National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transport membranes itm

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF REACTION-DRIVEN IONIC TRANSPORT MEMBRANES (ITMs) TECHNOLOGY: PHASE IV/BUDGET PERIOD 6 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David, Studer

    2012-03-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, along with development participants and in association with the U.S. Department of Energy, has made substantial progress in developing a novel air separation technology. Unlike conventional cryogenic processes, this method uses high-temperature ceramic membranes to produce high-purity oxygen. The membranes selectively transport oxygen ions with high flux and infinite theoretical selectivity. Reaction-driven ceramic membranes are fabricated from non-porous, multi-component metallic oxides, operate at temperatures typically over 700°C, and have exceptionally high oxygen flux and selectivity. Oxygen from low-pressure air permeates as oxygen ions through the ceramic membrane and is consumed through chemical reactions, thus creating a chemical driving force that pulls oxygen ions across the membrane at high rates. The oxygen reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel in a partial oxidation process to produce a hydrogen and carbon monoxide mixture – synthesis gas. This project expands the partial-oxidation scope of ITM technology beyond natural gas feed and investigates the potential for ITM reaction-driven technology to be used in conjunction with gasification and pyrolysis technologies to provide more economical routes for producing hydrogen and synthesis gas. This report presents an overview of the ITM reaction-driven development effort, including ceramic materials development, fabrication and testing of small-scale ceramic modules, ceramic modeling, and the investigation of gasifier integration schemes

  2. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  3. ITM Power Plc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Plc Place: Stamford, United Kingdom Zip: PE9 3DY Product: The ITM approach for PEM fuel cells involves making composite membrane-electrode assemblies (cMEA) and composite...

  4. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state

  5. Ion transport membrane reactor systems and methods for producing synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the present invention provide cost-effective systems and methods for producing a synthesis gas product using a steam reformer system and an ion transport membrane (ITM) reactor having multiple stages, without requiring inter-stage reactant injections. Embodiments of the present invention also provide techniques for compensating for membrane performance degradation and other changes in system operating conditions that negatively affect synthesis gas production.

  6. Integrated Training Management (ITM) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Training Management (ITM) Integrated Training Management (ITM) Each DOE element must have a training policy and procedure that establishes an integrated cycle of ...

  7. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  8. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  9. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  10. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  11. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report

  13. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  14. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  15. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-05-01

    been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  16. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  17. Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen transport in composite inorganic membranes A theoretical model simulating ...

  18. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  1. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2006-05-01

    In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

  2. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  3. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-02-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. Results of wetting experiments on commercially available Nickel based brazing alloys on perovskite surfaces are described. Additionally, experimental and numerical investigations on the strength of concentric ceramic/metal joints are presented.

  4. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-07-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

  5. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  6. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  8. Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Air Products and Chemicals

    2008-09-30

    An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

  9. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  10. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - TransportConductivity Anion Exchange Membranes - TransportConductivity Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8-9, 2011, Arlington, VA PDF icon amfc110811aemstransport.pdf ...

  11. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  12. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  13. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  14. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  15. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The ...

  16. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January ...

  17. Liners for ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Miller, Christopher Francis

    2010-08-10

    Ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel comprising an interior, an exterior, an inlet, an inlet conduit, an outlet, and an outlet conduit; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein the inlet and the outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; (c) a gas manifold having an interior surface wherein the gas manifold is in flow communication with the interior region of each of the planar ion transport membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel; and (d) a liner disposed within any of the inlet conduit, the outlet conduit, and the interior surface of the gas manifold.

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  19. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. ...

  20. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  1. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  2. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  3. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is

  4. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  5. Membranes for nanometer-scale mass fast transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica; Holt, Jason; Noy, Aleksandr; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2011-10-18

    Nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material were fabricated for fluid mechanics and mass transfer studies on the nanometer scale and commercial applications. Average pore size can be 2 nm to 20 nm, or seven nm or less, or two nanometers or less. The membrane can be free of large voids spanning the membrane such that transport of material such as gas or liquid occurs exclusively through the tubes. Fast fluid, vapor, and liquid transport are observed. Versatile micromachining methods can be used for membrane fabrication. A single chip can comprise multiple membranes. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  6. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Richard Paul; Makitka, III, Alexander; Carolan, Michael Francis

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  7. Decision Point 2 of Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) “Recovery Act: Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2011-08-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under Phase 5 of the ITM Oxygen Cooperative Agreement to design, build, and operate a ceramic membrane fabrication facility (the “CerFab”) to enable production of membrane modules to supply a conceptual 2000 ton per day (TPD) ITM Oxygen facility (the “ITM Oxygen Development Facility”), and to perform supporting development tasks in materials development an engineering development toward industrial, carbon capture and sequestration applications. Air Products is executing this project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) with the objective to accelerate the adoption of ITM Oxygen technology to help meet the country’s goals for deploying clean power plants. The objective of this Topical Report is to address the requirements of Decision Point 2, which pertains to progress in Materials Development, Engineering Development, and construction of the CerFab, with an emphasis on establishing the environmental permitting required prior to the next Decision Point. In the area of Materials Development, Air Products has specified a high pressure dilatometer system which will enable measurements of material expansion of ITM ceramic compounds at very high oxygen partial pressures consistent with CCS applications. Also in this area, Ceramatec has made significant progress in developing Advanced Architecture wafers and modules by advancing in parallel with two production methods of the Advanced Architecture components and determining the appropriate equipment required to make these components at high volume in the CerFab. Work in this area continues to refine the CerFab requirements. Under Engineering Development, Air Products has developed various concepts around use of ITM in industrial applications to reduce carbon footprint though process integrations that result in less fuel requirement. Air Products also developed notions around hybrid cryogenic air separation plants with ITM Oxygen plants for scale

  8. Anion Exchange Membranes - Transport/Conductivity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    transport * Computational Modeling * MORPHOLOGYCHEMISTRY * Vibrational Spectroscopy: FTIR, Raman * Scattering: SANS, SAXS * Crystallinity WAXSXRD * Microscopy * ...

  9. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross

  10. Hydrogen transport membranes for dehydrogenation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran; Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL)

    2008-02-12

    A method of converting C.sub.2 and/or higher alkanes to olefins by contacting a feedstock containing C.sub.2 and/or higher alkanes with a first surface of a metal composite membrane of a sintered homogenous mixture of an Al oxide or stabilized or partially stabilized Zr oxide ceramic powder and a metal powder of one or more of Pd, Nb, V, Zr, Ta and/or alloys or mixtures thereof. The alkanes dehydrogenate to olefins by contact with the first surface with substantially only atomic hydrogen from the dehydrogenation of the alkanes passing through the metal composite membrane. Apparatus for effecting the conversion and separation is also disclosed.

  11. Membranes with functionalized carbon nanotube pores for selective transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakajin, Olgica; Noy, Aleksandr; Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K; Kim, Sangil

    2015-01-27

    Provided herein composition and methods for nanoporous membranes comprising single walled, double walled, or multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a matrix material. Average pore size of the carbon nanotube can be 6 nm or less. These membranes are a robust platform for the study of confined molecular transport, with applications in liquid and gas separations and chemical sensing including desalination, dialysis, and fabric formation.

  12. Method of making a hydrogen transport membrane, and article

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph M.; Corpus, Joseph M.; Lim, Hankwon

    2015-07-21

    The present invention relates to a method of manufacturing a hydrogen transport membrane and the composite article itself. More specifically, the invention relates to producing a membrane substrate, wherein the ceramic substrate is coated with a metal oxide slurry, thereby eliminating the need for an activation step prior to plating the ceramic membrane through an electroless plating process. The invention also relates to modifying the pore size and porosity of the substrate by oxidation or reduction of the particles deposited by the metal oxide slurry.

  13. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross biological membranes. But, with the first high-resolution structure of a

  14. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross biological membranes. But, with the first high-resolution structure of a

  15. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia Print Membrane proteins provide molecular-sized entry and exit portals for the various substances that pass into and out of cells. While life scientists have solved the structures of protein channels for ions, uncharged solutes, and even water, up to now they have only been able to guess at the precise mechanisms by which gases (such as NH3, CO2, O2, NO, N2O, etc.) cross biological membranes. But, with the first high-resolution structure of a

  16. Feed gas contaminant control in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Minford, Eric; Waldron, William Emil

    2009-07-07

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising an enclosure having an interior and an interior surface, inlet piping having an internal surface and adapted to introduce a heated feed gas into the interior of the enclosure, and outlet piping adapted to withdraw a product gas from the interior of the enclosure; one or more planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the enclosure, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide material; and a preheater adapted to heat a feed gas to provide the heated feed gas to the inlet piping, wherein the preheater comprises an interior surface. Any of the interior surfaces of the enclosure, the inlet piping, and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining. Alternatively, any of the interior surfaces of the inlet piping and the preheater may be lined with a copper-containing metal lining and the enclosure may comprise copper.

  17. L3:THM.ITM.P4.02 Igor Bolotnov NCSU

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P4.02 Igor Bolotnov NCSU Completed: 1/31/12 CASL-U-2012-0012-000 CASL-U-2012-0012-000 ITM Simulations of Subcooled Flow Nucleate Boiling Experiment at TAMU L3:THM.ITM.P4.02 milestone report Igor A. Bolotnov, North Carolina State University Carlos E. Estrada-Perez, Texas A&M University Yassin A. Hassan, Texas A&M University 31 January 2012 (Ver. 1.0) L3:THM.ITM.P4.02 report 2 Abstract: A set of challenge simulations are formulated by CASL-THM members based on anticipated experimental data

  18. Decision Point 3 of Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) “Recovery Act: Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2012-03-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under Phase 5 of the ITM Oxygen Cooperative Agreement to design, build, and operate a ceramic membrane fabrication facility (the -CerFabII) to enable production of membrane modules to supply a conceptual 2000 ton per day (TPD) ITM Oxygen facility (the -ITM Oxygen Development FacilityII), and to perform supporting development tasks in materials development and engineering development toward industrial, carbon capture and sequestration applications. Air Products is executing this project under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) with the objective to accelerate the adoption of ITM Oxygen technology to help meet the country’s goals for deploying clean power plants. The objective of this Topical Report is to address the requirements of Decision Point 3 (DP3), which pertains to the status of all Tasks within Phase 5 and most notably the project status of the CerFab (Task 30) prior to authorization of funds for equipment purchase and construction of the facility. The intent of the DP3 is to provide the opportunity for DOE-NETL to review the status of these tasks and to make recommendations on forward project direction, including a recommendation to pass into Budget Period 8. In the area of Materials Development, Air Products has specified a high pressure dilatometer system which will enable measurements of material expansion of ITM ceramic compounds at very high oxygen partial pressures consistent with CCS applications. Under Task 28.2, subcontractor Ceramatec has made significant progress since DP2 in materials selection and process development and improvement for advanced architecture module fabrication. Ceramatec has determined a materials specification, and has selected a process for making the material. Ceramatec has further developed and selected the process for applying the membrane to unsintered advanced architecture wafers with a Two Step process. Ceramatec has built submodules meeting leak rate

  19. L3:THM.ITM.P5.01 Mark Christon LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    P5.01 Mark Christon LANL Completed: 9/30/2012 CASL-U-2012-0156-000 Informing the Development of multiphase CFD models using Bubbly Turbulent Flow Interface Tracking Results L3:THM.ITM.P5.01 milestone report Igor A. Bolotnov, North Carolina State University 30 September 2012 (Ver. 1.0) Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs CASL-U-2012-0156-000 L3:THM.ITM.P5.01 report 2 Abstract: Turbulent bubbly flow simulations were performed using interface tracking code, PHASTA, for a channel flow with

  20. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  1. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  2. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2016-01-19

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production process is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the steam reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test. Authors: Schwartz, Joseph 1 ; Porter, Jason 2 ; Patki, Neil 2 ; ...

  4. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2004-10-21

    During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

  5. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as AmtB) that passes ammonia gas molecules through the bacterial cell membrane of E. coli. The structure allowed them to deduce how a positively charged ammonium ion is...

  6. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system with directed internal gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Michael Jerome; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2010-02-09

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an inlet adapted to introduce gas into the interior of the vessel, an outlet adapted to withdraw gas from the interior of the vessel, and an axis; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region; and (c) one or more gas flow control partitions disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and adapted to change a direction of gas flow within the vessel.

  7. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation DECISION POINT 1 UNDER PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Lori

    2013-08-01

    Air Products and the DOE have partnered over a number of years in the development of ITM Oxygen technology in support of gasification technology. Throughout this process, studies of application of the technology to IGCC and oxy-coal combustion have shown significant reduction in capital and operating costs compared to similar systems using conventional cryogenic air separation. Phase 3, the current phase of the program, focuses on the design, construction and operation of a 30- to 100-TPD pilot facility, the Intermediate Scale Test Unit (ISTU). Execution of this phase to date has resulted in significant advances in a number of areas including ceramic membrane material development, module design and production, ceramic-to-metal seal design, process control strategies, and engineering development of process cycles. Phase 3 will be complete upon successful operation of the ISTU in a series of tests making oxygen from ceramic membrane modules and producing power from a hot gas expander. Phase 3 work has extended beyond the planned schedule due to a delay in delivery of equipment from vendors. Air Products is currently managing the equipment delay by close involvement with the vendor to redesign the problematic equipment and oversee its fabrication. The result of these unforeseen challenges is that the ISTU project completion date has been delayed. Tight cost controls have been implemented both by DOE program management and APCI to meet budget constraints despite increased costs due to budget delays. Total project costs have increased in several areas. Increased costs in the ISTU project include purchased equipment, instruments, construction, and contractor engineering. Increased costs for other tasks include additional work in support of module production by Ceramatec, Inc, and increased Air Products labor for component testing. Air Products plans to complete testing as outlined in the SOPO and successfully complete all project objectives by the end of FY14.

  8. Particle back-transport and permeate flux behavior in crossflow membrane filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chellam, S.; Wiesner, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    Particle residence time distributions in a membrane channel are interpreted to elucidate mechanisms of particle transport and colloidal fouling in membrane filtration. A comparison of particle size distributions in the membrane feed suspensions and deposited cakes provides evidence for selective particle transport and accumulation on membranes. These data support a previously hypothesized minimum in particle back-transport from the membrane as a function of particle size. The back-transport of smaller particles is apparently due to Brownian diffusion, while larger macrocolloids are controlled by an orthokinetic mechanism such as shear-induced diffusion. In all cases, cake specific resistances measured in the dead-end mode were higher than those of the corresponding feed suspensions. Also, cake specific resistances measured under a crossflow were higher than those in the dead-end mode. Further, the specific resistance of particle deposits on membranes increased with shear rate and decreased as the initial permeation rate increased, suggesting that cake morphology is an important parameter in determining permeate flux. Thus, the effects of hydrodynamics on cake resistance needs to be established before a comprehensive model for crossflow filtration can be derived. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Free Energy Landscapes of Membrane Transport Proteins | Argonne Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Facility The Na/K pump (yellow) is a P-type ATPase that spans the plasma membrane of animal cells. It acts to maintain the ionic gradient (orange and blue spheres) that gives rise to the cell potential, a critical component of cell machinery and signal transduction. This project will develop new simulation models and methodologies to study the sensitivity of key, pH-sensitive amino acid residues in the transmembrane region (red spheres) of the Na/K pump and other P-type ATPases, as

  10. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  11. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  12. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-06

    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  13. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.

    2015-09-30

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  14. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  15. FINAL REPORT:Observation and Simulations of Transport of Molecules and Ions Across Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MURAD, SOHAIL; JAMESON, CYNTHIA J

    2013-10-22

    During the this new grant we developed a robust methodology for investigating a wide range of properties of phospho-lipid bilayers. The approach developed is unique because despite using periodic boundary conditions, we can simulate an entire experiment or process in detail. For example, we can follow the entire permeation process in a lipid-membrane. This includes transport from the bulk aqueous phase to the lipid surface; permeation into the lipid; transport inside the lipid; and transport out of the lipid to the bulk aqueous phase again. We studied the transport of small gases in both the lipid itself and in model protein channels. In addition, we have examined the transport of nanocrystals through the lipid membrane, with the main goal of understanding the mechanical behavior of lipids under stress including water and ion leakage and lipid flip flop. Finally we have also examined in detail the deformation of lipids when under the influence of external fields, both mechanical and electrostatic (currently in progress). The important observations and conclusions from our studies are described in the main text of the report

  16. Mechanism of Proton Transport in Proton Exchange Membranes: Insights from Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory A. Voth

    2010-11-30

    The solvation and transport of hydrated protons in proton exchange membranes (PEMs) such as NafionTM will be described using a novel multi-state reactive molecular dynamics (MD) approach, combined with large scale MD simulation to help probe various PEM morphological models. The multi-state MD methodology allows for the treatment of explicit (Grotthuss) proton shuttling and charge defect delocalization which, in turn, can strongly influence the properties of the hydrated protons in various aqueous and complex environments. A significant extension of the methodology to treat highly acidic (low pH) environments such as the hydrophilic domains of a PEM will be presented. Recent results for proton solvation and transport in NafionTM will be described which reveal the significant role of Grotthuss shuttling and charge defect delocalization on the excess proton solvation structures and transport properties. The role of PEM hydration level and morphology on these properties will also be described.

  17. transportation-systems-modeling-training

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Table of Contents Date Location Integrated Transportation Models Workshop at ITM 2012 April 29, 2012 Hyatt Regency Tampa, FL TRANSIMS Training Course April 14-15, 2011 James E. Clyburn University Transportation Center Orangeburg, SC TRANSIMS RTSTEP Guest Lecturer March 29, 2011 Argonne TRACC Argonne, IL TRANSIMS Training Course January 19-21 2011 Argonne TRACC Argonne, IL TRANSIMS Training Course September 7-8, 2010 Turner Fairbank Highway Research Center Washington D.C. Network

  18. ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

    2003-06-10

    Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

  19. Methods for using novel cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Allan J.; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2016-01-12

    Methods using novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials operating at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes include oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  20. Smart membranes for nitrate removal, water purification, and selective ion transportation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, William D.; Schaldach, Charlene M.; Bourcier, William L.; Paul, Phillip H.

    2009-12-15

    A computer designed nanoengineered membrane for separation of dissolved species. One embodiment provides an apparatus for treatment of a fluid that includes ions comprising a microengineered porous membrane, a system for producing an electrical charge across the membrane, and a series of nanopores extending through the membrane. The nanopores have a pore size such that when the fluid contacts the membrane, the nanopores will be in a condition of double layer overlap and allow passage only of ions opposite to the electrical charge across the membrane.

  1. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E.; Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M.

    2001-11-06

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can

  2. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Nanowires are Outer Membrane and Periplasmic Extensions of the Extracellular Electron Transport Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pirbadian, S.; Barchinger, S. E.; Leung, K. M.; Byun, H. S.; Jangir, Y.; Bouhenni, Rachida; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Saffarini, Daad; Shi, Liang; Gorby, Yuri A.; Golbeck, J. H.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.

    2014-08-20

    Bacterial nanowires offer an extracellular electron transport (EET) pathway for linking the respiratory chain of bacteria to external surfaces, including oxidized metals in the environment and engineered electrodes in renewable energy devices. Despite the global, environmental, and technological consequences of this biotic-abiotic interaction, the composition, physiological relevance, and electron transport mechanisms of bacterial nanowires remain unclear. We report the first in vivo observations of the formation and respiratory impact of nanowires in the model metal-reducing microbe Shewanella neidensis MR-1. Using live fluorescence measurements, immunolabeling, and quantitative gene expression analysis, we report that S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires are extensions of the outer membrane and periplasm that include the multiheme cytochromes responsible for EET, rather than pilin-based structures, as previously thought. These bacterial nanowires were also associated with outer membrane vesicles and vesicle chains, structures ubiquitous in gram-negative bacteria. Redoxfunctionalized membrane and vesicular extensions may represent a general microbial strategy for electron transport and energy distribution.

  3. Separation of Olefin/Paraffin Mixtures With Carrier-Facilitated Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Use of Membranes Could Significantly Reduce Energy Costs. Olefins, a group of petrochemicals that includes ethylene and propylene, are the primary building blocks for the petrochemical industry.

  4. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-05

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  5. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today's typical firetube boilers.

  6. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-10-14

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power.

  7. Ultem®/ZIF-8 mixed matrix membranes for gas separation: Transport and physical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eiras, Daniel; Labreche, Ying; Pessan, Luiz Antonio

    2016-02-19

    Mixed matrix membranes are promising options for improving gas separation processes. Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) have a porous structure similar to conventional zeolites, being capable in principle of separating gases based on their differences in kinetic diameter while offering the advantage of having a partial organic character. This partial organic nature improves the compatibility between the sieve and the polymer, and a combination of the mentioned characteristics makes these hybrid materials interesting for the preparation of mixed matrix gas separation membranes. In this context the present work reports the preparation of Ultem®/ZIF-8 mixed matrix membranes and their permeabilities to puremore » CO2, N2 and CH4 gases. A significant increase in permeability with increase in CO2/N2 selectivity was observed for the mixed matrix systems as compared to the properties of the neat Ultem®. Sorption results allowed to speculate that the ZIF-8 framework is not completely stable dimensionally, what influences the separation process by allowing gases with higher kinetic diameter than its nominal aperture to be sorbed and to diffuse through the crystal. Lastly, sorption and diffusion selectivities indicate that the higher separation performance of the mixed matrix membranes is governed by the diffusion process associated with the influence of gas molecule´s geometry.« less

  8. Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

  9. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  10. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  11. transportation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    security missions undertaken by the U.S. government.

    Pantex Plant's Calvin Nelson honored as Analyst of the Year for Transportation Security http:nnsa.energy.gov...

  12. CX-004090: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) TechnologyCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/30/2010Location(s): University Park, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  13. CX-004087: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) TechnologyCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/30/2010Location(s): Salt Lake City, UtahOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. CX-004084: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Development of Reaction-Driven Ionic Transport Membranes (ITM) TechnologyCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/30/2010Location(s): Allentown, PennsylvaniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  15. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  16. Handbook of industrial membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book emphasizes the use of synthetic membranes for separations involving industrial or municipal process streams. In addition to the classic membrane processes-microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, gas separation, and electrodialysis-chapters on enzyme membrane reactors, membrane fermentors and coupled transport membranes are included. The preparation of synthetic membranes and process design and optimization are also covered. Most of the membrane processes are pressure driven, the notable exception being electrodialysis, by which ions are separated under the influence of an electric field. In addition, coupled transport covers processes driven under the influence of a concentration gradient.

  17. WIPP Documents - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation

  18. Carrier-mediated transport of actinide ions using supported liquid membranes containing TODGA as the carrier extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panja, S.; Dakshinamoorthy, A.; Munshi, S.K.; Dey, P.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    The transport behavior of Pu{sup 3+} under varying reducing conditions was investigated from a feed containing 3.0 M HNO{sub 3} into a receiver phase containing 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} using TODGA (N,N,N',N' - tetraoctyl-diglycolamide) as the carrier ligand. A mixture of 0.2 M hydroxyl ammonium nitrate and 0.2 M hydrazinium nitrate (used in the feed as the reducing agent) has been found to be effective for quantitative (>99%) transport of the trivalent Pu in about 3 h. Transport of trivalent plutonium in 3 h (>99%) was higher as compared to that of the tetravalent plutonium (94%), though their D values followed an opposite trend. The permeability coefficient (P) of Pu{sup 3+} was (4.63 {+-} 0.26) x 10{sup -3} cm/s as compared to (2.10 {+-} 0.14) x 10{sup -3} cm/s for Pu{sup 4+} and (3.67 {+-} 0.06) x 10{sup -3} cm/s Am{sup 3+}. P values of trivalent actinide ions such as Am{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+}, and Cm{sup 3+} are compared with their distribution data. (authors)

  19. Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-30

    This report addresses Task 1.1, model development and application, and Task 1.2, vehicle mission definition. Overall intent is to produce a methanol-fueled 10-kW power source, and to evaluate electrochemical engine (ECE) use in transportation. Major achievements include development of an ECE power source model and its integration into a comprehensive power source/electric vehicle propulsion model, establishment of candidate FCV (fuel cell powered electric vehicle) mission requirements, initial FCV studies, and a candidate FCV recommendation for further study.

  20. Integrated Training Management (ITM) Timeline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The TNA Timeline lists the completion dates when for the deliverables for the integrated training management components to include the TNA, the annual training plan and the annual training summary report.

  1. Functional roles of Na/sup +/ and H/sup +/ in SO/sup 2 -//sub 4/ transport by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahearn, G.A.; Murer, H.

    1984-01-01

    Sulfate uptake by rabbit ileal brush border membrane vesicles was stimulated by a transmembrane sodium gradient, but not by a similar potassium gradient. /sup 35/SO/sub 4/(/sup +2/) influx (JSO4 oi) from outside (o) to inside (i) these vesicles was a hyperbolic function of (SO/sub 4//sup +2/)o and the affinity constant for anion transport was strongly influenced by (Na/sup +/)o. JSO/sub 4/ oi was a sigmoidal function of (Na/sup +/)o at pH 7.4 for both low (0.2 M) and high (4.0 mM) (SO/sub 4//sup +2/)o. The Na/sup +/-dependency of JSO/sub 4/ oi was examined at pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.0 (same pH inside and outside). When a H/sup +/ gradient was imposed across the vesicle wall (pHi . 8.0, pHo . 6.0), Na/sup +/-dependent JSO/sub 4/ oi was hyperbolic and significantly increased at each (Na/sup +/)o over values observed using bilateral pH 8.0. In contrast, a H/sup +/ gradient oriented in the opposite direction (pHi . 6.0, pHo . 8.0) led to Na/sup +/-dependent JSO/sub 4/ oi that was sigmoidal and significantly lower at each (Na/sup +/)o than values found using bilateral pH 6.0. Electrogenicity of JSO4 oi at pH 8.0 for both high and low (Na+)o was demonstrated by using a valinomycin-induced transmembrane electrical potential difference. A model is proposed for proton regulation of sodium sulphate cotransport where flux stoichiometry is controlled by (H/sup +/)i and sodium binding affinity is modified by (H/sup +/)o. Preliminary experiments with rabbit proximal tubular brush border membrane vesicles disclosed similar JSO/sub 4/ oi kinetic properties and a common transport mechanism may occur in both tissues.

  2. Membrane separation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; Cussler, E.L.; Eykamp, W.; Koros, W.J.; Riley, R.L.; Strathman, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses developments and future directions in the field of membrane separation systems. It describes research needed to bring energy-saving membrane separation processes to technical and commercial readiness for commercial acceptance within the next 5 to 20 years. The assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in seven major membrane areas. These encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and pervaporation; and one emerging technology; facilitated transport.

  3. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  4. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  5. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

    1997-02-01

    In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

  6. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  7. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of

  8. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard; Taylor, Dale M.

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  9. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  10. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  11. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  12. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  13. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    learned in assessing transport) | Department of Energy of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport) A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport) Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005. htmwg05_boncella.pdf (567.61 KB) More

  14. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bruce M.

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  15. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  16. Multicomponent membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  17. Compounds having aromatic rings and side-chain amide-functionality and a method for transporting monovalent anions across biological membranes using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jeffery T.; Sidorov, Vladimir; Kotch, Frank W.

    2008-04-08

    A compound containing at least two aromatic rings covalently bonded together, with each aromatic ring containing at least one oxyacetamide-based side chain, the compound being capable of forming a chloride ion channel across a lipid bilayer, and transporting chloride ion across the lipid bilayer.

  18. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  19. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  20. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  1. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  2. Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties Continuum Modeling of Membrane Properties Presentation at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 high_temp_weber.pdf (1.4 MB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Minutes Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Experimental and Modeling Investigation of Radionuclide Interaction and Transport in Representative Geologic Media

  3. Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

    2002-01-01

    Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To

  4. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  5. FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-09-01

    This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced

  6. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  7. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  8. Gas phase fractionation method using porous ceramic membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI); Hill, Jr., Charles G. (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Flaw-free porous ceramic membranes fabricated from metal sols and coated onto a porous support are advantageously used in gas phase fractionation methods. Mean pore diameters of less than 40 .ANG., preferably 5-20 .ANG. and most preferably about 15 .ANG., are permeable at lower pressures than existing membranes. Condensation of gases in small pores and non-Knudsen membrane transport mechanisms are employed to facilitate and increase membrane permeability and permselectivity.

  9. Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Evaluation Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC waldecker_htmwg_2008.pdf (86.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation) Automotive Fuel Cell Research and Development Needs Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications

  10. 2003 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2003 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2003 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. October 17, 2003, Orlando, Florida High T Membrane Development at Foster-Miller, Bindu Nair, Foster-Miller Highly Sulfonated Polymers for High Temperature Applications, Morton Litt, Case Western Reserve University Assessing Transport in New Electrolytes, Bryan Pivovar, LANL

  11. Chemical stability of hydrogen transport membranes. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. Authors: Balachandran, U. ; Lee, T. H. ; Chen, L. ; Dorris, S. E. ; Energy Systems Publication Date: 2007-01-01 ...

  12. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Michael W.; ; Lucas, Matthew S.

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  13. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S.; Nair, Balakrishnan G.; Small, Troy; Heck, Brian

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  14. Composite sensor membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Yue, Min

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  15. A Simple Index for Characterizing Charge Transport in Molecular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar (fuels), photosynthesis (natural and artificial), bio-inspired, hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, defects, charge transport, spin dynamics, membrane, materials...

  16. Active membrane having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klingler, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2012-09-24

    The present invention relates to a physicochemically-active porous membrane for electrochemical cells that purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. One dimension of the pore surface has a macroscopic length (1 nm-1000 .mu.m) and is directed parallel to the direction of an electric field, which is produced between the cathode and the anode electrodes of an electrochemical cell. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  17. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids ...

  18. A Mechanistic Study of Chemically Modified Inorganic Membranes for Gas and Liquid Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J Douglas

    2011-01-21

    This final report will summarize the progress made during the period August 1, 1993 - October 31, 2010 with support from DOE grant number DE-FG03-93ER14363. The objectives of the research have been to investigate the transport mechanisms in micro- and mesoporous, metal oxide membranes and to examine the relationship between the microstructure of the membrane, the membrane surface chemistry, and the separation performance of the membrane. Examples of the membrane materials under investigation are the microporous silica hollow fiber membrane manufactured by PPG Industries, chemically modified mesoporous oxide membranes, and polymer membranes containing microporous oxides (mixed matrix membranes). Analytical techniques such as NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, and gas adsorption were used to investigate membrane microstructure and to probe the chemical interactions occurring at the gas-membrane interface.

  19. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  20. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

  1. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  2. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  3. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  4. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  5. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  6. Ligand-gated Diffusion Across the Bacterial Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B Lepore; M Indic; H Pham; E Hearn; D Patel; B van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    Ligand-gated channels, in which a substrate transport pathway is formed as a result of the binding of a small-molecule chemical messenger, constitute a diverse class of membrane proteins with important functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Despite their widespread nature, no ligand-gated channels have yet been found within the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Here we show, using in vivo transport assays, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and X-ray crystallography, that high-affinity (submicromolar) substrate binding to the OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from Escherichia coli causes conformational changes in the N terminus that open up a channel for substrate diffusion. The OM long-chain fatty acid transporter FadL from E. coli is a unique paradigm for OM diffusion-driven transport, in which ligand gating within a {beta}-barrel membrane protein is a prerequisite for channel formation.

  7. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  8. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  9. Meniscus membranes for separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  10. Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A.; McCaffrey, Robert R.; Cummings, Daniel G.; Grey, Alan E.; Jessup, Janine S.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

  11. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  12. Molecular Mechanism of Biological Proton Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomes, R.

    1998-09-01

    Proton transport across lipid membranes is a fundamental aspect of biological energy transduction (metabolism). This function is mediated by a Grotthuss mechanism involving proton hopping along hydrogen-bonded networks embedded in membrane-spanning proteins. Using molecular simulations, the authors have explored the structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic properties giving rise to long-range proton translocation in hydrogen-bonded networks involving water molecules, or water wires, which are emerging as ubiquitous H{sup +}-transport devices in biological systems.

  13. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  14. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  15. Transportation Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transportation-research TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Transportation Research Current Research Overview The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) has established its only high-performance computing and engineering analysis research facility at Argonne National Laboratory to provide applications support in key areas of applied research and development for the USDOT community. The Transportation Research and

  16. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  17. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) ›PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  18. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

  19. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - Nano Sep Membrane for H2 Flux brief.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membrane separations are a key enabling technology for energy conversion devices. Ionic transport membranes must have both proton and electronic conductivity to function as hydrogen separation membranes without an external power supply. In addition, membrane materials electronic conductivity or material crystal stability should not be greatly affected by the presence of contaminant gases such as CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , and H 2 O that are associated with steam reforming/water gas shift reactions. SRNL

  1. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Obligin, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional groups. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  2. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  3. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-11-09

    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  4. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  5. Anion exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  6. Gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  7. BASELINE MEMBRANE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR AN SDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D

    2007-04-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05 and FY06, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and have a low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate commercial and experimental membranes for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity. The use of Nafion{reg_sign} with EW 1100 is recommended for the present SDE testing due to the limited data regarding chemical

  8. Composite plasma polymerized sulfonated polystyrene membrane for PEMFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nath, Bhabesh Kumar; Khan, Aziz; Chutia, Joyanti

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) is used as the sulfonating agent. • The proton conductivity of the membrane is found to be 0.141 S cm{sup −1}. • Power density of fuel cell with styrene/MMS membrane is 0.5 W cm{sup −2}. • The membrane exhibits thermal stability up to 140 °C. - Abstract: This work presents the introduction of an organic compound methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) for the first time in fabrication of polystyrene based proton exchange membrane (PEM) by plasma polymerization process. The membrane is fabricated by co-polymerizing styrene and MMS in capacitively coupled continuous RF plasma. The chemical composition of the plasma polymerized polymer membrane is investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy which reveals the formation of composite structure of styrene and MMS. The surface morphology studied using AFM and SEM depicts the effect of higher partial pressure of MMS on surface topography of the membrane. The proton transport property of the membrane studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows the achievement of maximum proton conductivity of 0.141 S cm{sup −1} which is comparable to Nafion 117 membrane. Fuel cell performance test of the synthesized membrane shows a maximum power density of 500 mW cm{sup −2} and current density of 0.62 A cm{sup −2} at 0.6 V.

  9. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  10. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  11. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  12. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  13. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  14. Membrane projection lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  15. EFFECT OF COMPRESSION ON CONDUCTIVITY AND MORPHOLOGY OF PFSA MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam; Jiang, Ruichin; Gittleman, Craig

    2011-07-20

    Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cells (PEFCs) are promising candidates for powering vehicles and portable devices using renewable-energy sources. The core of a PEFC is the solid electrolyte membrane that conducts protons from anode to cathode, where water is generated. The conductivity of the membrane, however, depends on the water content of the membrane, which is strongly related to the cell operating conditions. The membrane and other cell components are typically compressed to minimize various contact resistances. Moreover, the swelling of a somewhat constrained membrane in the cell due to the humidity changes generates additional compressive stresses in the membrane. These external stresses are balanced by the internal swelling pressure of the membrane and change the swelling equilibrium. It was shown using a fuel-cell setup that compression could reduce the water content of the membrane or alter the cell resistance. Nevertheless, the effect of compression on the membrane’s transport properties is yet to be understood, as well as its implications in the structure-functions relationships of the membrane. We previously studied, both experimentally and theoretically, how compression affects the water content of the membrane.6 However, more information is required the gain a fundamental understanding of the compression effects. In this talk, we present the results of our investigation on the in-situ conductivity of the membrane as a function of humidity and cell compression pressure. Moreover, to better understand the morphology of compressed membrane, small-angle X-ray-scattering (SAXS) experiments were performed. The conductivity data is then analyzed by investigating the size of the water domains of the compressed membrane determined from the SAXS measurements.

  16. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to

  17. Modeling kinetics and equilibrium of membranes with fields: Milestoning analysis and implication to permeation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardenas, Alfredo E.; Elber, Ron

    2014-08-07

    Coarse graining of membrane simulations by translating atomistic dynamics to densities and fields with Milestoning is discussed. The space of the membrane system is divided into cells and the different cells are characterized by order parameters presenting the number densities. The dynamics of the order parameters are probed with Milestoning. The methodology is illustrated here for a phospholipid membrane system (a hydrated bilayer of DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) lipid molecules). Significant inhomogeneity in membrane internal number density leads to complex free energy landscape and local maps of transition times. Dynamics and distributions of cavities within the membrane assist the permeation of nonpolar solutes such as xenon atoms. It is illustrated that quantitative and detailed dynamics of water transport through DOPC membrane can be analyzed using Milestoning with fields. The reaction space for water transport includes at least two slow variables: the normal to the membrane plane, and the water density.

  18. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  19. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  20. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  1. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  2. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  3. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  4. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  5. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Brinkman_MRS_Spring_v2.pdf (756 KB) Dr. Kyle Brinkman Dr. Kyle Brinkman

  6. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  7. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  8. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  9. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  10. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels

  11. Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the

  12. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  13. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  14. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  15. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  16. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  17. Beam Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam Transport A simplified drawing of the beam transport system from the linac to Target-1 (Lujan Center), Target-2 (Blue Room) and Target-4 is shown below. In usual operation ...

  18. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid membrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selective for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  19. WIPP Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transuranic Waste Transportation Container Documents Documents related to transuranic waste containers and packages. CBFO Tribal Program Information about WIPP shipments across tribal lands. Transportation Centralized Procurement Program - The Centralized Procurement Program provides a common method to procure standard items used in the packaging and handling of transuranic wasted destined for WIPP. Transuranic Waste Transportation Routes - A map showing transuranic waste generator sites and

  20. Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side

  1. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  2. Alkaline Membrane Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RPTnnnn Membrane-Based Electrolysis: Overview * Many cost and efficiency advancements still feasible for PEM electrolysis - >50% reduction in membrane thickness - >90% reduction in catalyst loading - Improved O 2 evolution activity - Part integration and high speed manufacturing - Balance of plant improvements: drying, electronics * AEM electrolysis can enable new cost curve - Will need to balance with potential efficiency loss based on OH- conduction - Durability still needs significant

  3. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  4. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  5. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  6. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  7. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Sheng, Guangyao

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  8. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J.; Hryn, John N.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  9. Transport Reactor Development Unit Modification to Provide a Syngas Slipstream at Elevated Conditions to Enable Separation of 100 LB/D of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Separation Membranes Year - 6 Activity 1.15 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlasner, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Gasification of coal when associated with carbon dioxide capture and sequestration has the potential to provide low-cost as well as low-carbon hydrogen for electric power, fuels or chemicals production. The key element to the success of this concept is inexpensive, effective separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide in synthesis gas. Many studies indicate that membrane technology is one of the most, if not the most, economical means of accomplishing separation; however, the advancement of hydrogen separation membrane technology is hampered by the absence of experience or demonstration that the technology is effective economically and environmentally at larger scales. While encouraging performance has been observed at bench scale (less than 12 lb/d hydrogen), it would be imprudent to pursue a largescale demonstration without testing at least one intermediate scale, such as 100 lb/d hydrogen. Among its many gasifiers, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is home to the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU), a unit capable of firing 200—500 lb/hr of coal to produce 400 scfm of synthesis gas containing more than 200 lb/d of hydrogen. The TRDU and associated downstream processing equipment has demonstrated the capability of producing a syngas over a wide range of temperatures and contaminant levels — some of which approximate conditions of commercial-scale gasifiers. Until this activity, however, the maximum pressure of the TRDU’ s product syngas was 120 psig, well below the 400+ psig pressures of existing large gasifiers. This activity installed a high-temperature compressor capable of accepting the range of TRDU products up to 450°F and compressing them to 500 psig, a pressure comparable to some large scale gasifiers. Thus, with heating or cooling downstream of the TRDU compressor, the unit is now able to present a near-raw to clean gasifier synthesis gas containing more than 100 lb/d of hydrogen at up to 500 psig over a wide range of temperatures

  10. Computational and experimental study of nanoporous membranes for water desalination and decontamination.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickner, Michael A.; Chinn, Douglas Alan; Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Long, Kevin R.; Kent, Michael Stuart; Debusschere, Bert J.; Zendejas, Frank J.; Tran, Huu M.; Najm, Habib N.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

    2008-11-01

    Fundamentals of ion transport in nanopores were studied through a joint experimental and computational effort. The study evaluated both nanoporous polymer membranes and track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. The track-etched membranes provide a geometrically well characterized platform, while the polymer membranes are more closely related to ion exchange systems currently deployed in RO and ED applications. The experimental effort explored transport properties of the different membrane materials. Poly(aniline) membranes showed that flux could be controlled by templating with molecules of defined size. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes were modified using oxygen plasma treatments, UV-ozone exposure, and UV-ozone with thermal grafting, providing an avenue to functionalized membranes, increased wettability, and improved surface characteristic lifetimes. The modeling effort resulted in a novel multiphysics multiscale simulation model for field-driven transport in nanopores. This model was applied to a parametric study of the effects of pore charge and field strength on ion transport and charge exclusion in a nanopore representative of a track-etched polycarbonate membrane. The goal of this research was to uncover the factors that control the flux of ions through a nanoporous material and to develop tools and capabilities for further studies. Continuation studies will build toward more specific applications, such as polymers with attached sulfonate groups, and complex modeling methods and geometries.

  11. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the perselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  12. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1990-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  13. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  14. ITM Benchmark #1: PHASTA Results Igor Bolotnov North Carolina...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Only densityviscosity values were used for the simulation (right column of Table 4). ... K. E., 2005. A parametric-free dynamic subgrid-scale model for large-eddy simulation. ...

  15. Greening Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Goal 2: Greening Transportation LANL supports and encourages employees to reduce their personal greenhouse gas emissions by offering various commuting and work schedule options. Our goal is to reduce emissions related to employee travel and commuting to and from work by 13 percent. Energy Conservation» Efficient Water Use & Management» High Performance Sustainable Buildings» Greening Transportation» Green Purchasing & Green Technology» Pollution Prevention» Science

  16. Structure of a Putative Metal-Chelate Type ABC Transporter: An

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inward-facing Conformation Putative Metal-Chelate Type ABC Transporter: An Inward-facing Conformation ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transporters represent a large family of integral membrane proteins, which are found in all organisms from mammals to bacteria. These proteins transport substrates across a biological membrane powered by the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. ABC transporters primarily consist of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains

  17. Sustainable Transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  18. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for integrated polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems and fuel cell stacks operating on direct hydrogen for transportation applications.

  19. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, Elizabeth; Anderson, Marc

    1993-01-01

    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  20. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

    1993-12-14

    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  1. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  2. Membranes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at Cornell Batteries & Fuel Cells In This Section Battery Anodes Battery Cathodes Depletion Aggregation Membranes Membranes Fig. 1 PEM Fuel Cell Fuel cells are highly efficient devices that convert the chemical energy stored in a fuel directly intoelectricity. Within a fuel cell, the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) serves as the conducting interface between the anode and cathode, transporting the ions (Figure 1). As a result, the PEM is a central, and often performance-limiting,

  3. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

    2007-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

  4. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Home/Transportation Energy CRF_climatechange Permalink Gallery Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change CRF, Global Climate & Energy, News, News & Events, Transportation Energy Understanding Hazardous Combustion Byproducts Reduces Factors Impacting Climate Change By Micheal Padilla Researchers at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility are developing the understanding necessary to build cleaner combustion technologies that will in turn

  5. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  6. Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

    1985-03-01

    TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

  7. Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes and method for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Danesi, Pier R.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1989-01-01

    Interpenetrating polymer network ion exchange membranes include a microporous polymeric support film interpenetrated by an ion exchange polymer and are produced by absorbing and polymerizing monomers within the support film. The ion exchange polymer provides ion exchange ligands at the surface of and throughout the support film which have sufficient ligand mobility to extract and transport ions across the membrane.

  8. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approachesmore » continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.« less

  9. The interactions of peripheral membrane proteins with biological membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johs, Alexander; Whited, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of peripheral proteins with membrane surfaces are critical to many biological processes, including signaling, recognition, membrane trafficking, cell division and cell structure. On a molecular level, peripheral membrane proteins can modulate lipid composition, membrane dynamics and protein-protein interactions. Biochemical and biophysical studies have shown that these interactions are in fact highly complex, dominated by several different types of interactions, and have an interdependent effect on both the protein and membrane. Here we examine three major mechanisms underlying the interactions between peripheral membrane proteins and membranes: electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and fatty acid modification of proteins. While experimental approaches continue to provide critical insights into specific interaction mechanisms, emerging bioinformatics resources and tools contribute to a systems-level picture of protein-lipid interactions. Through these recent advances, we begin to understand the pivotal role of protein-lipid interactions underlying complex biological functions at membrane interfaces.

  10. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based on Heteropoly Acids | Department of Energy High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids "Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 " htwgf_fall2003.pdf (4.98 MB) More Documents & Publications Novel Approaches to Immobilized

  11. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  12. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P.; Way, J. Douglas

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  13. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  14. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  15. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  16. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High ...

  17. Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 ... New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation ...

  18. Liquid membrane coated ion-exchange column solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkey, Dale P.

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for improving the performance of liquid embrane separations by coating a liquid membrane onto solid ion-exchange resin beads in a fixed bed. Ion-exchange beads fabricated from an ion-exchange resin are swelled with water and are coated with a liquid membrane material that forms a film over the beads. The beads constitute a fixed bed ion-exchange column. Fluid being treated that contains the desired ion to be trapped by the ion-exchange particle is passed through the column. A carrier molecule, contained in the liquid membrane ion-exchange material, is selected for the desired ion in the fluid. The carrier molecule forms a complex with the desired ion, transporting it through the membrane and thus separating it from the other ions. The solution is fed continuously until breakthrough occurs at which time the ion is recovered, and the bed is regenerated.

  19. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Peterson, Reid A.

    1996-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes.

  20. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Peterson, R.A.

    1996-09-03

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes. 1 fig.

  1. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W. ); Cussler, E.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. ); Koros, W.J. ); Riley, R.L. ); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-03-01

    Membrane based separation technology, a relative newcomer on the separations scene, has demonstrated the potential of saving enormous amounts of energy in the processing industries if substituted for conventional separation systems. Over 1 quad annually, out of 2.6, can possibly be saved in liquid-to-gas separations, alone, if membrane separation systems gain wider acceptance, according to a recent DOE/OIP (DOE/NBM-80027730 (1986)) study. In recent years great strides have been made in the field and offer even greater energy savings in the future when substituted for other conventional separation techniques such as distillation, evaporation, filtration, sedimentation, and absorption. An assessment was conducted by a group of six internationally known membrane separations experts who examined the worldwide status of research in the seven major membrane areas. This encompassed four mature technology areas: reverse osmosis, micorfiltration, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis; two developing areas: gas separation and and pervaporation; and one emerging technology: facilitated transport. Particular attention was paid to identifying the innovative processes currently emerging, and even further improvements which could gain wider acceptance for the more mature membrane technology. The topics that were pointed out as having the greatest research emphasis are pervaporation for organic-organic separations; gas separation; micorfiltration; an oxidant-resistant reverse osmosis membrane; and a fouling-resistant ultrafiltration membrane. 35 refs., 6 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. Transportation | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation NREL's transportation infrastructure and programs are designed to significantly reduce petroleum use campus-wide. This infographic shows NREL's FY2015 fleet performance and fleet vehicle history compared to baseline FY 2005 and FY 2014. Petroleum fuel use decreased 28% from 2014 and increased 17% from baseline 2005. Alternative fuel use increased 53% from 2014 and increased 127% from baseline 2005. In baseline 2005, the fleet used 6,521 gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) of E-85, in

  3. TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS The Pittsburgh Airport Marriott provides complimentary shuttle service. The hotel asks all guests arriving at the Pittsburgh International Airport to collect luggage in the baggage claim area of the airport and then call for the shuttle at 412-788- 8800. Let the Hotel Operator know that you have collected your luggage and have a reservation at the Marriott and need transportation from the airport. The Hotel Operator will instruct the guest which door to exit, which curb to

  4. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, Stephen; Grot, Walther

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  5. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  6. Membrane Based Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Johnson, brian.johnson@daisanalytic.com Dais Analytic Corporation INSERT PROJECT SPECIFIC PHOTO (replacing this shape) 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2015 NEW PROJECT Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. System Design Review; March 2016 2. Compressor testing review; September 2016 3. Go/No-Go based on bench testing; September 2016 4. Experimental evaluation of V1 prototype;

  7. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  8. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  9. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation News The following news stories highlight transportation research at NREL. August 25, 2016 NREL and NASA Receive Regional FLC Award for Notable Technology NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) were selected as 2016 recipients of a Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Mid-Continent Regional Award, for their notable technology development of the patented Battery Internal Short-Circuit (ISC) Device. August 25, 2016 NREL Helps the National

  10. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Protic Salt Polymer Membranes Protic Salt Polymer Membranes A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. More Documents & Publications Design and Development of High-Performance Polymer Fuel Cell Membranes High Temperature Membrane with HUmidification-Independent Cluster Structure Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

  11. Replacement of chemical intensive water treatment processes with energy saving membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickley, M.C.; Goering, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    The project investigated the use of charged ultrafiltration membranes to treat hard water. More specifically, the work was undertaken to (1) make charged ultrafiltration membranes to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the chemical grafting approach; (2) evaluate the market potential for charged ultrafiltration membranes; and (3) evaluate the cost and energy savings for using charged ultrafiltration as compared to lime-based clarification and other treatment methods. The results suggest that chemical grafting is a relatively simple, reproducible and low-cost way to modify existing substrate materials to give them enhanced transport performance. Process studies lead to the identification of good market potential for membrane processes using charged ultrafiltration membranes. Capital and operating costs relative to lime-based clarification are favorable for low- and medium-sized treatment plants. Finally, substantial energy savings are apparent as compared to lime-based precipitation systems which incur substantial energy consumption in the lime production and transportation steps.

  12. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were grown in the absence of any ammonium derivative and in the presence of ammonium sulfate or methyl ammonium sulfate. A stereo view of the monomeric ammonia channel viewed...

  13. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How do You Save Energy During the Holidays? How do You Save Energy During the Holidays? December 20, 2011 - 9:03am Addthis Between family vacations, shopping, and cooking extravagant meals, energy conservation isn't usually at the top our list of things to do during the holiday season. But there are plenty of ways to save money & energy even now by doing little - and even fun - things to reduce our utility bills and use less energy overall. This week, Amanda showed us how she saves money and

  14. How the Membrane Protein AmtB Transports Ammonia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the uncharged NH3 "gas." A Doorway for Letting Ammonia into Cells Like any factory, a biological cell takes in raw materials and energy and expels waste products. What goes in...

  15. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Miller, Christopher Francis (Macungie, PA)

    2008-09-16

    Method for gas purification comprising (a) obtaining a feed gas stream containing one or more contaminants selected from the group consisting of volatile metal oxy-hydroxides, volatile metal oxides, and volatile silicon hydroxide; (b) contacting the feed gas stream with a reactive solid material in a guard bed and reacting at least a portion of the contaminants with the reactive solid material to form a solid reaction product in the guard bed; and (c) withdrawing from the guard bed a purified gas stream.

  16. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen

  17. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  18. Transportation Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy admin 2015-05-14T22:34:50+00:00 Transportation Energy The national-level objective for the future is to create a carbon-neutral fleet that is powered by low-carbon US sources. Sandia delivers advanced technologies and design tools to the broad transportation sector in the following areas: Predictive Simulation of Engines Fuel sprays and their transition from the liquid to gas phase and computationally tractable models that capture the physics of combustion. Convergence of Biofuels and

  19. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  20. Structure of ABC Transporter MsbA in Complex with ATP Vi and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lipopolysaccharide: Implications for Lipid Flipping ABC Transporter MsbA in Comlex with ATP Vi and Lipopolysaccharide: Implications for Lipid Flipping Christopher L. Reyes and Geoffrey Chang* Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N. Torrey Pines Rd. CB105, La Jolla, CA 92137 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are integral membrane proteins critical for the transport of a wide variety of substrate molecules across the cell membrane. MsbA, along with human

  1. Unique battery with an active membrane separator having uniform physico-chemically functionalized ion channels and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-02-21

    The invention relates to a unique battery having an active, porous membrane and method of making the same. More specifically the invention relates to a sealed battery system having a porous, metal oxide membrane with uniform, physicochemically functionalized ion channels capable of adjustable ionic interaction. The physicochemically-active porous membrane purports dual functions: an electronic insulator (separator) and a unidirectional ion-transporter (electrolyte). The electrochemical cell membrane is activated for the transport of ions by contiguous ion coordination sites on the interior two-dimensional surfaces of the trans-membrane unidirectional pores. The membrane material is designed to have physicochemical interaction with ions. Control of the extent of the interactions between the ions and the interior pore walls of the membrane and other materials, chemicals, or structures contained within the pores provides adjustability of the ionic conductivity of the membrane.

  2. Single Molecule Kinetics of ENTH Binding to Lipid Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozovsky, Sharon; Forstner, Martin B.; Sondermann, Holger; Groves, Jay T.

    2012-04-03

    Transient recruitment of proteins to membranes is a fundamental mechanism by which the cell exerts spatial and temporal control over proteins’ localization and interactions. Thus, the specificity and the kinetics of peripheral proteins’ membrane residence are an attribute of their function. In this article, we describe the membrane interactions of the interfacial epsin N-terminal homology (ENTH) domain with its target lipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). The direct visualization and quantification of interactions of single ENTH molecules with supported lipid bilayers is achieved using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) with a time resolution of 13 ms. This enables the recording of the kinetic behavior of ENTH interacting with membranes with physiologically relevant concentrations of PtdIns(4,5)P2 despite the low effective binding affinity. Subsequent single fluorophore tracking permits us to build up distributions of residence times and to measure ENTH dissociation rates as a function of membrane composition. In addition, due to the high time resolution, we are able to resolve details of the motion of ENTH associated with a simple, homogeneous membrane. In this case ENTH’s diffusive transport appears to be the result of at least three different diffusion processes.

  3. Synthesis of an un-supported, high-flow ZSM-22 zeolite membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2006-10-10

    Novel methods for synthesizing wholly un-supported, high-flow catalytic membranes consisting of 100% crystalline ZSM-22 crystals with no binder phase, having sufficient porosity to allow high Weight Hourly Space Velocities of feedstock to pass through without generating back pressure. The ZSM-22 membranes perform favorably to existing bulk ZSM-22 catalysts (e.g., via 1-butene conversion and selectivity). The method of membrane synthesis, based on Vapor Phase Transport, allows free-standing, binder-less membranes to be fabricated in varied geometries and sizes so that membranes can be tailor-made for particular geometries applications. The ZSM-22 precursor gel may be consolidated into a semi-cohesive body prior to vapor phase crystallization, for example, by uniaxial pressing. These crystalline membranes may be modified by ion exchange, pore ion exchange, framework exchange, synthesis modification techniques to incorporate other elements into the framework, such as K, H, Mg, Zn, V, Ga, and Pt.

  4. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  5. Composite membrane with integral rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2015-01-27

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  6. Consider nanofiltration for membrane separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, L.P. ); Cheryna, M.; Rajagopalan, N. )

    1994-03-01

    The best known liquid-phase membrane processes are reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), dialysis, and electrodialysis (ED). However, over the past few years, a new membrane process called nanofiltration (NF) has emerged that promises to significantly widen the application of membranes in liquid-phase separations. This paper discusses the following: NF operating range, membrane properties, and the following applications: demineralizing water, cleaning up contaminated groundwater, ultrapure water, effluents containing heavy metals, offshore oil platforms, yeast production, pulp and paper mills, textile production, electroless copper plating, and cheese whey production.

  7. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  8. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  9. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels DOE would invest $52 million to fund a major fleet transformation at Idaho National Laboratory, along with the installation of nine fuel management systems, purchase of additional flex fuel cars and one E85 ethanol fueling station. Transportation projects, such as the acquisition of highly efficient and alternative-fuel vehicles, are not authorized by ESPC legislation. DOE has twice proportion of medium vehicles and three times as many heavy vehicles as compared to the Federal agency

  10. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  11. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.

    2011-03-14

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. These membranes will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2010.

  12. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  13. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  14. Gas separations using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T.; Lin, C.L.; Flowers, D.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Smith, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Alcoa`s commercial membrane with 40{Angstrom} pore diameter has been identified as one of the potential candidates for high temperature gas separations. This asymmetric multiple layer membrane have been well characterized and evaluated. It has excellent thermal stability and acceptably hydrothermal stability at {approximately}650{degree}C or above. Gas separations with this membrane follow Knudsen diffusion. Its selectivity is suitable for bulk separations, or for reduction/elimination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} via selective removal of hydrogen. An improved separation efficiency with this membrane is highly desirable for applications involving hydrogen separation, and the removal of trace contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. One of the effective avenues in improving the efficiency of the existing membrane is to narrow its pore size through surface modifications. Thus membranes with a smaller pore size can be readily available through minor modifications of the existing commercial product. In this paper focus is on the morphological characterization and performance evaluation of hydrogen-selective and zeolitic membranes developed from existing commercial membranes.

  15. Gas separations using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T.; Lin, C.L.; Flowers, D.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Smith, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Alcoa's commercial membrane with 40[Angstrom] pore diameter has been identified as one of the potential candidates for high temperature gas separations. This asymmetric multiple layer membrane have been well characterized and evaluated. It has excellent thermal stability and acceptably hydrothermal stability at [approximately]650[degree]C or above. Gas separations with this membrane follow Knudsen diffusion. Its selectivity is suitable for bulk separations, or for reduction/elimination of H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3] via selective removal of hydrogen. An improved separation efficiency with this membrane is highly desirable for applications involving hydrogen separation, and the removal of trace contaminants, such as H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3]. One of the effective avenues in improving the efficiency of the existing membrane is to narrow its pore size through surface modifications. Thus membranes with a smaller pore size can be readily available through minor modifications of the existing commercial product. In this paper focus is on the morphological characterization and performance evaluation of hydrogen-selective and zeolitic membranes developed from existing commercial membranes.

  16. Identifying Calcium Channels and Porters in Plant Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sze, Heven

    1998-04-01

    The overall objectives of the proposal submitted in 6/90 was to understand how Ca was transported across plant membranes, and how these transport pathways were regulated. Ca participates in many cellular processes, including the transduction of hormonal and environmental signals, secretion, and protein folding. These processes depend on the coordination of passive Ca fluxes via channels and active Ca pumps; however these transport pathways are poorly understood in plants. We had, therefore, proposed to identify and characterize Ca transport proteins, such as the inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca channels and Ca pumps. We have had difficulties characterizing and cloning the IP3-sensitive Ca channel, but have made considerable progress on the biochemical characterization, and partial purification of a 120 kD Ca-pumping ATPase. We have begun to determine the structure of Ca pumps by molecular cloning and have already obtained a partial cDNA with features characteristic of Ca pumps.

  17. Performance modelling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, C.; Li, X.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a performance model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell that has sufficient accuracy for engineering applications with reduced computational requirements. The model includes electrochemical reaction in the catalyst layers and formulation for electrical resistance in the membrane, electrodes and bipolar plates, and employs engineering correlation for the reactant gas transport in the flow channels and through the electrodes. It is shown that the present model predictions are in reasonable agreement with known experimental observations, indicating that the present model can be employed for fuel cell stack and system modeling. The effect of various operating and design parameters on the cell performance has been investigated. It is found that mass transport limitations are the largest cause of performance loss in the cell when graphite is used as the material for bipolar plates and electrodes. If conducting polymers are substituted as construction materials, cell performance is expected to suffer considerably at high current densities due to their reduced electrical conductivity.

  18. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 °C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys

  19. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants

  20. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Toy, Lora G.; Casillas, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    A membrane and process for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5.times.10.sup.-6 cm.sup.3 (STP)/cm.sup.2 .multidot.s.multidot.cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment.

  1. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane and process are disclosed for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5{times}10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{center_dot}cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment. 4 figs.

  2. Transportation Infrastructure

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    09 Archive Transportation Fact of the Week - 2009 Archive #603 Where Does Lithium Come From? December 28, 2009 #602 Freight Statistics by Mode, 2007 Commodity Flow Survey December 21, 2009 #601 World Motor Vehicle Production December 14, 2009 #600 China Produced More Vehicles than the U.S. in 2008 December 7, 2009 #599 Historical Trend for Light Vehicle Sales November 30, 2009 #598 Hybrid Vehicle Sales by Model November 23, 2009 #597 Median Age of Cars and Trucks Rising in 2008 November 16, 2009

  3. Folding and Function of Proteorhodopsins in Photoenergy Transducing Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spudich, John L

    2012-08-10

    The overall research objectives are to develop proteorhodopsin (PR) proteins as a model system for {alpha}?-helical membrane protein insertion and folding, and to advance understanding of the diversity and mechanisms of PRs, a large family of photoenergy transducers (~4000 identified) abundant in the worlds oceans. Specific aims are: (1) To develop a highefficiency genetic selection procedure for light-driven proton-pumping in E. coli cells. Such a procedure would provide a positive selection method for proper folding and function of PRs in the E. coli membrane. (2) Characterize flash-induced absorption changes and photocurrents in PR variants in organisms from various environments, and their expression level and function when expressed in E. coli. Subaims are to: (a) elucidate the relationship of the transport mechanism to mechanisms of other microbial rhodopsins, some of which like PRs function as ion transporters and some of which use light energy to activate signaling pathways (sensory rhodopsins); and (b) identify important residues and chemical events in light-driven proton transport by PRs. In addition to their importance to the energy of the biosphere PRs have attracted interest for their potential for use in making photoenergy-transducing membranes for bioengineering applications.

  4. PROTON-CONDUCTING DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Y. S. Lin; Scott Cheng; Vineet Gupta

    2003-12-01

    Dense perovskite-type structured ceramic membranes, SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm), of different thickness, were prepared by the dry-press method. Membrane thickness was varied from 3 mm to 150 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation flux was found to be inversely proportional to the thickness of the dense films, indicating that the bulk diffusion rather than the surface reaction played a dominant role in the H{sub 2} transport through these dense membranes within the studied thickness range. Hydrogen permeation flux increases with increasing upstream hydrogen partial pressure and decreasing downstream hydrogen partial pressure. The activation energy for hydrogen permeation through the SCTm membrane is about 116 kJ/mol in 600-700 C and 16 kJ/mol in 750-950 C. This indicates a change in the electrical and protonic conduction mechanism at around 700 C. Pd-Cu thin films were synthesized with elemental palladium and copper targets by the sequential R.F. sputter deposition on porous substrates. Pd-Cu alloy films could be formed after proper annealing. The deposited Pd-Cu films were gas-tight. This result demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining an ultrathin SCTm film by the sequential sputter deposition of Sr, Ce and Tm metals followed by proper annealing and oxidation. Such ultrathin SCTm membranes will offer sufficiently high hydrogen permeance for practical applications.

  5. Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ruud, James Anthony; Molaison, Jennifer Lynn; Schick, Louis Andrew ,; Ramaswamy, Vidya

    2008-07-08

    A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.

  6. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Mieville, R.L.; Ma, B.; Udovich, C.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report focuses on a mechanism for oxygen transport through mixed- oxide conductors as used in dense ceramic membrane reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to syngas (CO and H{sub 2}). The in-situ separation of O{sub 2} from air by the membrane reactor saves the costly cryogenic separation step that is required in conventional syngas production. The mixed oxide of choice is SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x}, which exhibits high oxygen permeability and has been shown in previous studies to possess high stability in both oxidizing and reducing conditions; in addition, it can be readily formed into reactor configurations such as tubes. An understanding of the electrical properties and the defect dynamics in this material is essential and will help us to find the optimal operating conditions for the conversion reactor. In this paper, we discuss the conductivities of the SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} system that are dependent on temperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Based on the experimental results, a defect model is proposed to explain the electrical properties of this system. The oxygen permeability of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} is estimated by using conductivity data and is compared with that obtained from methane conversion reaction.

  7. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation PDF icon polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & ...

  8. DOE Science Showcase - Understanding Protein Membranes | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Science Showcase - Understanding Protein Membranes Protein membrane simulation and ... Database DOE R&D Project Summaries DOE Data Explorer Visit the Science Showcase homepage.

  9. Apparatus for tensioning a heliostat membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sallis, Daniel V.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for pneumatically or hydraulically tensioning a membrane, which stretched membrane can support a reflective surface for use as a heliostat in a solar energy collection system.

  10. Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Acidic Ion Exchange Membrane Colorado School of Mines ... DescriptionCharacterization of the membrane has been accomplished using a variety of ...

  11. Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006. htmwgmittelsteadt.pdf (450.28 KB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Performance and Durability ...

  12. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallic Membrane Materials Development for...

  13. Spontaneous Formation of Biomimetic, Nanoporous Membrane Channels...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Carbon nanotubes insert into artificial and active cell membranes, reproducing major ... Depiction of carbon nanotube (gray) inserted into a cell membrane, with a single strand of ...

  14. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  15. MDR-ABC Transporters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cell membrane is one of the defining elements of life. It defines the border of each cell and allows the cell to maintain a chemical composition significantly different from its surroundings. The cell membrane does this in two principal ways. First, the double layer of lipid molecules that compose the cell membrane blocks the passage of most chemicals into and out of the cell. Second, membrane proteins embedded in this lipid bilayer facilitate the passage of particular ions and molecules, either

  16. Surface Segregation in a PdCu Alloy Hydrogen Separation Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.B.; Matranga, C.S.; Gellman, A.J.

    2007-06-01

    Separation of hydrogen from mixed gas streams is an important step for hydrogen generation technologies, including hydrocarbon reforming and coal/biomass gasification. Dense palladium-based membranes have received significant attention for this application because of palladiums ability to dissociatively adsorb molecular hydrogen at its surface for subsequent transport of hydrogen atoms through its bulk. Alloying palladium with minor components, like copper, has been shown to improve both the membranes structural characteristics and resistance to poisoning of its catalytic surface [1]. Surface segregationa composition difference between the bulk material and its surfaceis common in alloys and can affect important surface processes. Rational design of alloy membranes requires that surface segregation be understood, and possibly controlled. In this work, we examine surface segregation in a polycrystalline Pd70Cu30 hydrogen separation membrane as a function of thermal treatment and adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-28

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  18. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  19. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C.

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  20. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  1. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  2. Membranes - Phosphazene - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membranes - Phosphazene Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's new phosphazene membrane technology provides a method for making polydichlorophosphazene using solid state reactants that simplifies previous processes with a "single pot" two-step process. The process eliminates use of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, reducing the costs of equipment and increasing economies. Polyphosphazene polymers are inorganic in nature and

  3. Solid-state membrane module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  4. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  5. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C.; Baker, Richard W.

    1985-01-01

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 -cm/cm.sup.2 -sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  6. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  7. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell Systems and Stacks for Transportation Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for integrated polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems and fuel cell stacks operating on direct hydrogen for transportation applications.

  8. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo-Franklin, C. M.; Noy, A.

    2015-04-27

    Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realizemore » that potential.« less

  9. Crossing Over: Nanostructures that Move Electrons and Ions Across Cellular Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo-Franklin, C. M.; Noy, A.

    2015-04-27

    Critical biological processes such as energy generation and signal transduction are driven by the flow of electrons and ions across the membranes of living cells. As a result, there is substantial interest in creating nanostructured materials that control transport of these charged species across biomembranes. The recent advances in the synthesis of de novo and protein nanostructures for transmembrane ion and electron transport and the mechanistic understanding underlying this transport are described. Moreover, this body of work highlights the promise such nanostructures hold for directing transmembrane transport of charged species as well as challenges that must be overcome to realize that potential.

  10. Enhanced Separation and Mitigated Plasticization in Membranes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Separation and Mitigated Plasticization in Membranes using Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles

  11. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  12. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  13. Organic fluid permeation through fluoropolymer membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemser, Stuart M.; Kosaraju, Praveen; Bowser, John

    2015-07-14

    Separation of the components of liquid mixtures is achieved by contacting a liquid mixture with a nonporous membrane having a fluoropolymer selectively permeable layer and imposing a pressure gradient across the membrane from feed side to permeate side. Unusually high transmembrane flux is obtained when the membrane is subjected to one or more process conditions prior to separation. These include (a) leaving some residual amount of membrane casting solvent in the membrane, and (b) contacting the membrane with a component of the mixture to be separated for a duration effective to saturate the membrane with the component.

  14. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  15. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  16. Transport Studies and Modeling in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Xu, Hui; Brawn, Shelly

    2014-07-30

    This project’s aim was to develop fuel cell components (i.e. membranes, gas-diffusion media (GDM), bipolar plates and flow fields) that possess specific properties (i.e. water transport and conductivity). A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to elucidate the effect of certain parameters on these specific properties. Ultimately, the model will be used to determine sensitivity of fuel cell performance to component properties to determine limiting components and to guide research. We have successfully reached our objectives and achieved most of the milestones of this project. We have designed and synthesized a variety of hydrocarbon block polymer membranes with lower equivalent weight, structure, chemistry, phase separation and process conditions. These membranes provide a broad selection with optimized water transport properties. We have also designed and constructed a variety of devices that are capable of accurately measuring the water transport properties (water uptake, water diffusivity and electro-osmatic drag) of these membranes. These transport properties are correlated to the membranes’ structures derived from X-ray and microscopy techniques to determine the structure-property relationship. We successfully integrated hydrocarbon membrane MEAs with a current distribution board (CBD) to study the impact of hydrocarbon membrane on water transport in fuel cells. We have designed and fabricated various GDM with varying substrate, diffusivity and micro-porous layers (MPL) and characterized their pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity. We have derived a universal chart (MacMullin number as function of wet proofing and porosity) that can be used to characterize various GDM. The abovementioned GDMs have been evaluated in operating fuel cells; their performance is correlated to various pore structure, tortuosity and hydrophobicity of the GDM. Unfortunately, determining a universal relationship between the MacMullin number and these properties

  17. Membrane Permeation Testing System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membrane Permeation Testing System National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Constant Pressure High Throughput Membrane Permeation Testing System (443 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A simple and rapid method for the screening of the permeability and selectivity of membranes for gas separation has been developed. A high throughput membrane testing system permits simultaneous evaluation of multiple membranes under conditions

  18. Membrane Technology Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshops » Membrane Technology Workshop Membrane Technology Workshop July 24, 2012 At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants discussed R&D barriers, emerging applications, and advanced membrane technologies in commercial and industrial applications. Presenters provided an overview of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office, results of

  19. membrane-process | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Project No.: DE-NT0005313 (click on image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International is researching fluorinated polymer membranes for carbon dioxide capture. RTI's research effort includes membrane materials development, module design, and process design. RTI is pursuing the development of two hollow-fiber membrane materials. First, RTI is working with Generon to develop a membrane material constructed of polycarbonate-based

  20. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie; Rader, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, Timothy W.

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  1. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Challenges … Membrane Electrode Assembly

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges - Membrane Electrode Assembly Sheraton Grand Phoenix, 340 N. 3 rd St, Phoenix, AZ 85004 April 1, 2016 Yu Seung Kim Los Alamos National Laboratory (yskim@lanl.gov) 1 H 2 /O 2 , 60 o C, 1 atm Current density (A/cm 2 ) 0 1 2 3 4 Cell voltage (V) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 PEMFC AMFC Objective 2/21 Comparison of PEMFC and AMFC performance Anode/cathode catalyst: Pt/C 0.4 mg Pt /cm 2 ; AMFC membrane: 50 µm thick, aQAPS-S 8 ; PEMFC membrane: 50 µm thick, Nafion 212, fully humidified H 2 /O 2

  2. Transportation Systems Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS MODELING Overview of TSM Transportation systems modeling research at TRACC uses the TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis SIMulation System) traffic micro simulation code developed by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The TRANSIMS code represents the latest generation of traffic simulation codes developed jointly under multiyear programs by USDOT, the

  3. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the termmore » artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.« less

  4. Membranes with artificial free-volume for biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzetakis, Nikos; Doherty, Cara M.; Thornton, Aaron W.; Chen, X. Chelsea; Cotanda, Pepa; Hill, Anita J.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2015-06-24

    Free-volume of polymers governs transport of penetrants through polymeric films. Control over free-volume is thus important for the development of better membranes for a wide variety of applications such as gas separations, pharmaceutical purifications and energy storage. To date, methodologies used to create materials with different amounts of free-volume are based primarily on chemical synthesis of new polymers. Here we report a simple methodology for generating free-volume based on the self-assembly of polyethylene-b-polydimethylsiloxane-b-polyethylene triblock copolymers. Here, we have used this method to fabricate a series of membranes with identical compositions but with different amounts of free-volume. We use the term artificial free-volume to refer to the additional free-volume created by self-assembly. The effect of artificial free-volume on selective transport through the membranes was tested using butanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures due to their importance in biofuel production. Moreover, we found that the introduction of artificial free-volume improves both alcohol permeability and selectivity.

  5. Understanding the Effects of Compression and Constraints on Water Uptake of Fuel-Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Brian L.; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

  6. Electrospun Nafion®/Polyphenylsulfone composite membranes for regenerative Hydrogen bromine fuel cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, Jun; Wycisk, Ryszard; Pintauro, Peter N.; Yarlagadda, Venkata; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2016-02-29

    Here, the regenerative H2/Br2-HBr fuel cell, utilizing an oxidant solution of Br2 in aqueous HBr, shows a number of benefits for grid-scale electricity storage. The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer. Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. Nanofiber composite membranes can overcome these limitations. In this work, composite membranes were prepared from electrospun dual-fiber mats containing Nafion® PFSA ionomer for facile proton transport and an uncharged polymer, polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), for mechanical reinforcement, and swelling control.more » After electrospinning, Nafion/PPSU mats were converted into composite membranes by softening the PPSU fibers, through exposure to chloroform vapor, thus filling the voids between ionomer nanofibers. It was demonstrated that the relative membrane selectivity, referenced to Nafion® 115, increased with increasing PPSU content, e.g., a selectivity of 11 at 25 vol% of Nafion fibers. H2-Br2 fuel cell power output with a 65 m thick membrane containing 55 vol% Nafion fibers was somewhat better than that of a 150 m Nafion® 115 reference, but its cost advantage due to a four-fold decrease in PFSA content and a lower bromine species crossover make it an attractive candidate for use in H2/Br2-HBr systems.« less

  7. Molecular dynamics of membrane proteins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolf, Thomas B.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2004-10-01

    Understanding the dynamics of the membrane protein rhodopsin will have broad implications for other membrane proteins and cellular signaling processes. Rhodopsin (Rho) is a light activated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR). When activated by ligands, GPCRs bind and activate G-proteins residing within the cell and begin a signaling cascade that results in the cell's response to external stimuli. More than 50% of all current drugs are targeted toward G-proteins. Rho is the prototypical member of the class A GPCR superfamily. Understanding the activation of Rho and its interaction with its Gprotein can therefore lead to a wider understanding of the mechanisms of GPCR activation and G-protein activation. Understanding the dark to light transition of Rho is fully analogous to the general ligand binding and activation problem for GPCRs. This transition is dependent on the lipid environment. The effect of lipids on membrane protein activity in general has had little attention, but evidence is beginning to show a significant role for lipids in membrane protein activity. Using the LAMMPS program and simulation methods benchmarked under the IBIG program, we perform a variety of allatom molecular dynamics simulations of membrane proteins.

  8. The Influence of Chemical Interactions and Morphology on Transport

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phenomena in Polymer Electrolytes | Department of Energy The Influence of Chemical Interactions and Morphology on Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolytes The Influence of Chemical Interactions and Morphology on Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolytes Presentation by Case Western Reserve University to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii October 8, 2004. htmwg04_doe_tomz.pdf (923.84 KB) More Documents & Publications A Discussion on Improved

  9. Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data Book...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data Book,Vehicle Technologies Market Report, and VT Fact of the Week Transportation Data Programs:Transportation Energy Data ...

  10. Rab proteins: The key regulators of intracellular vesicle transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2014-10-15

    Vesicular/membrane trafficking essentially regulates the compartmentalization and abundance of proteins within the cells and contributes in many signalling pathways. This membrane transport in eukaryotic cells is a complex process regulated by a large and diverse array of proteins. A large group of monomeric small GTPases; the Rabs are essential components of this membrane trafficking route. Most of the Rabs are ubiquitously expressed proteins and have been implicated in vesicle formation, vesicle motility/delivery along cytoskeleton elements and docking/fusion at target membranes through the recruitment of effectors. Functional impairments of Rabs affecting transport pathways manifest different diseases. Rab functions are accompanied by cyclical activation and inactivation of GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms between the cytosol and membranes which is regulated by upstream regulators. Rab proteins are characterized by their distinct sub-cellular localization and regulate a wide variety of endocytic, transcytic and exocytic transport pathways. Mutations of Rabs affect cell growth, motility and other biological processes. - Highlights: Rab proteins regulate different signalling pathways. Deregulation of Rabs is the fundamental causes of a variety of human diseases. This paper gives potential directions in developing therapeutic targets. This paper also gives ample directions for modulating pathways central to normal physiology. These are the huge challenges for drug discovery and delivery in near future.

  11. Transportation Fuel Supply | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Transportation Equipment (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment Sector (NAICS 336) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Transportation Equipment (125.57 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Transportation Equipment

    SheetsTransportation Fuel Supply content top

  12. Continuous production of polymethylpentene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperson, Bonnie J.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Helm, Verne D.

    1983-11-15

    Gas separation membranes may be prepared in a continuous manner by passing a porous support which may, if so desired, be backed by a fabric through a solution of polymethylpentene dissolved in an organic solvent such as hexane. The support member is passed through the solution while one side thereof is in contact with a roller, thereby permitting only one side of the support member to be coated with the polymer. After continuously withdrawing the support member from the bath, the solvent is allowed to evaporate and the resulting membrane is recovered.

  13. Water Transport Exploratory Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop understanding of water transport in PEM Fuel Cells (non-design-specific) * Evaluate structural and surface properties of materials affecting water transport and performance ...

  14. National Transportation Stakeholders Forum

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    National Transportation Stakeholders Forum OSRP * NNSA Contractors transporting in commerce, are required law to comply with applicable regulations required law to comply with ...

  15. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2009.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Lu, Y.; Emerson, J. E.; Park, C. Y.; Lee, T. H.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2010-04-16

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. HTMs will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes the results from the development and testing of HTM materials during FY 2009.

  16. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-17

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. The goal of this project is to develop dense hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs) that nongalvanically (i.e., without electrodes or external power supply) separate hydrogen from gas mixtures at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. HTMs will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. This report describes progress that was made during Fy 2008 on the development of HTM materials.

  17. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    A process for production of synthesis gas employing a catalytic membrane reactor wherein the membrane comprises a mixed metal oxide material.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    UM,SUKKEE; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

    2000-02-11

    A transient, multi-dimensional model has been developed to simulate proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The model accounts simultaneously for electrochemical kinetics, current distribution, hydrodynamics and multi-component transport. A single set of conservation equations valid for flow channels, gas-diffusion electrodes, catalyst layers and the membrane region are developed and numerically solved using a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. The numerical model is validated against published experimental data with good agreement. Subsequently, the model is applied to explore hydrogen dilution effects in the anode feed. The predicted polarization cubes under hydrogen dilution conditions are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent experiments reported in the literature. The detailed two-dimensional electrochemical and flow/transport simulations further reveal that in the presence of hydrogen dilution in the fuel stream, hydrogen is depleted at the reaction surface resulting in substantial kinetic polarization and hence a lower current density that is limited by hydrogen transport from the fuel stream to the reaction site.

  19. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Warren K.; McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1998-01-01

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  20. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.K.; McCray, S.B.; Friesen, D.T.

    1998-03-10

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  1. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  2. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  3. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  4. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  5. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  6. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  7. Novel Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performance membranes are key to reduce energy consumption Project Objective Achieve 50% energy reduction in membrane processes through Novel membranes & systems ...

  8. A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic PDF icon A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic More Documents & Publications Caustic Recovery Technology ...

  9. Nanoporous carbon catalytic membranes and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foley, Henry C.; Strano, Michael; Acharya, Madhav; Raich, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic membranes comprising highly-dispersed, catalytically-active metals in nanoporous carbon membranes and a novel single-phase process to produce the membranes.

  10. DOE Technical Targets for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell components: membrane electrode assemblies, membranes, electrocatalysts, and bipolar plates. These targets have been developed with ...

  11. NETL Studies High Throughput Membrane Screening | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NETL Studies High Throughput Membrane Screening NETL Studies High Throughput Membrane Screening Membranes offer a potential low-maintenance and economical method for gas ...

  12. Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Table III: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Stationary R&D Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Table IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: ...

  13. Low-Cost, Robust Ceramic Membranes for Gas Separation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Ceramic membranes offer great potential for industrial gas separation. Without a ceramic membrane, gases must be cooled before separation. Unfortunately, even though ceramic membranes can improve...

  14. Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic Phase, a Nanoporous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic Phase, a Nanoporous Membrane Mimetic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic ...

  15. Composite membrane with integral rim (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Composite membrane with integral rim Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes ...

  16. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  17. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  18. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  19. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a ...

  20. Transportation Organization and Functions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Office of Packaging and Transportation list of organizations and functions, with a list of acronyms.

  1. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Mieville, Rodney L.

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  2. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 doe_hight_work_grp_mtg.pdf (340.31 KB) More Documents & Publications 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Poly (p-phenylene Sulfonic Acid)s with Frozen-in Free Volume for use in High Temperature Fuel Cells Higher Temperature PEM Composite Systems for Fuel Cells Polyphenylene Sulfonic Acid: a

  3. Using Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power As part of its Sustainable Energy Program, Sandia National Laboratories works to find new ways to use fuel cell membranes to improve energy generation and storage. Work in this area explores elements of fuel cell membrane composition and behavior including synthesis of block copolymers for improved separation, cross-linked membranes for greater stability and resonance- stabilized ionic groups that are used in a number of other applications. While Sandia

  4. Challenges in Bio-Inspired Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jun Lin (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  5. NREL: Transportation Research - Sustainable Transportation Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Basics Compare Vehicle Technologies 3-D illustration of electric car diagramming energy storage, power electronics, and climate control components. The following links to the U.S. Department of Energy's Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) provide an introduction to sustainable transportation. NREL research supports development of electric, hybrid, hydrogen fuel cell, biofuel, natural gas, and propane vehicle technologies. Learn more about vehicles, fuels, and transportation

  6. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation Deployment Support

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Deployment Support Photo of a car parked in front of a monument. A plug-in electric vehicle charges near the Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington, D.C. Photo from Julie Sutor, NREL NREL's transportation deployment team works with vehicle fleets, fuel providers, and other transportation stakeholders to help deploy alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, fuel economy improvements, and fleet-level efficiencies that reduce emissions and petroleum dependence. In

  7. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter The Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter is a monthly electronic newsletter that provides information on NREL's research, development, and deployment of transportation and hydrogen technologies. Photo of a stack of newspapers July 2016 Issue Hydrogen Fuel Cells Read the latest issue of the newsletter. Subscribe: To receive new issues by email, subscribe to the newsletter. Archives: For past issues, read the newsletter archives. Printable Version

  8. NREL: Transportation Research - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News NREL provides a number of transportation and hydrogen news sources. Transportation News Find news stories that highlight NREL's transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities, including work on vehicles and fuels. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells News Find news stories that highlight NREL's hydrogen RD&D activities, including work on fuel cell electric vehicle technologies. Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter Stay up to date on NREL's RD&D of transportation and

  9. Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tsai, Chung-Yi; Lu, Yungfeng

    2003-03-25

    The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

  10. Nanoscale pressure sensors realized from suspended graphene membrane devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilera-Servin, Juan; Miao, Tengfei; Bockrath, Marc

    2015-02-23

    We study the transport properties of graphene layers placed over ∼200 nm triangular holes via attached electrodes under applied pressure. We find that the injected current division between counter electrodes depends on pressure and can be used to realize a nanoscale pressure sensor. Estimating various potential contributions to the resistivity change of the deflected graphene membrane including piezoresistivity, changing gate capacitance, and the valley Hall effect due to the pressure-induced synthetic magnetic field, we find that the valley Hall effect yields the largest expected contribution to the longitudinal resistivity modulation for accessible device parameters. Such devices in the ballistic transport regime may enable the realization of tunable valley polarized electron sources.

  11. Pollution prevention drives membrane technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartwright, P.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, such membrane technologies as crossflow micro-, ultra-, and nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and pervaporation offer interesting possibilities, each tackling a specific aspect of pollution control. Although none of these methods can, on its own, alter or break down pollutants, each has the ability to separate, fractionate and concentrate contaminants. In addition, they: permit continuous, uninterrupted processing via automatic control; use far less energy than traditional treatment methods; require only minimal temperature changes and no chemical additives; exert no impact on contaminants, and keep them physically separated from the stream; and are easy to install, either alone or combined with other treatment systems, since they are modular and contain few moving parts. The paper discusses the benefits and disadvantages of membrane technology and recommends thorough testing.

  12. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures Structures 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Principle Investigator: Dr. Stephen Grot Presenter: Dr. Walther Grot Ion Power, Inc September 28, 2010 September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information t Overview Timeline * Start Sept 1, 2010 E d A 31 2013 * End August 31, 2013 * 0% Complete Budget * * Total project funding Total

  13. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  14. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  15. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  16. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Toy, Lora G.; Casillas, Carlos G.

    1997-05-20

    A process for restoring the selectivity of high-flee-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70-100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use.

  17. Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takigawa, Doreen Y.

    1992-01-01

    A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

  18. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.G.

    1997-05-20

    A process is described for restoring the selectivity of high-free-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70--100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use. 8 figs.

  19. membrane-mtr | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007553 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) is developing a new type of membrane contactor (or mega-module) to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas. This module's membrane area is 500 square meters, 20 to 25 times larger than that of current modules used for CO2 capture. A 500-MWe coal power plant requires 0.5 to 1 million square meters of membrane to achieve 90 percent CO2 capture. The new

  20. Dialysis membrane for separation on microchips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2010-07-13

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  1. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Markley, Finley W.

    1976-01-01

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  2. Photo-switchable membrane and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L; Glowacki, Eric

    2013-05-07

    Switchable gas permeation membranes in which a photo-switchable low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline (LC) material acts as the active element, and a method of making such membranes. Different LC eutectic mixtures were doped with mesogenic azo dyes and infused into track-etched porous membranes with regular cylindrical pores. Photo-induced isothermal phase changes in the imbibed mesogenic material afforded large, reversible changes in the permeability of the photo-switchable membrane to nitrogen. For example, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable cyanobiphenyl LC material demonstrated low permeability in the nematic state, while the photo-generated isotropic state demonstrated a 16.times.-greater sorption coefficient. Both states obey a high linear sorption behavior in accordance with Henry's Law. In contrast, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable phenyl benzoate LC material showed the opposite permeability behavior to the biphenyl-imbibed membrane, along with nonlinear sorption behavior.

  3. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  4. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  5. Innovative Concepts Phase I: Inorganic Membranes for CO2/N2 Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Desisto

    2003-09-23

    Silica membranes were prepared using a novel technique of catalyzed-atomic layer deposition of silica within a mesoporous matrix. Pyridine was used to catalyze the silicon chloride attachment to the hydroxylated silica surface at room temperature. This half-reaction was followed by the hydration of the surface with water regenerating surface hydroxyls and completing one reaction cycle. The technique resulted in the self-limited pore size reduction of the mesoporous matrix to pore sizes near 1 nm. The self-limited reaction was presumed to be the exclusion of the large catalyst molecule from the pore entrance. In addition to pore size reduction, viscous flow defects were repaired without significantly reducing overall porosity of the membrane. In addition, we investigated the ability of amine-functionalization to enhance the CO{sub 2} transport in silica membranes. Specifically, we examined three synthesis techniques for functionalizing silica membranes with amino groups that resulted in different surface chemistries of the silica membranes. These differences were correlated with changes in the CO{sub 2} facilitation characteristics. It was found that high loadings of amino groups where interaction with the silica surface was minimized promoted the highest CO{sub 2} transport.

  6. Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2011-05-01

    Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

  7. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  8. Combustion-Assisted CO2 Capture Using MECC Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Steven R; Gray, Dr. Joshua R.; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S.; Huang, Dr. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO2 from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO2 capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO2 driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO2 in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO2 product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO2 capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE s goal that deployment of a CO2 capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  9. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-14

    The order establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of DOE, including NNSA, offsite shipments and onsite transfers of radioactive and other hazardous materials and for modal transportation. Supersedes DOE O 460.1B.

  10. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  11. Transportation Energy Futures Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transportation accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum consumption and 33% of total greenhouse gas emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) study examines underexplored oil-savings and...

  12. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials andor modal transport. Cancels DOE 1540.2 and DOE 5480.3

  13. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-09-27

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Canceled by DOE 460.1A

  14. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-10-02

    Establishes safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1.

  15. Membranes for separation of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung; Ruud, James Anthony; Ramaswamy, Vidya; Willson, Patrick Daniel; Gao, Yan

    2011-03-01

    Methods for separating carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity include contacting a porous membrane with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. The porous membrane includes a porous support and a continuous porous separation layer disposed on a surface of the porous support and extending between the fluid stream and the porous support layer. The porous support comprises alumina, silica, zirconia, stabilized zirconia, stainless steel, titanium, nickel-based alloys, aluminum-based alloys, zirconium-based alloys or a combination thereof. Median pore size of the porous separation layer is less than about 10 nm, and the porous separation layer comprises titania, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, Y.sub.2O.sub.3, VO.sub.z, NbO.sub.z, TaO.sub.z, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3 CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.4N.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, Y.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, La.sub.xN.sup.1.sub.yO.sub.z, HfN.sup.2.sub.yO.sub.z, or a combination thereof; wherein A is La, Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba; A.sup.4 is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ti or Zr; N.sup.1 is V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, Si or Ge; N.sup.2 is V, Mo, W or Si; x is 1 or 2; y ranges from 1 to 3; and z ranges from 2 to 7.

  16. Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Water Transport Within the STack: Water Transport Exploratory Studies Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  17. NREL: Innovation Impact - Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Menu Home Home Solar Solar Wind Wind Analysis Analysis Bioenergy Bioenergy Buildings Buildings Transportation Transportation Manufacturing Manufacturing Energy Systems Integration Energy Systems Integration Improved transportation technologies are essential for reducing U.S. petroleum dependence. Close The United States consumes roughly 19 million barrels of petroleum per day, but replacing petroleum-based liquid fuels is difficult because of their high energy density, which helps

  18. MECS 2006- Transportation Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Transportation Equipment (NAICS 336) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  19. Transportation Storage Interface

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Future Extended Storage and Transportation Transportation-Storage Interface James Rubenstone Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission National Transportation Stakeholders Forum May 2012 ♦ Knoxville, Tennessee Overview * Changing policy environment * Regulatory framework-current and future * Extended storage and transportation-technical information needs * Next Steps 2 Current Policy Environment * U.S. national policy for disposition of spent

  20. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This is the May 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter. May 28, 2015 Photo of a car refueling at a hydrogen dispensing station. DOE's H2FIRST project focuses on ...

  1. NREL: Transportation Research - Transportation and Hydrogen Newsletter...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage This is the November 2015 issue of the Transportation and Hydrogen ... kind in the national lab system, and one of just a few to be found in the entire country. ...

  2. Preparation and characterization of composite membrane for high temperature gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilias, S.; King, F.G.

    1998-03-26

    A new class of perm-selective inorganic membrane was developed by electroless deposition of palladium thin-film on a microporous {alpha}-alumina ceramic substrate ({phi}39 mm x 2 mm thickness, nominal pore size 150 nm and open porosity {approx} 42 %). The new membrane was characterized by Scanning Electron Micrography (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and conducting permeability experiments with hydrogen, helium, argon and carbon dioxide at temperatures from 473 K to 673 K and feed pressures from 136 kPa to 274 kPa. The results indicate that the membrane has both high permeability and selectivity for hydrogen. The hydrogen transport through the Pd-composite membrane closely followed Sievert's law. A theoretical model is presented to describe the performance of a single-stage permeation process. The model uses a unified mathematical formulation and calculation methods for two flow patterns (cocurrent and countercurrent) with two permeable components and a nonpermeable fraction in the feed and a sweep stream in the permeate. The countercurrent flow pattern is always better than the cocurrent flow pattern with respect to stage cut and membrane area. The effect of flow configuration decreases with increasing membrane selectivity or with decreasing permeate/feed ratio.

  3. Method of fabrication of supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, David R.; Hong, Lei; Myers, Christina R.

    2015-11-17

    Method for the fabrication of a supported liquid membrane having a dense layer in contact with a porous layer, and a membrane liquid layer within the interconnected pores of the porous layer. The dense layer is comprised of a solidified material having an average pore size less than or equal to about 0.1 nanometer, while the porous layer is comprised of a plurality of interconnected pores and has an average pore size greater than 10 nanometers. The supported liquid membrane is fabricated through the preparation of a casting solution of a membrane liquid and a volatile solvent. A pressure difference is established across the dense layer and porous layer, the casting solution is applied to the porous layer, and the low viscosity casting solution is drawn toward the dense layer. The volatile solvent is evaporated and the membrane liquid precipitates, generating a membrane liquid layer in close proximity to the dense layer.

  4. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  5. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  6. Nanofibrous membrane-based absorption refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isfahani, RN; Sampath, K; Moghaddam, S

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the efficacy of highly porous nanofibrous membranes for application in membrane-based absorbers and desorbers. Permeability studies showed that membranes with a pore size greater than about one micron have a sufficient permeability for application in the absorber heat exchanger. Membranes with smaller pores were found to be adequate for the desorber heat exchanger. The membranes were implemented in experimental membrane-based absorber and desorber modules and successfully tested. Parametric studies were conducted on both absorber and desorber processes. Studies on the absorption process were focused on the effects of water vapor pressure, cooling water temperature, and the solution velocity on the absorption rate. Desorption studies were conducted on the effects of wall temperature, vapor and solution pressures, and the solution velocity on the desorption rate. Significantly higher absorption and desorption rates than in the falling film absorbers and desorbers were achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Transportation safety training

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Zeolite Nanosheet Membrane Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Zeolite Nanosheet Membrane Process University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Zeolite Nanosheet Membranes for use as a Molecular Sieve A method of zeolite membrane fabrication that gives high aspect ratio nanosheets with high purity and precise pore structure has been developed. When combined with other technologies created by the research group, such

  9. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton | Department of Energy by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton" held on May 23, 2011. Water Electrolysis

  10. membrane-ge | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bench-Scale High-Performance Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007514 GE Global Research is developing high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project will optimize the novel membranes at the bench scale, including

  11. Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

    2013-09-30

    Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ≥99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite

  12. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature PEM Membrane Research | Department of Energy Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007. htmwg_kopasz.pdf (1010.95 KB) More Documents & Publications

  13. Composite membranes and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2012-07-03

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  14. Inorganic Membranes for Refinery Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to push the performance limits of inorganic membranes for large-scale gas separations in refinery applications.

  15. Functionalized High Performance Polymer Membranes for Separation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functionalized High Performance Polymer Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Previous Next List Natalia Blinova and Frantisek Svec, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 600-604...

  16. Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Semipermeable membranes (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon nanotubes, which is consistent with the predictions of the simulation. The enabling experimental platform that we are developing is a semipermeable membrane made out ...

  17. Advanced Membrane Technology for Hydrocarbon Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a membrane technology for superior, robust, low-cost natural gas dehydration.

  18. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton," originally held on May 23, ...

  19. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G.; Pinnau, Ingo

    1996-01-01

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  20. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  1. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  2. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  3. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  4. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A. )

    1987-12-01

    Unidirectional {sup 45}Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J{sup net}{sub Ca}) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J{sup net}{sub Ca} to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J{sup net}{sub Ca} was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J{sup net}{sub Ca} decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J{sup net}{sub Ca} was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue {sup 45}Ca content was {approx equal}30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa.

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  6. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  7. Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korzeniewski, Carol

    2014-01-20

    The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

  8. Genetic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mutants Impaired in Plastid Lipid Import Reveals a Role of Membrane Lipids in Chloroplast Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, J.; Xu, C.

    2011-03-01

    The biogenesis of photosynthetic membranes in plants relies largely on lipid import from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and this lipid transport process is mediated by TGD proteins in Arabidopsis. Such a dependency of chloroplast biogenesis on ER-to-plastid lipid transport was recently exemplified by analyzing double mutants between tgd1-1 or tgd4-3 and fad6 mutants. The fad6 mutants are defective in the desaturation of membrane lipids in chloroplasts and therefore dependent on import of polyunsaturated lipid precursors from the ER for constructing a competent thylakoid membrane system. In support of a critical role of TGD proteins in ER-to-plastid lipid trafficking, we showed that the introduction of the tgd mutations into fad6 mutant backgrounds led to drastic reductions in relative amounts of thylakoid lipids. Moreover, the tgd1-1 fad6 and tgd4-3 fad6 double mutants were deficient in polyunsaturated fatty acids in chloroplast membrane lipids, and severely compromised in the biogenesis of photosynthetic membrane systems. Here we report that these double mutants are severely impaired in chloroplast division. The possible role of membrane lipids in chloroplast division is discussed.

  9. Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 membrane_tech_workshop_summary.pdf (889.68 KB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Technology Workshop Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Process Intensification Workshop - September 29-30, 2015

  10. High Temperature Membrane Working Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007. htmwg_kopasz_intro.pdf (305.34 KB) More Documents & Publications HTMWG, May 18, 2009, Welcome! Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

  11. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  12. Future of Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Transportation In the coming decades, transportation in the U.S. is expected to change radically in response to environmental constraints, fluctuating oil availability and economic factors. Future Decision-Makers The transportation systems that emerge in the 21 st century will be defined largely by the choices, skills and imaginations of today's youth. Future Workforce As scientists and engineers, they will develop new vehicle and fuel technologies. As citizens, they will make decisions

  13. Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intelligent Transportation Systems This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. - TRACC Director Background The development and deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) in the United States is an effort of national importance. Through the use of advanced computing, control, and communication technologies, ITS promises to greatly improve the efficiency and safety of the existing surface transportation system and reduce the

  14. Fermilab | Visit Fermilab | Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Transportation to and from Chicago O'Hare Airport or Midway Airport is available by limousine, taxi or car rental. Transportation to and from the Geneva local commuter Metra train station on the Union Pacific West line is available by taxi or Pace Call-n-Ride. Car rental All of the usual rental companies (such as Hertz, Avis, Budget and National) are located at the airports. Limousine service Reservations for limousine service should be made in advance when possible. West Suburban

  15. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  16. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  17. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  18. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo; Koros, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  19. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. This includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.

  20. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. Thismore » includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.« less

  1. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  2. Zein Recovery Using Non-Porous Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mairal, Anurag P.; Ng, Alvin; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    2005-01-25

    A membrane process for treating zein solutions to increase the zein concentration in the solution. The process uses a non-porous membrane that preferentially permeates the solvent and rejects the zein. Optionally, the process can be operated as a diafiltration process to yield a concentrate of high zein purity.

  3. Transportation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is vital to the development of next-generation vehicles. ... Our Transportation Technology R&D Center (TTRDC) brings ... which automatically calibrates itself to any mix of fuels. ...

  4. Transportation Energy Futures Snapshot

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    modes, manage the demand for transportation, and shift the fuel mix to more sustainable sources necessary to reach these significant outcomes. Coordinating a...

  5. integrated-transportation-models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    support a wider application of integrated transportation models, especially focusing on travel demand and network ... irrevocable worldwide license in said article to ...

  6. Radioactive Material Transportation Practices

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-09-23

    Establishes standard transportation practices for Departmental programs to use in planning and executing offsite shipments of radioactive materials including radioactive waste. Does not cancel other directives.

  7. Sustainable Transportation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    This document highlights DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's advancements in transportation technologies, alternative fuels, and fuel cell technologies.

  8. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  9. Transportation Energy Futures Snapshot

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This snapshot is a summary of the EERE reports that provide a detailed analysis of opportunities and challenges along the path to a more sustainable transportation energy future.

  10. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. McGraw

    2000-04-13

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

  11. Membrane loop process for separating carbon dioxide for use in gaseous form from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Baker, Richard W; Merkel, Timothy C

    2014-10-07

    The invention is a process involving membrane-based gas separation for separating and recovering carbon dioxide emissions from combustion processes in partially concentrated form, and then transporting the carbon dioxide and using or storing it in a confined manner without concentrating it to high purity. The process of the invention involves building up the concentration of carbon dioxide in a gas flow loop between the combustion step and a membrane separation step. A portion of the carbon dioxide-enriched gas can then be withdrawn from this loop and transported, without the need to liquefy the gas or otherwise create a high-purity stream, to a destination where it is used or confined, preferably in an environmentally benign manner.

  12. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  13. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  14. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  15. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  16. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  17. Methods of making membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan -Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2015-07-28

    Method of making a membrane electrode assembly comprising: providing a membrane comprising a perfluorinated sulfonic acid; providing a first transfer substrate; applying to a surface of the first transfer substrate a first ink, said first ink comprising an ionomer and a catalyst; applying to the first ink a suitable non-aqueous swelling agent; forming an assembly comprising: the membrane; and the first transfer substrate, wherein the surface of the first transfer substrate comprising the first ink and the non-aqueous swelling agent is disposed upon one surface of the membrane; and heating the assembly at a temperature of 150.degree. C. or less and at a pressure of from about 250 kPa to about 3000 kPa or less for a time suitable to allow substantially complete transfer of the first ink and the second ink to the membrane; and cooling the assembly to room temperature and removing the first transfer substrate and the second transfer substrate.

  18. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Eric J.; Pierpont, Daniel M.; Yandrasits, Michael A.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Obradovich, Stephan J.; Peterson, Donald G.

    2013-03-01

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  19. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

    2014-01-28

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  20. Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, a numerical model incorporating micro-porous layers (MPLs) is presented for simulating water transport within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and MPLs as well as across their interfaces in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. One-dimensional analysis is conducted to investigate the impacts of MPL and GDL properties on the liquid-water profile across the anode GDL-MPL and cathode MPL-GDL regions. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations that take MPLs into account are also carried out to elucidate liquid water transport, particularly through-plane liquid-water profile in a PEM fuel cell. Results from case studies are presented.

  1. Differential Expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of Membrane-Associated Proteins Relevant to Lignin Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shary, Semarjit; Kapich, Alexander N.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Cullen, Dan; Hammel, Ken

    2008-10-02

    Fungal lignin-degrading systems must include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, secretion of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Despite their importance, little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew the white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium on cellulose or glucose as the carbon source and monitored the mineralization of a 14C-labeled synthetic lignin by these cultures to assess their ligninolytic competence. The results showed that the cellulose-grown cultures were ligninolytic, whereas the glucose-grown ones were not. We isolated microsomal membrane fractions from both types of culture and analyzed tryptic digests of them by shotgun liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the results against the predicted P. chrysosporium proteome showed that a catalase (Joint Genome Institute P. chrysosporium protein I.D. 124398), an alcohol oxidase (126879), two transporters (137220 and 132234), and two cytochrome P450s (5011 and 8912) were up-regulated under ligninolytic conditions. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays showed that RNA transcripts encoding all of these proteins were also up-regulated in ligninolytic cultures. Catalase 124398, alcohol oxidase 126879, and transporter 137220 were found in a proteomic analysis of partially purified plasma membranes from ligninolytic P. chrysosporium, and are therefore most likely associated with the outer envelope of the fungus.

  2. Ceramic membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.

    1996-08-01

    Ceramic gas separation membranes can provide very high separation factors if the pore size is sufficiently small to separate gas molecules by molecular sieving and if oversized pores are adequately limited. Ceramic membranes typically have some pores that are substantially larger than the mean pore size and that should be regarded as defects. To assess the effects of such defects on the performance of ceramic membranes, a simple mathematical model has been developed to describe flow through a gas separation membrane that has a primary mode of flow through very small pores but that has a secondary mode of flow through undesirably large pores. This model permits separation factors to be calculated for a specified gas pair as a function of the molecular weights and molecular diameters of the gases, the membrane pore diameter, and the diameter and number of defects. This model will be described, and key results from the model will be presented. The separation factors of the authors membranes continue to be determined using a permeance test system that measures flows of pure gases through a membrane at temperatures up to 275{degrees}C. A primary goal of this project for FY 1996 is to develop a mixed gas separation system for measuring the separation efficiency of membranes at higher temperatures. Performance criteria have been established for the planned mixed gas separation system and design of the system has been completed. The test system is designed to measure the separation efficiency of membranes at temperatures up to 600{degrees}C and pressures up to 100 psi by separating the constituents of a gas mixture containing hydrogen. The system will accommodate the authors typical experimental membrane that is tubular and has a diameter of about 9 mm and a length of about 23 cm. The design of the new test system and its expected performance will be discussed.

  3. Transport Version 3

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-05-16

    The Transport version 3 (T3) system uses the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to move data from sources to a Data Reporisoty (DR). Interested recipients subscribe to newsgroups to retrieve data. Data in transport is protected by AES-256 and RSA cryptographic services provided by the external OpenSSL cryptographic libraries.

  4. Packaging and Transportation Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-04-04

    To establish safety requirements for the proper packaging and transportation of Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) offsite shipments and onsite transfers of hazardous materials and for modal transport. Cancels DOE O 460.1A. Canceled by DOE O 460.1C.

  5. Table II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive Table II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive Technical targets for fuel cell membranes in automotive applications defined by the High Temperature Working Group (February 2003). technical_targets_membr_auto.pdf (99.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Table IV: Technical Targets for Membranes: Stationary Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive R&D Plan for the High Temperature Membrane

  6. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA. pemfc_danish.pdf (641.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update CARISMA: A Networking Project for High

  7. New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PEM Fuel Cells New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells Presentation on New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005. htmwg05_hamrock.pdf (394.94 KB) More Documents & Publications Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes Processing-Performance Relationships for Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membrane Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications

  8. High Temperature Membrane Working Group | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Membrane Working Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at

  9. 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Dimensionally Stable High Temperature Membranes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Dimensionally Stable High Temperature Membranes 2006 DOE Hydrogen Program Dimensionally Stable High Temperature Membranes A presentation to the High Temperature Membranes Working Group meeting, May 19, 2006. mittelsteadt.pdf (843.4 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group, Minutes of Meeting on September 14, 2006 Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive

  10. Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005. htmwg05_schiraldi.pdf (549.62 KB) More Documents & Publications Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes Processing-Performance Relationships for Perfluorosulfonate Ionomer Membrane

  11. Structure and membrane remodeling activity of ESCRT-III helical polymers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McCullough, John; Clippinger, Amy K.; Talledge, Nathaniel; Skowyra, Michael L.; Saunders, Marissa G.; Naismith, Teresa V.; Colf, Leremy A.; Afonine, Pavel; Arthur, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I.; et al

    2015-12-18

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins mediate fundamental membrane remodeling events that require stabilizing negative membrane curvature. These include endosomal intralumenal vesicle formation, HIV budding, nuclear envelope closure, and cytokinetic abscission. ESCRT-III subunits perform key roles in these processes by changing conformation and polymerizing into membrane-remodeling filaments. Here, we report the 4 angstrom resolution cryogenic electron microscopy reconstruction of a one-start, double-stranded helical copolymer composed of two different human ESCRT-III subunits, charged multivesicular body protein 1B (CHMP1B) and increased sodium tolerance 1 (IST1). The inner strand comprises “open” CHMP1B subunits that interlock in an elaborate domain-swapped architecturemore » and is encircled by an outer strand of “closed” IST1 subunits. Unlike other ESCRT-III proteins, CHMP1B and IST1 polymers form external coats on positively curved membranes in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our analysis suggests how common ESCRT-III filament architectures could stabilize different degrees and directions of membrane curvature.« less

  12. Structure and membrane remodeling activity of ESCRT-III helical polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, John; Clippinger, Amy K.; Talledge, Nathaniel; Skowyra, Michael L.; Saunders, Marissa G.; Naismith, Teresa V.; Colf, Leremy A.; Afonine, Pavel; Arthur, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hanson, Phyllis I.; Frost, Adam

    2015-12-18

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins mediate fundamental membrane remodeling events that require stabilizing negative membrane curvature. These include endosomal intralumenal vesicle formation, HIV budding, nuclear envelope closure, and cytokinetic abscission. ESCRT-III subunits perform key roles in these processes by changing conformation and polymerizing into membrane-remodeling filaments. Here, we report the 4 angstrom resolution cryogenic electron microscopy reconstruction of a one-start, double-stranded helical copolymer composed of two different human ESCRT-III subunits, charged multivesicular body protein 1B (CHMP1B) and increased sodium tolerance 1 (IST1). The inner strand comprises “open” CHMP1B subunits that interlock in an elaborate domain-swapped architecture and is encircled by an outer strand of “closed” IST1 subunits. Unlike other ESCRT-III proteins, CHMP1B and IST1 polymers form external coats on positively curved membranes in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our analysis suggests how common ESCRT-III filament architectures could stabilize different degrees and directions of membrane curvature.

  13. Percolation in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacy, Stephen; Allen, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    Water management in the catalyst layers of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) is confronted by two issues, flooding and dry out, both of which result in improper functioning of the fuel cell and lead to poor performance and degradation. At the present time, the data that has been reported about water percolation and wettability within a fuel cell catalyst layer is limited. A method and apparatus for measuring the percolation pressure in the catalyst layer has been developed based upon an experimental apparatus used to test water percolation in porous transport layers (PTL). The experimental setup uses a pseudo Hele-Shaw type testing where samples are compressed and a fluid is injected into the sample. Testing the samples gives percolation pressure plots which show trends in increasing percolation pressure with an increase in flow rate. A decrease in pressure was seen as percolation occurred in one sample, however the pressure only had a rising effect in the other sample.

  14. Membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    1993-01-01

    A combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  15. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  16. Composite metal membranes for hydrogen separation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.S.; Dye, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    A novel multilayer metal membrane has been developed that can be used for the separation of hydrogen from feed streams with near perfect selectivity. The membrane is comprised of very thin layers of fully dense palladium film deposited on both sides of a thin Group V metal foil, ion-milled prior to sputtering of the palladium. Palladium loading are kept low using the thin film deposition technology: 0.0012 grams of palladium per square centimeter of membrane is typically used, although thinner coatings have been employed. This membrane operates at temperatures on the order of 300 C and is capable of high rates of hydrogen flow. Flows are dependent on the pressure differential applied to the membrane, but flows of 105 sccm/cm{sup 2} and higher are regularly observed with differentials below one atmosphere. Long term testing of the membrane for a period in excess of 775 hours under constant conditions showed stable flows and an 85% hydrogen recovery efficiency. A system has been successfully applied to the hydrogen handling system of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and was tested using a pseudo-reformate feed stream without any degradation in performance.

  17. Thinnest Nanofiltration Membrane to Date is Produced | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EmailPrint A separation membrane is a key component in both nanofiltration and reverse osmosis filtration systems. Reducing the thickness of the membrane reduces the pressure that...

  18. Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Glucose-Neopentyl Glycol (GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein ...

  19. Crystal structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Crystal structure of the integral membrane diacylglycerol kinase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal structure of the integral membrane ...

  20. Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications A ...

  1. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct ...

  2. High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTWGM) Agenda...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting (HTWGM) Agenda High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTWGM) Agenda Preliminary agenda for the October 10 meeting of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group ...

  3. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and ...

  4. Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Europe (Presentation) Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting ...

  5. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Presented by Tom Greszler of General Motors at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group ...

  6. High Temperature Membrane Working Group, Minutes of Meeting on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Membrane Working Group, Minutes of Meeting on September 14, 2006 These meeting minutes provide information about the High Temperature Membrane Working Group ...

  7. Ohio State Develops Breakthrough Membranes for Carbon Capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    developed a groundbreaking new hybrid membrane that could efficiently separate carbon ... developed a groundbreaking new hybrid membrane that could efficiently separate carbon ...

  8. Agenda of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Monday, June 9, 2008 Agenda of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Monday, June 9, 2008 HTMWG ...

  9. High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, May 14, 2007...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting, May 14, 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, May 14, 2007 This agenda provides information about the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting on ...

  10. Preliminary Agenda: October 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Preliminary Agenda: October 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Preliminary Agenda: October 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Agenda for October ...

  11. High Temperature Membrane with HUmidification-Independent Cluster...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Membrane with HUmidification-Independent Cluster Structure A presentation ... More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group New Proton ...

  12. High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory High Temperature Polymer Membrane Development at Argonne National Laboratory Summary of ANL's high ...

  13. Through-thickness Membrane Conductivity Measurement for HTM Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through-thickness Membrane Conductivity Measurement for HTM Program: Issues and Approach Through-thickness Membrane Conductivity Measurement for HTM Program: Issues and Approach ...

  14. ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE ADVANCED, ENERGY-EFFICIENT HYBRID MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER REUSE Research Triangle ...

  15. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board ...

  16. Table III: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications R&D Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Table I: Technical Targets for Catalyst Coated Membranes (CCMs): Automotive Table IV: ...

  17. Sulfur Poisoning of Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Sulfur Poisoning of Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur Poisoning of Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation ...

  18. Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced, Energy- Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse New Hybrid Membrane System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water Purification Process As...

  19. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted ...

  20. Anisotropic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1987-01-01

    A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.