continue to play an increasing role in influencing decisions made in choosing a particular energy source. Health concerns related to ambient fine particles and the ongoing debate on global climate change and the need to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions are two examples of the nexus between energy and the environment. Additionally, as conventional sources of energy and petroleum become depleted and as political issues remain, desires for energy diversity and energy security will require a menu of technologies and fuels. It is recognized that many of the renewable and environmentally benign fuels and energy sources are expensive and that economics will play a key role in dictating which of these is going to be most successful. For example, generating hydrogen from wind or solar is expensive compared to conventional technologies and price competition is likely to be more intense in the area of electricity de-regulation. However, the cost of conventional fuels are also increasing because of a desire to clean them up or a desire to change their chemical and physical properties through partial oxidation or steam reforming. These additional treatments lead to increased costs so that the gap between the {open_quotes}clean{close_quotes} fuels and cleaning up conventional fuels becomes much narrower.

  3. Analysis of Performance of Selected AFC, ATF Fuels, and Lanthanide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2015-09-29

    We started to look at the performance of ATF concept in LWRs late in FY14 and finish our studies in FY15. The work has been presented in AFC review meetings, ICAPP and TOPFUEL conferences. The final version of the work is accepted for publication in Nuclear Engineering and Science Journal (NES). The copy of ICAPP and NES papers are attached separately to this document as our milestone deliverables. We made an important progress in the modeling of lanthanide transport in FY15. This work produced an ANS Winter Meeting paper and GLOBAL 2015 paper. GLOBAL 2015 paper is also attached as deliverable of FY15. The work on the lanthanide transport is preliminary. We are exploring other potential mechanisms, in addition to “liquid-like” diffusion mechanisms, proposed by Robert Mariani [1] before we analyze data that will be taken by Ohio State University. This year, we concentrate on developing diffusion kernels and principles of modeling. Next year, this work will continue and analyze the Ohio State data and develop approaches to solve multicomponent diffusion. In addition to three papers we attached to this report, we have done some research on coupling and the development of gas release model for metallic fuels in FY15. They are also preliminary in nature; therefore, we give the summary of what we found rather than an extended report that will be done in FY16.

  4. Boron-10 ABUNCL Models of Fuel Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of the General Electric Reuter-Stokes Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) active configuration model with fuel pins previously measured at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A comparison of the GE-ABUNCL simulations and simulations of 3He based UNCL-II active counter (the system for which the GE-ABUNCL was targeted to replace) with the same fuel pin assemblies is also provided.

  5. Hydrogen as a near-term transportation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, R.N.; Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Rambach, G.D.

    1995-06-29

    The health costs associated with urban air pollution are a growing problem faced by all societies. Automobiles burning gasoline and diesel contribute a great deal to this problem. The cost to the United States of imported oil is more than US$50 billion annually. Economic alternatives are being actively sought. Hydrogen fuel, used in an internal combustion engine optimized for maximum efficiency and as part of a hybrid-electric vehicle, will give excellent performance and range (>480 km) with emissions well below the ultra-low emission vehicle standards being required in California. These vehicles can also be manufactured without excessive cost. Hydrogen-fueled engines have demonstrated indicated efficiencies of more than 50% under lean operation. Combining engine and other component efficiencies, the overall vehicle efficiency should be about 40%, compared with 13% for a conventional vehicle in the urban driving cycle. The optimized engine-generator unit is the mechanical equivalent of the fuel cell but at a cost competitive with today`s engines. The increased efficiency of hybrid-electric vehicles now makes hydrogen fuel competitive with today`s conventional vehicles. Conservative analysis of the infrastructure options to support a transition to a hydrogen-fueled light-duty fleet indicates that hydrogen may be utilized at a total cost comparable to what US vehicle operators pay today. Both on-site production by electrolysis or reforming of natural gas and liquid hydrogen distribution offer the possibility of a smooth transition by taking advantage of existing low-cost, large-scale energy infrastructures. Eventually, renewable sources of electricity and scalable methods of making hydrogen will have lower costs than today. With a hybrid-electric propulsion system, the infrastructure to supply hydrogen and the vehicles to use it can be developed today and thus can be in place when fuel cells become economical for vehicle use.

  6. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zafred, P.R.; Dederer, J.T.; Gillett, J.E.; Basel, R.A.; Antenucci, A.B.

    1996-11-12

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas and pressurized fuel gas into modules containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel, and where there is a purge gas volume between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas through the purge gas volume to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transportable when the pressure vessel is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity. 11 figs.

  7. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Transportation Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) International Transportation model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  8. Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than a century, petroleum has been the lifeblood of our transportation system. In the United States alone, we use more than13 million barrels of oil each day to keep us on the...

  9. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  10. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Performance Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kandlikar, S.G.; Lu, Z.; Rao, N.; Sergi, J.; Rath, C.; Dade, C.; Trabold, T.; Owejan, J.; Gagliardo, J.; Allen, J.; Yassar, R.S.; Medici, E.; Herescu, A.

    2010-05-30

    mechanism. The breakdown and redevelopment of the water paths in GDLs lead to an intermittent water drainage behavior, which is characterized by dynamic capillary pressure and changing of breakthrough location. MPL was found to not only limit the number of water entry locations into the GDL (thus drastically reducing water saturation), but also stabilizes the water paths (or morphology). • Simultaneously visualized the water transport on cathode and anode channels of an operating fuel cell. It was found that under relatively dry hydrogen/air conditions at lower temperatures, the cathode channels display a similar flow pattern map to the ex-situ experiments under similar conditions. Liquid water on the anode side is more likely formed via condensation of water vapor which is transported through the anode GDL. • Investigated the water percolation through the GDL with pseudo-Hele-Shaw experiments and simulated the capillary-driven two-phase flow inside gas diffusion media, with the pore size distributions being modeled by using Weibull distribution functions. The effect of the inclusion of the microporous layer in the fuel cell assembly was explored numerically. • Developed and validated a simple, reliable computational tool for predicting liquid water transport in GDLs. • Developed a new method of determining the pore size distribution in GDL using scanning electron microscope (SEM) image processing, which allows for separate characterization of GDL wetting properties and pore size distribution. • Determined the effect of surface wettability and channel cross section and bend dihedral on liquid holdup in fuel cell flow channels. A major thrust of this research program has been the development of an optimal combination of materials, design features and cell operating conditions that achieve a water management strategy which facilitates fuel cell operation under freezing conditions. Based on our various findings, we have made the final recommendation relative to GDL

  11. Feasibility evaluation of fuel cells for selected heavy-duty transportation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, J.R.; Murray, H.S.

    1982-10-01

    A study of the feasibility of using fuel cell power plants for heavy duty transportation applications is performed. It is concluded that it will be feasible to use fuel cell technology projected as being available by 1995 to 2000 for powering 3000-hp freight locomotives and 6000-hp river boats. The fuel cell power plant is proposed as an alternative to the currently used diesel or diesel-electric system. Phosphoric acid and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells are determined to be the only applicable technologies in the desired time frame. Methanol, chemically reformed to produce hydrogen, is determined to be the most practical fuel for the applications considered. Feasibility is determined on the basis of weight and volume constraints, compatibility with existing propulsion components, and adequate performance relative to operational requirements. Simulation results show that performance goals are met and that overall energy consumption of heavy duty fuel cell power plants is lower than that of diesels for the same operating conditions. Overall energy consumption is substantially improved over diesel operation for locomotives. Operating cost comparisons are made using assumed diesel fuel and methanol costs. Development areas are identified to achieve the desired fuel cell capabilities. The required activities are in the areas of fuel cell electrode performance, catalyst development, fuel processing, controls, power conditioning, and system integration.

  12. A computerized coal-water slurry transportation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ljubicic, B.R.; Trostad, B.; Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.

    1995-12-01

    Coal-water fuel (CWF) technology has been developed to the point where full-scale commercialization is just a matter of gaining sufficient market confidence in the price stability of alternate fossil fuels. In order to generalize alternative fuel cost estimates for the desired combinations of processing and/or transportation, a great deal of flexibility is required owing to the understood lack of precision in many of the newly emerging coal technologies. Previously, decisions regarding the sequential and spatial arrangement of the various process steps were made strictly on the basis of experience, simplified analysis, and intuition. Over the last decade, computer modeling has progressed from empirically based correlation to that of intricate mechanistic analysis. Nomograms, charts, tables, and many simple rules of thumb have been made obsolete by the availability of complex computer models. Given the ability to view results graphically in real or near real time, the engineer can immediately verify, from a practical standpoint, whether the initial assumptions and inputs were indeed valid. If the feasibility of a project is being determined in the context of a lack of specific data, the ability to provide a dynamic software-based solution is crucial. Furthermore, the resulting model can be used to establish preliminary operating procedures, test control logic, and train plant/process operators. Presented in this paper is a computerized model capable of estimating the delivered cost of CWF. The model uses coal-specific values, process and transport requirements, terrain factors, and input costs to determine the final operating configuration, bill of materials, and, ultimately, the capital, operating, and unit costs.

  13. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  14. Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models Presented by the Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. at the bi-monthly informational call for the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program on December 16, 2009 ccat_hydrogen_ct.pdf (1.39 MB) More Documents & Publications Job Creation Analysis in the Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry State of the States: Fuel Cells in America 2011 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program

  15. Current Transportation Models Used in the Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-06

    A summary of various transportation models (VISION, TRUCK, GREET, Oil Peaking Model, Feebate Model, Oil Security Metrics Model, ORNL PHEV Choice Model: Version 1, PSAT, PSAT-PRO,

  16. Regulatory fire test requirements for plutonium air transport packages : JP-4 or JP-5 vs. JP-8 aviation fuel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Lopez, Carlos; Nicolette, Vernon F.

    2010-10-01

    For certification, packages used for the transportation of plutonium by air must survive the hypothetical thermal environment specified in 10CFR71.74(a)(5). This regulation specifies that 'the package must be exposed to luminous flames from a pool fire of JP-4 or JP-5 aviation fuel for a period of at least 60 minutes.' This regulation was developed when jet propellant (JP) 4 and 5 were the standard jet fuels. However, JP-4 and JP-5 currently are of limited availability in the United States of America. JP-4 is very hard to obtain as it is not used much anymore. JP-5 may be easier to get than JP-4, but only through a military supplier. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that readily-available JP-8 fuel is a possible substitute for the aforementioned certification test. Comparisons between the properties of the three fuels are given. Results from computer simulations that compared large JP-4 to JP-8 pool fires using Sandia's VULCAN fire model are shown and discussed. Additionally, the Container Analysis Fire (CAFE) code was used to compare the thermal response of a large calorimeter exposed to engulfing fires fueled by these three jet propellants. The paper then recommends JP-8 as an alternate fuel that complies with the thermal environment implied in 10CFR71.74.

  17. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District-- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

  18. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District -- Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority in San Jose, California.

  19. Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority and San Mateo County Transit District; Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2006-03-01

    Report provides preliminary results from an evaluation of prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California.

  20. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  1. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Produces Ethylene Via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels Ethylene is the most widely produced petrochemical feedstock in the world, and it currently is produced commercially only from fossil fuels, resulting in significant greenhouse gas emissions. But scientists at the National Renewable Energy Labora- tory (NREL) have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways

  2. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications: 2012 Update October 18, 2012 Prepared By: Brian D. James Andrew B. Spisak Revision 4 2 Sponsorship and Acknowledgements This research was conducted under Award Number DE-EE0005236 to the US Department of Energy. The authors wish to thank Dr. Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos and Mr. Jason Marcinkoski of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program

  3. Safety assessment of spent-fuel transportation in extreme environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Weber, J.P.; Newton, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of the health effects and/or consequences resulting from a malevolent attack on a spent fuel truck shipment in downtown New York City have been made. This estimate is based upon a measured quantity (0.78 +- 0.05 g) of respirable radioactive material released from a 1/4 scale event. A linear extrapolation from the 1/4 scale event to the generic full scale event has been made and an aerosolized release fraction (0.0023 percent) of the total heavy metal inventory of a three-PWR assembly truck cask has been calculated. Although scaling of the source term parameters is tentative at this point in the program, a full scale experiment is planned in 1981 to verify the scaling methodology used in these calculations. A preliminary correlation between spent fuel and surrogate fuel source terms has been shown to be feasible and that radionuclide size partitioning can be determined experimentally. Finally, it has been shown, based on our preliminary experimental source term data, that a maximum of 25 total latent cancer fatalities could occur, assuming a release in downtown New York City. This is 20 times smaller than the latent cancer fatalities predicted in the Urban Study.

  4. Magnesium transport extraction of transuranium elements from LWR fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, John P.; Battles, James E.; Johnson, Terry R.; Miller, William E.; Pierce, R. Dean

    1992-01-01

    A process of separating transuranium actinide values from uranium values present in spent nuclear oxide fuels which contain rare earth and noble metal fission products. The oxide fuel is reduced with Ca metal in the presence of CaCl.sub.2 and a U-Fe alloy containing not less than about 84% by weight uranium at a temperature in the range of from about 800.degree. C. to about 850.degree. C. to produce additional uranium metal which dissolves in the U-Fe alloy raising the uranium concentration and having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein. The CaCl.sub.2 having CaO and fission products of alkali metals and the alkali earth metals and iodine dissolved therein is separated and electrolytically treated with a carbon electrode to reduce the CaO to Ca metal while converting the carbon electrode to CO and CO.sub.2. The Ca metal and CaCl.sub.2 is recycled to reduce additional oxide fuel. The U-Fe alloy having transuranium actinide metals and rare earth fission product metals and the noble metal fission products dissolved therein is contacted with Mg metal which takes up the actinide and rare earth fission product metals. The U-Fe alloy retains the noble metal fission products and is stored while the Mg is distilled and recycled leaving the transuranium actinide and rare earth fission products isolated.

  5. Fuel Cells for Transportation: 2001 Annual Progress Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    CELLS FOR TRANSPORTATION 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Argonne National Laboratory for its artistic and technical contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to thank all our program participants for their contributions to the programs and all the authors

  6. Transportation costs for new fuel forms produced from low rank US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcombe, R.J.; McKelvey, D.G. ); Ruether, J.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Transportation costs are examined for four types of new fuel forms (solid, syncrude, methanol, and slurry) produced from low rank coals found in the lower 48 states of the USA. Nine low rank coal deposits are considered as possible feedstocks for mine mouth processing plants. Transportation modes analyzed include ship/barge, pipelines, rail, and truck. The largest potential market for the new fuel forms is coal-fired utility boilers without emission controls. Lowest cost routes from each of the nine source regions to supply this market are determined. 12 figs.

  7. Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation) Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held January 23-24, 2008 in Golden, Colorado. fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_jan08_waldecker.pdf (374.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - National Science Bowl Fact Sheet.doc Microsoft Word - National Science Bowl Fact Sheet.doc Summary of Input to DOE Request for Information DE-PS36-08GO38002 (Presentation)

  8. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The attachments contained within this appendix provide additional details about the model development and estimation process which do not easily lend themselves to incorporation in the main body of the model documentation report. The information provided in these attachments is not integral to the understanding of the model`s operation, but provides the reader with opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of some of the model`s underlying assumptions. There will be a slight degree of replication of materials found elsewhere in the documentation, made unavoidable by the dictates of internal consistency. Each attachment is associated with a specific component of the transportation model; the presentation follows the same sequence of modules employed in Volume 1. The following attachments are contained in Appendix F: Fuel Economy Model (FEM)--provides a discussion of the FEM vehicle demand and performance by size class models; Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Model--describes data input sources and extrapolation methodologies; Light-Duty Vehicle (LDV) Stock Model--discusses the fuel economy gap estimation methodology; Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Model--presents the data development for business, utility, and government fleet vehicles; Light Commercial Truck Model--describes the stratification methodology and data sources employed in estimating the stock and performance of LCT`s; Air Travel Demand Model--presents the derivation of the demographic index, used to modify estimates of personal travel demand; and Airborne Emissions Model--describes the derivation of emissions factors used to associate transportation measures to levels of airborne emissions of several pollutants.

  9. Model for assessing bronchial mucus transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, J.E.; Bateman, J.R.M.; Pavia, D.; Clarke, S.W.

    1984-02-01

    The authors propose a scheme for the assessment of regional mucus transport using inhaled Tc-99m aerosol particles and quantitative analysis of serial gamma-camera images. The model treats input to inner and intermediate lung regions as the total of initial deposition there plus subsequent transport into these regions from more peripheral airways. It allows for interregional differences in the proportion of particles deposited on the mucus-bearing conducting airways, and does not require a gamma image 24 hr after particle inhalation. Instead, distribution of particles reaching the respiratory bronchioles or alveoli is determined from a Kr-81m ventilation image, while the total amount of such deposition is obtained from 24-hr Tc-99m retention measured with a sensitive counter system. The model is applicable to transport by mucociliary action or by cough, and has been tested in ten normal and ten asthmatic subjects.

  10. Strategy for the Integration of Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel into the Existing Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure of the Interstate Clean Transportation Corridor Project: 22 April 2004--31 August 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladstein, Neandross and Associates

    2005-09-01

    Evaluates opportunities to integrate hydrogen into the fueling stations of the Interstate Clean Transportation Corridor--an existing network of LNG fueling stations in California and Nevada.

  11. The coupling of the neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE to the nuclear fuels performance application BISON under the MOOSE framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleicher, Frederick N.; Williamson, Richard L.; Ortensi, Javier; Wang, Yaqi; Spencer, Benjamin W.; Novascone, Stephen R.; Hales, Jason D.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2014-10-01

    The MOOSE neutron transport application RATTLESNAKE was coupled to the fuels performance application BISON to provide a higher fidelity tool for fuel performance simulation. This project is motivated by the desire to couple a high fidelity core analysis program (based on the self-adjoint angular flux equations) to a high fidelity fuel performance program, both of which can simulate on unstructured meshes. RATTLESNAKE solves self-adjoint angular flux transport equation and provides a sub-pin level resolution of the multigroup neutron flux with resonance treatment during burnup or a fast transient. BISON solves the coupled thermomechanical equations for the fuel on a sub-millimeter scale. Both applications are able to solve their respective systems on aligned and unaligned unstructured finite element meshes. The power density and local burnup was transferred from RATTLESNAKE to BISON with the MOOSE Multiapp transfer system. Multiple depletion cases were run with one-way data transfer from RATTLESNAKE to BISON. The eigenvalues are shown to agree well with values obtained from the lattice physics code DRAGON. The one-way data transfer of power density is shown to agree with the power density obtained from an internal Lassman-style model in BISON.

  12. Fuel-Neutral Studies of PM Transportation Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Mark L.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Howden, Ken

    2012-11-15

    New gasoline engine technologies such as Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI), Gasoline Direct Injection Compression Ignition (GDICI), and Reaction Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) offer the possibility of dramatically increasing the fuel efficiency of future vehicles. One drawback to these advanced engines is that they have the potential to produce higher levels of exhaust particulates than current Port Fuel Injection (PFI) engines. Regulation of engine particulate emissions in Europe is moving from mass-based standards toward number-based standards. Due to growing health concerns surrounding nano-aerosols, it is likely that similar standards will eventually be applied in the United States. This would place more emphasis on the reliable removal of smaller particles, which make up the vast majority of the particulates generated on a number basis. While Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have become standard, different filter systems would likely be required for advanced gasoline vehicles, due to factors such as differing particulate properties and higher exhaust temperatures. High exhaust temperatures can limit the accumulation of a soot cake, which performs most of the actual filtration in a typical DPF system.

  13. Dynamic Modeling in Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Controller Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Li, Qinghe; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-06-28

    In this paper, a dynamic model of the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power unit is developed for the purpose of designing a controller to regulate fuel flow rate, fuel temperature, air flow rate, and air temperature to maintain the SOFC stack temperature, fuel utilization rate, and voltage within operation limits. A lumped model is used to consider the thermal dynamics and the electro-chemial dynamics inside an SOFC power unit. The fluid dynamics at the fuel and air inlets are considered by using the in-flow ramp-rates.

  14. Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005. htmwg05_schiraldi.pdf (549.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes Processing-Performance Relationships for Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membrane

  15. Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC ...

  16. Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, and Models

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connecticut Fuel Cell Activities: Markets, Programs, & Models DOE State's Call - December ... Local, State and Federal Tax Revenue 16 16 Reducing Production Cost Economic Stimulus Plan ...

  17. Mesoscale Modeling of Fuel Swelling and Restructuring: Coupling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    evolution and Mechanical Localization. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Modeling of Fuel Swelling and Restructuring: Coupling Microstructure evolution and ...

  18. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Power Model for CHHP System Economics and Performance Analysis Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA renewablehydrogenworksho...

  19. Dose Rate Analysis Capability for Actual Spent Fuel Transportation Cask Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Lefebvre, Robert A; Peplow, Douglas E.; Williams, Mark L; Scaglione, John M

    2014-01-01

    The approved contents for a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensed spent nuclear fuel casks are typically based on bounding used nuclear fuel (UNF) characteristics. However, the contents of the UNF canisters currently in storage at independent spent fuel storage installations are considerably heterogeneous in terms of fuel assembly burnup, initial enrichment, decay time, cladding integrity, etc. Used Nuclear Fuel Storage, Transportation & Disposal Analysis Resource and Data System (UNF ST&DARDS) is an integrated data and analysis system that facilitates automated cask-specific safety analyses based on actual characteristics of the as-loaded UNF. The UNF-ST&DARDS analysis capabilities have been recently expanded to include dose rate analysis of as-loaded transportation packages. Realistic dose rate values based on actual canister contents may be used in place of bounding dose rate values to support development of repackaging operations procedures, evaluation of radiation-related transportation risks, and communication with stakeholders. This paper describes the UNF-ST&DARDS dose rate analysis methodology based on actual UNF canister contents and presents sample dose rate calculation results.

  20. Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR This ... IOPscience Modeling Heat Conduction and Radiation Transport with the Diffusion Equation in ...

  1. Model Recovery Procedure for Response to a Radiological Transportation Incident

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) Model Recovery Procedure contains the recommended elements for developing and conducting recovery planning at transportation incident scene...

  2. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  3. Water Transport Characteristics of Gas Diffusion Layer in a PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damle, Ashok S; Cole, J Vernon

    2008-11-01

    A presentation addressing the following: Water transport in PEM Fuel Cells - a DoE Project 1. Gas Diffusion Layer--Role and Characteristics 2. Capillary Pressure Determinations of GDL Media 3. Gas Permeability Measurements of GDL Media 4. Conclusions and Future Activities

  4. Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, W.H.

    1997-06-30

    This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

  5. Development of a fresh MOX fuel transport package for disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, S.B.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Chae, S.M.

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy announced its Record of Decision on January 14, 1997, to embark on a dual-track approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium using immobilization in glass or ceramics and burning plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in reactors. In support of the MOX fuel alternative, Oak Ridge National Laboratory initiated development of conceptual designs for a new package for transporting fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel assemblies between the MOX fabrication facility and existing commercial light-water reactors in the US. This paper summarizes progress made in development of new MOX transport package conceptual designs. The development effort has included documentation of programmatic and technical requirements for the new package and development and analysis of conceptual designs that satisfy these requirements.

  6. Model of U3Si2 Fuel System using BISON Fuel Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. E. Metzger; T. W. Knight; R. L. Williamson

    2014-04-01

    This research considers the proposed advanced fuel system: U3Si2 combined with an advanced cladding. U3Si2 has a number of advantageous thermophysical properties, which motivate its use as an accident tolerant fuel. This preliminary model evaluates the behavior of U3Si2 using available thermophysical data to predict the cladding-fuel pellet temperature and stress using the fuel performance code: BISON. The preliminary results obtained from the U3Si2 fuel model describe the mechanism of Pellet-Clad Mechanical Interaction for this system while more extensive testing including creep testing of U3Si2 is planned for improved understanding of thermophysical properties for predicting fuel performance.

  7. Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Models Help Pinpoint Material for Better Nuclear Fuel Recycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models Help Pinpoint Material for Better Nuclear Fuel Recycling Models Help Pinpoint Material for Better Nuclear Fuel Recycling Sifting 125,000 Candidates Yields Ideal Candidate for Xenon, Krypton Recovery June 13, 2016 Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, +1 510.486.5849 SBMOF-1 illlustration A new material, dubbed SBMOF-1 illustrated here, could be used to separate xenon and krypton gases from the waste produced in recycling spent nuclear fuels using less energy than conventional methods. The

  9. Development and validation of a two-phase, three-dimensional model for PEM fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To develop and validate a two-phase, three-dimensional transport modelfor simulating PEM fuel cell performance under a wide range of operating conditions; (2) To apply the validated PEM fuel cell model to improve fundamental understanding of key phenomena involved and to identify rate-limiting steps and develop recommendations for improvements so as to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell technology; (3) The validated PEMFC model can be employed to improve and optimize PEM fuel cell operation. Consequently, the project helps: (i) address the technical barriers on performance, cost, and durability; and (ii) achieve DOE's near-term technical targets on performance, cost, and durability in automotive and stationary applications.

  10. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and ...

  11. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  12. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  13. Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

  14. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  15. Formulation, Implementation and Validation of a Two-Fluid model in a Fuel Cell CFD Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunal Jain, Vernon Cole, Sanjiv Kumar and N. Vaidya

    2008-11-01

    Water management is one of the main challenges in PEM Fuel Cells. While water is essential for membrane electrical conductivity, excess liquid water leads to ooding of catalyst layers. Despite the fact that accurate prediction of two-phase transport is key for optimal water management, understanding of the two-phase transport in fuel cells is relatively poor. Wang et. al. [1], [2] have studied the two-phase transport in the channel and diffusion layer separately using a multiphase mixture model. The model fails to accurately predict saturation values for high humidity inlet streams. Nguyen et. al. [3] developed a two-dimensional, two-phase, isothermal, isobaric, steady state model of the catalyst and gas diffusion layers. The model neglects any liquid in the channel. Djilali et. al. [4] developed a three-dimensional two-phase multicomponent model. The model is an improvement over previous models, but neglects drag between the liquid and the gas phases in the channel. In this work, we present a comprehensive two- fluid model relevant to fuel cells. Models for two-phase transport through Channel, Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) and Channel-GDL interface, are discussed. In the channel, the gas and liquid pressures are assumed to be same. The surface tension effects in the channel are incorporated using the continuum surface force (CSF) model. The force at the surface is expressed as a volumetric body force and added as a source to the momentum equation. In the GDL, the gas and liquid are assumed to be at different pressures. The difference in the pressures (capillary pressure) is calculated using an empirical correlations. At the Channel-GDL interface, the wall adhesion affects need to be taken into account. SIMPLE-type methods recast the continuity equation into a pressure-correction equation, the solution of which then provides corrections for velocities and pressures. However, in the two-fluid model, the presence of two phasic continuity equations gives more freedom and

  16. Surrogate Model Development for Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Krishnasamy; Ra, youngchul; Reitz, Rolf; Bunting, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The fuels used in internal-combustion engines are complex mixtures of a multitude of different types of hydrocarbon species. Attempting numerical simulations of combustion of real fuels with all of the hydrocarbon species included is highly unrealistic. Thus, a surrogate model approach is generally adopted, which involves choosing a few representative hydrocarbon species whose overall behavior mimics the characteristics of the target fuel. The present study proposes surrogate models for the nine fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE) that have been developed for studying low-emission, high-efficiency advanced diesel engine concepts. The surrogate compositions for the fuels are arrived at by simulating their distillation profiles to within a maximum absolute error of 4% using a discrete multi-component (DMC) fuel model that has been incorporated in the multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, KIVA-ERC-CHEMKIN. The simulated surrogate compositions cover the range and measured concentrations of the various hydrocarbon classes present in the fuels. The fidelity of the surrogate fuel models is judged on the basis of matching their specific gravity, lower heating value, hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, cetane number, and cetane index with the measured data for all nine FACE fuels.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  18. Pedestal Fueling Simulations with a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.P. Stotler, C.S. Chang, S.H. Ku, J. Lang and G.Y. Park

    2012-08-29

    A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

  19. Standardized DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister and Transportation System for Shipping to the National Repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pincock, David Lynn; Morton, Dana Keith; Lengyel, Arpad Leslie

    2001-02-01

    The U.S.Department of Energys (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), has been chartered with the responsibility for developing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) standardized canisters and a transportation cask system for shipping DOE SNF to the national repository. The mandate for this development is outlined in the Memorandum of Agreement for Acceptance of Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste that states, EM shall design and fabricate DOE SNF canisters for shipment to RW. (1) It also states, EM shall be responsible for the design, NRC certification, and fabrication of the transportation cask system for DOE SNF canisters or bare DOE SNF in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71. (2) In fulfillment of these requirements, the NSNFP has developed four SNF standardized canister configurations and has conceptually designed a versatile transportation cask system for shipping the canisters to the national repository.1 The standardized canister sizes were derived from the national repository waste package design for co-disposal of SNF with high-level waste (HLW). One SNF canister can be placed in the center of the waste package or one can be placed in one of five radial positions, replacing a HLW canister. The internal cavity of the transportation cask was derived using the same logic, matching the size of the internal cavity of the waste package. The size of the internal cavity for the transportation cask allows the shipment of multiple canister configurations with the application of a removable basket design. The standardized canisters have been designed to be loaded with DOE SNF, placed into interim storage, shipped to the national repository, and placed in a waste package without having to be reopened. Significant testing has been completed that clearly demonstrates that the standardized canisters can safely achieve their intended design goals. The

  20. Polymer electrolyte direct methanol fuel cells: an option for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottesfeld, S.; Cleghorn, S.J.C.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.

    1996-10-01

    PEFCs most frequently considered for electric vehicles have been based on either hydrogen carried aboard, or steam-reforming of methanol on board to produce H2 + CO2. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), which use a liquid methanol fuel feed, completely avoid the complexity and weight penalties of the reformer, but have not been considered a serious option until recently, because of much lower power densities. Recent advances in DMFCs have been dramatic, however, with the DMFC reaching power densities which are significant fractions of those provided by reformate/air fuel cells. Use of established Pt-Ru anode electrocatalysts and Pt cathode electrocatalysts in polymer electrolyte DMFCs has resulted in enhanced DMFC performance, particularly when operated above 100 C and when catalyst layer composition and structure are optimized. The higher DMFC power densities recently achieved provide a new basis for considering DMFCs for transportation applications.

  1. Development and applications of GREET 2.7 -- The Transportation Vehicle-CycleModel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Wu, Y.

    2006-12-20

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a vehicle-cycle module for the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been cited extensively and contains data on fuel cycles and vehicle operations. The vehicle-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission effects associated with vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. With the addition of the vehicle-cycle module, the GREET model now provides a comprehensive, lifecycle-based approach to compare the energy use and emissions of conventional and advanced vehicle technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles). This report details the development and application of the GREET 2.7 model. The current model includes six vehicles--a conventional material and a lightweight material version of a mid-size passenger car with the following powertrain systems: internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, and fuel cell with hybrid configuration. The model calculates the energy use and emissions that are required for vehicle component production; battery production; fluid production and use; and vehicle assembly, disposal, and recycling. This report also presents vehicle-cycle modeling results. In order to put these results in a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle model (GREET 1.7) was used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle model (GREET 2.7) to estimate total energy-cycle results.

  2. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL

  3. NREL Produces Ethylene via Photosynthesis; Breakthrough Offers Cleaner Alternative for Transportation Fuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    NREL scientists have demonstrated a way to produce ethylene through photosynthesis, a breakthrough that could lead to more environmentally friendly ways to produce a variety of materials, chemicals, and transportation fuels. The scientists introduced a gene into a cyanobacterium and demonstrated that the organism remains stable through at least four generations, producing ethylene gas that can be easily captured. In the laboratory, the organism, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, produced 720 milligrams of ethylene per liter each day.

  4. Chevron and NREL to Collaborate on Research to Produce Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using Algae - News Releases | NREL Chevron and NREL to Collaborate on Research to Produce Transportation Fuels using Algae Joint effort to identify and develop algae strains for feedstock in next-generation biofuels October 31, 2007 Chevron Corporation (NYSE: CVX) and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) announced today that they have entered into a collaborative research and development agreement to study and advance technology to produce liquid

  5. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Connecticut Center for Advanced Technology, Inc. CCAT Energy Initiatives: Joel M. Rinebold 2 Strengths, Weaknesses, Barriers * Strengths - Value for Energy - Value for Environment - Value for Economy * Weaknesses - Lack of Planning and Analysis - Lack of Value Internalization * Barriers - Market Acceptance for D.G. - High Cost Due to Low Production - Predictable Investment 3 Hydrogen Roadmap

  6. Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Visualization of Fuel Cell Water Transport and Characterization under Freezing Conditions Project Sponsored by: Department of Energy Satish Kandlikar, RIT Thomas Trabold, GM Jeffrey Allen, MTU February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Water Management Issues, PEMFC Excessive Water -Block reaction sites -Saturate diffusion media -Clog gas channels Zhang et al., 2006. Yamada et al., 2006. Insufficient Water - Reduced Membrane proton

  7. Liquefied natural gas as a transportation fuel for heavy-duty trucks: Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This document contains Volume 1 of a three-volume manual designed for use with a 2- to 3-day liquefied natural gas (LNG) training course. Transportation and off-road agricultural, mining, construction, and industrial applications are discussed. This volume provides a brief introduction to the physics and chemistry of LNG; an overview of several ongoing LNG projects, economic considerations, LNG fuel station technology, LNG vehicles, and a summary of federal government programs that encourage conversion to LNG.

  8. Modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, R.; Ahluwalia, R.; Geyer, H.K.; Krumpelt, M.

    1993-09-01

    Propulsion systems based on the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) are being developed. This paper reports an analysis undertaken to design improved PEFC systems. A reference system design with some variants were set up for a methanol-fueled PEFC propulsion system. Efficiency improves from 38.4 to 44.1% as cell current density goes from 0.75 to 0.45 A/cm{sup 2}, while fuel cell efficiency increases from 52.6 to 60.0%; to get a net power output of 80 kWe, the active fuel cell area must increase from 18.8 to 27.3 m{sup 2}. Three parametric studies were conducted on the off-design performance of the reference system.

  9. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  10. Detailed chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes found in conventional and F-T diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J; Mehl, M

    2008-12-15

    Detailed chemical kinetic models are needed to simulate the combustion of current and future transportation fuels. These models should represent the various chemical classes in these fuels. Conventional diesel fuels are composed of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics (Farrell et al. 2007). For future fuels, there is a renewed interest in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) processes which can be used to synthesize diesel and other transportation fuels from biomass, coal and natural gas. F-T diesel fuels are expected to be similar to F-T jet fuels which are commonly comprised of iso-alkanes with some n-alkanes (Smith and Bruno, 2008). Thus, n-alkanes and iso-alkanes are common chemical classes in these conventional and future fuels. This paper reports on the development of chemical kinetic models of large n-alkanes and iso-alkanes to represent these chemical classes in conventional and future fuels. Two large iso-alkanes are 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is a primary reference fuel for diesel, and isooctane, a primary reference fuel for gasoline. Other iso-alkanes are branched alkanes with a single methyl side chain, typical of most F-T fuels. The chemical kinetic models are then used to predict the effect of these fuel components on ignition characteristics under conditions found in internal combustion engines.

  11. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  12. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  14. Response of a Spent Fuel Transportation Cask to a Tunnel Fire Event

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajwa, C. S.

    2003-02-25

    The staff of the Spent Fuel Project Office at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission undertook the investigation and thermal analysis of the Baltimore tunnel fire event. This event occurred in the Howard Street tunnel, in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 18, 2001. The staff was tasked with assessing the consequences of this event on the transportation of spent nuclear fuel. This paper describes the staff's coordination with the following government and laboratory organizations: the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), to determine the details of the train derailment and fire; the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), to quantify the thermal conditions within the tunnel; the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analysis (CNWRA), to validate the NIST evaluations, and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), to assist in the thermal analysis. The results of the staff's review and analysis efforts are also discussed. The staff has concluded that had the spent fuel transportation cask analyzed, a design approved under 10 CFR Part 71, been subjected to the Howard Street tunnel fire, no release of radioactive materials would have resulted from this postulated event, and the health and safety of the public would have been maintained.

  15. A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1998-10-02

    In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.

  16. Fuel cycle assessment: A compendium of models, methodologies, and approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to profile analytical tools and methods which could be used in a total fuel cycle analysis. The information in this document provides a significant step towards: (1) Characterizing the stages of the fuel cycle. (2) Identifying relevant impacts which can feasibly be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively. (3) Identifying and reviewing other activities that have been conducted to perform a fuel cycle assessment or some component thereof. (4) Reviewing the successes/deficiencies and opportunities/constraints of previous activities. (5) Identifying methods and modeling techniques/tools that are available, tested and could be used for a fuel cycle assessment.

  17. CONTAINMENT ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR TRANSPORT OF BREACHED CLAD ALUMINUM SPENT FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinson, D.

    2010-07-11

    Aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to the Savannah River Site and placed in interim storage in a water basin. To enter the United States, a cask with loaded fuel must be certified to comply with the requirements in the Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The requirements include demonstration of containment of the cask with its contents under normal and accident conditions. Many Al-SNF assemblies have suffered corrosion degradation in storage in poor quality water, and many of the fuel assemblies are 'failed' or have through-clad damage. A methodology was developed to evaluate containment of Al-SNF even with severe cladding breaches for transport in standard casks. The containment analysis methodology for Al-SNF is in accordance with the methodology provided in ANSI N14.5 and adopted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in NUREG/CR-6487 to meet the requirements of 10CFR71. The technical bases for the inputs and assumptions are specific to the attributes and characteristics of Al-SNF received from basin and dry storage systems and its subsequent performance under normal and postulated accident shipping conditions. The results of the calculations for a specific case of a cask loaded with breached fuel show that the fuel can be transported in standard shipping casks and maintained within the allowable release rates under normal and accident conditions. A sensitivity analysis has been conducted to evaluate the effects of modifying assumptions and to assess options for fuel at conditions that are not bounded by the present analysis. These options would include one or more of the following: reduce the fuel loading; increase fuel cooling time; reduce the degree of conservatism in the bounding assumptions; or measure the actual leak rate of the cask system. That is, containment analysis for alternative inputs at fuel-specific conditions and at cask

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Combustion Characteristics of Real Biodiesel Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naik, C V; Westbrook, C K

    2009-04-08

    Biodiesel fuels are of much interest today either for replacing or blending with conventional fuels for automotive applications. Predicting engine effects of using biodiesel fuel requires accurate understanding of the combustion characteristics of the fuel, which can be acquired through analysis using reliable detailed reaction mechanisms. Unlike gasoline or diesel that consists of hundreds of chemical compounds, biodiesel fuels contain only a limited number of compounds. Over 90% of the biodiesel fraction is composed of 5 unique long-chain C{sub 18} and C{sub 16} saturated and unsaturated methyl esters. This makes modeling of real biodiesel fuel possible without the need for a fuel surrogate. To this end, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed for determining the combustion characteristics of a pure biodiesel (B100) fuel, applicable from low- to high-temperature oxidation regimes. This model has been built based on reaction rate rules established in previous studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Computed results are compared with the few fundamental experimental data that exist for biodiesel fuel and its components. In addition, computed results have been compared with experimental data for other long-chain hydrocarbons that are similar in structure to the biodiesel components.

  19. Algae as a Feedstock for Transportation Fuels. The Future of Biofuels?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGill, Ralph

    2008-05-15

    Events in world energy markets over the past several years have prompted many new technical developments as well as political support for alternative transportation fuels, especially those that are renewable. We have seen dramatic rises in the demand for and production of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils. The quantities of these fuels being used continue to rise dramatically, and their use is helping to create a political climate for doing even more. But, the quantities are still far too small to stem the tide of rising crude prices worldwide. In fact, the use of some traditional crops (corn, sugar, soy, etc.) in making fuels instead of food is apparently beginning to impact the cost of food worldwide. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing alternative biofuel feedstocks for use in making fuels -- feedstocks that are not used in the food industries. Of course, we know that there is a lot of work in developing cellulosic-based ethanol that would be made from woody biomass. Process development is the critical path for this option, and the breakthrough in reducing the cost of the process has been elusive thus far. Making biodiesel from vegetable oils is a well-developed and inexpensive process, but to date there have been few reasonable alternatives for making biodiesel, although advanced processes such as gasification of biomass remain an option.

  20. VHTR Prismatic Super Lattice Model for Equilibrium Fuel Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-09-01

    The advanced Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the VHTRs innovative features is the reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products under extreme accident conditions. The effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel prismatic block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, if the fuel kernels are not perfect black absorbers, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced Kernel-by-Kernel (K-b-K) hexagonal super lattice model can be used to address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The developed Prismatic Super Homogeneous Lattice Model (PSHLM) is verified by comparing the calculated burnup characteristics of the double-heterogeneous Prismatic Super Kernel-by-Kernel Lattice Model (PSK-b-KLM). This paper summarizes and compares the PSHLM and PSK-b-KLM burnup analysis study and results. This paper also discusses the coupling of a Monte-Carlo code with fuel depletion and buildup code, which provides the fuel burnup analysis tool used to produce the results of the VHTR EqFC burnup analysis.

  1. Documentation of TRU biological transport model (BIOTRAN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Garcia, B.J.; Sutton, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Inclusive of Appendices, this document describes the purpose, rationale, construction, and operation of a biological transport model (BIOTRAN). This model is used to predict the flow of transuranic elements (TRU) through specified plant and animal environments using biomass as a vector. The appendices are: (A) Flows of moisture, biomass, and TRU; (B) Intermediate variables affecting flows; (C) Mnemonic equivalents (code) for variables; (D) Variable library (code); (E) BIOTRAN code (Fortran); (F) Plants simulated; (G) BIOTRAN code documentation; (H) Operating instructions for BIOTRAN code. The main text is presented with a specific format which uses a minimum of space, yet is adequate for tracking most relationships from their first appearance to their formulation in the code. Because relationships are treated individually in this manner, and rely heavily on Appendix material for understanding, it is advised that the reader familiarize himself with these materials before proceeding with the main text.

  2. NRC Technical Research Program to Evaluate Extended Storage and Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12547

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.; Compton, K.; Gordon, M.; Ahn, T.; Gonzales, H.; Pan, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Any new direction proposed for the back-end of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cycle will require storage of SNF beyond the current licensing periods. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established a technical research program to determine if any changes in the 10 CFR part 71, and 72 requirements, and associated guidance might be necessary to regulate the safety of anticipated extended storage, and subsequent transport of SNF. This three part program of: 1) analysis of knowledge gaps in the potential degradation of materials, 2) short-term research and modeling, and 3) long-term demonstration of systems, will allow the NRC to make informed regulatory changes, and determine when and if additional monitoring and inspection of the systems is necessary. The NRC has started a research program to obtain data necessary to determine if the current regulatory guidance is sufficient if interim dry storage has to be extended beyond the currently approved licensing periods. The three-phased approach consists of: - the identification and prioritization of potential degradation of the components related to the safe operation of a dry cask storage system, - short-term research to determine if the initial analysis was correct, and - a long-term prototypic demonstration project to confirm the models and results obtained in the short-term research. The gap analysis has identified issues with the SCC of the stainless steel canisters, and SNF behavior. Issues impacting the SNF and canister internal performance such as high and low temperature distributions, and drying have also been identified. Research to evaluate these issues is underway. Evaluations have been conducted to determine the relative values that various types of long-term demonstration projects might provide. These projects or follow-on work is expected to continue over the next five years. (authors)

  3. Department of Energy Spent Fuel Shipping Campaigns: Comparisons of Transportation Plans and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, Judith A.; Thrower, Alex W.; Antizzo, Karen

    2003-02-27

    Over the last 30 years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has successfully and safely transported shipments of spent nuclear fuel over America's highways and railroads. During that time, an exemplary safety record has been established with no identifiable fatalities, injuries, or environmental damage caused by the radioactive nature of the shipments. This paper evaluates some rail and truck shipping campaigns, planning processes, and selected transportation plans to identify lessons learned in terms of planning and programmatic activities. The intent of this evaluation is to document best practices from current processes and previous plans for DOE programs preparing or considering future plans. DOE's National Transportation Program (NTP) reviewed 13 plans, beginning with core debris shipments from Three Mile Island to current, ongoing fuel campaigns. This paper describes lessons learned in the areas of: emergency planning, planning information, security, shipment prenotification, emergency notification/response, terrorism/sabotage risk, and recovery and cleanup, as well as routing, security, carrier/driver requirements, transportation operational contingencies, tracking, inspections and safe parking.

  4. Managing Aging Effects on Dry Cask Storage Systems for Extended Long Term Storage and Transportation of Used Fuel Rev0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report is intended to help assess and establish the technical basis for extended long‐term storage and transportation of used nuclear fuel.  It provides: 1) an overview of the ISFSI license...

  5. Probabilistic assessment of spent fuel shipping cask response to severe transportation accident conditions. Report summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, L.E.; Kimura, C.Y.; Witte, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The licensing of commercial nuclear spent shipping casks in the United States is regulated by 10CFR71. In order to be licensed, casks must be designed not to fail under hypothetical test conditions specified in Appendix B of this regulation. Questions have been raised about the suitability of these tests in simulating actual transportation accident conditions. Our study addresses the adequacy of current regulations by comparing real-world accident conditions with regulatory test specifications using more complete accident statistics and more sophisticated structural analyses than have been used in studies to date. Our objective is to evaluate the protection provided by current regulations against severe accident conditions for commercial spent nuclear fuel casks that are transported by truck or rail. The complete spectrum of truck and rail accidents will be reviewed in order to determine the frequency (or infrequency) of cask failures during transportation accidents. 3 references, 1 figure.

  6. Modeling Constituent Redistribution in U-Pu-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Porter; Steve Hayes; Various

    2014-06-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) metallic fuels currently being tested have higher zirconium and plutonium concentrations than those tested in the past in EBR reactors. Current metal fuel performance codes have limitations and deficiencies in predicting AFC fuel performance, particularly in the modeling of constituent distribution. No fully validated code exists due to sparse data and unknown modeling parameters. Our primary objective is to develop an initial analysis tool by incorporating state-of-the-art knowledge, constitutive models and properties of AFC metal fuels into the MOOSE/BISON (1) framework in order to analyze AFC metallic fuel tests.

  7. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  8. Steady-State Analysis Model for Advanced Fuel Cycle Schemes.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-03-17

    Version 00 SMAFS was developed as a part of the study, "Advanced Fuel Cycles and Waste Management", which was performed during 2003-2005 by an ad-hoc expert group under the Nuclear Development Committee in the OECD/NEA. The model was designed for an efficient conduct of nuclear fuel cycle scheme cost analyses. It is simple, transparent and offers users the capability to track down cost analysis results. All the fuel cycle schemes considered in the model aremore » represented in a graphic format and all values related to a fuel cycle step are shown in the graphic interface, i.e., there are no hidden values embedded in the calculations. All data on the fuel cycle schemes considered in the study including mass flows, waste generation, cost data, and other data such as activities, decay heat and neutron sources of spent fuel and high-level waste along time are included in the model and can be displayed. The user can easily modify values of mass flows and/or cost parameters and see corresponding changes in the results. The model calculates: front-end fuel cycle mass flows such as requirements of enrichment and conversion services and natural uranium; mass of waste based on the waste generation parameters and the mass flow; and all costs.« less

  9. DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standardization, and More | Department of Energy Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More DOE Announces Webinars on Sandia Modeling Tool, Hydrogen Fueling Standardization, and More September 4, 2014 - 8:37am Addthis EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required.

  10. CASL-U-2015-0015-000 Modeling Integral Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-000 Modeling Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Using the Method of Characteristics Erik Daniel Walker University of Tennessee, Knoxville December 1, 2014 CASL-U-2015-0015-000 University of Tennessee, Knoxville Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange Masters Theses Graduate School 12-2014 Modeling Integral Fuel Burnable Absorbers Using the Method of Characteristics Erik Daniel Walker University of Tennessee - Knoxville, ewalk@vols.utk.edu This Thesis is brought to you for free and open

  11. Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Tri-Generation System Case Study using the H2A Stationary Model Darlene Steward/ Mike Penev National Renewable Energy Laboratory Integrated Stationary Power and Transportation Workshop Phoenix, Arizona October 27, 2008 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Introduction Goal: Develop a cost analysis tool that will be flexible and comprehensive enough to realistically analyze a wide variety of potential combined heat and power/hydrogen production

  12. INL Site FY 2010 Executable Plan for Energy and Transportation Fuels Management with the FY 2009 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest L. Fossum

    2009-12-01

    It is the policy of the Department of Energy (DOE) that sustainable energy and transportation fuels management will be integrated into DOE operations to meet obligations under Executive Order (EO) 13423 "Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management," the Instructions for Implementation of EO 13423, as well as Guidance Documents issued in accordance thereto and any modifcations or amendments that may be issued from time to time. In furtherance of this obligation, DOE established strategic performance-based energy and transportation fuels goals and strategies through the Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Initiative, which were incorporated into DOE Order 430.2B "Departmental Energy, Renewable energy, and Transportation Management" and were also identified in DOE Order 450.1A, "Environmental Protection Program." These goals and accompanying strategies are to be implemented by DOE sites through the integration of energy and transportation fuels management into site Environmental Management Systems (EMS).

  13. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Sacit M; Howard, Rob L; Liu, Cheng; Mueller, Don; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Peterson, Steven K; Scaglione, John M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  15. Assessment of the safety of spent fuel transportation in urban environs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Weber, J.P.; Levine, H.S.; Romig, A.D.; Johnson, J.D.; Luna, R.E.; Newton, G.J.; Wong, B.A.; Marshall, R.W. Jr.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    The results of a program to provide an experimental data base for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a light-water-reactor spent fuel shipping cask in a densely populated area are presented. The results of subscale and full-scale experiments in conjunction with an analytical modeling study are described. The experimental data were used as input to a reactor-safety consequence model to predict radiological health consequences resulting from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a spent-fuel shipping cask in the Manhattan borough of New York City. The results of these calculations are presented.

  16. Neutral gas transport modeling with DEGAS 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D.; Karney, C.

    1993-10-01

    We are currently rewriting the neutral gas transport code, DEGAS with a view to not only making it faster, but also easing the process of including new physics. The goal is to make adding new species and reactions relatively simple so that the code can be rapidly adapted to new divertor physics regimes. DEGAS 2 will also be optimized for coupling to fluid plasma codes, incorporating many of the techniques utilized in B2-EIRENE. Finally, it is our intention that DEGAS 2, like DEGAS, be well-documented and easy to use. We ill present model calculations including ionization and charge exchange which will illustrate the way reactions are included into DEGAS 2 and will demonstrate operation of the code on a distributed network of workstations.

  17. Fuel cells for future transportation: The Department of Energy OTT/OUT partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P.G.; Milliken, J.; Gronich, S.; Rossmeissl, N.; Ohi, J.

    1997-12-31

    The DOE Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT) is currently engaged in the development and integration R and D activities which will make it possible to reduce oil imports, and move toward a sustainable transportation future. Within OTT, the Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies is supporting development of highly efficient, low or zero emission fuel cell power systems as an alternative to internal combustion engines. The objectives of the program are: By 2000, develop and validate fuel cell stack system technologies that are greater than 51% energy efficient at 40 kW (maximum net power); more than 100 times cleaner than EPA Tier II emissions; and capable of operating on gasoline, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, and hydrogen gas or liquid. By 2004, develop and validate fuel cell power system technologies that meet vehicle requirements in terms of: cost--competitive with internal combustion engines; and performance, range, safety and reliability. The research, development, and validation of fuel cell technology is integrally linked to the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) and other major US policy objectives, such as the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Established in 1993, PNGV is a research and development initiative involving seven Federal agencies and the three US automobile manufacturers to strengthen US competitiveness. The PNGV will develop technologies for vehicles with a fuel efficiency of 80 miles per gallon, while maintaining such attributes as size, performance, safety, and cost. To help address the critical issue of fuel and fuel infrastructure development for advanced vehicles, the DOE Office of Utility Technologies (OUT) has directed the Hydrogen Program to provide national leadership in the research, development, and validation of advanced technologies to produce, store, and use hydrogen. An objective of the Program is to work in partnership with industry to advance hydrogen systems to the point where they are cost effective and

  18. Model documentation: Electricity Market Module, Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-08

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System Electricity Fuel Dispatch Submodule (EFD), a submodule of the Electricity Market Module (EMM). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  19. A turbulent transport network model in MULTIFLUX coupled with TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, G.; Bahrami, D.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-02-15

    A new numerical method is described for the fully iterated, conjugate solution of two discrete submodels, involving (a) a transport network model for heat, moisture, and airflows in a high-permeability, air-filled cavity; and (b) a variably saturated fractured porous medium. The transport network submodel is an integrated-parameter, computational fluid dynamics solver, describing the thermal-hydrologic transport processes in the flow channel system of the cavity with laminar or turbulent flow and convective heat and mass transport, using MULTIFLUX. The porous medium submodel, using TOUGH2, is a solver for the heat and mass transport in the fractured rock mass. The new model solution extends the application fields of TOUGH2 by integrating it with turbulent flow and transport in a discrete flow network system. We present demonstrational results for a nuclear waste repository application at Yucca Mountain with the most realistic model assumptions and input parameters including the geometrical layout of the nuclear spent fuel and waste with variable heat load for the individual containers. The MULTIFLUX and TOUGH2 model elements are fully iterated, applying a programmed reprocessing of the Numerical Transport Code Functionalization model-element in an automated Outside Balance Iteration loop. The natural, convective airflow field and the heat and mass transport in a representative emplacement drift during postclosure are explicitly solved in the new model. The results demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the air circulation patterns and all transport modes are strongly affected by the heat and moisture transport processes in the surrounding rock, justifying the need for a coupled, fully iterated model solution such as the one presented in the paper.

  20. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plys, Martin; Burelbach, James; Lee, Sung Jin; Apthorpe, Robert

    2013-07-01

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATE{sup TM}, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  1. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) v. 2.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-02-24

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, energy balances, and greenhouse gas emissions for several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses onmore » capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO2 taxes, and plant capacity factor. AltSim also includes policy tools to allow for consideration of greenhouse gas offset policies, production tax credits, and land use requirements. The main goal is to allow interested stakeholders to understand the complicated economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with the various options. The software is designed to address policy questions related to the economic competitiveness of technologies under different economic and technical assumptions. This model will be used to inform policy makers and staff about the economic and environmental tradeoffs associated with various fuel alternatives.« less

  2. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  3. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E.; Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M.

    2001-11-06

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can

  4. Liquid Fuels Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    correlations), AIChE papers, Petroleum Review. * An extensive review of foreign journals obtained with the aid of ORNL for the high-density jet fuel study. * Contractor...

  5. Fuel Cell Power Model for CHP and CHHP Economics and Performance Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.

    2010-03-30

    This presentation describes the fuel cell power model for CHP and CHHP economics and performance analysis.

  6. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation: An Examination of Potential Lessons Learned From Prior Shipping Campaigns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsha Keister; Kathryn McBride

    2006-08-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, assigned the Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing and managing a Federal system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for accepting, transporting, and disposing of SNF and HLW at the Yucca Mountain repository in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. OCRWM faces a near-term challenge—to develop and demonstrate a transportation system that will sustain safe and efficient shipments of SNF and HLW to a repository. To better inform and improve its current planning, OCRWM has extensively reviewed plans and other documents related to past high-visibility shipping campaigns of SNF and other radioactive materials within the United States. This report summarizes the results of this review and, where appropriate, lessons learned.

  7. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-05

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  8. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  9. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a “living document” that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work.

  10. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model for Yucca Mountain. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water ...

  11. Assessment of the response of spent fuel transports to malevolent acts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandoval, R.P.

    1983-12-20

    This paper describes the results of a program conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the US Department of Energy to provide an experimental data base for more accurately assessing the radiological consequences from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a spent fuel shipping cask. The primary objectives of the program were limited to: (1) evaluating the effectiveness of selected high explosive devices (HED) in breaching full-size spent fuel casks, (2) quantifying and characterizing relevant aerosol properties of the released fuel, and (3) using the resulting experimental data to evaluate the radiological health consequences resulting from a hypothetical sabotage attack on a spent fuel shipping cask in a densely populated area. Subscale and full-scale experiments in conjunction with an analytical modeling study were performed to meet the programmatic objectives. The data from this program indicate that the Urban Studies greatly overestimated the impact of malevolent acts directed at spent fuel casks in urban environs. From that standpoint this work could be the basis of additional regulatory revisions of the NRC physical protection requirements. In a larger sense this work can also be the basis of more credible worst case analyses since it defines the actual result of an event which is well beyond any expectations of cask failures in accident environments. 5 references.

  12. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LBNL-6772E A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cells Technologies Office (FCTO) under ...

  13. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cells Technologies Office (FCTO) under ...

  14. Fuel Cell Demonstration Project - 200 kW - Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Plant Located at the National Transportation Research Center: FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, JB

    2005-05-06

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researches and develops distributed generation technology for the Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Distributed Energy Program. This report describes installation and operation of one such distributed generation system, a United Technology Corporation fuel cell located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee. Data collected from June 2003 to June of 2004, provides valuable insight regarding fuel cell-grid compatibility and the cost-benefit of the fuel cell operation. The NTRC fuel cell included a high-heat recovery option so that use of thermal energy improves project economics and improves system efficiency to 59% year round. During the year the fuel cell supplied a total of 834MWh to the NTRC and provided 300MBtu of hot water. Installation of the NTRC fuel cell was funded by the Distributed Energy Program with partial funding from the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buy Down Program, administered by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. On-going operational expenses are funded by ORNL's utility budget and are paid from operational cost savings. Technical information and the benefit-cost of the fuel cell are both evaluated in this report and sister reports.

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  16. DUSCOBS - a depleted-uranium silicate backfill for transport, storage, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Pope, R.B.; Ashline, R.C.; DeHart, M.D.; Childs, K.W.; Tang, J.S.

    1995-11-30

    A Depleted Uranium Silicate COntainer Backfill System (DUSCOBS) is proposed that would use small, isotopically-depleted uranium silicate glass beads as a backfill material inside storage, transport, and repository waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The uranium silicate glass beads would fill all void space inside the package including the coolant channels inside SNF assemblies. Based on preliminary analysis, the following benefits have been identified. DUSCOBS improves repository waste package performance by three mechanisms. First, it reduces the radionuclide releases from SNF when water enters the waste package by creating a local uranium silicate saturated groundwater environment that suppresses (1) the dissolution and/or transformation of uranium dioxide fuel pellets and, hence, (2) the release of radionuclides incorporated into the SNF pellets. Second, the potential for long-term nuclear criticality is reduced by isotopic exchange of enriched uranium in SNF with the depleted uranium (DU) in the glass. Third, the backfill reduces radiation interactions between SNF and the local environment (package and local geology) and thus reduces generation of hydrogen, acids, and other chemicals that degrade the waste package system. In addition, the DUSCOBS improves the integrity of the package by acting as a packing material and ensures criticality control for the package during SNF storage and transport. Finally, DUSCOBS provides a potential method to dispose of significant quantities of excess DU from uranium enrichment plants at potential economic savings. DUSCOBS is a new concept. Consequently, the concept has not been optimized or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.

  17. Modeling of Spent Fuel Oxidation at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulesquen, Arnaud; Ferry, Cecile; Desgranges, Lionel

    2007-07-01

    During dry storage, the oxidation of the spent fuel in case of cladding and container failure (accidental scenario) could be detrimental for further handling of the spent fuel rod and for the safety of the facilities. Depending on whether the uranium dioxide is under the form of powder or pellet, irradiated or unirradiated, the weight gain curves do not present the same shape. To account for these different behaviours, two models have been developed. Firstly, the oxidation of unirradiated powders has been modelled based on the coexistence, during the oxidation, of two intermediate products, U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The comparison between the calculation and the literature data is good in terms of weight gain curves and chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen within the two phases. Secondly, the oxidation of spent fuel fragments is approached by a convolution procedure between a grain oxidation model and an empirical parameter which represents the linear oxidation speed of grain boundary or an average distance able to cover the entire spent fuel fragment. This procedure of calculation allows in one hand to account for the incubation period noticed on unirradiated pellets or spent fuel and in another hand to link the empirical parameter to physical as porosity, cracks or linear power, or operational parameters such as fission gas release (FGR) respectively. A comparison of this new modelling with experimental data will be proposed. (authors)

  18. VISION -- A Dynamic Model of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. J. Jacobson; A. M. Yacout; S. J. Piet; D. E. Shropshire; G. E. Matthern

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative’s (AFCI) fundamental objective is to provide technology options that – if implemented – would enable long-term growth of nuclear power while improving sustainability and energy security. The AFCI organization structure consists of four areas; Systems Analysis, Fuels, Separations and Transmutations. The Systems Analysis Working Group is tasked with bridging the program technical areas and providing the models, tools, and analyses required to assess the feasibility of design and deploy¬ment options and inform key decision makers. An integral part of the Systems Analysis tool set is the development of a system level model that can be used to examine the implications of the different mixes of reactors, implications of fuel reprocessing, impact of deployment technologies, as well as potential “exit” or “off ramp” approaches to phase out technologies, waste management issues and long-term repository needs. The Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) is a computer-based simulation model that allows performing dynamic simulations of fuel cycles to quantify infrastructure requirements and identify key trade-offs between alternatives. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  19. Reversible Bending Fatigue Test System for Investigating Vibration Integrity of Spent Nuclear Fuel during Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L; Flanagan, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety and security of spent nuclear fuel storage and transport operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversible-bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot-cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in-situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U-frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs, to protect SNF rod and to ensure valid test results, and use of 3 specially designed LVDTs to obtain the in-situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy, and SS cladding with alumina pellets inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength. The failure behaviors observed from

  20. Transportation and Vehicle Energy Modeling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation and Vehicle Energy Modeling Transportation and Vehicle Energy Modeling For the past 15 years, Argonne has been at the forefront of research in energy-efficient transportation. In recent years, the vehicle technologies have become increasingly complex with the introduction of new powertrain configurations (such as electrified vehicles), new component technologies (such as advanced transmissions and engines) and control strategies (such eco-routing). In addition, with increased

  1. Fuel-Cycle Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Hydrogen-Powered Fuel-Cell Systems with the GREET Model Michael Wang Argonne National Laboratory June 10, 2008 Project ID # AN2 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 Overview * Project start date: Oct. 2002 * Project end date: Continuous * Percent complete: N/A * Inconsistent data, assumptions, and guidelines * Suite of models and tools * Unplanned studies and analyses * Total project funding from DOE: $2.04 million

  2. A Model Fuels Consortium to Promote Engine Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs.

  3. A quantum energy transport model for semiconductor device simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sho, Shohiro; Odanaka, Shinji

    2013-02-15

    This paper describes numerical methods for a quantum energy transport (QET) model in semiconductors, which is derived by using a diffusion scaling in the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. We newly drive a four-moments QET model similar with a classical ET model. Space discretization is performed by a new set of unknown variables. Numerical stability and convergence are obtained by developing numerical schemes and an iterative solution method with a relaxation method. Numerical simulations of electron transport in a scaled MOSFET device are discussed. The QET model allows simulations of quantum confinement transport, and nonlocal and hot-carrier effects in scaled MOSFETs.

  4. Fuel Spray Modeling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Although these models are widely used, many researchers have reported a strong dependency of spray characteristics on grid size. This large grid size dependency makes it difficult ...

  5. BISON and MARMOT Development for Modeling Fast Reactor Fuel Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence; Williamson, Richard L.; Schwen, Daniel; Zhang, Yongfeng; Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Medvedev, Pavel G.

    2015-09-01

    BISON and MARMOT are two codes under development at the Idaho National Laboratory for engineering scale and lower length scale fuel performance modeling. It is desired to add capabilities for fast reactor applications to these codes. The fast reactor fuel types under consideration are metal (U-Pu-Zr) and oxide (MOX). The cladding types of interest include 316SS, D9, and HT9. The purpose of this report is to outline the proposed plans for code development and provide an overview of the models added to the BISON and MARMOT codes for fast reactor fuel behavior. A brief overview of preliminary discussions on the formation of a bilateral agreement between the Idaho National Laboratory and the National Nuclear Laboratory in the United Kingdom is presented.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Transportation Energy Transition Modeling and Analysis: the LAVE-Trans Model

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about transportation...

  7. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  8. Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

  9. EPAct Alternative Fuel Transportation Program: State and Alternative Fuel Provider Fleet Compliance Annual Report, Fleet Compliance Results for MY 2009/FY 2010 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This annual report summarizes the compliance results of state and alternative fuel provider fleets covered by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) for model year 2009/fiscal year 2010.

  10. Assessment of a mechanistic model in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel fission-gas behavior simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, D.; Rest, J.; Yacout, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    A mechanistic kinetic rate theory model originally developed for the prediction of fission gas behavior in oxide nuclear fuels under steady-state and transient conditions has been assessed to look at its applicability to model fission gas behavior in U-Pu-Zr metallic alloy fuel. In order to capture and validate the underlying physics for irradiated U-Pu-Zr fuels, the mechanistic model was applied to the simulation of fission gas release, fission gas and fission product induced swelling, and the evolution of the gas bubble size distribution in three different fuel zones: the outer {alpha}-U, the intermediate, and the inner {gamma}-U zones. Due to its special microstructural features, the {alpha}-U zone in U-Pu-Zr fuels is believed to contribute the largest fraction of fission gas release among the different fuel zones. It is shown that with the use of small effective grain sizes, the mechanistic model can predict fission gas release that is consistent with (though slightly lower than) experimentally measured data. These simulation results are comparable to the experimentally measured fission gas release since the mechanism of fission gas transport through the densely distributed laminar porosity in the {alpha}-U zone is analogous to the mechanism of fission gas transport through the interconnected gas bubble porosity utilized in the mechanistic model. Detailed gas bubble size distributions predicted with the mechanistic model in both the intermediate zone and the high temperature {gamma}-U zone of U-Pu-Zr fuel are also compared to experimental measurements from available SEM micrographs. These comparisons show good agreements between the simulation results and experimental measurements, and therefore provide crucial guidelines for the selection of key physical parameters required for modeling these two zones. In addition, the results of parametric studies for several key parameters are presented for both the intermediate zone and the {gamma}-U zone simulations

  11. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  12. HCCI experiments with gasoline surrogate fuels modeled by a semidetailed chemical kinetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrae, J.C.G.; Head, R.A.

    2009-04-15

    Experiments in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine have been conducted with four gasoline surrogate fuel blends. The pure components in the surrogate fuels consisted of n-heptane, isooctane, toluene, ethanol and diisobutylene and fuel sensitivities (RON-MON) in the fuel blends ranged from two to nine. The operating conditions for the engine were p{sub in}=0.1 and 0.2 MPa, T{sub in}=80 and 250 C, {phi}=0.25 in air and engine speed 1200 rpm. A semidetailed chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for gasoline surrogate fuels, validated against ignition data from experiments conducted in shock tubes for gasoline surrogate fuel blends at 1.0{<=} p{<=}5.0MPa, 700{<=} T{<=}1200 K and {phi}=1.0, was successfully used to qualitatively predict the HCCI experiments using a single zone modeling approach. The fuel blends that had higher fuel sensitivity were more resistant to autoignition for low intake temperature and high intake pressure and less resistant to autoignition for high intake temperature and low intake pressure. A sensitivity analysis shows that at high intake temperature the chemistry of the fuels ethanol, toluene and diisobutylene helps to advance ignition. This is consistent with the trend that fuels with the least Negative Temperature Coefficient (NTC) behavior show the highest octane sensitivity, and become less resistant to autoignition at high intake temperatures. For high intake pressure the sensitivity analysis shows that fuels in the fuel blend with no NTC behavior consume OH radicals and acts as a radical scavenger for the fuels with NTC behavior. This is consistent with the observed trend of an increase in RON and fuel sensitivity. With data from shock tube experiments in the literature and HCCI modeling in this work, a correlation between the reciprocal pressure exponent on the ignition delay to the fuel sensitivity and volume percentage of single-stage ignition fuel in the fuel blend was found. Higher fuel

  13. Stranded Fuel, Orphan Sites, Dead Plants: Transportation Planning Considerations After the BRC Report - 13393

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thrower, Alex W.

    2013-07-01

    The author explores transportation, packaging and storage questions related to a primary recommendation of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future; i.e., that fuel from shutdown plants be removed to consolidated storage as soon as possible to enable final decommissioning and beneficial re-use of those sites. The paper discusses the recommendations of the BRC, the implications and challenges that implementing those recommendations present, and provides recommended solutions for beginning the multi-year planning, coordination, material acquisition, and communications processes that will be needed to move fuel from shutdown plants when a destination site becomes available. Removal of used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites (which are serving no other purpose other than storing SNF and GTCC, at considerable expense) was a central recommendation of the BRC, for a number of reasons. This recommendation was one of the most widely acclaimed that the Commission put forward. However, there are significant challenges (such as availability of fuel canister overpacks, lack of infrastructure, handling constraints and others) that will need to be addressed, apart from the critically important identification of a suitable and workable storage destination site. Resolving these logistical challenges will need to begin even before a destination site is identified, given the long lead-times required for planning and procurement. Based on information available today, it is possible to make informed predictions about what will be needed to modify existing contractual arrangements with utilities, address equipment and infrastructure needs, and begin working with states, tribes and local governments to start initial preparation needs. If DOE, working with industry and other experienced parties, can begin planning and acquisition activities in the near term, overall schedule risk can be reduced and potential cost avoidance achieved. The most immediate benefit will

  14. Reversal bending fatigue test system for investigating vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel during transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy -An; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L.; Flanagan, Michelle E.

    2014-09-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S.Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety and security of SNF storage and transportation operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversal bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs to protect the SNF rod sample and to ensure valid test results, and uses three specially designed linear variable differential transformers to obtain the in situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy and SS cladding with alumina pellet inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength. The

  15. Reversal bending fatigue test system for investigating vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel during transportation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Jy -An; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L.; Flanagan, Michelle E.

    2014-09-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading during road or rail shipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve the understanding of the impacts on SNF integrity due to vibration loading, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet the nuclear industry and U.S.Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the areamore » of safety and security of SNF storage and transportation operations. The ORNL developed test system can perform reversal bending fatigue testing to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The testing apparatus is also designed to meet the challenges of hot cell operation, including remote installation and detachment of the SNF test specimen, in situ test specimen deformation measurement, and implementation of a driving system suitable for use in a hot cell. The system contains a U frame set-up equipped with uniquely designed grip rigs to protect the SNF rod sample and to ensure valid test results, and uses three specially designed linear variable differential transformers to obtain the in situ curvature measurement. A variety of surrogate test rods have been used to develop and calibrate the test system as well as in performing a series of systematic cyclic fatigue tests. The surrogate rods include stainless steel (SS) cladding, SS cladding with cast epoxy and SS cladding with alumina pellet inserts simulating fuel pellets. Testing to date has shown that the interface bonding between the SS cladding and the alumina pellets has a significant impact on the bending response of the test rods as well as their fatigue strength

  16. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models January 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | STEO Model Documentation: Electricity Generation and Fuel Consumption Models i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts

  17. Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014 August 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Renewable Fuels Module of the National Energy Modeling System: Model Documentation 2014 ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's

  18. A novel configuration for coproducing transportation fuels and power from coal and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy and Mitretek Systems have evolved and evaluated a concept that combines the use of gas and coal for the highly efficient production of electric power and high quality transportation fuels. In its simplest form, this coproduction cofeed (CoCo) concept consists of diverting coal-derived synthesis gas from the combined cycle power block of an Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) unit to a slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis reactor. The unreacted synthesis gas from the F-T reactor, and imported natural gas are then combusted in the downstream combined cycle power generation unit. Combining processes in this manner accomplishes the equivalent of natural gas to liquid synthesis while eliminating the conversion losses associated with the production of synthesis gas from natural gas. The paper discusses the benefits of coproduction.

  19. Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2006-01-01

    This report describes activities for the thirteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. EnviRes initiated a wire transfer of funds for procurement of a pressure vessel and associated refractory lining. Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations.

  20. Reducing Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuel Costs with HyMelt Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald P. Malone; William R. Renner

    2006-04-01

    Phase I of the work to be done under this agreement consisted of conducting atmospheric gasification of coal using the HyMelt technology to produce separate hydrogen rich and carbon monoxide rich product streams. In addition smaller quantities of petroleum coke and a low value refinery stream were gasified. Phase II of the work to be done under this agreement, consists of gasification of the above-mentioned feeds at a gasifier pressure of approximately 5 bar. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the technical and economic aspects of producing ultra-clean transportation fuels using the HyMelt technology in existing and proposed refinery configurations. This report describes activities for the thirteenth quarter of work performed under this agreement. MEFOS, the gasification testing subcontractor, reported to EnviRes that they were having difficulty with refractory vendors meeting specifications for the lining of the pressure vessel. EnviRes is working to resolve this issue.

  1. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF INTERFACIAL BONDING EFFICIENCY ON USED NUCLEAR FUEL VIBRATION INTEGRITY DURING NORMAL TRANSPORTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Hao; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the impacts of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet pellet and pellet clad interfaces on surrogate of used nuclear fuel (UNF) vibration integrity. The FEA simulation results were also validated and benchmarked with reversible bending fatigue test results on surrogate rods consisting of stainless steel (SS) tubes with alumina-pellet inserts. Bending moments (M) are applied to the FEA models to evaluate the system responses of the surrogate rods. From the induced curvature, , the flexural rigidity EI can be estimated as EI=M/ . The impacts of interfacial bonding efficiency include the moment carrying capacity distribution between pellets and clad and cohesion influence on the flexural rigidity of the surrogate rod system. The result also indicates that the immediate consequences of interfacial de-bonding are a load carrying capacity shift from the fuel pellets to the clad and a reduction of the composite rod flexural rigidity. Therefore, the flexural rigidity of the surrogate rod and the bending moment bearing capacity between the clad and fuel pellets are strongly dependent on the efficiency of interfacial bonding at the pellet pellet and pellet clad interfaces. FEA models will be further used to study UNF vibration integrity.

  2. Nuclear Fuel Leasing, Recycling and proliferation: Modeling a Global View

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crozat, M P; Choi, J; Reis, V H; Hill, R

    2004-03-10

    would extend the spirit of President Eisenhower's ''Atoms for Peace'' vision toward solving some of the major international problems of the 21st Century--global climate change and the creation of a peaceful and stable world political regime. Needless to say, this is a very complex problem, encompassing all of the issues involved in nuclear power--economics, proliferation, waste management and safety--and a myriad of public and diplomatic policy issues as well. To gain a better understanding of the leasing concept we have built an interactive system dynamics model, Multinuke, using STELLA software. (STELLA is particularly useful for this type of analysis because of its capability to create user-friendly interfaces.) Multinuke simulates two separate nuclear entities and possible interactions between them, and therefore can be used to investigate the fuel-leasing concept. In this paper we will apply the results of Multinuke to a few simplified scenarios to help understand how fuel leasing might affect the future global growth of nuclear power, proliferation concern and spent fuel management.

  3. A Computational Model of the Mark-IV Electrorefiner: Phase I -- Fuel Basket/Salt Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hoover; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Shelly Li; Michael Simpson; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2009-09-01

    Spent driver fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is currently being treated in the Mk-IV electrorefiner (ER) in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at Idaho National Laboratory. The modeling approach to be presented here has been developed to help understand the effect of different parameters on the dynamics of this system. The first phase of this new modeling approach focuses on the fuel basket/salt interface involving the transport of various species found in the driver fuels (e.g. uranium and zirconium). This approach minimizes the guessed parameters to only one, the exchange current density (i0). U3+ and Zr4+ were the only species used for the current study. The result reveals that most of the total cell current is used for the oxidation of uranium, with little being used by zirconium. The dimensionless approach shows that the total potential is a strong function of i0 and a weak function of wt% of uranium in the salt system for initiation processes.

  4. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference with the planets climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  5. Fuel Performance Experiments and Modeling: Fission Gas Bubble Nucleation and Growth in Alloy Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Shao, Lin; Tsvetkov, Pavel; Wirth, Brian; Kennedy, Rory

    2014-04-07

    Advanced fast reactor systems being developed under the DOE's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative are designed to destroy TRU isotopes generated in existing and future nuclear energy systems. Over the past 40 years, multiple experiments and demonstrations have been completed using U-Zr, U-Pu-Zr, U-Mo and other metal alloys. As a result, multiple empirical and semi-empirical relationships have been established to develop empirical performance modeling codes. Many mechanistic questions about fission as mobility, bubble coalescience, and gas release have been answered through industrial experience, research, and empirical understanding. The advent of modern computational materials science, however, opens new doors of development such that physics-based multi-scale models may be developed to enable a new generation of predictive fuel performance codes that are not limited by empiricism.

  6. Sandia Energy - From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving Fungi Are Sequenced Home Renewable Energy Energy Transportation Energy News Modeling Modeling & Analysis From Compost to Sustainable...

  7. Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Wonseok; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-01-20

    The cathode catalyst layer within a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is the most complex and critical, yet least understood, layer within the cell. The exact method and equations for modeling this layer are still being revised and will be discussed in this paper, including a 0.8 reaction order, existence of Pt oxides, possible non-isopotential agglomerates, and the impact of a film resistance towards oxygen transport. While the former assumptions are relatively straightforward to understand and implement, the latter film resistance is shown to be critically important in explaining increased mass-transport limitations with low Pt-loading catalyst layers. Model results demonstrate agreement with experimental data that the increased oxygen flux and/or diffusion pathway through the film can substantially decrease performance. Also, some scale-up concepts from the agglomerate scale to the more macroscopic porous-electrode scale are discussed and the resulting optimization scenarios investigated.

  8. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  9. Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Background Water Management Issues Arise From: Generation of water by cathodic reaction ...

  10. Improved Modeling and Understanding of Diffusion-Media Wettability on Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam

    2010-03-05

    A macroscopic-modeling methodology to account for the chemical and structural properties of fuel-cell diffusion media is developed. A previous model is updated to include for the first time the use of experimentally measured capillary pressure -- saturation relationships through the introduction of a Gaussian contact-angle distribution into the property equations. The updated model is used to simulate various limiting-case scenarios of water and gas transport in fuel-cell diffusion media. Analysis of these results demonstrate that interfacial conditions are more important than bulk transport in these layers, where the associated mass-transfer resistance is the result of higher capillary pressures at the boundaries and the steepness of the capillary pressure -- saturation relationship. The model is also used to examine the impact of a microporous layer, showing that it dominates the response of the overall diffusion medium. In addition, its primary mass-transfer-related effect is suggested to be limiting the water-injection sites into the more porous gas-diffusion layer.

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel-Neutral Studies of Particulate Matter Transport Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel...

  12. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  13. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  14. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  15. Transported PDF Modeling of Nonpremixed Turbulent CO/H-2/N-2 Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, xinyu; Haworth, D. C.; Huckaby, E. David

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent CO/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} (syngas) flames are simulated using a transported composition probability density function (PDF) method. A consistent hybrid Lagrangian particle/Eulerian mesh algorithm is used to solve the modeled PDF transport equation. The model includes standard k? turbulence, gradient transport for scalars, and Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) mixing. Sensitivities of model results to variations in the turbulence model, the treatment of radiation heat transfer, the choice of chemical mechanism, and the PDF mixing model are explored. A baseline model reproduces the measured mean and rms temperature, major species, and minor species profiles reasonably well, and captures the scaling that is observed in the experiments. Both our results and the literature suggest that further improvements can be realized with adjustments in the turbulence model, the radiation heat transfer model, and the chemical mechanism. Although radiation effects are relatively small in these flames, consideration of radiation is important for accurate NO prediction. Chemical mechanisms that have been developed specifically for fuels with high concentrations of CO and H{sub 2} perform better than a methane mechanism that was not designed for this purpose. It is important to account explicitly for turbulencechemistry interactions, although the details of the mixing model do not make a large difference in the results, within reasonable limits.

  16. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  17. Uranium transport to solid electrodes in pyrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Ackerman, J.P.; Wolson, R.D.; Miller, W.E. . Chemical Technology Div.)

    1992-12-01

    A unique pyrochemical process developed for the separation of metallic nuclear fuel from fission products by electrotransport through molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt to solid and liquid metal cathodes. The process allow for recovery and reuse of essentially all of the actinides in spent fuel from the integral fast reactor (IFR) and disposal of wastes in satisfactory forms. Electrotransport is used to minimize reagent consumption and, consequently, waste volume. In particular, electrotransport to solid cathodes is used for recovery of an essentially pure uranium product in the presence of other actinides; removal of pure uranium is used to adjust the electrolyte composition in preparation for recovery of a plutonium-rich mixture with uranium in liquid cadmium cathodes. This paper presents experiments that delineate the behavior of key actinide and rare-earth elements during electrotransport to a solid electrode over a useful range of PuCl[sub 3]/UCl[sub 3] ratios in the electrolyte, a thermodynamic basis for that behavior, and a comparison of the observed behavior with that calculated from a thermodynamic model. This work clearly established that recovery of nearly pure uranium can be a key step in the overall pyrochemical-fuel-processing strategy for the IFR.

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis to Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, M. M.; Satrio, J. A.; Brown, R. C.; Daugaard, D. E.; Hsu, D. D.

    2010-11-01

    This study develops techno-economic models for assessment of the conversion of biomass to valuable fuel products via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The upgrading process produces a mixture of naphtha-range (gasoline blend stock) and diesel-range (diesel blend stock) products. This study analyzes the economics of two scenarios: onsite hydrogen production by reforming bio-oil, and hydrogen purchase from an outside source. The study results for an nth plant indicate that petroleum fractions in the naphtha distillation range and in the diesel distillation range are produced from corn stover at a product value of $3.09/gal ($0.82/liter) with onsite hydrogen production or $2.11/gal ($0.56/liter) with hydrogen purchase. These values correspond to a $0.83/gal ($0.21/liter) cost to produce the bio-oil. Based on these nth plant numbers, product value for a pioneer hydrogen-producing plant is about $6.55/gal ($1.73/liter) and for a pioneer hydrogen-purchasing plant is about $3.41/gal ($0.92/liter). Sensitivity analysis identifies fuel yield as a key variable for the hydrogen-production scenario. Biomass cost is important for both scenarios. Changing feedstock cost from $50-$100 per short ton changes the price of fuel in the hydrogen production scenario from $2.57-$3.62/gal ($0.68-$0.96/liter).

  19. Fuel Assembly Shaker Test for Determining Loads on a PWR Assembly under Surrogate Normal Conditions of Truck Transport R0.1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Results of testing employing surrogate instrumented rods (non-high-burnup, 17 x 17 PWR fuel assembly) to capture the response to the loadings experienced during normal conditions of transport indicate that strain- or stress-based failure of fuel rods seems unlikely; performance of high-burnup fuels continues to be assessed.

  20. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a total cost of ownership model for emerging applications in stationary fuel cell systems. ... A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat ...