National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for transparent conductive hole

  1. Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hautier, Geoffroy

    The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their ...

  2. Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-07-15

    An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaledâ??s HIL material instead of Plextronicsâ??. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are the obvious advantages of this technology. The project has shown that this nanowire technology is a viable option to achieve OLED devices with good lifetime and efficiency and we are currently working with manufacturers to utilize this technology in a production setting.

  3. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  4. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  5. Percolation in Transparent and Conducting Carbon Nanotube Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    and chemical sensors9 , field emission devices10,11 , and transparent conductive coatings7 . We12 , and another. Transmission measurements also indicate the usefulness of nanotube network films as a transparent, conductive coating. Avenues for improvement of the network transparency are discussed. KEYWORDS Nanotubes, Networks

  6. Bulk Phase Relations, Conductivity, and Transparency in Novel Bixbyite Transparent Conducting Oxide Solution in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    applications, and high-temperature and radiation hard electronics.6 To date, much of the research on p of materials that transmit visible radiation and conduct electricity. They find application as transparent/cm, mobilities of 28.3 cm2 /(V s), and carrier densities of 1.2 1021 .1 As areas increase in solar cells and flat

  7. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  8. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2015-07-28

    Thin film electronic devices (or stacks integrated with a substrate) that include a permeation barrier formed of a thin layer of metal that provides a light transmitting and electrically conductive layer, wherein the electrical conductive layer is formed on a surface of the substrate or device layer such as a transparent conducting material layer with pin holes or defects caused by manufacturing and the thin layer of metal is deposited on the conductive layer and formed from a self-healing metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block is formed in or adjacent to the thin film of metal at or proximate to the pin holes to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes.

  9. Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2010-05-04

    A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

  10. Thin transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-phase spinel-type structure, for a time sufficient to allow full crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer at that temperature; cooling the first and second substrates to room temperature; and separating the first and second substrates and layers from each other. The process can be conducted at temperatures less than 600.degree. C., allowing the use of inexpensive soda lime glass substrates.

  11. Magnetic transparent conducting oxide film and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2004-07-13

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 .OMEGA..multidot.cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450.degree. C. in air. Films deposited on sapphire substrates exhibit a refractive index of about 1.7 and are relatively transparent in the wavelength region from 0.6 to 10.0 .mu.m. They are also magnetic. The electrical and spectroscopic properties of the oxides have been studied as a function of x=Co/(Co+Ni) ratio. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo.sub.2 O.sub.4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity. The influence of cation charge state and site occupancy in the spinel structure markedly affects calculated electron band structures and contributes to a reduction of p-type conductivity, the formation of polarons, and the reduction in population of mobile charge carriers that tend to limit transmission in the infrared.

  12. High-performance, transparent conducting oxides based on cadmium stannate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wu, X.; Mulligan, W.P.; Webb, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss the modeling of thin films of transparent conducting oxides and we compare the predictions with the observed properties of cadmium stannate. Thin films of this material were deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The Drude free-carrier model is used to model the optical and electrical properties. The model demonstrates the need for high mobilities. The free-carrier absorbance in the visible spectrum is used as a comparative figure-of-merit for cadmium stannate and tin oxide. This shows that free-carrier absorbance is much less in cadmium stannate than in tin oxide. X-ray diffraction shows that annealed films consist of a single-phase spinel structure. The post-deposition annealing sequence is shown to be crucial to forming a single phase, which is vital for optimal optical and electrical properties. The films are typically high mobility (up to 65 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) and have carrier concentrations as high as 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. Resistivities are as low as 1.3 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, the lowest values reported for cadmium stannate. Atomic force microscopy indicates that the root-mean-square surface roughness is approximately {+-}15A. Cadmium stannate etches readily in both hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, which is a commanding advantage over tin oxide. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  13. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  14. Microwave shielding of transparent and conducting single-walled carbon nanotube films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    Microwave shielding of transparent and conducting single-walled carbon nanotube films Hua Xu, they calculated the shielding effectiveness for various film thicknesses. Shielding effectiveness of 43 dB at 10 films are promising as a type of transparent microwave shielding material. By combining their data

  15. Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly on glass major hurdles that research has to overcome to get graphene out of research laboratories. Here, using transparent graphene layers at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Our few-layer graphene grows at the interface

  16. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  17. Impact of degenerate n-doping on the optical absorption edge in transparent conducting cadmium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleife, André

    n-type or can be heavily doped. Transparent conductive cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films, for instance in the conduction bands of CdO can increase the conductivity up to values desired for technological applications, have been known at least since 1907 and, in that sense, CdO can be seen as a pioneering TCO.1 Pure bulk

  18. Co-Percolating Graphene-Wrapped Silver Nanowire Network for High Performance, Highly Stable, Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ruiyi; Das, Suprem R; Jeong, Changwook; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Janes, David B; Alam, Muhammad A

    2013-04-25

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) require high transparency and low sheet resistance for applications in photovoltaics, photodetectors, flat panel displays, touch screen devices, and imagers. Indium tin oxide (ITO), or other transparent conductive oxides, have been used, and provide a baseline sheet resistance (RS) vs. transparency (T) relationship. Several alternative material systems have been investigated. The development of high-performance hybrid structures provides a route towards robust, scalable and low-cost approaches for realizing high-performance TCE.

  19. Magnetic Transparent Conducting Oxide Film And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA); Sharma, Shiv K. (Honolulu, HI)

    2006-03-14

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 O·cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450° C. in air. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn2+, Al3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo2O4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity.

  20. Transparent and conductive paper from nanocellulose Liangbing Hu,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    such as displays, touch screens and interactive paper. We have also successfully demonstrated an organic solar cell light scattering in the forward direction, which is very useful for solar cell applications layer of ITO, the conductive nanocellulose paper can be used as a substrate for making organic solar

  1. Transmittance and transparency of subwavelength-perforated conducting films in the presence of a magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strelniker, Yakov M.

    Transmittance and transparency of subwavelength-perforated conducting films in the presence theoretically and numerically studied the transmission of light through a subwavelength-perforated metal film of a static magnetic field. Both the perforated and the homogeneous metal films are found to exhibit

  2. Thermoelectric DC conductivities and Stokes flows on black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot Banks; Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2015-07-15

    We consider a general class of electrically charged black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory that are holographically dual to conformal field theories at finite charge density which break translation invariance explicitly. We examine the linearised perturbations about the solutions that are associated with the thermoelectric DC conductivity. We show that there is a decoupled sector at the black hole horizon which must solve generalised Stokes equations for a charged fluid. By solving these equations we can obtain the DC conductivity of the dual field theory. For one-dimensional lattices we solve the fluid equations to obtain closed form expressions for the DC conductivity in terms of the solution at the black hole horizon. We also determine the leading order DC conductivity for lattices that can be expanded as a perturbative series about translationally invariant solutions.

  3. Thermoelectric DC conductivities and Stokes flows on black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Elliot; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2015-01-01

    We consider a general class of electrically charged black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory that are holographically dual to conformal field theories at finite charge density which break translation invariance explicitly. We examine the linearised perturbations about the solutions that are associated with the thermoelectric DC conductivity. We show that there is a decoupled sector at the black hole horizon which must solve generalised Stokes equations for a charged fluid. By solving these equations we can obtain the DC conductivity of the dual field theory. For one-dimensional lattices we solve the fluid equations to obtain closed form expressions for the DC conductivity in terms of the solution at the black hole horizon. We also determine the leading order DC conductivity for lattices that can be expanded as a perturbative series about translationally invariant solutions.

  4. Thermoelectric DC conductivities and Stokes flows on black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot Banks; Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2015-10-11

    We consider a general class of electrically charged black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory that are holographically dual to conformal field theories at finite charge density which break translation invariance explicitly. We examine the linearised perturbations about the solutions that are associated with the thermoelectric DC conductivity. We show that there is a decoupled sector at the black hole horizon which must solve generalised Stokes equations for a charged fluid. By solving these equations we can obtain the DC conductivity of the dual field theory. For Q-lattices and one-dimensional lattices we solve the fluid equations to obtain closed form expressions for the DC conductivity in terms of the solution at the black hole horizon. We also determine the leading order DC conductivity for lattices that can be expanded as a perturbative series about translationally invariant solutions.

  5. Low-Dimensional Conduction Mechanisms in Highly-Conductive and Transparent Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ugur Katmis, Asli

    Electronic conduction in conjugated polymers is of emerging technological interest for high-performance optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. A completely new aspect and understanding of the conduction mechanism on ...

  6. Low-Dimensional Conduction Mechanisms in Highly Conductive and Transparent Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asli Ugur; Ferhat Katmis; Mingda Li; Lijun Wu; Yimei Zhu; Kripa K. Varanasi; Karen K. Gleason

    2015-08-15

    Electronic conduction in conjugated polymers is of emerging technological interest for high-performance optoelectronic and thermoelectric devices. A completely new aspect and understanding of the conduction mechanism on conducting polymers is introduced, allowing the applicability of materials to be optimized. The charge-transport mechanism is explained by direct experimental evidence with a very well supported theoretical model.

  7. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  8. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Qihua; Liao Xianbo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Deng, Michael [Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States); Deng Xunming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a higher yield than direct current sputtering, and the reason is not clear. Here we show that the damage to the solar cell during the sputtering process is caused by a reverse bias applied to the n-i-p junction. This reverse bias is related to the characteristics of plasma discharge. The mechanism we reveal may significantly affect the solar cell process.

  9. Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

    2011-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

  10. Preparation of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Honma, Yasunori; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2007-07-15

    Highly transparent and conductive B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films have been prepared by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation method that provided high-rate film depositions using sintered BZO pellets and fragments. The obtained electrical and optical properties of the deposited BZO thin films were considerably affected by the deposition conditions as well as the preparation method of the BZO pellets and fragments used. The lowest thin film resistivity was obtained with a B doping content [B/(B+Zn) atomic ratio] of approximately 1 at. %. A resistivity as low as 5x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and an average transmittance above about 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1300 nm were obtained in BZO films prepared with a thickness above approximately 400 nm at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. In addition, a low resistivity of 7.97x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and average transmittances above about 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained in a BZO film prepared at a substrate temperature of 100 deg. C and an O{sub 2} gas flow rate of 10 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The deposition rate of BZO films was typically 170 nm/min with a cathode plasma power of 4.5 kW.

  11. Growth of oriented vanadium pentaoxide nanostructures on transparent conducting substrates and their applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hongjiang; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    A novel, hydrothermal and hard-template-free method was developed for the first time to grow oriented, single-crystalline monoclinic VO{sub 2} (B) flower-like nanorod films on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The length and morphology of the nanorods can be tuned by changing the growth parameters, such as growth time and initial precursor concentration. The flower-like V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were obtained after post-calcination treatment of VO{sub 2} (B) films. The photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV and visible light. The prepared V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good photocatalytic performance (74.6% and 63% under UV and visible light for 210 min, respectively) and more practical application in industry. - Graphical abstract: Flower nanostructured vanadium oxide film was prepared by hydrothermal reaction for photocatalysis application. - Highlights: • Monoclinic VO{sub 2} nanorod array and flower-like nanostructure were directly grown on FTO substrate by hydrothermal reaction. • The growth mechanism was analyzed by FESEM at different time. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flower-like nanostructure film was obtained after calcining VO{sub 2} film. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good light activity and potential application in photocatalysis.

  12. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuankun

    2014-01-01

    7. Optical bandgap of the doped CdO thin films as a functionelectrical properties of In-doped CdO thin films fabricatedand transparent Ti-doped CdO films by pulsed laser

  13. Infrared-optical spectroscopy of transparent conducting perovskite (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongmin; Yu, Kwangnam; Jun Chang, Young; Choi, E. J.; Sohn, Egon; Hoon Kim, Kee

    2014-01-13

    We have performed optical transmission, reflection, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and Hall effect measurements on the electron-doped La{sub x}Ba{sub 1–x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.04) transparent thin films. From the infrared Drude response and plasma frequency analysis we determine the effective mass of the conducting electron m*?=?0.35m{sub 0}. In the visible-UV region the optical band gap shifts to high energy in (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} by 0.18?eV compared with undoped BaSnO{sub 3} which, in the context of the Burstein-Moss analysis, is consistent with the infrared-m*. m* of BaSnO{sub 3} is compared with other existing transparent conducting oxides (TCO), and implication on search for high-mobility TCO compounds is discussed.

  14. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.

  15. See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yang; O’Brien, Paul G.; Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 ; Ozin, Geoffrey A. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-25

    Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

  16. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

  17. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

  18. Optical and electronic properties of delafossite CuBO{sub 2}p-type transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruttanapun, Chesta E-mail: krchesta@kmitl.ac.th

    2013-09-21

    CuBO{sub 2} delafossite was prepared by solid state reaction and calcined/sintered at 1005?°C. The optical properties of this p-type transparent conducting oxide were investigated. Its crystal structure, morphology, composition, oxygen decomposition, and optical and electronic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity measurements. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite possesses a hexagonal space group R3{sup ¯}m. TGA indicated a weight loss of 10%, which was attributed to excess oxygen. The positive Seebeck coefficient confirmed p-type behavior. Emission at 355?nm indicated a direct band type transition, and the UV-VIS-NIR spectrum indicated an optical direct gap of 3.6?eV. Activation energies for carrier production and electrical conduction were 0.147 and 0.58?eV, respectively, indicating the thermal activation of carriers. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite is a p-type transparent conducting oxide with a wide band gap and may have potential in industrial p-type electrodes.

  19. Navier-Stokes on Black Hole Horizons and DC Thermoelectric Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2015-01-01

    We consider a general class of black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell theory which are holographically dual to CFTs with spatially dependent sources. We show that an averaged DC thermoelectric conductivity matrix can be obtained by solving the forced, linearised, time-independent Navier-Stokes equations on the black hole horizon for an incompressible and charged fluid.

  20. Transparent Conducting Electrodes based on 1D and 2D Ag Nanogratings for Organic Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Beibei; Bartoli, Filbert J

    2014-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of optically-thin one-dimensional (1D) Ag nanogratings and two-dimensional (2D) Ag nanogrids are studied, and their use as transparent electrodes in organic photovoltaics are explored. A large broadband and polarization-insensitive optical absorption enhancement in the organic light-harvesting layers is theoretically and numerically demonstrated using either single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids or two perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, and is attributed to the excitation of surface plasmon resonances and plasmonic cavity modes. Total photon absorption enhancements of 150% and 200% are achieved for the optimized single-layer 2D Ag nanogrids and double (top and bottom) perpendicular 1D Ag nanogratings, respectively.

  1. High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

    2009-04-24

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  2. "Meissner effect" and Blandford-Znajek mechanism in conductive black hole magnetospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. Komissarov; J. C. McKinney

    2007-02-14

    The expulsion of axisymmetric magnetic field from the event horizons of rapidly rotating black holes has been seen as an astrophysically important effect that may significantly reduce or even nullify the efficiency of the Blandford-Znajek mechanism of powering the relativistic jets in Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Ray Bursts. However, this Meissner-like effect is seen in vacuum solutions of black hole electrodynamics whereas the Blandford-Znajek mechanism is concerned with plasma-filled magnetospheres. In this paper we argue that conductivity dramatically changes the properties of axisymmetric electromagnetic solutions -- even for a maximally rotating Kerr black hole the magnetic field is pulled inside the event horizon. Moreover, the conditions resulting in outgoing Poynting flux in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism exist not on the event horizon but everywhere within the black hole ergosphere. Thus, the Meissner effect is unlikely to be of interest in astrophysics of black holes, at least not in the way this has been suggested so far. These conclusions are supported by the results of time-dependent numerical simulations with three different computer codes. The test problems involve black holes with the rotation parameter ranging from $a=0.999$ to $a=1$. The pure electrodynamic simulations deal with the structure of conductive magnetospheres of black holes placed in a uniform-at-infinity magnetic field (Wald's problem) and the magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used to study the magnetospheres arising in the problem of disk accretion.

  3. New transparent conducting oxides. Progress in understanding cadmium-containing bulk and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    behavior than in the corresponding thin films. Pulsed laser deposition growth on MgO (111) of Sn- doped CdO. vapor deposition. Central to the properties of lightly doped CdO phases is the cubic microstructure for which ab initio calcns. reveal small conduction electron effective masses, a large shift of the CdO band

  4. Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.; Coutts, T.J.; Sheldon, P.; Rose, D.H.

    1999-07-13

    A photovoltaic device is disclosed having a substrate, a layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials. 10 figs.

  5. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  6. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, André

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 ?cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nmmore »(including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.« less

  7. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, André

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 ?cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.

  8. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Center for Composite Materials and Structures; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Plasma Applications Group; Mendelsberg, Rueben J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Plasma Applications Group and Molecular Foundry; Zhu, Jiaqi [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Center for Composite Materials and Structures; Han, Jiecai [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Center for Composite Materials and Structures; Anders, Andre [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Plasma Applications Group

    2013-01-01

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). It is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 10-5 cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80percent from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.

  9. Development of large area transparent conducting oxides from a combinatorial lead for organic solid state lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matson, Dean W.; Bonham, Charles C.; Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Berry, J. J.; Sigdel, Ajaya K.; Gorrie, Christopher W.; Ginley, D. S.

    2009-09-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLEDs) may provide a low-cost, long-lived, and efficient wide area lighting solution if a number of challenges in reliability, cost and efficiency can be overcome. There is a need to develop new TCOs for use as the anode in a bottom-emitting device that do not contain In, have optimal work function, conductivity and visible light transmission properties, possess acceptable stability and possess a high work function to match the deep HOMO of blue OLED HTLs. We report here results from our efforts to scale up sputter deposition on large area substrates (up to 12”x12”) of TCO candidates (including Ga:ZnO and Zn:SnO) identified using combinatorial methods. We present transmission, electrical properties, work function, compositional and structural data for these films. Finally, we have evaluated the use of these materials in OLEDs, and show device performance comparisons between devices fabricated on combinatorial substrates, single composition substrates, and substrates grown at larger scale (up to 12”x12”). Post-operation analysis of the materials using a combination of surface analysis and electron microscopy techniques was performed. The device results demonstrate that we are able to generate substrates with the appropriate work function to reduce the operating voltage of blue phosphorescent OLEDs compared to commercial ITO, which we ascribe to improved work function-HOMO energy matching leading to more efficient charge injection into the device HTL.

  10. Why MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not a transparent conducting oxide?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Retuerto, M.; Calle, C. de la; Porcher, Florence

    2012-03-15

    The title compound has been synthesized by a citrate technique. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3-bar m, Z=8, with a=9.0008(1) A at 295 K. It exhibits a crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively, with a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08. MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows antiferromagnetic interactions below T{sub N} Almost-Equal-To 40 K, due to the statistical distribution of Mn ions over the two available sites. Unlike the related MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels, well known as transparent conducting oxides, MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is not transparent and shows a poor conductivity ({sigma}=0.38 S cm{sup -1} at 1123 K): the presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed valence states, localizes the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band. - Graphical Abstract: From NPD data the crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, shows a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08 and a certain In deficiency. The presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed oxidation states, localize the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band; the presence of localized Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions provides the characteristic brown color. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accurate structural determination from NPD data: inversion degree (8%), and In deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bond-valence indicates Mn{sup 2+}-Mn{sup 3+} ions; edge-sharing octahedra contain 90% In{sup 3+}+10% Mn{sup 3+} cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity several orders of magnitude lower than those of MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} or CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variability of Mn oxidation states cancels any electron-doping effect, emptying conduction band of mobile charge carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curie-Weiss behavior confirming the determined charge distribution.

  11. Navier-Stokes on Black Hole Horizons and DC Thermoelectric Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2015-11-12

    Within the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence we show that the DC thermoelectric conductivity can be obtained by solving the linearised, time-independent and forced Navier-Stokes equations on the black hole horizon for an incompressible and charged fluid.

  12. Effects of hole localization on limiting p-type conductivity in oxide and nitride semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, J. L.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    We examine how hole localization limits the effectiveness of substitutional acceptors in oxide and nitride semiconductors and explain why p-type doping of these materials has proven so difficult. Using hybrid density functional calculations, we find that anion-site substitutional impurities in AlN, GaN, InN, and ZnO lead to atomic-like states that localize on the impurity atom itself. Substitution with cation-site impurities, on the other hand, triggers the formation of polarons that become trapped on nearest-neighbor anions, generally leading to large ionization energies for these acceptors. Unlike shallow effective-mass acceptors, these two types of deep acceptors couple strongly with the lattice, significantly affecting the optical properties and severely limiting prospects for achieving p-type conductivity in these wide-band-gap materials.

  13. Mechanical and transparent conductive properties of ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO films sputtered using electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma on polyethylene naphtalate substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akazawa, Housei, E-mail: akazawa.housei@lab.ntt.co.jp [NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Transparent conductive ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) sheet substrates using electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering. Both ZnO and GZO films were highly adhesive to the PEN substrates without inserting an intermediate layer in the interface. When compared at the same thickness, the transparent conductive properties of GZO films on PEN substrates were only slightly inferior to those on glass substrates. However, the carrier concentration of ZnO films on PEN substrates was 1.5?times that of those on glass substrates, whereas their Hall mobility was only 60% at a thickness of 300?nm. The depth profile of elements measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed the diffusion of hydrocarbons out of the PEN substrate into the ZnO film. Hence, doped carbons may act as donors to enhance carrier concentration, and the intermixing of elements at the interface may deteriorate the crystallinity, resulting in the lower Hall mobility. When the ZnO films were thicker than 400?nm, cracks became prevalent because of the lattice mismatch strain between the film and the substrate, whereas GZO films were free of cracks. The authors investigated how rolling the films around a cylindrical pipe surface affected their conductive properties. Degraded conductivity occurred at a threshold pipe radius of 10?mm when tensile stress was applied to the film, but it occurred at a pipe radius of 5?mm when compressive stress was applied. These values are guidelines for bending actual devices fabricated on PEN substrates.

  14. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of transparent conducting films of fluorine doped zinc oxide and their application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    crystal flat panel displays, energy efficient windows, gas sensors, surface acoustic wave devices loss or diffusion, which can lead to degra- dation in solar cell efficiency. Zinc oxide is more stable conducting oxides. This suggests zinc oxide may lead to higher solar cell efficiency than tin oxide

  15. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qingwu; Li, Wenguang; Jiang, Hua

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  16. CdO as the Archetypical Transparent Conducting Oxide. Systematics of Dopant Ionic Radius and Electronic Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedeva, Julia E.

    : A series of yttrium-doped CdO (CYO) thin films have been grown on both amorphous glass and single, and optical properties of the In-, Sc-, and Y-doped CdO systems. Both experimental and theoretical results metallic conductivities.1,4-7 Epitaxial growth of Sn-doped CdO thin films on MgO(111) by pulsed laser

  17. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA)

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  18. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion...

  19. Introduction Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    , In3 , Ga3 , and Sn4 ). Four of these form TCOs as single-cation oxides (ZnO, CdO, In2O3, and SnO2 for more than 50 years, pri- marily in the form of doped single-cation oxides such as In2O3 and SnO2) when appro- priately doped, whereas Ga2O3 is a wide- bandgap insulator. There are 10 binary, 10 ternary

  20. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2013-09-24

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  1. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce (Knoxville, TN); Ivanov, Ilia N. (Knoxville, TN); Puretzky, Alexander A. (Knoxville, TN); Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Bin (Knoxville, TN); Garrett, Matthew (Knoxville, TN); Zhao, Bin (Easley, SC)

    2011-04-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  2. Influence of Structural Defects and Oxidation onto Hole Conductivity W.G. Schmidt,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    density functional theory. It is shown that the conductivity of molecular crystals perpendicular-Kramers-Brillouin approxima- tion. Furthermore, it is found that local relaxation for twisted or bent polymer chains

  3. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.; Croessmann, C.D.; Horton, R.D.; Matter, J.C.; Czajkowski, A.F.; Sheely, K.B.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the US without compromising the national security of the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct-use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries.

  4. Optoelectronic properties and interband transition of La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} transparent conducting films determined by variable temperature spectral transmittance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, S. M.; Shan, C.; Jiang, K.; Zhu, J. J.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G. Chu, J. H.

    2015-03-14

    Perovskite-structured Ba{sub 1?x}La{sub x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?0–0.10) films have been directly grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by a sol-gel method. Optical properties and bandgap energy of the films have been investigated by transmittance spectra from 10?K to 450?K. It indicates that these films exhibit a high transmission of more than 80% in the visible region. With increasing temperature, there is a significant bandgap shrinkage of about 0.5?eV for lightly La doping (x???0.04) films. For heavily La doping concentration (x???0.06), the bandgap remains nearly stable with the temperature and La composition. This is due to the fact that the lattice expansion caused by La doping is close to the saturation for the film doped with x?=?0.06. Moreover, temperature dependent conductivity behavior shows a similar pattern, which suggests that the doping concentration of La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} (BLSO) films has a saturated state. The La introduction can modify the Sn 5s-O 2p antibonding state and the nonbonding O 2p orbital, which remarkably affect the electronic bandgap of the BLSO films.

  5. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides via Blockcopolymer Patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joung Youn Ellie

    2014-05-27

    . This can lead to new device designs of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS), fuel cells, displays and solar cells. Moreover, the ability to incorporate other various functional materials to form a hybrid with the nanostructured TCO allows possibilities...

  6. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells...

  7. Transparent Conducting Oxide - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts > ProductsSubtitle Re-balancing BPA'sSolar

  8. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    Transparent and Flexible Electronics," Nat. Nanotechnol. ,Wong and A. Salleo. , "Flexible Electronics: Materials andcompletely see- through flexible electronics and change the

  9. Flexible transparent conductors based on metal nanowire networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-04-01

    Few conductors are transparent and flexible. Metals have the best electrical conductivity, but they are opaque and stiff in bulk form. However, metals can be transparent and flexible when they are very thin or properly arranged on the nanoscale. This review focuses on the flexible transparent conductors based on percolating networks of metal. Specifically, we discuss the fabrication, the means to improve the electrical conductivity, the large stretchability and its mechanism, and the applications of these metal networks. We also suggest some criteria for evaluating flexible transparent conductors and propose some new research directions in this emerging field.

  10. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solar cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  11. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; et al

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solarmore »cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.« less

  12. Optically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  13. Conductivity and transparency of TiO2 from first principles Andre Schleife1, Joel B. Varley1,2, Anderson Janotti2, and Chris G. Van de Walle2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleife, André

    transparent electronics3 devices. In addition, oxide materials have great potential for photocatalysis4 the properties for both the TCO and photocatalysis applications. Depending on the dopants that are used they can the absorption of visible light and paves the way for more efficient photocatalysis. In order to achieve

  14. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    tunneling oxide permits electrons (holes) from the graphene to be injected into the HfO x charge trap

  15. Flexible and Transparent Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KIM, SUNG MIN

    2012-01-01

    for subsequent atomic-layer deposition (ALD) of the oxidedeposited through atomic layer deposition and transparent15-nm-thick Al 2 O 3 by atomic-layer-deposition, oxygen ion-

  16. Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View NewTransparent Cost

  17. Neural representation of transparent overlay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Heydt, Rüdiger

    the corners of the light and dark squares are rounded off (Fig. 1c), transparency is no longer perceivedNeural representation of transparent overlay Fangtu T Qiu & Ru¨diger von der Heydt Perceptual transparency is a surprising phenomenon in which a number of regions of different shades organize

  18. Absorption-induced transparency metamaterials in the terahertz regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo, Sergio G

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to what might be expected, when an organic dye is sputtered onto an opaque holey metal film, transmission bands can be observed at the absorption energies of the molecules. This phenomenon, known as absorption-induced transparency, is aided by a strong modification of the propagation properties of light inside the holes when filled by the molecules. Despite having been initially observed in metallic structures in the optical regime, new routes for investigation and applications at different spectral regimes can be devised. Here, in order to illustrate the potential use of absorption induced transparency at terahertz, a method for molecular detection is presented, supported by a theoretical analysis.

  19. Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

    1985-06-01

    Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

  20. 2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, R

    2012-04-30

    During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

  1. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

  2. Carrier dynamics in bulk ZnO. I. Intrinsic conductivity measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at room temperature.3 Thin films of ZnO are useful in transparent transistors and transparent conducting coatings because of their combination of wide band gap, high conductivity, and processability.4

  3. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order $\\chi^{(2)}$ susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency $\\omega_1$ can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated,when phase matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of 'scattering' in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility $\\chi^{(2)}$ along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodiza...

  4. Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transpar- ent and have to be thick

  5. CsSnI[subscript 3]: Semiconductor or Metal? High Electrical Conductivity and Strong Near-Infrared Photoluminescence from a Single Material. High Hole Mobility and Phase-Transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, In; Song, Jung-Hwan; Im, Jino; Androulakis, John; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Hao; Freeman, Arthur J.; Kenney, John T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. (NWU); (OmniPV)

    2012-10-29

    CsSnI{sub 3} is an unusual perovskite that undergoes complex displacive and reconstructive phase transitions and exhibits near-infrared emission at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical studies of CsSnI{sub 3} have been limited by the lack of detailed crystal structure characterization and chemical instability. Here we describe the synthesis of pure polymorphic crystals, the preparation of large crack-/bubble-free ingots, the refined single-crystal structures, and temperature-dependent charge transport and optical properties of CsSnI{sub 3}, coupled with ab initio first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In situ temperature-dependent single-crystal and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies reveal the origin of polymorphous phase transitions of CsSnI{sub 3}. The black orthorhombic form of CsSnI{sub 3} demonstrates one of the largest volumetric thermal expansion coefficients for inorganic solids. Electrical conductivity, Hall effect, and thermopower measurements on it show p-type metallic behavior with low carrier density, despite the optical band gap of 1.3 eV. Hall effect measurements of the black orthorhombic perovskite phase of CsSnI{sub 3} indicate that it is a p-type direct band gap semiconductor with carrier concentration at room temperature of {approx} 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and a hole mobility of {approx} 585 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The hole mobility is one of the highest observed among p-type semiconductors with comparable band gaps. Its powders exhibit a strong room-temperature near-IR emission spectrum at 950 nm. Remarkably, the values of the electrical conductivity and photoluminescence intensity increase with heat treatment. The DFT calculations show that the screened-exchange local density approximation-derived band gap agrees well with the experimentally measured band gap. Calculations of the formation energy of defects strongly suggest that the electrical and light emission properties possibly result from Sn defects in the crystal structure, which arise intrinsically. Thus, although stoichiometric CsSnI{sub 3} is a semiconductor, the material is prone to intrinsic defects associated with Sn vacancies. This creates highly mobile holes which cause the materials to appear metallic.

  6. p-Type transparent conducting oxides and methods for preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahriari, Dean Y. (Evanston, IL); Barnabe, Antoine (Toulouse, FR); Mason, Thomas O. (Evanston, IL); Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R. (Evanston, IL)

    2011-05-31

    A facile, low temperature and low pressure method for the preparation of a wide range of phase pure ABO.sub.2 compositions.

  7. Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAuditsClusterInformationContract Management Princeton Site»MethaneCenter |

  8. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and Reduce CarbonEnergyDepartment13Department of EnergyMEAs

  9. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w1.½tank |A suggestion for a new

  10. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document w1.½tank |A suggestion for a newDisplays

  11. Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.WeekProducts > ProductsSubtitle Re-balancing

  12. Transparent self-cleaning dust shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Malay K.; Sims, Robert A.; Wilson, James D.

    2005-06-28

    A transparent electromagnetic shield to protect solar panels and the like from dust deposition. The shield is a panel of clear non-conducting (dielectric) material with embedded parallel electrodes. The panel is coated with a semiconducting film. Desirably the electrodes are transparent. The electrodes are connected to a single-phase AC signal or to a multi-phase AC signal that produces a travelling electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic field produced by the electrodes lifts dust particles away from the shield and repels charged particles. Deposited dust particles are removed when the electrodes are activated, regardless of the resistivity of the dust. Electrostatic charges on the panel are discharged by the semiconducting film. When used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells, the power for the device may be obtained from the cells themselves. For other surfaces, such as windshields, optical windows and the like, the power must be derived from an external source. One embodiment of the invention employs monitoring and detection devices to determine when the level of obscuration of the screen by dust has reached a threshold level requiring activation of the dust removal feature.

  13. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  14. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  15. Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D. McGehee*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Transparent electrode requirements for thin film solar cell modules Michael W. Rowell and Michael D The transparent conductor (TC) layer in thin film solar cell modules has a significant impact on the power to replace conducting oxides in this geometry. Thin film solar cell modules can be manufactured either

  16. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  17. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  18. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more »between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  19. Benchmarking & Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook May 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by Navigant Consulting, Inc.and Steven Winter Associates, Inc....

  20. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  1. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  2. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  3. Transparent conductor-Si pillars heterojunction photodetector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang

    2014-08-14

    We report a high-performing heterojunction photodetector by enhanced surface effects. Periodically, patterned Si substrates were used to enlarge the photo-reactive regions and yield proportionally improved photo-responses. An optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) was deposited on a Si substrate and spontaneously formed an ITO/Si heterojunction. Due to an electrical conductive ITO film, ITO/Si heterojunction device can be operated at zero-bias, which effectively suppresses the dark current, resulting in better performances than those by a positive or a negative bias operation. This zero-bias operating heterojunction device exhibits a short response time (? 22.5?ms) due to the physical reaction to the incident light. We revealed that the location of the space charge region (SCR) is crucial for a specific photon-wavelength response. The SCR space has the highest collection efficiency of the photo-generated carriers. The photo-response can be maximized when we design the photodetector by superposing the SCR space over a corresponding photon-absorption length. The surface enhanced Si pillar devices significantly improved the photo-responses ratios from that of a planar Si device. According to this design scheme, a high photo-response ratio of 5560% was achieved at a wavelength of 600?nm. This surfaced-enhanced heterojunction design scheme would be a promising approach for various photoelectric applications.

  4. Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies and the NYC Example New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report Building Energy...

  5. New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report Prepared for the U.S....

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Optically Transparent Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, John

    We present a fully functional material extrusion printer for optically transparent glass. The printer is composed of scalable modular elements able to operate at the high temperatures required to process glass from a molten ...

  7. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote...

  8. Beyond transparency : collective engagement in sustainable design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonanni, Leonardo Amerigo, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    For a timely answer to the question of sustainability, or how to provide for future generations, there needs to be shared accounting of our social and physical resources. Supply chain transparency makes it possible to map ...

  9. Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    “NEPA is, at its core, a transparency statute,” said Katie Scharf, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Deputy General Counsel, in opening a panel discussion on using information technology to...

  10. On-cue detachment of hydrogels and cells from optically transparent electrodesw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revzin, Alexander

    of composition or conformation of self-assembled molecules is to remove these molecules altogether) is optically transparent yet conductive material that is well-suited for cell cultivation and observation was highly significant because it permitted both spatial and temporal control over the release of polymer

  11. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

  12. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  13. Coronal Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  14. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  15. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  16. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  17. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  18. Implementation of Transparent Sources in FDTD Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    , the transparent source does not scatter energy, i.e., the usual FDTD update equation applies to the source node and that is governed by the standard FDTD update equation does not, per se, scatter energy. Therefore, it appears­1/R11, 129 Parker St., Maynard, MA 01754 1 #12; 1 Introduction Energy can be coupled into a finite

  19. Preparation and characterization of transparent PZNPLZT ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Preparation and characterization of transparent PZN­PLZT ceramics Q.R Yin,a) A.L. Ding, X.S. Zheng, and P.S. Qiu The State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfire Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ding Xi Road, 200050, Shanghai, China M

  20. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Param H.; Hunt, Arlon J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses D. D. Yavuz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yavuz, Deniz

    Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses D. D. Yavuz Department pulses inside an atomic medium using electromag- netically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion.65. k Over the last decade, counterintuitive optical effects using electromagnetically induced

  2. Characterization of Light Scattering in Transparent Polycrystalline Laser Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Loss ………………………………………..…… 7 Characterization of BulkImages, the utility of characterization techniques towardsapplicable towards the characterization of any transparent

  3. Aramid-Nanofiber-Reinforced Transparent Nanocomposites Ming Yang1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thouless, Michael

    with diameters 50-200 nm produced by electrospinning, were used to prepare an optically transparent composite

  4. Principle of Transparency Applied in Construction Proceedings IGLC '98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tommelein, Iris D.

    ABSTRACT Transparency is one of the foundations of excellence in manufacturing and a fundamental step Brazil and England. KEY WORDS Lean construction, transparency, visual management. 1 Civil Eng., M.Sc., Ph, Brazil INTRODUCTION Transparency is one of the foundations of excellence in manufacturing

  5. Double-sided microchannel patterning and through-hole production using injection molding of polypropylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diaz, Nancy, S. B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted on injection molded polypropylene parts with microchannels and through-holes. The quality of the microchannels and through-holes was observed with optical microscope and SEM images. A ...

  6. Brief review on higher spin black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfredo Perez; David Tempo; Ricardo Troncoso

    2014-05-12

    We review some relevant results in the context of higher spin black holes in three-dimensional spacetimes, focusing on their asymptotic behaviour and thermodynamic properties. For simplicity, we mainly discuss the case of gravity nonminimally coupled to spin-3 fields, being nonperturbatively described by a Chern-Simons theory of two independent sl(3,R) gauge fields. Since the analysis is particularly transparent in the Hamiltonian formalism, we provide a concise discussion of their basic aspects in this context; and as a warming up exercise, we briefly analyze the asymptotic behaviour of pure gravity, as well as the BTZ black hole and its thermodynamics, exclusively in terms of gauge fields. The discussion is then extended to the case of black holes endowed with higher spin fields, briefly signaling the agreements and discrepancies found through different approaches. We conclude explaining how the puzzles become resolved once the fall off of the fields is precisely specified and extended to include chemical potentials, in a way that it is compatible with the asymptotic symmetries. Hence, the global charges become completely identified in an unambiguous way, so that different sets of asymptotic conditions turn out to contain inequivalent classes of black hole solutions being characterized by a different set of global charges.

  7. Theory of Dipole Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed theory describing linear optics of vapors comprised of interacting multi-level quantum emitters is proposed. It is shown both by direct integration of Maxwell-Bloch equations and using a simple analytical model that at large densities narrow transparency windows appear in otherwise completely opaque spectra. The existence of such windows is attributed to overlapping resonances. This effect, first introduced for three-level systems in [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014)], is due to strongly enhanced dipole-dipole interactions at high emitters' densities. The presented theory extends this effect to the case of multilevel systems. The theory is applied to the D1 transitions of interacting Rb-85 atoms. It is shown that at high atomic densities, Rb-85 atoms can behave as three-level emitters exhibiting all the properties of dipole induced electromagnetic transparency. Applications including slow light and laser pulse shaping are also propose...

  8. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA); Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Seeley, Zachary M. (Pullman, WA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-10-18

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a transparent ceramic preform includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, adding the suspension to a mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the suspension in the mold for forming a preform. The suspension includes a dispersant but does not include a gelling agent. In another embodiment, a method includes creating a mixture without a gelling agent, the mixture including: inorganic particles, a solvent, and a dispersant. The inorganic particles have a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm. The method also includes agitating the mixture, adding the mixture to a mold, and curing the mixture in the mold at a temperature of less than about 80.degree. C. for forming a preform. Other methods for forming a transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several embodiments.

  9. Nuclear Transparency in the lightest nuclear interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ajaz; M. K. Suleymanov; K. H. Khan; A. Zaman

    2012-03-28

    Some experimental results on nuclear transparency effect in pC- and dC-interaction at 4.2 A GeV/c (JINR Dubna) are presented. The "half angle" ({\\theta}1/2) technique was used and the particles with emission angle greater and less than {\\theta}1/2 are considered separately. The results of the experimental study have been compared with the simulation data coming from the Dubna Cascade model. The values of average multiplicity, average momentum, and average transverse momentum of charged pions and protons are analyzed as a function of the number of identified protons in an event. We observed some behaviors for the data which could be considered as some nuclear transparency effects. The lasts have been divided into three main groups depending on their probable behavior: leading effect; cascade effect; medium effect.

  10. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo

    2014-11-04

    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  11. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  12. Back-reaction of a conformal field on a three-dimensional black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian Martinez; Jorge Zanelli

    1996-10-22

    The first order corrections to the geometry of the (2+1)-dimensional black hole due to back-reaction of a massless conformal scalar field are computed. The renormalized stress energy tensor used as the source of Einstein equations is computed with the Green function for the black-hole background with transparent boundary conditions. This tensor has the same functional form as the one found in the nonperturbative case which can be exactly solved. Thus, a static, circularly symmetric and asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole solution of the semiclassical equations is found. The corrections to the thermodynamic quantities are also computed.

  13. Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Ferrarese; David Merritt

    2002-06-13

    After a brief historical introduction, we summarize current efforts and accomplishments in the study of supermassive black holes.

  14. Transparency Market Research | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)OpenEnergyTrail Canyonsource History View New PagesTransparency

  15. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  16. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency controlled by a microwave field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hebin; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2009-01-01

    interferences in electromagnetically induced transparency. A simple theoretical model and a numerical simulation have been developed to explain the observed experimental results....

  18. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  19. Representation-transparent Matrix Algorithms with Scalable Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, David Stephen

    Representation-transparent Matrix Algorithms with Scalable Performance Peter Gottschling Indiana been suspended since the next round of Moore's-law improvements will be delivered via CMPs. Programmers

  20. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  1. Transparency of 0.2% GdCl3 Doped Water in a Stainless Steel Test Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Coleman; A. Bernstein; S. Dazeley; R. Svoboda

    2008-06-11

    The possibility of neutron and neutrino detection using water Cerenkov detectors doped with gadolinium holds the promise of constructing very large high-efficiency detectors with wide-ranging application in basic science and national security. This study addressed a major concern regarding the feasibility of such detectors: the transparency of the doped water to the ultraviolet Cerenkov light. We report on experiments conducted using a 19-meter water transparency measuring instrument and associated materials test tank. Sensitive measurements of the transparency of water doped with 0.2% GdCl3 at 337nm, 400nm and 420nm were made using this instrument. These measurements indicate that GdCl3 is not an appropriate dopant in stainless steel constructed water Cerenkov detectors.

  2. Measurements of wall heat (mass) transfer for flow through blockages with round and square holes in a wide rectangular channel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cervantes, Joel

    2002-01-01

    Naphthalene sublimation and pressure measurement experiments were conducted to study heat (mass) transfer enhancement by blockages with staggered round and square holes for turbulent air flows through the holes in the blockages in an 8:1 rectangular...

  3. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

  4. Texas Cities in the Era of Government Transparency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bearfield, Domonic; Bowman, Ann O'M

    2014-01-01

    citizens and government, increased transparency can offer a way to bridge this divide. Clear, organized and useful data posted online is a good indicator of a city’s transparency. It is best for city governments to engage their citizens in a dialogue about...

  5. Matched slow pulses using double electromagnetically induced transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lvovsky, Alexander

    Matched slow pulses using double electromagnetically induced transparency Andrew MacRae,* Geoff, 2008 We implement double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) in rubidium vapor using Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 270.1670, 270.5585, 190.5530. Electromagnetically induced

  6. Integrated broadband bowtie antenna on transparent substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xingyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhan, Qiwen; Pan, Zeyu; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T

    2015-01-01

    The bowtie antenna is a topic of growing interest in recent years. In this paper, we design, fabricate, and characterize a modified gold bowtie antenna integrated on a transparent glass substrate. We numerically investigate the antenna characteristics, specifically its resonant frequency and enhancement factor. We simulate the dependence of resonance frequency on bowtie geometry, and verify the simulation results through experimental investigation, by fabricating different sets of bowtie antennas on glass substrates utilizing CMOS compatible processes and measuring their resonance frequencies. Our designed bowtie antenna provides a strong broadband electric field enhancement in its feed gap. The far-field radiation pattern of the bowtie antenna is measured, and it shows dipole-like characteristics with large beam width. Such a broadband antenna will be useful for a myriad of applications, ranging from wireless communications to electromagnetic wave detection.

  7. Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bijunath Patla; Robert J. Nemiroff

    2011-12-12

    The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discussed.

  8. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  9. Determining the nonparabolicity factor of the CdO conduction band using indium doping and the Drude theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendelsberg, Rueben

    2014-01-01

    conducting oxides. ga- and in-doped cdo thin films grown bycharacterization of aluminum-doped cdo thin films by sol-geland transparent ti-doped cdo films by pulsed laser

  10. Accreting Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these interactions. Larger global magnetohydrodynamic simulations as well as simulations incorporating plasma microphysics and full radiation hydrodynamics will be needed to unravel some of the current mysteries of black hole accretion.

  11. Nano Res (2010) 3: 564573564 Uniform, Highly Conductive, and Patterned Transparent Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-01-01

    problem. In addition, our method also allows the preparation of high quality patterned films of silver. Carbon nanotube (CNT) films [11­15] and, more recently, graphene films [16­19] have attracted significant

  12. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric ...

  13. Application of CVD graphene in organic photovoltaics as transparent conducting electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Hyesung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms forming a one-atom thick planar sheet, has gained much attention due to its remarkable physical properties. Apart from the micromechanical cleavage of highly ordered pyrolytic ...

  14. Degradation of transparent conductive oxides; Mechanistic insights across configurations and exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    been reported in thin film silicon solar modules123 , CIGS modules456 and OPV technologies78910 to occur across a number of optoelectronic devices1214 . In significantly degraded CIGS cells, replacing applications, durability concerns arise. The cost and reliability of solar power are often cited as a primary

  15. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yuankun

    2014-01-01

    high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest aeffective for multi-junction solar cells which consist ofhigh performance multi-junction solar cells. Cadmium oxide (

  16. Colloidal infrared reflective and transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides a method of preparing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) injecting a precursor mixture of a zinc precursor, an aluminum precursor, an amine, and a fatty acid in a solution of a vicinal diol in a non-coordinating solvent, thereby resulting in a reaction mixture, (2) precipitating the nanocrystals from the reaction mixture, thereby resulting in a final precipitate, and (3) dissolving the final precipitate in an apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a dispersion. In an exemplary embodiment, the dispersion includes (1) nanocrystals that are well separated from each other, where the nanocrystals are coated with surfactants and (2) an apolar solvent where the nanocrystals are suspended in the apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a film. In an exemplary embodiment, the film includes (1) a substrate and (2) nanocrystals that are evenly distributed on the substrate.

  17. Fabrication of Transparent-Conducting-Oxide-Coated Inverse Opals as Mesostructured Architectures for Electrocatalysis Applications: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -doped indium oxide (ITO) via atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate the utility of the resulting, photocatalysis, and dye- sensitized solar cells. KEYWORDS: nickel oxide, water oxidation, atomic-layer deposition- layer deposition (ALD); the advantage of this protocol is that it is not necessary to devise ways

  18. Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Tae

    2012-07-16

    of several methods for carbon nanotube film fabrication: (a) vacuum filtration, (b) air-spraying, (c) transfer printing, and (d) rod coating (reproduced from [91], [92], [37], and [42], respectively). .................................... 16 2.8 (a...) Graphene oxide structure. (b) Deposition of graphene oxide sheet by dip coating and an SEM image of deposited graphene oxide pieces (reproduced from [172]). (c) Photo reduction lithography approach for fabrication of patterns on (PDDA/Graphene Oxide...

  19. Quantitative analyses of damp-heat-induced degradation in transparent conducting oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    , such as photovoltaic devices, liquid crystal displays (LCD), organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), touch panels, etc, and non-toxicity. Furthermore, excellent light- scattering properties can be achieved via sputter-film solar cells, which suggest a great potential toward effective light trapping for enhancing power

  20. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Anomalous Surface Conductivity in In2O3 Transparent Conductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,Center OrganizationInfrared Metamaterials

  1. KAg11(VO4)4 as a Candidate p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse Bergkamp Graduate student Subtask 4Photo4 | National Nuclear65Kexoticand

  2. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  3. A new architecture as transparent electrodes for solar and IR applications based on photonic structures via soft lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Ping

    2011-05-15

    Transparent conducting electrodes with the combination of high optical transmission and good electrical conductivity are essential for solar energy harvesting and electric lighting devices. Currently, indium tin oxide (ITO) is used because ITO offers relatively high transparency (>80%) to visible light and low sheet resistance (R{sub s} = 10 ohms/square ({Omega}#2;/?)) for electrical conduction. However, ITO is costly due to limited indium reserves, and it is brittle. These disadvantages have motivated the search for other conducting electrodes with similar or better properties. There has been research on a variety of electrode structures involving carbon nanotube networks, graphene films, nanowire and nanopatterned meshes and grids. Due to their novel characteristics in light manipulation and collection, photonic crystal structures show promise for further improvement. Here, we report on a new architecture consisting of nanoscale high aspect ratio metallic photonic structures as transparent electrodes fabricated via a combination of processes. For (Au) and silver (Ag) structures, the visible light transmission can reach as high as 80%, and the sheet resistance of the structure can be as low as 3.2{Omega}#2;/?. The optical transparency of the high aspect ratio metal structures at visible wavelength range is comparable to that of ITO glass, while their sheet resistance is more than 3 times lower, which indicates a much higher electrical conductivity of the metal structures. Furthermore, the high aspect ratio metal structures have very high infrared (IR) reflection (90%) for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode, which can lead to the development of fabrication of metallic structures as IR filters for heat control applications. Investigations of interdigitated structures based on the high aspect ratio metal electrodes are ongoing to study the feasibility in smart window applications in light transmission modulation.

  4. Rotating Hairy Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

    2000-12-20

    We construct stationary black holes in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing non-trivial non-abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent non-perturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  5. Layer-by-layer assembly of electrically conductive polymer thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Chien Sy Jason

    2007-09-17

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly was used to produce highly conductive thin films with carbon black (CB) and polyelectrolytes. The effects of sonication and pHadjustment of the deposition mixtures on the conductivity and transparency of deposited films...

  6. Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.; Odlaug, Christopher S.

    2011-07-17

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.

  7. "Hybrid" Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei V. Frolov

    2014-12-30

    We discuss a solution of the Einstein equations, obtained by gluing the external Kerr metric and the internal Weyl metric, describing an axisymmetric static vacuum distorted black hole. These metrics are glued at the null surfaces representing their horizons. For this purpose we use the formalism of massive thin null shells. The corresponding solution is called a "hybrid" black hole. The massive null shell has an angular momentum which is the origin of the rotation of the external Kerr spacetime. At the same time, the shell distorts the geometry inside the horizon. The inner geometry of the "hybrid" black hole coincides with the geometry of the interior of a non-rotating Weyl-distorted black hole. Properties of the "hybrid" black holes are briefly discussed.

  8. Hydrodynamic model for electron-hole plasma in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Svintsov; V. Vyurkov; S. Yurchenko; T. Otsuji; V. Ryzhii

    2012-01-03

    We propose a hydrodynamic model describing steady-state and dynamic electron and hole transport properties of graphene structures which accounts for the features of the electron and hole spectra. It is intended for electron-hole plasma in graphene characterized by high rate of intercarrier scattering compared to external scattering (on phonons and impurities), i.e., for intrinsic or optically pumped (bipolar plasma), and gated graphene (virtually monopolar plasma). We demonstrate that the effect of strong interaction of electrons and holes on their transport can be treated as a viscous friction between the electron and hole components. We apply the developed model for the calculations of the graphene dc conductivity, in particular, the effect of mutual drag of electrons and holes is described. The spectra and damping of collective excitations in graphene in the bipolar and monopolar limits are found. It is shown that at high gate voltages and, hence, at high electron and low hole densities (or vice-versa), the excitations are associated with the self-consistent electric field and the hydrodynamic pressure (plasma waves). In intrinsic and optically pumped graphene, the waves constitute quasineutral perturbations of the electron and hole densities (electron-hole sound waves) with the velocity being dependent only on the fundamental graphene constants.

  9. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual technical report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.; Sato, H.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Thornton, J. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The general objective is to develop methods to deposit materials which can be used to make more efficient solar cells. The work is organized into three general tasks: Task 1. Develop improved methods for depositing and using transparent conductors of fluorine-doped zinc oxide in amorphous silicon solar cells Task 2. Deposit and evaluate titanium oxide as a reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between amorphous silicon and an aluminum or silver back-reflector. Task 3. Deposit and evaluate electrically conductive titanium oxide as a transparent conducting layer on which more efficient and more stable superstrate cells can be deposited. About one-third of the current project resources are allocated to each of these three objectives.

  10. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    Transparent and reflecting electrodes are important parts of the structure of amorphous silicon solar cells. We report improved methods for depositing zinc oxide, deposition of tin nitride as a potential reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between the a-Si and back metal electrodes. Highly conductive and transparent fluorine-doped zinc oxide was successfully produced on small areas by atmospheric pressure CVD from a less hazardous zinc precursor, zinc acetylacetonate. The optical properties measured for tin nitride showed that the back-reflection would be decreased if tin nitride were used instead of zinc oxide as a barrier layer over silver on aluminum. Niobium-doped titanium dioxide was produced with high enough electrical conductivity so that normal voltages and fill factors were obtained for a-Si cells made on it.

  11. Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

  12. CONVERGENCE OF A NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR A NONLINEAR COUPLED SYSTEM OF RADIATIVE---CONDUCTIVE HEAT TRANSFER EQUATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henri Poincaré -Nancy-Université, Université

    . Introduction And Main Results Radiative heat transfer coupled with conduction through semi---transparent media---state combined radiative---conductive heat transfer. The media studied were assumed to be homogeneous, grey1 CONVERGENCE OF A NUMERICAL SCHEME FOR A NONLINEAR COUPLED SYSTEM OF RADIATIVE---CONDUCTIVE HEAT

  13. Device Transparency: a New Model for Mobile Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, Jacob A.

    This paper proposes a new storage model, device transparency, in which users view and manage their entire data collection from any of their devices, even from disconnected storage-limited devices holding only a subset of ...

  14. Do Independent Directors Cause Improvements in Firm Transparency?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Christopher S.

    Although recent research documents a positive relation between corporate transparency and the proportion of independent directors, the direction of causality is unclear. We examine a regulatory shock that substantially ...

  15. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01

    surfaces in a passive solar-heated building is to maximizeBuildings and Community Systems. -i- TRANSPARENT HEATING MIRRORS FOR PASSIVEpassive solar systems. Architecturally, a window is a very complex building

  16. Coupled-resonator-induced transparency with a squeezed vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke Di; Changde Xie; Jing Zhang

    2011-03-17

    We present the first experimental observation of quantum fluctuation spectra in two coupled optical cavities with an injected squeezed vacuum light. The quadrature components of the reflected squeezed vacuum spectra are measured by phase sensitive homodyne detector. The experimental results demonstrate coupled-resonator-induced transparency in the quantum regime, in which electromagnetically-induced-transparency-like characteristic of the absorption and dispersion properties of the coupled optical cavities determines the line-shape of the reflected quantum noise spectra.

  17. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  18. NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government, Environmental Law Institute, 2010.

  19. Nuclear transparency in 90c.m. quasielastic A,,p,2p... reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Nelson

    Nuclear transparency in 90c.m. ° quasielastic A,,p,2p... reactions J. Aclander,7 J. Alster,7 G Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A p,2p quasielastic of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency

  20. Is Opacity A Basic Feature? It's Not Transparent. Randall S. Birnkrant Jeremy M. Wolfe Hermie Mendoza

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transparent objects and/or vice versa? Stimuli: Transparent bars were created by moving a virtual green filter Mendoza Brigham & Women's Hospital Brigham & Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School OPAQUE You spotted as a basic feature? TRANSPARENT Exp. 1: Does an opaque object stick out among transparent objects and/or vice

  1. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  2. Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    1999-10-29

    Supermassive binary black holes and their influence on the structure and evolution of galaxies is reviewed.

  3. Thermal properties of the optically transparent pore-free nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Teweldebrhan, D.; Morales, J. R.; Garay, J. E.; Balandin, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The authors report results of investigation of thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia. The optically transparent pore-free bulk samples were prepared via the spark plasma sintering process to ensure homogeneity. Thermal conductivity K was measured by two different techniques. It was found that the pore-free nanostructured bulk zirconia is an excellent thermal insulator with the room-temperature Kapprox1.7-2.0 W/m K. It was also shown that the 'phonon-hopping' model can accurately describe specifics of K dependence on temperature and the grain size. The obtained results are important for optimization of zirconia properties for specific applications in advanced electronics and coatings.

  4. Novel Smart Windows Based on Transparent Phosphorescent OLEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian D'Andrade; Stephen Forest

    2006-09-15

    In this program, Universal Display Corporation (UDC) and Princeton University developed the use of white transparent phosphorescent organic light emitting devices (PHOLEDs{trademark}) to make low-cost ''transparent OLED (TOLED) smart windows'', that switch rapidly from being a highly efficient solid-state light source to being a transparent window. PHOLEDs are ideal for large area devices, and the UDC-Princeton team has demonstrated white PHOLEDs with efficiencies of >24 lm/W at a luminance of 1,000 cd/m{sup 2}. TOLEDs have transparencies >70% over the visible wavelengths of light, but their transparency drops to less than 5% for wavelengths shorter than 350 nm, so they can also be used as ultraviolet (UV) light filters. In addition to controlling the flow of UV radiation, TOLEDs coupled with an electromechanical or electrically activated reflecting shutter on a glass window can be employed to control the flow of heat from infrared (IR) radiation by varying the reflectance/transparency of the glass for wavelengths greater than 800nm. One particularly attractive shutter technology is reversible electrochromic mirrors (REM). Our goal was therefore to integrate two innovative concepts to meet the U.S. Department of Energy goals: high power efficiency TOLEDs, plus electrically controlled reflectors to produce a ''smart window''. Our efforts during this one year program have succeeded in producing a prototype smart window shown in the Fig. I, below. The four states of the smart window are pictured: reflective with lamp on, reflective with lamp off, transparent with lamp on, and transparent with lamp off. In the transparent states, the image is an outdoor setting viewed through the window. In the reflective states, the image is an indoor setting viewed via reflection off the window. We believe that the integration of our high efficiency white phosphorescent TOLED illumination source, with electrically activated shutters represents an innovative low-cost approach to conserving energy, and such innovative approaches are required to drive towards the DOE's goal of a 50% reduction in electric lighting consumption by 2020, and an energy efficient building. Furthermore, the team of UDC and Princeton University is ideally suited to develop and demonstrate this technical approach because of our recognized expertise in the fields of PHOLED and OLED technologies.

  5. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency from a Single Atom in Free Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Slodicka; G. Hetet; S. Gerber; M. Hennrich; R. Blatt

    2010-05-18

    We report an absorption spectroscopy experiment and the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency from a single trapped atom. We focus a weak and narrowband Gaussian light beam onto an optically cooled Barium ion using a high numerical aperture lens. Extinction of this beam is observed with measured values of up to 1.3 %. We demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency of the ion by tuning a strong control beam over a two-photon resonance in a three-level lambda-type system. The probe beam extinction is inhibited by more than 75 % due to population trapping.

  6. Matched Slow Pulses Using Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew MacRae; Geoff Campbell; A. I. Lvovsky

    2008-09-29

    We implement double electromagnetically-induced transparency (double EIT) in rubidium vapor, using a tripod-shaped energy level scheme consisting of hyperfine and magnetic sublevels of the 5S1/2 to 5P1/2 transition. We show experimentally that through the use of double EIT one can control the contrast of transparency windows as well as group velocities of the two signal fields. In particular, the group velocities can be equalized, which holds promise to greatly enhance nonlinear optical interaction between these fields.

  7. Black Holes In Astronomy Black Holes In Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    Black Hole horizon static limit ergosphere radiation magnetic fields jet jet #12;Black-hole accretion with a central bulge. #12;Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Jets and lobes of Cygnus A Carilli et al. Supermassive black holes are the most powerful engines in the Universe

  8. Holes in Spectral Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontana, Peter R.; Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    1973-06-01

    at E = 0 is 2le I' Ib/(t)I = @~ R~R~~»nh'(IRlyt)e"'" (13)a ylal 0 5 '7 FIG. 3. Probabilities of photon emission as a function of time. The frequency corresponds to the energy differ- ence between the unperturbed degenerate excited states and the ground... states 6 is 0. 5 ey. For V= 0 the emission line is Lorentzian, but for V0 a "hole" appears at the frequency equal to the frequency difference between the excited nondecay- ing state and the ground state. The position of the "hole" is independent...

  9. Black Holes And Their Entropy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mei, Jianwei

    2010-10-12

    . . . . . . . . . 21 1. Solutions in Four Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. Solutions in Higher Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 C. Black Hole Solutions in Supergravity Theories . . . . . . . 30 D. Plebanski-Demianski Type Solutions in d = 5... is to discuss the construction of new black hole solutions and the calculation of the black hole entropy. In Chapter II, we shall re- port some new black hole solutions that we have found during the past few years [21, 22, 23] and we will discuss some...

  10. Sponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    to fabricate high-performance and flexible electronics. The physics of Quantum-dots Light Emitting Diodes as a Postdoctoral Research Associate, where he was involved in research of flexible and stretchable electronicSponsored by Nanotechnology Seminar Program Flexible and Transparent Optoelectronics based

  11. Avaki Data Grid Secure Transparent Access to Data Andrew Grimshaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimshaw, Andrew

    1 of 27 Avaki Data Grid ­ Secure Transparent Access to Data Andrew Grimshaw Mike Herrick Anand and development by the Grid community we see Grids (then called Metasystems [3]) being deployed around the world both in academic settings, and more tellingly, in production commercial settings. What is a Grid? What

  12. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  13. Score Region Algebra: Building a Transparent XML-IR Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    imple- mented the algebra operators in a prototype system on top of a low-level database kernel algebra framework on top of any low-level physical database engine or existing RDBMS, allowing a more sysScore Region Algebra: Building a Transparent XML-IR Database Vojkan Mihajlovi´c Henk Ernst Blok

  14. Thermoelectric Conductivities at Finite Magnetic Field and the Nernst Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keun-Young Kim; Kyung Kiu Kim; Yunseok Seo; Sang-Jin Sin

    2015-08-24

    We study the thermoelectric conductivities of a strongly correlated system in the presence of a magnetic field by the gauge/gravity duality. We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories with axion fields imposing momentum relaxation. General analytic formulas for the direct current(DC) conductivities and the Nernst signal are derived in terms of the black hole horizon data. For an explicit model study, we analyse in detail the dyonic black hole modified by momentum relaxation. In this model, for small momentum relaxation, the Nernst signal shows a bell-shaped dependence on the magnetic field, which is a feature of the normal phase of cuprates. We compute all alternating current(AC) electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities by numerical analysis and confirm that their zero frequency limits precisely reproduce our analytic DC formulas, which is a non-trivial consistency check of our methods. We discuss the momentum relaxation effects on the conductivities including cyclotron resonance poles.

  15. Thermoelectric Conductivities at Finite Magnetic Field and the Nernst Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Keun-Young; Seo, Yunseok; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We study electric, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivities of a strongly correlated system in the presence of magnetic field by gauge/gravity duality. We consider a general class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory with axion fields imposing momentum relaxation. Analytic general formulas for DC conductivities and the Nernst signal are derived in terms of the black hole horizon data. For an explicit model study we analyse in detail the Dyonic black hole modified by momentum relaxation effect. In this model, the Nernst signal shows a typical vortex-liquid effect when momentum relaxation effect is comparable to chemical potential. We compute all AC electric, thermal, and thermal conductivities by numerical analysis and confirms that their zero frequency limits precisely reproduce our analytic formulas, which is a non-trivial consistency check of our methods. We discuss the momentum relaxation effect on conductivities including cyclotron frequencies.

  16. Black Holes at Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Webber

    2006-04-06

    In theories with large extra dimensions and TeV-scale gravity, black holes are copiously produced in particle collisions at energies well above the Planck scale. I briefly review some recent work on the phenomenology of this process, with emphasis on theoretical uncertainties and possible strategies for measuring the number of extra dimensions.

  17. Quantum black hole inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. B. Altaie

    2001-05-07

    In this paper we follow a new approach for particle creation by a localized strong gravitational field. The approach is based on a definition of the physical vacuum drawn from Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Using the fact that the gravitational field red-shifts the frequency modes of the vacuum, a condition on the minimum stregth of the gravitational field required to achieve real particle creation is derived. Application of this requirement on a Schwartzchid black hole resulted in deducing an upper limit on the region, outside the event horizon, where real particles can be created. Using this regional upper limit, and considering particle creation by black holes as a consequence of the Casimir effect, with the assumption that the created quanta are to be added to the initial energy, we deduce a natural power law for the development of the event horizon, and consequently a logarithmic law for the area spectrum of an inflating black hole. Application of the results on a cosmological model shows that if we start with a Planck-dimensional black hole, then through the process of particle creation we end up with a universe having the presently estimated critical density. Such a universe will be in a state of eternal inflation.

  18. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  19. Creating transparency in the Chinese real estate development industry : a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Feng, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    Transparency issue remains one of the top issues that have discouraged foreign investors to invest China's real estate market. This thesis establishes a framework for Chinese developers to create transparency for their ...

  20. Slant hole completion test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Strategies and Objectives in the Natural Gas Program is to conduct activities to transfer technology from R&D programs to potential users. The Slant Hole Completion Test has achieved exactly this objective. The Slant Hole site is essentially the same as the Multiwell site and is located in the southeastern portion of the Piceance Basin near Rifle, Colorado. The Piceance Basin is typical of the Western low permeability basins that contain thick sequences of sands, silts and coals deposited during the Cretaceous period. These sequences contain vast amounts of natural gas but have proven to be resistant to commercial production because of the low permeability of the host rocks. Using the knowledge gained from the DOE`s earlier Multiwell experiment, the SHCT-1 was drilled to demonstrate that by intersecting the natural fractures found in these ``tight rocks,`` commercial gas production can be obtained.

  1. Electrically conductive composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  2. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  3. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  4. Graphene transparency in weak magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Valenzuela; Saúl Hernández-Ortiz; Marcelo Loewe; Alfredo Raya

    2014-10-20

    We carry out an explicit calculation of the vacuum polarization tensor for an effective low-energy model of monolayer graphene in the presence of a weak magnetic field of intensity $B$ perpendicularly aligned to the membrane. By expanding the quasiparticle propagator in the Schwinger proper time representation up to order $(eB)^2$, where $e$ is the unit charge, we find an explicitly transverse tensor, consistent with gauge invariance. Furthermore, assuming that graphene is radiated with monochromatic light of frequency $\\omega$ along the external field direction, from the modified Maxwell's equations we derive the intensity of transmitted light and the angle of polarization rotation in terms of the longitudinal ($\\sigma_{xx}$) and transverse ($\\sigma_{xy}$) conductivities. Corrections to these quantities, both calculated and measured, are of order $(eB)^2/\\omega^4$. Our findings generalize and complement previously known results reported in literature regarding the light absorption problem in graphene from the experimental and theoretical points of view, with and without external magnetic fields.

  5. Text-Alternative Version of TAP Webinar: Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Transcript of the June TAP webinar, Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies and the NYC Example.

  6. Statistical Mechanics of Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Harms; Y. Leblanc

    1992-05-11

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed.

  7. Local heat transfer distribution in a triangular channel with smooth walls and staggered ejection holes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Sung-Won

    1999-01-01

    Transient liquid crystal experiments have been conducted to determine the distribution of the local heat transfer coefficient in a triangular channel with smooth wails and ejection holes along one or two of the wails. The end of the test channel...

  8. Transparent Triboelectric Nanogenerators and Self-Powered Pressure Sensors Based on Micropatterned Plastic Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    generator, we demonstrate a new high-output, flexible and transparent nanogenerator by using transparent of power generation can be developed to build a high-output, flexible, and transparent NG. To make) fabricating various PDMS pattern arrays to enhance the friction effect, resulting in a high-output generator

  9. Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

  10. Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12; 2 #12; Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

  11. TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level flow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

  12. TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level ¤ow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

  13. Transparent Incremental State Saving in Time Warp Parallel Discrete Event Robert Rnngren, Michael Liljenstam Johan Montagnat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Transparent Incremental State Saving in Time Warp Parallel Discrete Event Simulation Robert is the state saving mechanism. It should not only allow efficient state saving, but also support efficient is transparent to the user. In this paper we present a method to implement a transparent incremental state saving

  14. Holographic Superconductors with Ho?ava-Lifshitz Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong-Gen Cai; Hai-Qing Zhang

    2009-12-03

    We discuss the phase transition of planar black holes in Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity by introducing a Maxwell field and a complex scalar field. We calculate the condensates of the charged operators in the dual CFTs when the mass square of the complex scalar filed is $m^2=-2/L^2$ and $m^2=0$, respectively. We compute the electrical conductivity of the \\hl superconductor in the probe approximation. In particular, it is found that there exists a spike in the conductivity for the case of the operator with scaling dimension one. These results are quite similar to those in the case of Schwarzschild-AdS black holes, which demonstrates that the holographic superconductivity is a robust phenomenon associated with asymptotic AdS black holes.

  15. Symmetry causes a huge conductance peak in double quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Whitney; P. Marconcini; M. Macucci

    2009-02-18

    We predict a huge interference effect contributing to the conductance through large ultra-clean quantum dots of chaotic shape. When a double-dot structure is made such that the dots are the mirror-image of each other, constructive interference can make a tunnel barrier located on the symmetry axis effectively transparent. We show (via theoretical analysis and numerical simulation) that this effect can be orders of magnitude larger than the well-known universal conductance fluctuations and weak-localization (both less than a conductance quantum). A small magnetic field destroys the effect, massively reducing the double-dot conductance; thus a magnetic field detector is obtained, with a similar sensitivity to a SQUID, but requiring no superconductors.

  16. Nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide as a p-type hole-transporting layer in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nitrogen-doped cuprous oxide as a p-type hole- transporting layer in thin-film solar cells Yun Seog-transparent tunnel junction to a back-contact. We fabricate Cu2O-based heterojunction thin-film solar cells-factor and power conversion efficiency of the solar cells. Cu2O:N thin-films may also be useful in other

  17. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  18. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Matthew M. (Espanola, NM); Wilfong, Dennis H. (Brooksville, FL); Lomax, Ralph E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  19. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01

    VITA 36 37 40 40 40 40 44 45 47 48 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Unit cell for derivation of model Page Heat Conduction Solution 22 3 Fission Gas Release Model 26 4A Metal Matrix Thermal Conductivity 4B Ceramic Fuel Thermal Conductivity 5... is based on the simple heat conduction equation. It is assumed that there is a uniform distribution of fuel particles in a regular array. A unit cell consists of a cube of matrix material of side length L, containing a spherical fuel particle of radius, r...

  20. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  1. Black Hole Scan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Crisostomo; Ricardo Troncoso; Jorge Zanelli

    2000-09-22

    Gravitation theories selected by requiring that they have a unique anti-de Sitter vacuum with a fixed cosmological constant are studied. For a given dimension d, the Lagrangians under consideration are labeled by an integer k=1,2,...,[(d-1)/2]. Black holes for each d and k are found and are used to rank these theories. A minimum possible size for a localized electrically charged source is predicted in the whole set of theories, except General Relativity. It is found that the thermodynamic behavior falls into two classes: If d-2k=1, these solutions resemble the three dimensional black hole, otherwise, their behavior is similar to the Schwarzschild-AdS_4 geometry.

  2. Black holes at accelerators.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webber, Bryan R

    be presented and the effects of some of the uncertainties can be investigated. 3.1. Hawking Spectrum With the above assumptions, the spectrum of particles emitted during black hole decay takes the form dN dE ? ?E2 (eE/TH ? 1) T n+6H (8) where as usual... the trapped surface area [6, 7]. T030 02 4 6 8 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 n=0 n=1 n=2 n=6 E rS ?ˆ (0 ) ab s/ pi r2 S Figure 4: Grey-body factors for scalar emission on the brane from a (4 + n)D black hole. 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 n=0 n=1 n=2 n=6 E...

  3. Black Hole Demographics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Ferrarese

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this contribution is to review the current status of black hole demographics in light of recent advances in the study of high redshift QSOs (section 2), local AGNs (section 3) and local quiescent galaxies (section 4). I will then outline the prospects for future progress (section 5), and discuss what I believe will be the challenges for the years to come [ABRIDGED].

  4. A novel approach to Hugoniot measurements utilizing transparent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Akin, M. C.; Chau, R.; Holmes, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new absolute equation of state measurement technique is described and demonstrated measuring the shock state and the refractive index of MgO up to 226GPa. This technique utilizes steady shock waves and the high-pressure transparency of MgO under dynamic shock compression and release. Hugoniot measurements performed using this technique are consistent with the previous measurements. A linear dependence of the shocked refractive index and density is observed up to 226GPa, over a magnitude greater in pressure that previous studies. The transparency of MgO along the principal Hugoniot is higher than any other material reported to date. We observe a significant change in the refractive index of MgO as the Hugoniot elastic limit is exceeded due to the transition from uniaxial to hydrostatic strain. Measurements of the elastic-plastic two-wave structure in MgO indicate a nucleation time for plastic deformation.

  5. 2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, R

    2006-04-21

    During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

  6. Consistency among distance measurements: transparency, BAO scale and accelerated expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Avgoustidis; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

    2009-06-11

    We explore consistency among different distance measures, including Supernovae Type Ia data, measurements of the Hubble parameter, and determination of the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale. We present new constraints on the cosmic transparency combining $H(z)$ data together with the latest Supernova Type Ia data compilation. This combination, in the context of a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, improves current constraints by nearly an order of magnitude. We re-examine the recently reported tension between the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale and Supernovae data in light of possible deviations from transparency, concluding that the source of the discrepancy may most likely be found among systematic effects of the modelling of the low redshift data or a simple $\\sim 2-\\sigma$ statistical fluke, rather than in exotic physics. Finally, we attempt to draw model-independent conclusions about the recent accelerated expansion, determining the acceleration redshift to be $z_{acc}=0.35^{+0.20}_{-0.13}$ (1-$\\sigma$).

  7. Composition for forming an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Lewis, Linda A.

    2015-12-29

    A composition for producing an optically clear, well bonded superhydrophobic coating includes a plurality of hydrophobic particles comprising an average particle size of about 200 nm or less, a binder at a binder concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.5 wt. %, and a solvent. The hydrophobic particles may be present in the composition at a particle concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 1 wt. %. An optically transparent, superhydrophobic surface includes a substrate, a plurality of hydrophobic particles having an average particle size of about 200 nm or less dispersed over the substrate, and a discontinuous binder layer bonding the hydrophobic particles to the substrate, where the hydrophobic particles and the binder layer form an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating.

  8. Compound transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard L.

    2012-12-11

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform includes forming a first suspension of oxide particles in a first solvent which includes a first dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the first suspension to a first mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the first suspension in the first mold until stable. The method also includes forming a second suspension of oxide particles in a second solvent which includes a second dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the second suspension to the stable first suspension in a second mold of a desired shape encompassing the first suspension and the second suspension, and uniformly curing the second suspension in the second mold until stable. Other methods for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several other embodiments. Structures are also disclosed.

  9. Transparent runtime parallelization of the R scripting language

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Scripting languages such as R and Matlab are widely used in scientific data processing. As the data volume and the complexity of analysis tasks both grow, sequential data processing using these tools often becomes the bottleneck in scientific workflows. We describe pR, a runtime framework for automatic and transparent parallelization of the popular R language used in statistical computing. Recognizing scripting languages interpreted nature and data analysis codes use pattern, we propose several novel techniques: (1) applying parallelizing compiler technology to runtime, whole-program dependence analysis of scripting languages, (2) incremental code analysis assisted with evaluation results, and (3) runtime parallelization of file accesses. Our framework does not require any modification to either the source code or the underlying R implementation. Experimental results demonstrate that pR can exploit both task and data parallelism transparently and overall has better performance as well as scalability compared to an existing parallel R package that requires code modification.

  10. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  11. Yttrium oxide transparent ceramics by low-temperature microwave sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Junming, E-mail: ljmniat@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Zhong, Zhenchen; Xu, Jilin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the SEM photos of the surfaces of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramic samples obtained by microwave sintering and vacuum sintering. It is clearly demonstrated that the grain distribution of the vacuum sintering sample is not uniform with the smallest and the largest particle size at about 2 ?m and 15 ?m respectively, while the grain distribution of microwave sintering sample is uniform with the average diameter at about 2–4 ?m (the smallest reported so far) and with no abnormal growth-up or coarsening phenomenon. We have further found out that the smaller the grain size, the higher the mechanical and optical properties. Display Omitted Highlights: ? The microwave sintering temperature of the sample is lower compared with vacuum. ? The microwave sintering time of the sample is shorter compared with vacuum. ? The mechanical properties of the microwave sintering sample is improved greatly. ? The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} grain of microwave sintering sample is the smallest reported so far. -- Abstract: Yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) transparent ceramics samples have been successfully fabricated by microwave sintering processing at relatively low temperatures. In comparison with the vacuum sintering processing, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} transparent ceramics can be obtained by microwave sintering at lower sintering temperature and shorter sintering time, and they possess higher transmittances and mechanical properties. The technologies of low-temperature microwave sintering and the relationships of the microstructures and properties of the specified samples have been investigated in detail. We have found out that the low-temperature microwave sintering technique has its obvious advantages over the conventional methods in manufacturing yttrium oxide transparent ceramics.

  12. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  13. Ultraslow Propagation of Squeezed Vacuum Pulses with Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Akamatsu; Yoshihiko Yokoi; Manabu Arikawa; Satoshi Nagatsuka; Takahito Tanimura; Akira Furusawa; Mikio Kozuma

    2008-01-27

    We have succeeded in observing ultraslow propagation of squeezed vacuum pulses with electromagnetically induced transparency. Squeezed vacuum pulses (probe lights) were incident on a laser cooled 87Rb gas together with an intense coherent light (control light). A homodyne method sensitive to the vacuum state was employed for detecting the probe pulse passing through the gas. A delay of 3.1us was observed for the probe pulse having a temporal width of 10 us.

  14. Conductive fabric seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  15. Carrier Transport in PbS Nanocrystal Conducting Polymer Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Watt; Troy Eichman; Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop; Paul Meredith

    2004-12-13

    In this paper we report the first measurements of carrier mobilities in an inorganic nanocrystal: conducting polymer composite. The composite material in question (lead sulphide nanocrystals in the conducting polymer MEH-PPV was made using a new single-pot, surfactant-free synthesis. Mobilties were measured using time of flight (ToF) and steady-state techniques. We have found that the inclusion of PbS nanocrystals in MEH-PPV both balances and markedly increases the hole and electron mobilities - the hole mobility is increased by a factor of ~105 and the electron mobility increased by ~107 under an applied bias of 5kVcm-1. These results explain why dramatic improvements in electrical conductivity and photovoltaic performance are seen in devices fabricated from these composites.

  16. Identification of Astrophysical Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    1998-03-19

    Black holes are by definition black, and therefore cannot be directly observed by using electromagnetic radiations. Convincing identification of black holes must necessarily depend on the identification of a very specially behaving matter and radiation which surround them. A major problem in this subject of black hole astrophysics is to quantify the behaviour of matter and radiation close to the horizon. In this review, the subject of black hole accretion and outflow is systematically developed. It is shown that both the stationary as well as the non-stationary properties of the observed spectra could be generally understood by these solutions. It is suggested that the solutions of radiative hydrodynamic equations may produce clear spectral signatures of black holes. Other circumstantial evidences of black holes, both in the galactic centers as well as in binary systems, are also presented.

  17. Black holes in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2009-01-01

    What is going on (as of August 2008) at the interface between theoretical general relativity, string-inspired models, and observational astrophysics? Quite a lot. In this mini-survey I will make a personal choice and focus on four specific questions: Do black holes "exist"? (For selected values of the word "exist".) Is black hole formation and evaporation unitary? Can one mimic a black hole to arbitrary accuracy? Can one detect the presence of a horizon using local physics?

  18. Quantum Mechanics and Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose N. Pecina-Cruz

    2005-11-27

    This paper discusses the existence of black holes from the foundations of quantum mechanics. It is found that quantum mechanics rule out a possible gravitational collapse.

  19. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  20. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Admin Chg 2, dated 12-3-14, supersedes Admin Chg 1.

  1. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  2. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Jitendra P. (Bollingbrook, IL); Bosak, Andrea L. (Burnam, IL); McPheeters, Charles C. (Woodridge, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Woodridge, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  3. Improvement of tap holes at Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, M.; Kashiwada, M.; Shibuta, H. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Wakayama (Japan). Wakayama Steel Works

    1995-12-01

    The service life of blast furnaces, as the result of various improvement measures, has been extended from the conventional 5 to 7 years to 15 to 20 years. Wakayama No. 5 blast furnace adopted SiC bricks. Though SiC brick excelled in strength and durability, it has raised problems such as tap hole inside temperature lowering attributable to its high thermal conductivity, insufficient mud burning and gas blow-out. Nevertheless, various countermeasures described within have been taken against such problems, and as the result it has now become possible to maintain tap holes in stable conditions.

  4. Thermal BEC black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto Casadio; Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi

    2015-11-04

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.

  5. Artificial ozone holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Dolya

    2014-10-18

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  6. Holographic Black Hole Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas Karch; Brandon Robinson

    2015-11-02

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.

  7. Black Holes of Negative Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1997-05-06

    I demonstrate that, under certain circumstances, regions of negative energy density can undergo gravitational collapse into a black hole. The resultant exterior black hole spacetimes necessarily have negative mass and non-trivial topology. A full theory of quantum gravity, in which topology-changing processes take place, could give rise to such spacetimes.

  8. The Ozone Hole Some perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    The Ozone Hole · Some perspective · The British Antarctic Survey · The "Ozone Hole" · International of the predicted ozone losses! This was quite a controversy. Ultimately, ozone losses started appearing in the late 1980s (see Figure below), but by then, there was already a credibility issue for ozone scientists. #12

  9. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  10. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency in mechanical effects of light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Huang, Sumei [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    We consider the dynamical behavior of a nanomechanical mirror in a high-quality cavity under the action of a coupling laser and a probe laser. We demonstrate the existence of the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the output field at the probe frequency. Our calculations show explicitly the origin of EIT-like dips as well as the characteristic changes in dispersion from anomalous to normal in the range where EIT dips occur. Remarkably the pump-probe response for the optomechanical system shares all the features of the {Lambda} system as discovered by Harris and collaborators.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantized fields in optocavity mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    We report electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using quantized fields in optomechanical systems. The weak probe field is a narrowband squeezed field. We present a homodyne detection of EIT in the output quantum field. We find that the EIT dip exists even though the photon number in the squeezed vacuum is at the single-photon level. The EIT with quantized fields can be seen even at temperatures on the order of 100 mK, thus paving the way for using optomechanical systems as memory elements.

  13. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  14. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  15. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  16. Cylindrical thermal contact conductance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayers, George Harold

    2004-09-30

    calculation term LL interface pressure calculation term m asperity slope; least-squares slope MM interface pressure calculation term n expected number of contact spots xv Nuc joint conductance P pressure Pr Prandtl number Q heat rate q heat rate q? heat flux...

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  18. Conductive indium-tin oxide nanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted deposition in template membranes: switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Additionally, transparent semiconductor oxide NWs and NTs, such as tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), TiO2 and ZnConductive indium-tin oxide nanowire and nanotube arrays made by electrochemically assisted) and nanotubes (NTs) were grown from acidic aqueous solutions of inorganic precursors in a simple one

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route to Transparent Conducting Oxide Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of In2O3 Using Cyclopentadienyl Indium: A New Synthetic Route we present a new method for depositing In2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using-15 and atomic layer deposition (ALD).16-20 Of these techniques, ALD shows significant promise as this method

  20. Strings, higher curvature corrections, and black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Mohaupt

    2005-12-05

    We review old and recent results on subleading contributions to black hole entropy in string theory.

  1. The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985: A Century of Service Woods Hole Laboratory Northeast, Lectures, and Rededication of the Woods Hole Laboratory Contents Foreword and Acknowledgments Committees and Contributions of the Woods Hole Fisheries Laboratory Centennial Lecture II: The MBL and the Fisheries-A Century

  2. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  3. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  4. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  5. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  6. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  7. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  8. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  9. Transparent Conductors from Carbon Nanotubes LBL-Assembled with Polymer Dopant with ?-? Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian; Shim, Bong Sup; Di Prima, Matthew; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and other carbon-based coatings are being considered as replacements for indium tin oxide (ITO). The problems of transparent conductors (TCs) coatings from SWNT and similar materials include poor mechanical properties, high roughness, low temperature resilience, and fast loss of conductivity. The simultaneous realization of these desirable characteristics can be achieved using high structural control of layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition, which is demonstrated by the assembly of hydroethyl cellulose (HOCS) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK)-SWNTs. A new type of SWNT doping based on electron transfer from valence bands of nanotubes to unoccupied levels of SPEEK through ?-? interactions was identified for this system. It leads to a conductivity of 1.1 × 10? S/m at 66 wt % loadings of SWNT. This is better than other polymer/SWNT composites and translates into surface conductivity of 920 ?/? and transmittance of 86.7% at 550 nm. The prepared LBL films also revealed unusually high temperature resilience up to 500 °C, and low roughness of 3.5 nm (ITO glass -2.4 nm). Tensile modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness of such coatings are 13 ± 2 GPa, 366 ± 35 MPa, and 8 ± 3 kJ/m³, respectively, and exceed corresponding parameters of all similar TCs. The cumulative figure of merit, ?TC, which included the critical failure strain relevant for flexible electronics, was ?TC = 0.022 and should be compared to ?TC = 0.006 for commercial ITO. Further optimization is possible using stratified nanoscale coatings and improved doping from the macromolecular LBL components.

  10. Black hole horizons Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    on a black hole: up to 42% of the mass-energy mc2 of accreted matter ! NB: thermonuclear reactions release: a very deep gravitational potential well Release of potential gravitational energy by accretion

  11. Thermodynamics of regular black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2008-09-21

    We investigate thermodynamics for a magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH), which comes from the action of general relativity and nonlinear electromagnetics, comparing with the Reissner-Norstr\\"om (RN) black hole in both four and two dimensions after dimensional reduction. We find that there is no thermodynamic difference between the regular and RN black holes for a fixed charge $Q$ in both dimensions. This means that the condition for either singularity or regularity at the origin of coordinate does not affect the thermodynamics of black hole. Furthermore, we describe the near-horizon AdS$_2$ thermodynamics of the MCRBH with the connection of the Jackiw-Teitelboim theory. We also identify the near-horizon entropy as the statistical entropy by using the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence.

  12. Black Holes and Nuclear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    2006-02-17

    Supermassive black holes inhabit galactic nuclei, and their presence influences in crucial ways the evolution of the stellar distribution. The low-density cores observed in bright galaxies are probably a result of black hole infall, while steep density cusps like those at the Galactic center are a result of energy exchange between stars moving in the gravitational field of the single black hole. Loss-cone dynamics are substantially more complex in galactic nuclei than in collisionally-relaxed systems like globular clusters due to the wider variety of possible geometries and orbital populations. The rate of star-black hole interactions has begun to be constrained through observations of energetic events associated with stellar tidal disruptions.

  13. You Cannot Press Out the Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Ida; Takahiro Okamoto

    2012-01-03

    It is shown that a ball-shaped black hole region homeomorphic with D**n cannot be pressed out, along whichever axis penetrating the black hole region, into a black ring with a doughnut-shaped black hole region homeomorphic with S**1 x D**(n-1). A more general prohibition law for the change of the topology of black holes, including a version of no-bifurcation theorems for black holes, is given.

  14. Evolution of the conductivity type in germania by varying the stoichiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islamov, D. R., E-mail: damir@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Gritsenko, V. A., E-mail: grits@isp.nsc.ru [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Cheng, C. H. [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Mechatronic Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chin, A., E-mail: albert-achin@hotmail.com [National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-02

    Information regarding the conductivity type of Si/GeO{sub x}/Ni structures with various stoichiometry has been obtained using experiments on injection of minority carriers from n- and p-type silicon. Results show that non-stoichiometric GeO{sub x} films exhibit bipolar conductivity, that is, holes as well as electrons contribute to the charge transport. Stoichiometric GeO{sub 2} films exhibit unipolar electron conductivity.

  15. Hypersymmetry bounds and three-dimensional higher-spin black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Henneaux; Alfredo Perez; David Tempo; Ricardo Troncoso

    2015-06-05

    We investigate the hypersymmetry bounds on the higher spin black hole parameters that follow from the asymptotic symmetry superalgebra in higher-spin anti-de Sitter gravity in three spacetime dimensions. We consider anti-de Sitter hypergravity for which the analysis is most transparent. This is a $osp(1\\vert 4) \\oplus osp(1\\vert 4)$ Chern-Simons theory which contains, besides a spin-$2$ field, a spin-$4$ field and a spin-$5/2$ field. The asymptotic symmetry superalgebra is then the direct sum of two-copies of the hypersymmetric extension $W_{(2,\\frac52,4)}$ of $W_{(2,4)}$, which contains fermionic generators of conformal weight $5/2$ and bosonic generators of conformal weight $4$ in addition to the Virasoro generators. Following standard methods, we derive bounds on the conserved charges from the anticommutator of the hypersymmetry generators. The hypersymmetry bounds are nonlinear and are saturated by the hypersymmetric black holes, which turn out to possess $1/4$-hypersymmetry and to be "extreme", where extremality can be defined in terms of the entropy: extreme black holes are those that fulfill the extremality bounds beyond which the entropy ceases to be a real function of the black hole parameters. We also extend the analysis to other $sp(4)$-solitonic solutions which are maximally (hyper)symmetric.

  16. Plasmonic Metamaterials and Nanocomposites with the Narrow Transparency Window Effect in Broad Extinction Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Plasmonic Metamaterials and Nanocomposites with the Narrow Transparency Window Effect in Broad- and metamaterials, the colloidal synthesis, and lithography. Nanocomposites proposed here can be used as optical with a simultaneous possibility of communication using a narrow transparency window. KEYWORDS: metamaterial, optical

  17. Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Shengwang

    Optical storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold atomic ensemble storage with electromagnetically induced transparency in a dense cold 85 Rb atomic ensemble. By varying the optical depth (OD) from 0 to 140, we observe that the optimal storage effi- ciency has a saturation value

  18. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    -bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductorSemi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS Colin D. Bailie,a M on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar

  19. Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Intense red upconversion luminescence from Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic Wei Xu,1 (Doc. ID 158093); published January 12, 2012 Tm3Yb3 codoped transparent glass ceramic containing -PbF2 choose the oxyfluoride glass ceramic as the host material in our investigations. Through thermal treat

  20. A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolopoulos, Dimitris

    A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos ¡ , Theodore architectures, reasonably balanced page placement schemes, such as round-robin or random distribution, incur modest performance losses. Second, the paper presents a transparent, user-level page migration engine

  1. Transparent Flow Migration through Splicing for Multi-homed Vehicular Internet Gateways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Suman

    Transparent Flow Migration through Splicing for Multi-homed Vehicular Internet Gateways Joshua Hare for the contents of the interrupted flow and splice them back to the original flow in a manner that is transparent round trip times for more than 93% of the traffic volume. Clients left to their own mechanisms would

  2. Optical breakdown in transparent media with adjustable axial length and location

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palanker, Daniel

    Optical breakdown in transparent media with adjustable axial length and location Ilya Toytman,1 of transparent materials. It might be useful for ophthalmic surgical applications including cataract surgery­430 (2006). 10. O. Brzobohatý, T. Cizmár, and P. Zemánek, "High quality quasi-Bessel beam generated by round

  3. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z. (Latham, NY); Davey, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  4. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  6. Fishing in Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Brotas

    2006-09-01

    The coordinate system $(\\bar{x},\\bar{t})$ defined by $r = 2m + K\\bar{x}- c K \\bar{t}$ and $t=\\bar{x}/cK - 1 /cK \\int_{r_a}^r (1- 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2} (1 - 2m/r)^{-1}dr$ allow us to write the Schwarzschild metric in the form: \\[ds^2=c^2 d\\bar{t}^2 + (W^2/K^2 - 2W/K) d\\bar{x}^2 + 2c (1 + W/K) d\\bar{x}d\\bar{t} - r^2 (d\\theta^2 + cos^2\\theta d\\phi^2)\\] with $W=(1 - 2m/r + K^2)^{1/2}$, in which the coefficients' pathologies are moved to $r_K = 2m/(1+K^2)$. This new coordinate system is used to study the entrance into a black hole of a rigid line (a line in which the shock waves propagate with velocity c).

  7. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  8. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, E

    2006-01-01

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybri...

  9. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

    2000-02-15

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels.

  10. Do More Transparent Corporate Actions Following a Restatement Influence the SEC's Decision to Issue an Enforcement Action? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Files, Rebecca Lynn

    2010-10-12

    This study examines whether corporate transparency about a restatement influences the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) decision to issue an enforcement action. I consider corporate transparency to be higher when firms initiate...

  11. Down hole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  12. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  13. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency and four-wave mixing in a cold atomic ensemble with large optical depth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Geng; G. T. Campbell; J. Bernu; D. Higginbottom; B. M. Sparkes; S. M. Assad; W. P. Zhang; N. P. Robins; P. K. Lam; B. C. Buchler

    2014-08-11

    We report on the delay of optical pulses using electromagnetically induced transparency in an ensemble of cold atoms with an optical depth exceeding 500. To identify the regimes in which four-wave mixing impacts on EIT behaviour, we conduct the experiment in both rubidium 85 and rubidium 87. Comparison with theory shows excellent agreement in both isotopes. In rubidium 87, negligible four-wave mixing was observed and we obtained one pulse-width of delay with 50% efficiency. In rubidium 85, four-wave-mixing contributes to the output. In this regime we achieve a delay-bandwidth product of 3.7 at 50% efficiency, allowing temporally multimode delay, which we demonstrate by compressing two pulses into the memory medium.

  15. Energy on black hole spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Corichi

    2012-07-18

    We consider the issue of defining energy for test particles on a background black hole spacetime. We revisit the different notions of energy as defined by different observers. The existence of a time-like isometry allows for the notion of a total conserved energy to be well defined, and subsequently the notion of a gravitational potential energy is also meaningful. We then consider the situation in which the test particle is adsorbed by the black hole, and analyze the energetics in detail. In particular, we show that the notion of horizon energy es defined by the isolated horizons formalism provides a satisfactory notion of energy compatible with the particle's conserved energy. As another example, we comment a recent proposal to define energy of the black hole as seen by an observer at rest. This account is intended to be pedagogical and is aimed at the level of and as a complement to the standard textbooks on the subject.

  16. Heat Engine of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sadeghi; Kh. Jafarzade

    2015-06-23

    As we know, the cosmological constant in different theories of gravity acts as a thermodynamics variable. The cosmological constant exists in different actions of gravity and also appears in the solution of such theories. These lead to use the black hole as a heat engines. Also, there are two values for the cosmological constant as positive and negative values. The case of negative cosmological constant supplies a natural realization of these engines in terms of the field theory description of the fluids to which they are holographically dual. In this paper, we are going to define heat engines for two different black holes as Dyonic BH and Kerr BH. And also, we calculate maximum efficiency for two black holes.

  17. Quantum Criticality and Black Holes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.

  18. Black Holes and Galaxy Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    1999-06-02

    The consequences of nuclear black holes for the structure and dynamics of stellar spheroids are reviewed. Slow growth of a black hole in a pre-existing core produces a steep power-law density profile similar to the cusps seen in faint elliptical galaxies. The weaker cusps in bright ellipticals may result from ejection of stars by a coalescing black-hole binary; there is marginal kinematical evidence for such a process having occurred in M87. Stellar orbits in a triaxial nucleus are mostly regular at radii where the gravitational force is dominated by the black hole; however the orbital shapes are not conducive to reinforcing the triaxial figure, hence nuclei are likely to be approximately axisymmetric. In triaxial potentials, a ``zone of chaos'' extends outward to a radius where the enclosed stellar mass is roughly 100 times the mass of the black hole; in this chaotic zone, no regular, box-like orbits exist. At larger radii, the phase space in triaxial potentials is complex, consisting of stochastic orbits as well as regular orbits associated with stable resonances. Figure rotation tends to increase the degree of stochasticity. Both test-particle integrations and N-body simulations suggest that a triaxial galaxy responds globally to the presence of a central mass concentration by evolving toward more axisymmetric shapes; the evolution occurs rapidly when the mass of the central object exceeds roughly 2% of the mass in stars. The lack of significant triaxiality in most early-type galaxies may be a consequence of orbital evolution induced by nuclear black holes.

  19. Electromagnetically-induced transparency and light storing of a pair of pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Raczynski; J. Zaremba; S. Zielinska-Kaniasty

    2003-07-30

    Electromagnetically-induced transparency and light storing are studied in the case of a medium of atoms in a double Lambda configuration, both in terms of dark- and bright-state polatitons and atomic susceptibility. It is proven that the medium can be made transparent simultaneously for two pulses following their self-adjusting so that a condition for an adiabatic evolution has become fulfilled. Analytic formulas are given for the shapes and phases of the transmitted/stored pulses. The level of transparency can be regulated by adjusting the heights and phases of the control fields.

  20. Implementation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a metamaterial controlled with auxiliary waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a metamaterial to realize true electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), where the incidence of an auxiliary electromagnetic wave called the control wave induces transparency for a probe wave. The analogy to the original EIT effect in an atomic medium is shown through analytical and numerical calculations derived from a circuit model for the metamaterial. We performed experiments to demonstrate the EIT effect of the metamaterial in the microwave region. The width and position of the transparent region can be controlled by the power and frequency of the control wave. We also observed asymmetric transmission spectra unique to the Fano resonance.

  1. Introduction to Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-01-16

    These lecture notes are an elementary and pedagogical introduction to the black hole evaporation, based on a lecture given by the author at the Ninth Modave Summer School in Mathematical Physics and are intended for PhD students. First, quantum field theory in curved spacetime is studied and tools needed for the remaining of the course are introduced. Then, quantum field theory in Rindler spacetime in 1+1 dimensions and in the spacetime of a spherically collapsing star are considered, leading to Unruh and Hawking effects, respectively. Finally, some consequences such as thermodynamics of black holes and information loss paradox are discussed.

  2. Does phantom energy produce black hole?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Rahaman; A. Ghosh; M. Kalam

    2006-12-23

    We have found an exact solution of spherically symmetrical Einstein equations describing a black hole with a special type phantom energy source. It is surprising to note that our solution is analogous to Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole.

  3. Novel Scintillation Material - ZnO Transparent Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodnyi, P A; Gorokhova, E I; Kozlovskii, S S; Khanin, V M; Khodyuk, I V

    2011-01-01

    ZnO-based scintillation ceramics for application in HENPA LENPA analyzers have been investigated. The following ceramic samples have been prepared: undoped ones (ZnO), an excess of zinc in stoichiometry (ZnO:Zn), doped with gallium (ZnO:Ga) and lithium (ZnO:Li). Optical transmission, x-ray excited emission, scintillation decay and pulse height spectra were measured and analyzed. Ceramics have reasonable transparency in visible range (up to 60% for 0.4 mm thickness) and energy resolution (14.9% at 662 keV Cs137 gamma excitation). Undoped ZnO shows slow (1.6 {\\mu}s) luminescence with maximum at 2.37 eV and light yield about 57% of CsI:Tl. ZnO:Ga ceramics show relatively low light yield with ultra fast decay time (1 ns). Lithium doped ceramics ZnO:Li have better decay time than undoped ZnO with fair light yield. ZnO:Li ceramics show good characteristics under alpha-particle excitation and can be applied for the neutral particle analyzers.

  4. Novel Scintillation Material - ZnO Transparent Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Rodnyi; K. A. Chernenko; E. I. Gorokhova; S. S. Kozlovskii; V. M. Khanin; I. V. Khodyuk

    2011-11-09

    ZnO-based scintillation ceramics for application in HENPA LENPA analyzers have been investigated. The following ceramic samples have been prepared: undoped ones (ZnO), an excess of zinc in stoichiometry (ZnO:Zn), doped with gallium (ZnO:Ga) and lithium (ZnO:Li). Optical transmission, x-ray excited emission, scintillation decay and pulse height spectra were measured and analyzed. Ceramics have reasonable transparency in visible range (up to 60% for 0.4 mm thickness) and energy resolution (14.9% at 662 keV Cs137 gamma excitation). Undoped ZnO shows slow (1.6 {\\mu}s) luminescence with maximum at 2.37 eV and light yield about 57% of CsI:Tl. ZnO:Ga ceramics show relatively low light yield with ultra fast decay time (1 ns). Lithium doped ceramics ZnO:Li have better decay time than undoped ZnO with fair light yield. ZnO:Li ceramics show good characteristics under alpha-particle excitation and can be applied for the neutral particle analyzers.

  5. Classical and thermodynamic stability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Monteiro

    2010-06-28

    We consider the stability of black holes within both classical general relativity and the semiclassical thermodynamic description. In particular, we study linearised perturbations and their contribution to the gravitational partition function, addressing technical issues for charged (Reissner-Nordstrom) and rotating (Kerr-AdS) black holes. Exploring the connection between classical and thermodynamic stability, we find classical instabilities of Myers-Perry black holes and bifurcations to new black hole families.

  6. Will black holes eventually engulf the universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prado Martin-Moruno; Jose A. Jimenez Madrid; Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    2006-03-28

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models.

  7. Hawking Emission and Black Hole Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Don N. Page

    2006-12-18

    A brief review of Hawking radiation and black hole thermodynamics is given, based largely upon hep-th/0409024.

  8. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  9. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  10. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  11. Scattering by regular black holes: Planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Bardeen black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macedo, Caio F B; Crispino, Luís C B

    2015-01-01

    Singularities are common features of general relativity black holes. However, within general relativity, one can construct black holes that present no singularities. These regular black hole solutions can be achieved by, for instance, relaxing one of the energy conditions on the stress energy tensor sourcing the black hole. Some regular black hole solutions were found in the context of non-linear electrodynamics, the Bardeen black hole being the first one proposed. In this paper, we consider a planar massless scalar wave scattered by a Bardeen black hole. We compare the scattering cross section computed using a partial-wave description with the classical geodesic scattering of a stream of null geodesics, as well as with the semi-classical glory approximation. We obtain that, for some values of the corresponding black hole charge, the scattering cross section of a Bardeen black hole has a similar interference pattern of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.

  12. Scattering by regular black holes: Planar massless scalar waves impinging upon a Bardeen black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caio F. B. Macedo; Ednilton S. de Oliveira; Luís C. B. Crispino

    2015-06-26

    Singularities are common features of general relativity black holes. However, within general relativity, one can construct black holes that present no singularities. These regular black hole solutions can be achieved by, for instance, relaxing one of the energy conditions on the stress energy tensor sourcing the black hole. Some regular black hole solutions were found in the context of non-linear electrodynamics, the Bardeen black hole being the first one proposed. In this paper, we consider a planar massless scalar wave scattered by a Bardeen black hole. We compare the scattering cross section computed using a partial-wave description with the classical geodesic scattering of a stream of null geodesics, as well as with the semi-classical glory approximation. We obtain that, for some values of the corresponding black hole charge, the scattering cross section of a Bardeen black hole has a similar interference pattern of a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole.

  13. New approaches to black holes Eric Gourgoulhon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    References Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) New approaches to black holes Okinawa Nat. Col. Tech., 17 Aug 2008 2 / 36 Gourgoulhon (LUTH) New approaches to black holes Okinawa Nat. Col. Tech., 17 Aug 2008 3 / 36 #12;Local (2006)] Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) New approaches to black holes Okinawa Nat. Col. Tech., 17 Aug 2008 4

  14. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  15. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2005-03-08

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  16. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2007-03-20

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  17. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  18. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  19. Evidence for the Onset of Color Transparency in $?^0$ Electroproduction off Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. El Fassi; L. Zana; K. Hafidi; M. Holtrop; B. Mustapha; W. K. Brooks; H. Hakobyan; X. Zheng; K. P. Adhikari; D. Adikaram; M. Aghasyan; M. J. Amaryan; M. Anghinolfi; J. Arrington; H. Avakian; H. Baghdasaryan; M. Battaglieri; V. Batourine; I. Bedlinskiy; A. S. Biselli; C. Bookwalter; D. Branford; W. J. Briscoe; S. Bultmann; V. D. Burkert; D. S. Carman; A. Celentano; S. Chandavar; P. L. Cole; M. Contalbrigo; V. Crede; A. D'Angelo; A. Daniel; N. Dashyan; R. De Vita; E. De Sanctis; A. Deur; B. Dey; R. Dickson; C. Djalali; G. E. Dodge; D. Doughty; R. Dupre; H. Egiyan; A. El Alaoui; L. Elouadrhiri; P. Eugenio; G. Fedotov; S. Fegan; M. Y. Gabrielyan; M. Garcon; N. Gevorgyan; G. P. Gilfoyle; K. L. Giovanetti; F. X. Girod; J. T. Goetz; W. Gohn; E. Golovatch; R. W. Gothe; K. A. Griffioen; M. Guidal; L. Guo; C. Hanretty; D. Heddle; K. Hicks; R. J. Holt; C. E. Hyde; Y. Ilieva; D. G. Ireland; B. S. Ishkhanov; E. L. Isupov; S. S. Jawalkar; D. Keller; M. Khandaker; P. Khetarpal; A. Kim; W. Kim; A. Klein; F. J. Klein; V. Kubarovsky; S. E. Kuhn; S. V. Kuleshov; V. Kuznetsov; J. M. Laget; H. Y. Lu; I. J. D. MacGregor; Y. Mao; N. Markov; M. Mayer; J. McAndrew; B. McKinnon; C. A. Meyer; T. Mineeva; M. Mirazita; V. Mokeev; B. Moreno; H. Moutarde; E. Munevar; P. Nadel-Turonski; A. Ni; S. Niccolai; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; M. Osipenko; A. I. Ostrovidov; L. Pappalardo; R. Paremuzyan; K. Park; S. Park; E. Pasyuk; S. Anefalos Pereira; E. Phelps; S. Pisano; S. Pozdniakov; J. W. Price; S. Procureur; D. Protopopescu; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; G. Ricco; D. Rimal; M. Ripani; B. G. Ritchie; G. Rosner; P. Rossi; F. Sabatie; M. S. Saini; C. Salgado; D. Schott; R. A. Schumacher; H. Seraydaryan; Y. G. Sharabian; E. S. Smith; G. D. Smith; D. I. Sober; D. Sokhan; S. S. Stepanyan; S. Stepanyan; P. Stoler; S. Strauch; M. Taiuti; W. Tang; C. E. Taylor; D. J. Tedeschi; S. Tkachenko; M. Ungaro; B . Vernarsky; M. F. Vineyard; H. Voskanyan; E. Voutier; D. Watts; L. B. Weinstein; D. P. Weygand; M. H. Wood; N. Zachariou; B. Zhao; Z. W. Zhao

    2012-05-11

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive $A(e,e'\\rho^0)$ process in $^{12}$C and $^{56}$Fe targets relative to $^2$H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced $\\rho^0$'s on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to $\\rho A$ interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length ($l_c$), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared ($Q^2$). While the transparency for both $^{12}$C and $^{56}$Fe showed no $l_c$ dependence, a significant $Q^2$ dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included the color transparency effects.

  20. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt 2014; published online 14 October 2014) Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced

  1. Measurement of nuclear transparency from A(e,e'[pi]?) reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The color transparency phenomenon refers to the suppression of final-state interactions of a hadron propagating through the nuclear medium at large momentum transfer when the hadron is produced with small transverse size. ...

  2. Programmable window : a large-scale transparent electronic display using SPD film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramos, Martin (Ramos Rizo-Patron)

    2004-01-01

    This research demonstrates that Suspended Particle Device (SPD) film is a viable option for the development of large-scale transparent display systems. The thesis analyzes the SPD film from an architectural display application ...

  3. Transparent process rollback recovery: some new techniques and a portable implementation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellenberger, Ernest Lloyd

    1995-01-01

    Processes in a distributed system can be made transparently recoverable through the use of process checkpointing, which periodically introduces a relatively large but temporary overhead, or message logging, which introduces ...

  4. Synthesis of mono-to-multi-layer graphene for transparent electrode applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Minseok

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, mono-to-multilayer graphene for transparent electrode applications was synthesized by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) and the key factors that determine the electrical and optical ...

  5. Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunt, Richard R.

    We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

  6. Polymer material selection and testing of resistive wire arrangement for a transparent infant warming blanket

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Madeline

    2013-01-01

    The ThermoCloud was designed as a portable, scalable, transparent electrical blanket to warm and insulate infants, while permitting hassle-free medical transportation and maximum visualization of a patient's thorax and ...

  7. Demonstration of a hitless bypass switch using nanomechanical perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Rohit

    We demonstrate an optical hitless bypass switch based on nanomechanical proximity perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks. Embedded in a single-level ?-imbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two ...

  8. Evidence for the onset of color transparency in ?0 electroproduction off nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Hicks, K.; Holt, R. J.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalker, S. S.; et al

    2012-05-11

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive A(e,e'?0) process in 12C and 56Fe targets relative to 2H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced {rho}{sup 0}'s on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to ?A interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length (Ic), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared (Q2). Thus, while the transparency for both 12C and 56Fe showed no Ic dependence, a significant Q2 dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included themore »color transparency effects.« less

  9. GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consistent with the Administration's commitment to transparency, DOE General Counsel Scott Blake Harris has decided that all future determinations as to the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund fee...

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - 9_David Thomas_WR Transparency at NMMSS...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    be converted to LEU and delivered to USEC Deliveries of "WR" LEU from USEC to the fuel fabricators are likely to continue into CY 2015 Transparency in U.S. facilities...

  11. Electrodeposited cobalt sulfide hole collecting layer for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zampetti, Andrea; De Rossi, Francesca; Brunetti, Francesca; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M., E-mail: thomas.brown@uniroma2.it [CHOSE (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-11

    In polymer solar cells based on the blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, the hole collecting layer has to be endowed with its ionization potential close to or greater than that of P3HT (?5?eV). Conductive polymer blends such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and metal oxides such as vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) satisfy this requirement and have been the most common materials used so far in bulk heterojunction structures. We report here cobalt sulfide (CoS) to be a promising hole collecting material deposited by convenient and room temperature electrodeposition. By simply tuning the CoS electrodeposition parameters, power conversion efficiencies similar (within 15%) to a reference structure with PEDOT:PSS were obtained.

  12. Absence of Power-Law Mid-Infrared Conductivity in Gravitational Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandon W. Langley; Garrett Vanacore; Philip W. Phillips

    2015-08-14

    We compute conductivities of strongly-interacting and non-uniform charge densities dual to inhomogeneous anti-de Sitter--black hole spacetimes. Backreacting bulk scalars with periodic boundary profiles, we construct generalizations of Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS that interpolate between those used in two previous studies --- one that reports power-law scaling for the boundary optical conductivity and one that does not. We find no evidence for power-law scaling of the conductivity, thereby corroborating the previous negative result that gravitational crystals are insufficient to generate the power-law mid-infrared conductivity observed in cuprate superconductors.

  13. Extremal Higher Spin Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Máximo Bañados; Alejandra Castro; Alberto Faraggi; Juan I. Jottar

    2015-11-30

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require nor implies the existence of supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) + sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory. Remarkably, while as usual not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries, we find that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions as well. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) + sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W_{(3|2)} symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N=2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W_{(3|2)} BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N=2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.

  14. On coupling impedances of pumping holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurennoy, S.

    1993-04-01

    Coupling impedances of a single small hole in vacuum-chamber walls have been calculated at low frequencies. To generalize these results for higher frequencies and/or larger holes one needs to solve coupled integral equations for the effective currents. These equations are solved for two specific hole shapes. The effects of many holes at high frequencies where the impedances are not additive are studied using a perturbation-theory method. The periodic versus random distributions of the pumping holes in the Superconducting Super Collider liner are compared.

  15. Adaptive Fluid Electrical Conductivity Logging to Determine the Salinity Profiles in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, Nigel

    quality data ­ existing production wells mostly used for emergency water supply · High cost of groundwater packers #12;Down-hole tool in difference flow logging (DIFF) #12;Flowing electrical conductivity logging water of constant salinity distinctly different from that of formation water). 2. Shut in well and lower

  16. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  17. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  18. Test versus predictions for rotordynamic coefficients and leakage rates of hole-pattern gas seals at two clearances in choked and unchoked conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Jonathan Leigh

    2004-09-30

    This thesis documents the results of high pressure testing of hole-pattern annular gas seals conducted at the Texas A&M University's Turbomachinery Laboratory. The testing conditions were aimed at determining the test seals ...

  19. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to be less difficult than one could think of it.

  20. Improved Performance of OLEDs on Cellulose/Epoxy Substrate Using Adenine as a Hole Injection Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cincinnati, University of

    Improved Performance of OLEDs on Cellulose/Epoxy Substrate Using Adenine as a Hole Injection Layer structure with cellulose, gold, and the DNA nucleobase adenine. Gold films are used as semitransparent electrodes on plant-based cellulose substrates, providing flexible anodes that are highly conductive without

  1. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

  2. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC); Cadieux, James R. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package.

  3. Detecting small holes in packages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.; Cadieux, J.R.

    1996-03-19

    A package containing a tracer gas, and a method for determining the presence of a hole in the package by sensing the presence of the gas outside the package are disclosed. The preferred tracer gas, especially for food packaging, is sulfur hexafluoride. A quantity of the gas is added to the package and the package is closed. The concentration of the gas in the atmosphere outside the package is measured and compared to a predetermined value of the concentration of the gas in the absence of the package. A measured concentration greater than the predetermined value indicates the presence of a hole in the package. Measuring may be done in a chamber having a lower pressure than that in the package. 3 figs.

  4. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  5. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burra G. Sidharth

    2005-07-15

    We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.

  6. Quantum chaos inside Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensamble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call this new items {\\it frizzyballs}, which can be rigorously defined by euclidean path integral approach. This has interesting implications regarding information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  7. Quantum chaos inside Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Addazi

    2015-08-30

    We show how semiclassical black holes can be reinterpreted as an effective geometry, composed of a large ensamble of horizonless naked singularities (eventually smoothed at the Planck scale). We call this new items {\\it frizzyballs}, which can be rigorously defined by euclidean path integral approach. This has interesting implications regarding information paradoxes. We demonstrate that infalling information will chaotically propagate inside this system before going to the full quantum gravity regime (Planck scale).

  8. Classical Black Holes Are Hot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Curiel

    2014-11-09

    In the early 1970s it is was realized that there is a striking formal analogy between the Laws of black-hole mechanics and the Laws of classical thermodynamics. Before the discovery of Hawking radiation, however, it was generally thought that the analogy was only formal, and did not reflect a deep connection between gravitational and thermodynamical phenomena. It is still commonly held that the surface gravity of a stationary black hole can be construed as a true physical temperature and its area as a true entropy only when quantum effects are taken into account; in the context of classical general relativity alone, one cannot cogently construe them so. Does the use of quantum field theory in curved spacetime offer the only hope for taking the analogy seriously? I think the answer is `no'. To attempt to justify that answer, I shall begin by arguing that the standard argument to the contrary is not physically well founded, and in any event begs the question. Looking at the various ways that the ideas of "temperature" and "entropy" enter classical thermodynamics then will suggest arguments that, I claim, show the analogy between classical black-hole mechanics and classical thermodynamics should be taken more seriously, without the need to rely on or invoke quantum mechanics. In particular, I construct an analogue of a Carnot cycle in which a black hole "couples" with an ordinary thermodynamical system in such a way that its surface gravity plays the role of temperature and its area that of entropy. Thus, the connection between classical general relativity and classical thermodynamics on their own is already deep and physically significant, independent of quantum mechanics.

  9. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Richard G. (Las Cruces, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  10. Submicron patterned metal hole etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Liberman, Vladimir (Needham, MA); Morse, Jeffrey (Martinez, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A wet chemical process for etching submicron patterned holes in thin metal layers using electrochemical etching with the aid of a wetting agent. In this process, the processed wafer to be etched is immersed in a wetting agent, such as methanol, for a few seconds prior to inserting the processed wafer into an electrochemical etching setup, with the wafer maintained horizontal during transfer to maintain a film of methanol covering the patterned areas. The electrochemical etching setup includes a tube which seals the edges of the wafer preventing loss of the methanol. An electrolyte composed of 4:1 water: sulfuric is poured into the tube and the electrolyte replaces the wetting agent in the patterned holes. A working electrode is attached to a metal layer of the wafer, with reference and counter electrodes inserted in the electrolyte with all electrodes connected to a potentiostat. A single pulse on the counter electrode, such as a 100 ms pulse at +10.2 volts, is used to excite the electrochemical circuit and perform the etch. The process produces uniform etching of the patterned holes in the metal layers, such as chromium and molybdenum of the wafer without adversely effecting the patterned mask.

  11. conductivity april8,2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaanen, Jan

    100 Years of Super conductivity april8,2011 #12;100 years of supercondictivity 03 PREFACE O n On 8 of research in the science and technology of electrical conduction in materials and in the development in the Collider. Superconducting materials are also currently under evaluation for improving the efficiency

  12. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  13. Relationship of Black Holes to Bulges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Laura Ferrarese

    2001-07-08

    Supermassive black holes appear to be uniquely associated with galactic bulges. The mean ratio of black hole mass to bulge mass was until recently very uncertain, with ground based, stellar kinematical data giving a value roughly an order of magnitude larger than other techniques. The discrepancy was resolved with the discovery of the M-sigma relation, which simultaneously established a tight corrrelation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion, and confirmed that the stellar kinematical mass estimates were systematically too large due to failure to resolve the black hole's sphere of influence. There is now excellent agreement between the various techniques for estimating the mean black hole mass, including dynamical mass estimation in quiescent galaxies; reverberation mapping in active galaxies and quasars; and computation of the mean density of compact objects based on integrated quasar light. Implications of the M-sigma relation for the formation of black holes are discussed.

  14. Nitrogen-doped graphene as transparent counter electrode for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guiqiang, E-mail: wgqiang123@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Fang, Yanyan; Lin, Yuan [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)] [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China); Xing, Wei; Zhuo, Shuping [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? NG sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide. ? The transparent NG counter electrodes of DSCs are fabricated at room temperature. ? Transparent NG electrode exhibits excellent catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup ?}. ? The DSC with NG electrode achieves a comparable efficiency to that of the Pt-based cell. ? The efficiency of rear illumination is about 85% that of front illumination. -- Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene sheets are prepared through a hydrothermal reduction of graphite oxide in the presence of ammonia and applied to fabricate the transparent counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. The atomic percentage of nitrogen in doped graphene sample is about 2.5%, and the nitrogen bonds display pyridine and pyrrole-like configurations. Cyclic voltammetry studies demonstrate a much higher electrocatalytic activity toward I{sup ?}/I{sub 3}{sup ?} redox reaction for nitrogen-doped graphene, as compared with pristine graphene. The dye-sensitized solar cell with this transparent nitrogen-doped graphene counter electrode shows conversion efficiencies of 6.12% and 5.23% corresponding to front-side and rear-side illumination, respectively. Meanwhile, the cell with a Pt counter electrode shows a conversion efficiency of 6.97% under the same experimental condition. These promising results highlight the potential application of nitrogen-doped graphene in cost-effective, transparent dye-sensitized solar cells.

  15. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  16. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  17. Lower Dimensional Black Holes: Inside and Out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1995-01-27

    I survey the physics of black holes in two and three spacetime dimensions, with special attention given to an understanding of their exterior and interior properties.

  18. Black Holes: from Speculations to Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2006-04-13

    This paper provides a brief review of the history of our understanding and knowledge of black holes. Starting with early speculations on ``dark stars'' I discuss the Schwarzschild "black hole" solution to Einstein's field equations and the development of its interpretation from "physically meaningless" to describing the perhaps most exotic and yet "most perfect" macroscopic object in the universe. I describe different astrophysical black hole populations and discuss some of their observational evidence. Finally I close by speculating about future observations of black holes with the new generation of gravitational wave detectors.

  19. Rotating Black Holes and Coriolis Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiaoning; Yuan, Pei-Hung; Cho, Chia-Jui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the Petrov-like boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  20. Rotating Black Holes and Coriolis Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiaoning Wu; Yi Yang; Pei-Hung Yuan; Chia-Jui Cho

    2015-11-27

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the Petrov-like boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  1. Electrical conductivity of pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teoh, H.; Metz, P.D.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Using ultrapure samples of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) of 485,000 or 150,000 average molecular weight solution cast in dimethylformamide, the dc conductivity (sigma) of pyrolyzed PAN (PANP) films has been studied for pyrolysis temperatures (T/ sub p/) of 280 to 435/sup 0/C. Conductivity measurements made during pyrolysis indicate the onset of a dramatic increase in sigma for T/sub p/ of 390 to 435/sup 0/C. Conductivities as high as 5 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ have been observed for T/sub p/ < 435/sup 0/C.

  2. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  3. Performance of Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide, Transparent Ceramics and Bismuth-loaded Polymer Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Sturm, Benjamin; O’Neal, S P; Seeley, Zachary; Drury, Owen; Haselhorst, L K; Rupert, B. L.; Sanner, Robert; Thelin, P; Fisher, S E; Hawrami, Rastgo; Shah, Kanai; Burger, Arnold; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Boatner, Lynn A

    2011-01-01

    Recently discovered scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy, single crystal SrI2(Eu), GYGAG(Ce) transparent ceramic and Bismuth-loaded plastics offer resolution and fabrication advantages compared to commercial scintillators, such as NaI(Tl) and standard PVT plastic. Energy resolution at 662 keV of 2.7% is obtained with SrI2(Eu), while 4.5% is obtained with GYGAG(Ce). A new transparent ceramic scintillator for radiographic imaging systems, GLO(Eu) offers high light yield of ~75,000 Ph/MeV, high stopping, and low radiation damage. Implementation of single crystal SrI2(Eu), Gd-based transparent ceramics, and Bi-loaded plastic scintillators can advance the state-of-the art in ionizing radiation detection systems.

  4. Performance of Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide, Transparent Ceramics and Bismuth-loaded Polymer Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepy, N J; Payne, S A; Sturm, B W; O'Neal, S P; Seeley, Z M; Drury, O B; Haselhorst, L K; Rupert, B L; Sanner, R D; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Hawrami, R; Shah, K S; Burger, A; Ramey, J O; Boatner, L A

    2011-08-30

    Recently discovered scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy, single crystal SrI{sub 2}(Eu), GYGAG(Ce) transparent ceramic and Bismuth-loaded plastics, offer resolution and fabrication advantages compared to commercial scintillators, such as NaI(Tl) and standard PVT plastic. Energy resolution at 662 keV of 2.7% is obtained with SrI{sub 2}(Eu), while 4.5% is obtained with GYGAG(Ce). A new transparent ceramic scintillator for radiographic imaging systems, GLO(Eu) offers high light yield of 70,000 Photons/MeV, high stopping, and low radiation damage. Implementation of single crystal SrI{sub 2}(Eu), Gd-based transparent ceramics, and Bi-loaded plastic scintillators can advance the state-of-the art in ionizing radiation detection systems.

  5. Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-09-01

    Conventional silica sol-gel chemistry is limited for the production of transparent ultralow-density aerogels because (1) gelation is either slow or unachievable, and (2) even when gelation is achieved, the large pore sizes result in loss of transparency for aerogels <.020 g/cc. We have developed a two-step sol-gel process that circumvents the limitations of the conventional process and allows the formation of ultralow-density gels in a matter of hours. we have found that the gel time is dependent on the catalyst concentration. After supercritical extraction, the aerogels are transparent, uncracked tiles with densities as low as .003 g/cc. 6 figs., 11 refs.

  6. Control of microwave signals using bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in three-mode circuit electromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng Jiang; Yuanshun Cui; Xiaowei Li

    2014-08-17

    We theoretically investigate the tunable slowing and advancing of microwave signals based on bichromatic electromechanically induced transparency in a three-mode circuit electromechanical system, where two mechanical oscillators with closely spaced frequencies are independently coupled to a common microwave cavity. In the presence of a strong microwave pump field, we obtain two transparency windows accompanied by steep phase dispersion in the transmitted microwave probe field. The width of the transparency window and the group delay of the probe field can be controlled effectively by the power of the pump field. It is shown that the maximum group delay of 0.12 ms and the advance of 0.27 ms can be obtained in the current experiments.

  7. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C(p,2p) Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Leksanov; J. Alster; G. Asryan; Y. Averichev; D. Barton; V. Baturin; N. Bukhtoyarova; A. Carroll; S. Heppelmann; T. Kawabata; Y. Makdisi; E. Minina; I. Navon; A. Malki; H. Nicholson; A. Ogawa; Yu. Panebratsev; E. Piasetzky; A. Schetkovsky; S. Shimanskiy; A. Tang; J. W. Watson; H. Yoshida; D. Zhalov

    2001-07-20

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasi-elastic events was measured at beam energies ranging from 6 to 14.5 GeV at 90 degrees c.m. The four momentum transfer squared q*q ranged from 4.8 to 16.9 (GeV/c)**2. We present the observed energy dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to normalize this transparency ratio. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam energy is increased to 9 GeV and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  8. An Exact Hairy Black Hole Solution for AdS/CFT Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding-fang Zeng

    2009-08-30

    We provide an exact hairy black hole solution to an $n+1$ dimensional complex scalar field model coupled with gravity. The model is characterized by a potential with one parameter. Depending on the magnitude of this parameter, the effective mass square of the scalar field can be both positive and negative. No matter what case it is, there are temperature ranges in which the hairy black hole is thermodynamically stable against decaying into its no-hair counterpart. We use this solution as an AdS/CFT superconductor model and study its conductivity-frequency relation and find typical features observed in other AdS/CFT superconductor models.

  9. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  10. Core Holes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company)| Open(Evans,Oregon: EnergyInformationOpen1988)|Holes Jump

  11. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, D. Morgan (Camarillo, CA); Cunningham, Michael A. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Kobrin, Paul H. (Newbury Park, CA)

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  12. Disorder-induced transparency in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with optical cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yongyou Dong, Guangda; Zou, Bingsuo

    2014-05-07

    Disorder influence on photon transmission behavior is theoretically studied in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with a series of optical cavities. For this sake, we propose a concept of disorder-induced transparency appearing on the low-transmission spectral background. Two kinds of disorders, namely, disorders of optical cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases in the waveguide side coupled with optical cavities are considered to show the disorder-induced transparency. They both can induce the optical transmission peaks on the low-transmission backgrounds. The statistical mean value of the transmission also increases with increasing the disorders of the cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases.

  13. Sun-tracking optical element realized using thermally activated transparency-switching material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apostoleris, Harry; Lilliu, Samuele; Chiesa, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We present a proof of concept demonstration of a novel optical element: a light-responsive aperture that can track a moving light beam. The element is created using a thermally-activated transparency-switching material composed of paraffin wax and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Illumination of the material with a focused beam causes the formation of a localized transparency at the focal spot location, due to local heating caused by absorption of a portion of the incident light. An application is proposed in a new design for a self-tracking solar collector.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency from two-phonon processes in quadratically coupled membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Sumei; Agarwal, G. S. [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    We describe how electromagnetically induced transparency can arise in quadratically coupled optomechanical systems. Due to quadratic coupling, the underlying optical process involves a two-phonon process in an optomechanical system, and this two-phonon process makes the mean displacement, which plays the role of atomic coherence in traditional electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), zero. We show how the fluctuation in displacement can play a role similar to atomic coherence and can lead to EIT-like effects in quadratically coupled optomechanical systems. We show how such effects can be studied using the existing optomechanical systems.

  15. Optical properties of transparent glass–ceramics containing lithium–mica nanocrystals: Crystallization effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khani, V.; Alizadeh, P.; Shakeri, M.S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Optical properties of transparent Li{sub 2}O–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}–F glasses containing lithium–mica nanocrystals are studied and crystallization condition has been evaluated and optimized to produce transparent glass–ceramics. Crystallization temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and crystalline phases were identified and quantified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological variations and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy for comparative analysis of transparency. In order to investigate the optical properties of transparent glass–ceramics, optical band gap, Fermi energy level and Urbach energy are calculated. The results of the investigation illustrate that band gap is reduced with increases in crystallization time and temperature. Enhanced orderliness in the arrangement of atoms might be regarded as possible reasons for the above changes. - Highlights: • The optimum temperature and time of crystallization were determined. • Li–mica nanocrystals with size of <30 nm were formed using a two-step heat-treatment. • Optical band gap and Fermi energy of nanocrystalline materials decreased with increasing of crystallization temperature and time. • Urbach band tailing was decreased with increasing of crystallization condition. - Abstract: Optical properties of transparent Li{sub 2}O–MgO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2}–F glasses containing lithium–mica nanocrystals were studied. The crystallization condition of these glasses was evaluated and optimized to produce transparent glass–ceramics. Crystallization temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and crystalline phases were identified and quantified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used to detect morphological changes and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy was used for comparative analysis of transparency. In order to investigate the optical properties of the transparent glass–ceramics, optical band gap, Fermi energy level and Urbach energy were calculated. The results of the investigation illustrate that the band gap is reduced with increases in crystallization time and temperature. Enhanced orderliness in the arrangement of atoms might be regarded as possible reasons for the above changes.

  16. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    35, (3-6), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity ofProperties of Matter: Thermal conductivity: nonmetallicSociety), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity of

  17. Class Transitions in Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    2005-01-14

    A black hole spectrum is known to change from the hard state to the soft state when the energy spectral index $\\alpha$ ($F_E \\propto E^{-\\alpha}$) in, say, 2-20 keV range changes from $\\alpha \\sim 0.5$ to $\\sim 1.5$. However, this `classical' definition which characterizes black holes like Cyg X-1, becomes less useful for many objects such as GRS 1915+105 in which the spectral slope is seen to vary from one to the other in a matter of seconds and depending on whether or not winds form, the spectral slope also changes. The light curves and the colour-colour diagrams may look completely different on different days depending on the frequency and mode of switching from one spectral state to the other. Though RXTE observations have yielded wealth of information on such `variability classes' in GRS 1915+105, very rarely one has been able to observe how the object goes from one class to the other. In the present review, we discuss possible origins of the class transition and present several examples of such transitions. In this context, we use mostly the results of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE) which observed GRS 1915+105 more regularly.

  18. An electromagnetic black hole made of metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Cheng; Tie Jun Cui; Wei Xiang Jiang; Ben Geng Cai

    2010-04-30

    Traditionally, a black hole is a region of space with huge gravitational field, which absorbs everything hitting it. In history, the black hole was first discussed by Laplace under the Newton mechanics, whose event horizon radius is the same as the Schwarzschild's solution of the Einstein's vacuum field equations. If all those objects having such an event horizon radius but different gravitational fields are called as black holes, then one can simulate certain properties of the black holes using electromagnetic fields and metamaterials due to the similar propagation behaviours of electromagnetic waves in curved space and in inhomogeneous metamaterials. In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev, an optical black hole has been proposed based on metamaterials, in which the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all electromagnetic waves hitting it are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of such an electromagnetic black hole in the microwave frequencies. The proposed black hole is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields and the event horizon corresponding to the device boundary. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99% in the microwave frequencies. We expect that the electromagnetic black hole could be used as the thermal emitting source and to harvest the solar light.

  19. Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Zannias

    1994-09-14

    It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

  20. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  1. Topological Black Holes in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Kowalski-Glikman; D. Nowak-Szczepaniak

    2000-07-31

    We derive the black hole solutions with horizons of non-trivial topology and investigate their properties in the framework of an approach to quantum gravity being an extension of Bohm's formulation of quantum mechanics. The solutions we found tend asymptotically (for large $r$) to topological black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamics of these space-times.

  2. Primordial black holes and asteroid danger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Shatskiy

    2008-02-21

    Probability for a primordial black hole to invade the Kuiper belt was calculated. We showed that primordial black holes of certain masses can significantly change asteroids' orbits. These events may result in disasters, local for our solar system and global for the Earth (like the Tunguska meteorite). We also estimated how often such events occur.

  3. Canonical structure of 2D black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro-Salas, J; Talavera, C F

    1994-01-01

    We determine the canonical structure of two-dimensional black-hole solutions arising in $2D$ dilaton gravity. By choosing the Cauchy surface appropriately we find that the canonically conjugate variable to the black hole mass is given by the difference of local (Schwarzschild) time translations at right and left spatial infinities. This can be regarded as a generalization of Birkhoff's theorem.

  4. Fractal Statistics and Quantum Black Hole Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz

    2000-11-18

    Simple considerations about the fractal characteristic of the quantum-mechanical path give us the opportunity to derive the quantum black hole entropy in connection with the concept of fractal statistics. We show the geometrical origin of the numerical factor of four of the quantum black hole entropy expression and the statistics weight appears as a counting of the quanta of geometry.

  5. Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes...

  6. Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Slim Holes At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Fairbank Engineering Ltd, 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Slim Holes At Blue...

  7. Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactificatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effective theories and black hole production in warped compactifications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effective theories and black hole production in warped...

  8. Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gradient holes up to 500' deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five....

  9. Brookhaven National Laboratory - Sr90 - Chemical Holes | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Chemical Holes Brookhaven National Laboratory - Sr90 - Chemical Holes January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report...

  10. Can Superconducting Cosmic Strings Piercing Seed Black Holes Generate Supermassive Black Holes in the Early Universe?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lake, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a large number of supermassive black holes at redshifts $z> 6$, when the Universe was only nine hundred million years old, has raised the fundamental question of how such massive compact objects could form in a (cosmologically) short time interval. Each of the proposed standard scenarios for black hole formation, involving rapid accretion of seed black holes, or black hole mergers, faces severe theoretical difficulties in explaining the short time formation of supermassive objects. In the present Letter, we propose an alternative scenario for the formation of supermassive black holes in the early Universe in which energy transfer from superconducting cosmic strings, piercing small seed black holes, is the main physical process leading to rapid mass increase. The increase in mass of a primordial seed black hole pierced by two antipodal strings is estimated and it is shown that this increases linearly in time. Due to the high energy transfer rate from the cosmic strings, we find that supermassi...

  11. Effects of backward-propagating waves and lumped mirror losses on self-induced transparency modelocking in quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    Effects of backward-propagating waves and lumped mirror losses on self-induced transparency Work to date on self-induced transparency modelocking in quantum cascade lasers QCLs has neglected that is long compared to round-trip time Trt is required in order to suppress continuous waves that may lead

  12. 898 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 12, JUNE 15, 2007 10-Gb/s Wavelength Transparent Optically Controlled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Transparent Optically Controlled Buffer Using Photonic-Crystal-Fiber-Based Nonlinear Optical Loop Mirror C. C they are stored in the memory for 2;4;. . . ; and 12 round-trips. Indepen- dent bit-error-rate (BER) measurements is wavelength transparent. For data packets stored in the C-band, the maximum power penalty after the data

  13. Nonthermal correction to black hole spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Yu Wen

    2014-11-14

    Area spectrum of black holes have been obtained via various methods such as quasinormal modes, adiabatic invariance and angular momentum. Among those methods, calculations were done by assuming black holes in thermal equilibrium. Nevertheless, black holes in the asymptotically flat space usually have negative specific heat and therefore tend to stay away from thermal equilibrium. Even for those black holes with positive specific heat, temperature may still not be well defined in the process of radiation, due to the back reaction of decreasing mass. Respect to these facts, it is very likely that Hawking radiation is nonthermal and the area spectrum is no longer equidistant. In this note, we would like to illustrate how the area spectrum of black holes is corrected by this nonthermal effect.

  14. Fourier Analysis of the BTZ Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian M. Tolfree

    2009-11-11

    In this paper we extend our previous work regarding the role of the Fourier transformation in bulk to boundary mappings to include the BTZ black hole. We follow standard procedures for modifying Fourier Transformations to accommodate quotient spaces and arrive at a bulk to boundary mapping in a black hole background. We show that this mapping is consistent with known results and lends a new insight into the AdS/CFT duality. We find that the micro-states corresponding to the entropy of a bulk scalar field are the Fourier coefficients on the boundary, which transform under the principal series representation of $SL(2,R)$. Building upon this we present a toy model to analyze the implications of this for the origin of black hole entropy. We find that the black hole micro-states live on the boundary and correspond to the possible emission modes of the black hole

  15. Evidence for the Black Hole Event Horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan

    2003-10-23

    Astronomers have discovered many candidate black holes in X-ray binaries and in the nuclei of galaxies. The candidate objects are too massive to be neutron stars, and for this reason they are considered to be black holes. While the evidence based on mass is certainly strong, there is no proof yet that any of the objects possesses the defining characteristic of a black hole, namely an event horizon. Type I X-ray bursts, which are the result of thermonuclear explosions when gas accretes onto the surface of a compact star, may provide important evidence in this regard. Type I bursts are commonly observed in accreting neutron stars, which have surfaces, but have never been seen in accreting black hole candidates. It is argued that the lack of bursts in black hole candidates is compelling evidence that these objects do not have surfaces. The objects must therefore possess event horizons.

  16. How fast can a black hole rotate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herdeiro, Carlos A R

    2015-01-01

    Kerr black holes have their angular momentum, $J$, bounded by their mass, $M$: $Jc\\leqslant GM^2$. There are, however, known black hole solutions violating this Kerr bound. We propose a very simple universal bound on the rotation, rather than on the angular momentum, of four-dimensional, stationary and axisymmetric, asymptotically flat black holes, given in terms of an appropriately defined horizon linear velocity, $v_H$. The $v_H$ bound is simply that $v_H$ cannot exceed the velocity of light. We verify the $v_H$ bound for known black hole solutions, including some that violate the Kerr bound, and conjecture that only extremal Kerr black holes saturate the $v_H$ bound.

  17. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  18. Analysis of optical interferometric measurements of guided acoustic waves in transparent solid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, Université

    Analysis of optical interferometric measurements of guided acoustic waves in transparent solid mechanisms and dispersion characteristics of guided waves in multilayered cylindrical solid media J. Acoust.1063/1.110550 DEFLECTION OF AN OPTICAL GUIDED WAVE BY A SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVE Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 265 (1970); 10

  19. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 87, 064608 (2013) Nuclear meson transparency in a relativistic Glauber model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 87, 064608 (2013) Nuclear meson transparency in a relativistic Glauber model W traditional nuclear-physics calculations. The measurement of the onset and magnitude of the CT effect allows. Cosyn* and J. Ryckebusch Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B

  20. Role of Interface Transparency and Exchange Field in the Superconducting Triplet Spin-Valve Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Role of Interface Transparency and Exchange Field in the Superconducting Triplet Spin-Valve Effect, The Netherlands a Raphael.Deminov@kpfu.ru Keywords: proximity effect, superconducting, ferromagnetic, triplet spin-valve layers. In this paper we show that it is possible to realize different spin-valve effect modes

  1. An Efficient Transparent Test Scheme for Embedded Word-Oriented Memories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    An Efficient Transparent Test Scheme for Embedded Word-Oriented Memories Jin-Fu Li, Tsu-Wei Tseng, and Chin-Long Wey Advanced Reliable Systems (ARES) Laboratory Department of Electrical Engineering National with the smallest feature size in system-on-chip (SOC) designs. The reliability of memory cores thus has heavy

  2. Hematite-based Photo-oxidation of Water Using Transparent Distributed Current Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hematite-based Photo-oxidation of Water Using Transparent Distributed Current Collectors Shannon C layer deposition, Fe2O3, inverse opal, iron oxide, water splitting, distributed current collector 1. INTRODUCTION The sun irradiates the earth's surface with more than enough power to sustainably meet the rapidly

  3. Transparent Mode Flip-Flops for Collapsible Pipelines Eric L. Hill and Mikko H. Lipasti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipasti, Mikko H.

    Transparent Mode Flip-Flops for Collapsible Pipelines Eric L. Hill and Mikko H. Lipasti University of Wisconsin - Madison {elhill, mikko}@ece.wisc.edu Abstract Prior work has shown that collapsible pipelining% of the dynamic power in modern high performance microprocessors. Previous collapsible pipeline proposals either

  4. Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metrology of thin transparent optics using Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing Craig R. Forest Claude by such a metrology tool. We report on the design and perfor- mance of a novel deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) Shack-Hartmann. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1645256] Subject terms: Shack-Hartmann; optical metrology; wavefront sensing; thin

  5. NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL scientists develop robust, high-performance IZO transparent contact for CIGS solar cells indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cell is zinc oxide (ZnO). The problem is that unprotected Zn improve humidity resistance in CIGS solar cells. Key Result This new method yields increased product

  6. RemusDB: Transparent High Availability for Database Umar Farooq Minhas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aboulnaga, Ashraf

    system (DBMS). The proposed tech- nique can be applied to any DBMS with little or no customization transparent HA and failover capabilities. We show that while Remus and similar systems can protect a DBMS, database workloads incur a performance overhead of up to 32% as compared to an unprotected DBMS. We

  7. Coupling between autocatalytic cell death and transparent exopolymeric particle production in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falkowski, Paul G.

    -98848 Noumea, New Caledonia. Summary Extracellular polysaccharide aggregates, operation- ally defined as transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP), are recognized as an important conduit for carbon recycling) (Alldredge et al., 1993) are increasingly recognized as an important component of carbon recycling and export

  8. Nuclear transparencies in relativistic A(e, e p) , M.C. Martinez b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    Nuclear transparencies in relativistic A(e, e p) models P. Lava a , M.C. Mart´inez b , J University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent, Belgium bDepartamento de F´isica At´omica, Molecular y Nuclear Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias F´isicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain Abstract

  9. Biomaterials 26 (2005) 33633376 Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration, crystallite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Biomaterials 26 (2005) 3363­3376 Age-related transparent root dentin: mineral concentration that indicate elastic asym- metry would be determined not by the orientation of the ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/biomaterials 0142-9612/$ - see front matter r 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials

  10. Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser materials across grain boundaries (GBs) in Nd3+ :YAG laser ceramics. It is clearly shown that Nd3+ segregation point the way to further improvements in what is already an impressive class of ceramic laser materials

  11. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ? Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ? Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ? Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV–visible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  12. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  13. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  14. Conducting Your Own Energy Audit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    2008-01-01

    Why should you or anyone be interested in conducting a time intensive energy audit. What equipment is needed? When should you get started? Who should do it? The answer to Why is that energy costs are cutting into a company’s profit every minute...

  15. Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Low Conductivity Thermal Barrier Coatings A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the School ________________________________________________________________________ Abstract The dissertation begins by exploring the growth of 7YSZ coatings on vapor deposited NiCoCrAlY bond coats at different substrate rotation rates. The experiments show that as the rotation rate

  16. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  17. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  18. impact of research conducted in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The social impact of research conducted in Russell Group universities Russell Group Papers ­ Issue Group research on social cohesion and social infrastructure 27 ­ Health: the impact of Russell Group Impact 7 Structure of this report 8 Section 2 9 From research to impact ­ What is impact and why does

  19. ETHICAL CONDUCT IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    ETHICAL CONDUCT IN BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: A Handbook for Biomedical Graduate Studies Students and Research Fellows Third Edition BIOMEDICAL GRADUATE STUDIES PROGRAM UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA #12 that a trainee in biomedical research should be taught to maintain the highest standards of scientific integrity

  20. Radion clouds around evaporating black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2009-09-03

    A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

  1. Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is currently no direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. In this paper, I review the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.

  2. Quasinormal Modes of Dirty Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. T. Leung; Y. T. Liu; W. -M. Suen; C. Y. Tam; K. Young

    1999-03-08

    Quasinormal mode (QNM) gravitational radiation from black holes is expected to be observed in a few years. A perturbative formula is derived for the shifts in both the real and the imaginary part of the QNM frequencies away from those of an idealized isolated black hole. The formulation provides a tool for understanding how the astrophysical environment surrounding a black hole, e.g., a massive accretion disk, affects the QNM spectrum of gravitational waves. We show, in a simple model, that the perturbed QNM spectrum can have interesting features.

  3. Black hole microstates in AdS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    We extend a recently derived higher-dimensional Cardy formula to include angular momenta, which we use to obtain the Bekensten-Hawking entropy of AdS black branes, compactified rotating branes, and large Schwarzschild/Kerr black holes. This is the natural generalization of Strominger's microscopic derivation of the BTZ black hole entropy to higher dimensions. We propose an extension to include $U(1)$ charge, which agrees with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of large Reissner-Nordstrom/Kerr-Newman black holes at high temperature. We extend the results to arbitrary hyperscaling violation exponent (this captures the case of black D$p$-branes as a subclass) and reproduce logarithmic corrections.

  4. Some remarks on black hole thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao

    2011-02-04

    Two thermodynamic "paradoxes" of black hole physics are re-examined. The first is that there is a thermal instability involving two coupled blackbody cavities containing two black holes, and second is that a classical black hole can swallow up entropy in the form of ambient blackbody photons without increasing its mass. The resolution of the second paradox by Bekenstein and by Hawking is re-visited. The link between Hawking radiation and Wigner's superluminal tunneling time is discussed using two equivalent Feynman diagrams, and Feynman's re-interpretation principle.

  5. Thermodynamics of Dyonic Lifshitz Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Zingg

    2011-07-15

    Black holes with asymptotic anisotropic scaling are conjectured to be gravity duals of condensed matter system close to quantum critical points with non-trivial dynamical exponent z at finite temperature. A holographic renormalization procedure is presented that allows thermodynamic potentials to be defined for objects with both electric and magnetic charge in such a way that standard thermodynamic relations hold. Black holes in asymptotic Lifshitz spacetimes can exhibit paramagnetic behavior at low temperature limit for certain values of the critical exponent z, whereas the behavior of AdS black holes is always diamagnetic.

  6. Testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cosimo Bambi

    2011-10-13

    It is thought that the final product of the gravitational collapse is a Kerr black hole and astronomers have discovered several good astrophysical candidates. While there is some indirect evidence suggesting that the latter have an event horizon, and therefore that they are black holes, a proof that the space-time around these objects is described by the Kerr geometry is still lacking. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of testing the Kerr black hole hypothesis with present and future experiments. In this paper, I briefly review the state of the art of the field, focussing on some recent results and work in progress.

  7. Scalar Perturbations of Charged Dilaton Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharmanthie Fernando; Keith Arnold

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the scalar perturbation of static charged dilaton black holes in 3+1 dimensions. The black hole considered here is a solution to the low-energy string theory in 3+1 dimensions. The quasinormal modes for the scalar perturbations are calculated using the third order WKB method. The dilaton coupling constant has a considerable effect on the values of quasi normal modes. It is also observed that there is a linear relation between the quasi normal modes and the temperature for large black holes.

  8. Is the Universe a White-Hole?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcelo Samuel Berman

    2008-08-06

    Pathria(1972) has shown, for a pressureless closed Universe, that it is inside a black (or white) hole. We show now, that the Universe with a cosmic pressure obeying Einstein's field equations, can be inside a white-hole. In the closed case, a positive cosmological constant does the job; for the flat and open cases, the condition we find is not verified for the very early Universe, but with the growth of the scale-factor, the condition will be certainly fulfilled for a positive cosmological constant, after some time. We associate the absolute temperature of the Universe, with the temperature of the corresponding white-hole.

  9. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung-Guen; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  10. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore »one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  11. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Malashevich, Andrei [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Disa, Ankit S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Han, Myung-Guen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Hanghui [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, Frederick J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Ahn, Charles H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States);

    2014-11-01

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  12. A new approach to low-conductivity, environmentally acceptable thermal insulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, B.; Day, J.; Ferrero-Heredia, M.; Shanklin, E.; Varadarajan, G.; Woodruff, L.

    1996-02-01

    The object of this work was to develop a low-conductivity, economical, environmentally benign insulation. Specific objectives were to develop the following: (1) a very low conductivity use as ``super insulation`` in refrigerators, and (2) a general-purpose insulation for buildings and other applications. The technical goals of this work were to minimize gas phase, solid phase, and radiative conductivity. The novel approach pursued to achieve low gas phase conductivity was to blow foam with a removable gas or vapor, encapsulate the foam panel in a pouch made with a barrier film, and introduce a very low conductivity gas as the insulating gas phase. For super insulation and general-purpose insulation, the gases of choice were xenon and krypton, respectively. To control cost, the gases were present at low pressure, and the insulating panel was encapsulated with an impermeable polymeric film. Solid-phase conductivity was minimized by using low-density, open-cell, polyurethane foam. For super insulation, radiative heat transfer was impeded by placing aluminized Mylar films between relatively transparent 70-mil foam slabs. For general-purpose insulation, it was projected to impede radiative heat transfer by achieving the same very small cell size with open-cell CO{sub 2}-blown foam as is now achieved with closed-cell CO{sub 2}-blown foam.

  13. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  14. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  15. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  16. Thermal Conductivity Of Rubble Piles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure $P\\approx \\epsy\\mu$, where $\\epsy$ is the monolithic material's yield strain and $\\mu$ its rigidity. At low $P$, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, $\\kcon\\approx k(P/(\\epsy\\mu))^{1/2}$, can be orders of magnitude smaller than, $k$, the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, $\\krad=16\\ell\\sigma T^3/3$, to the total effective conductivity, $\\keff=\\kcon +\\krad$. Here $\\ell$, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of order the size of the elements and voids. An important distinction between $\\kcon$ and $\\krad$ is that the former i...

  17. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  18. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  19. Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge M. J. Hole, R. S. Dallaqua, S. W. Simpson* and E. Del Bosco.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge M. J. Hole, R. S. Dallaqua, S. W. Simpson* and E. Del Bosco, SP, Brazil Abstract. Ever since conception of the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC) in 1980, periodic predictions and compare with detailed experiments conducted on the PCEN centrifuge at the Brazilian National

  20. Energy of 4-Dimensional Black Hole, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitriy Palatnik

    2011-07-18

    In this letter I suggest possible redefinition of mass density, not depending on speed of the mass element, which leads to a more simple stress-energy for an object. I calculate energy of black hole.

  1. Horizon Operator Approach to Black Hole Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    1994-02-21

    The $S$-matrix Ansatz for the construction of a quantum theory of black holes is further exploited. We first note that treating the metric tensor $g_{\\m\

  2. Radiation transport around Kerr black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnittman, Jeremy David

    2005-01-01

    This Thesis describes the basic framework of a relativistic ray-tracing code for analyzing accretion processes around Kerr black holes. We begin in Chapter 1 with a brief historical summary of the major advances in black ...

  3. Topological Black Holes -- Outside Looking In

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1997-09-15

    I describe the general mathematical construction and physical picture of topological black holes, which are black holes whose event horizons are surfaces of non-trivial topology. The construction is carried out in an arbitrary number of dimensions, and includes all known special cases which have appeared before in the literature. I describe the basic features of massive charged topological black holes in $(3+1)$ dimensions, from both an exterior and interior point of view. To investigate their interiors, it is necessary to understand the radiative falloff behaviour of a given massless field at late times in the background of a topological black hole. I describe the results of a numerical investigation of such behaviour for a conformally coupled scalar field. Significant differences emerge between spherical and higher genus topologies.

  4. Time-bin entangled photon holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Liang; J. D. Franson; T. B. Pittman

    2012-08-23

    The general concept of entangled photon holes is based on a correlated absence of photon pairs in an otherwise constant optical background. Here we consider the specialized case when this background is confined to two well-defined time bins, which allows the formation of time-bin entangled photon holes. We show that when the typical coherent state background is replaced by a true single-photon (Fock state) background, the basic time-bin entangled photon-hole state becomes equivalent to one of the time-bin entangled photon-pair states. We experimentally demonstrate these ideas using a parametric down-conversion photon-pair source, linear optics, and post-selection to violate a Bell inequality with time-bin entangled photon holes.

  5. Evidence for the Black Hole Event Horizon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramesh Narayan; Jeremy S. Heyl

    2002-04-26

    Roughly a dozen X-ray binaries are presently known in which the compact accreting primary stars are too massive to be neutron stars. These primaries are identified as black holes, though there is as yet no definite proof that any of the candidate black holes actually possesses an event horizon. We discuss how Type I X-ray bursts may be used to verify the presence of the event horizon in these objects. Type I bursts are caused by thermonuclear explosions when gas accretes onto a compact star. The bursts are commonly seen in many neutron star X-ray binaries, but they have never been seen in any black hole X-ray binary. Our model calculations indicate that black hole candidates ought to burst frequently if they have surfaces. Based on this, we argue that the lack of bursts constitutes strong evidence for the presence of event horizons in these objects.

  6. Black Hole Thermodynamics in Modified Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonas R. Mureika; John W. Moffat; Mir Faizal

    2015-03-03

    We analyze the thermodynamics of a non-rotating and rotating black hole in a modified theory of gravity that includes scalar and vector modifications to general relativity, which results in a modified gravitational constant $G = G_N(1+\\alpha)$ and a new gravitational charge $Q = \\sqrt{\\alpha G_N}M$. The influence of the parameter $\\alpha$ alters the non-rotating black hole's lifetime, temperature and entropy profiles from the standard Schwarzschild case. The thermodynamics of a rotating black hole is analyzed and it is shown to possess stable, cold remnants. The thermodynamic properties of a vacuum solution regular at $r=0$ are investigated and the solution without a horizon called a "gray hole" is not expected to possess an information loss problem.

  7. CHARYBDIS: A Black hole event generator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Chris M.; Richardson, P.; Webber, Bryan R.

    CHARYBDIS is an event generator which simulates the production and decay of miniature black holes at hadronic colliders as might be possible in certain extra dimension models. It interfaces via the Les Houches accord to general purpose Monte...

  8. Spacetime constraints on accreting black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garofalo, David [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena California 91109 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    We study the spin dependence of accretion onto rotating Kerr black holes using analytic techniques. In its linear regime, angular momentum transport in MHD turbulent accretion flow involves the generation of radial magnetic field connecting plasma in a differentially rotating flow. We take a first principles approach, highlighting the constraint that limits the generation and amplification of radial magnetic fields, stemming from the transfer of energy from mechanical to magnetic form. Because the energy transferred in magnetic form is ultimately constrained by gravitational potential energy or Killing energy, the spin dependence of the latter allows us to derive spin-dependent constraints on the success of the accreting plasma to expel its angular momentum. We find an inverse relationship between this ability and black hole spin. If this radial magnetic field generation forms the basis for angular momentum transfer in accretion flows, accretion rates involving Kerr black holes are expected to be lower as the black hole spin increases in the prograde sense.

  9. Thermodynamics and evaporation of the noncommutative black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Yong-Wan Kim; Young-Jai Park

    2007-01-21

    We investigate the thermodynamics of the noncommutative black hole whose static picture is similar to that of the nonsingular black hole known as the de Sitter-Schwarzschild black hole. It turns out that the final remnant of extremal black hole is a thermodynamically stable object. We describe the evaporation process of this black hole by using the noncommutativity-corrected Vaidya metric. It is found that there exists a close relationship between thermodynamic approach and evaporation process.

  10. Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, S., E-mail: anand.s.krishna@gmail.com, E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com, E-mail: srk@nitt.edu; Darak, Mayur Sudesh, E-mail: anand.s.krishna@gmail.com, E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com, E-mail: srk@nitt.edu; Kumar, D. Sriram, E-mail: anand.s.krishna@gmail.com, E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com, E-mail: srk@nitt.edu [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 – 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

  11. Classical and thermodynamic stability of black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, Ricardo

    2010-07-06

    Perturbations of the asymptotic charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 IV Conclusion 171 9 Conclusion and outlook 173 A Spectral numerical method 177 2 CONTENTS Part I Introduction 3 Chapter 1 Black holes Black holes are arguably the most interesting... to Newto- nian dynamics in the Solar system, and the indirect detection of gravitational waves from binary pulsars [1]. A crucial distinction from Newtonian gravity is that the “action-at-a-distance” is substituted by a built-in causality structure...

  12. Fractionated Branes and Black Hole Interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emil J. Martinec

    2015-05-20

    Combining a variety of results in string theory and general relativity, a picture of the black hole interior is developed wherein spacetime caps off at an inner horizon, and the inter-horizon region is occupied by a Hagedorn gas of a very low tension state of fractionated branes. This picture leads to natural resolutions of a variety of puzzles concerning quantum black holes. Gravity Research Foundation 2015 Fourth Prize Award for Essays on Gravitation.

  13. Photo-induced conductance fluctuations in mesoscopic Ge/Si systems with quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepina, N. P.; Dvurechenskii, A. V.; Nikiforov, A. I.; Moers, J.; Gruetzmacher, D.

    2014-08-20

    We study the evolution of electron transport in strongly localized mesoscopic system with quantum dots under small photon flux. Exploring devices with narrow transport channels lead to the observation of giant fluctuations of the photoconductance, which is attributed to the strong dependence of hopping current on the filling of dots by holes. In our experiments, single-photon mode operation is indicated by the linear dependence of the frequency of photo-induced fluctuations on the light intensity and the step-like response of conductance on the pulse excitation. The effect of the light wavelength, measurement temperature, size of the conductive channel on the device efficiency are considered.

  14. Solar Wind Forecasting with Coronal Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Robbins; C. J. Henney; J. W. Harvey

    2007-01-09

    An empirical model for forecasting solar wind speed related geomagnetic events is presented here. The model is based on the estimated location and size of solar coronal holes. This method differs from models that are based on photospheric magnetograms (e.g., Wang-Sheeley model) to estimate the open field line configuration. Rather than requiring the use of a full magnetic synoptic map, the method presented here can be used to forecast solar wind velocities and magnetic polarity from a single coronal hole image, along with a single magnetic full-disk image. The coronal hole parameters used in this study are estimated with Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope He I 1083 nm spectrograms and photospheric magnetograms. Solar wind and coronal hole data for the period between May 1992 and September 2003 are investigated. The new model is found to be accurate to within 10% of observed solar wind measurements for its best one-month periods, and it has a linear correlation coefficient of ~0.38 for the full 11 years studied. Using a single estimated coronal hole map, the model can forecast the Earth directed solar wind velocity up to 8.5 days in advance. In addition, this method can be used with any source of coronal hole area and location data.

  15. Overview of transparency issues under the US-Russian highly enriched uranium purchase agreement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, A.J.; Dougherty, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The US has signed an Agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) derived from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons. The BEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium (LEU) in Russia and will be transported to the US to be used by fuel Fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the United States and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide confidence that the nonproliferation, physical protection, and material control and accounting requirements specified in the Agreement are met. This paper provides a background on the Agreement and subsequent on-going negotiations to develop transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved.

  16. Health and safety considerations for U. S. monitors in the Russian transparency program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C. J.

    1998-10-22

    In 1993 the US and the Russian Federation signed an agreement allowing the US to purchase highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia over a 20-year period. This Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement permits the purchase of 500 metric tons of HEU from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons in the form of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for use as power reactor fuel in the US. Under the HEU Agreement, the US and Russia are cooperating in a ''Transparency Program'' to ensure that arms control and nonproliferation objectives are being met. The Transparency Program measures, which are a departure from traditional, intrusive measures of verification, include sending individuals from the US to Russia to monitor the processing of the HEU.

  17. Energy-efficient tunable silicon photonic micro-resonator with graphene transparent nano-heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Longhai; Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    Thermally-tuning silicon micro-cavities are versatile and beneficial elements in low-cost large-scale photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Traditional metal heaters used for thermal tuning in silicon micro-cavities usually need a thick SiO2 upper-cladding layer, which will introduce some disadvantages including low response speed, low heating efficiency, low achievable temperature and complicated fabrication processes. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate thermally-tuning silicon micro-disk resonators by introducing graphene transparent nano-heaters, which contacts the silicon core directly without any isolator layer. This makes the graphene transparent nano-heater potentially to have excellent performances in terms of the heating efficiency, the temporal response and the achievable temperature. It is also shown that the graphene nano-heater is convenient to be used in ultrasmall photonic integrated devices due to the single-atom thickness and excellent flexibility of graphene. Both experi...

  18. Multi-level cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms using an optical nanofibre interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ravi; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Both the probe (at 780 nm) and the coupling (at 776 nm) beams propagate through the nanofibre. The observed multipeak transparency spectra of the probe beam could offer a method for simultaneously slowing down multiple wavelengths in an optical nanofibre or for generating ONF-guided entangled beams, showing the potential of such an atom-nanofibre system for quantum information. We also demonstrate all-optical-switching in the all fibred system using the obtained EIT effect.

  19. Development of transparent silica aerogel over a wide range of densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makoto Tabata; Ichiro Adachi; Yoshikazu Ishii; Hideyuki Kawai; Takayuki Sumiyoshi; Hiroshi Yokogawa

    2011-12-21

    We have succeeded in developing hydrophobic silica aerogels over a wide range of densities (i.e. refractive indices). A pinhole drying method was invented to make possible producing highly transparent aerogels with entirely new region of refractive indices of 1.06-1.26. Obtained aerogels are more transparent than conventional ones, and the refractive index is well controlled in the pinhole drying process. A test beam experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the pinhole-dried aerogels as a Cherenkov radiator. A clear Cherenkov ring was successfully observed by a ring imaging Cherenkov counter. We also developed monolithic and hydrophobic aerogels with a density of 0.01 g/cm^3 (a low refractive index of 1.0026) as a cosmic dust capturer for the first time. Consequently, aerogels with any refractive indices between 1.0026 and 1.26 can be produced freely.

  20. Development of transparent silica aerogel over a wide range of densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tabata, Makoto; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Hideyuki; Sumiyoshi, Takayuki; Yokogawa, Hiroshi; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.02.241

    2011-01-01

    We have succeeded in developing hydrophobic silica aerogels over a wide range of densities (i.e. refractive indices). A pinhole drying method was invented to make possible producing highly transparent aerogels with entirely new region of refractive indices of 1.06-1.26. Obtained aerogels are more transparent than conventional ones, and the refractive index is well controlled in the pinhole drying process. A test beam experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the pinhole-dried aerogels as a Cherenkov radiator. A clear Cherenkov ring was successfully observed by a ring imaging Cherenkov counter. We also developed monolithic and hydrophobic aerogels with a density of 0.01 g/cm^3 (a low refractive index of 1.0026) as a cosmic dust capturer for the first time. Consequently, aerogels with any refractive indices between 1.0026 and 1.26 can be produced freely.

  1. Growth and optical properties of partially transparent Eu doped CaF{sub 2} ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Manoranjan Sen, Shashwati Pitale, S. S. Goutam, U. K. Shinde, Seema Patra, G. D. Gadkari, S. C.

    2014-04-24

    Partially transparent ceramic of 2 at.% Eu doped CaF{sub 2} have been grown preferentially towards [111] direction. For this purpose, Eu doped CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles (size?12 nm) obtained by a low temperature solution growth method has been pressed at 1000°C under vacuum. The preferentially grown ceramic shows 15% transparency within the visible range of spectrum. As confirmed by the X-ray diffraction result, the hot pressed ceramic exhibits reduced lattice volume than the nanopowder. It indicates Eu{sup 3+} as the dominant substituting ions at the Ca{sup 2+} sites of CaF{sub 2} lattice in the hot pressed ceramic material. It is corroborated by the photoluminescence results of hot pressed ceramic which shows strong red emission corresponding to Eu{sup 3+} sites. However, photoluminescence of nanopowder exhibits intense peak in the blue region of the spectrum which is characteristics of Eu2+ sites.

  2. Hybrid tomography for conductivity imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Widlak; O. Scherzer

    2012-03-20

    Hybrid imaging techniques utilize couplings of physical modalities -- they are called hybrid, because, typically, the excitation and measurement quantities belong to different modalities. Recently there has been an enormous research interest in this area because these methods promise very high resolution. In this paper we give a review on hybrid tomography methods for \\emph{electrical conductivity} imaging. The reviewed imaging methods utilize couplings between electric, magnetic and ultrasound modalities. By this it is possible to perform high-resolution electrical impedance imaging and to overcome the low-resolution problem of electric impedance tomography.

  3. Cavity cooling of a trapped atom using Electromagnetically-Induced Transparency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Bienert; Giovanna Morigi

    2011-12-01

    A cooling scheme for trapped atoms is proposed, which combines cavity-enhanced scattering and electromagnetically induced transparency. The cooling dynamics exploits a three-photon resonance, which combines laser and cavity excitations. It is shown that relatively fast ground-state cooling can be achieved in the Lamb-Dicke regime and for large cooperativity. Efficient ground-state cooling is found for parameters of ongoing experiments.

  4. Study of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency using long-lived Singlet States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soumya Singha Roy; T. S. Mahesh

    2011-03-17

    The long-lived singlet states are useful to study a variety of interesting quantum phenomena. In this work we study electromagnetically induced transparency using a two-qubit system. The singlet state acts as a `dark state' which does not absorb a probe radiation in the presence of a control radiation. Further we demonstrate that the simultaneous irradiation of probe and control radiations acts as a dynamical decoupling preserving the singlet state at higher correlation for longer durations.

  5. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-01-01

    Raman spectrum of the carbon coating. Deconvoluted peaksConductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials Marca M.for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery

  6. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

  7. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    1 1.2 Thermal transport atxv Introduction xii 1.1 Thermal conductivity and65 4.13 Thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of

  8. Performance Enhancement of Cathodes with Conductive Polymers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhancement of Cathodes with Conductive Polymers Performance Enhancement of Cathodes with Conductive Polymers Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega"...

  9. Scalable Transparent Checkpoint-Restart of Global Address Space Applications on Virtual Machines over Infiniband

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Oreste; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Brown, David ML

    2009-05-18

    Checkpoint-Restart is one of the most used software approaches to achieve fault-tolerance in high-end clusters. While standard techniques typically focus on user-level solutions, the advent of virtualization software has enabled efficient and transparent system-level approaches. In this paper, we present a scalable transparent system-level solution to address fault-tolerance for applications based on global address space (GAS) programming models on Infiniband clusters. In addition to handling communication, the solution addresses transparent checkpoint of user-generated files. We exploit the support for the Infiniband network in the Xen virtual machine environment. We have developed a version of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) one-sided communication library capable of suspending and resuming applications. We present efficient and scalable mechanisms to distribute checkpoint requests and to backup virtual machines memory images and file systems. We tested our approach in the context of NWChem, a popular computational chemistry suite. We demonstrated that NWChem can be executed, without any modification to the source code, on a virtualized 8-node cluster with very little overhead (below 3%). We observe that the total checkpoint time is limited by disk I/O. Finally, we measured system-size depended components of the checkpoint time on up to 1024 cores (128 nodes), demonstrating the scalability of our approach in medium/large-scale systems.

  10. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abadie, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M; Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Adams, C; Adhikari, R; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Ceron, E Amador; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Atkinson, D; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S; Baragoya, J C B; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Basti, A; Batch, J; Bauchrowitz, J; Bauer, Th S; Bebronne, M; Beck, D; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Beker, M G; Bell, A S; Belletoile, A; Belopolski, I; Benacquista, M; Berliner, J M; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Beveridge, N; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biswas, R; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Blom, M; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Bogan, C; Bondarescu, R; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bosi, L; Bouhou, B; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Breyer, J; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Britzger, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Burguet-Castell, J; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campsie, P; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Canuel, B; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Carbone, L; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglia, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chaibi, O; Chalermsongsak, T; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chelkowski, S; Chen, W; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Chua, S S Y; Chung, C T Y; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clark, D E; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Conte, A; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cordier, M; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M; Coulon, J -P; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, R M; Dahl, K; Danilishin, S L; Dannenberg, R; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dattilo, V; Daudert, B; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Daw, E J; Day, R; Dayanga, T; De Rosa, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Del Pozzo, W; del Prete, M; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Diaz, M; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Dumas, J -C; Eberle, T; Edgar, M; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Endroczi, G; Engel, R; Etzel, T; Evans, K; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Farr, B F; Fazi, D; Fehrmann, H; Feldbaum, D; Feroz, F; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Flanigan, M; Foley, S; Forsi, E; Forte, L A; Fotopoulos, N; Fournier, J -D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Friedrich, D; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fujimoto, M -K; Fulda, P J; Fyffe, M; Gair, J; Galimberti, M; Gammaitoni, L; Garcia, J; Garufi, F; Gaspar, M E; Gemme, G; Geng, R; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L A; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gil, S; Gill, C; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; Gonzalez, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, N; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Greverie, C; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Gupta, R; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Ha, T; Hallam, J M; Hammer, D; Hammond, G; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Harstad, E D; Hartman, M T; Haughian, K; Hayama, K; Hayau, J -F; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hendry, M A; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Herrera, V; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Holt, K; Holtrop, M; Hong, T; Hooper, S; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Howell, E J; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Inta, R; Isogai, T; Ivanov, A; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; James, E; Jang, Y J; Jaranowski, P; Jesse, E; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasturi, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kelley, D; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Keresztes, Z; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, B; Kim, C; Kim, H; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D; Kranz, O; Kringel, V; Krishnamurthy, S; Krishnan, B; Krolak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, R; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lastzka, N; Lawrie, C; Lazzarini, A; Leaci, P; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leong, J R; Leonor, I; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, J

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100--450 solar masses and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88 solar masses, for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc^3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  11. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the LIGO Scientific Collaboration; the Virgo Collaboration; J. Abadie; B. P. Abbott; R. Abbott; T. D. Abbott; M. Abernathy; T. Accadia; F. Acernese; C. Adams; R. Adhikari; C. Affeldt; M. Agathos; K. Agatsuma; P. Ajith; B. Allen; E. Amador Ceron; D. Amariutei; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; K. Arai; M. A. Arain; M. C. Araya; S. M. Aston; P. Astone; D. Atkinson; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; B. E. Aylott; S. Babak; P. Baker; G. Ballardin; S. Ballmer; J. C. B. Barayoga; D. Barker; F. Barone; B. Barr; L. Barsotti; M. Barsuglia; M. A. Barton; I. Bartos; R. Bassiri; M. Bastarrika; A. Basti; J. Batch; J. Bauchrowitz; Th. S. Bauer; M. Bebronne; D. Beck; B. Behnke; M. Bejger; M. G. Beker; A. S. Bell; A. Belletoile; I. Belopolski; M. Benacquista; J. M. Berliner; A. Bertolini; J. Betzwieser; N. Beveridge; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; J. Birch; R. Biswas; M. Bitossi; M. A. Bizouard; E. Black; J. K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; M. Blom; O. Bock; T. P. Bodiya; C. Bogan; R. Bondarescu; F. Bondu; L. Bonelli; R. Bonnand; R. Bork; M. Born; V. Boschi; S. Bose; L. Bosi; B. Bouhou; S. Braccini; C. Bradaschia; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; M. Branchesi; J. E. Brau; J. Breyer; T. Briant; D. O. Bridges; A. Brillet; M. Brinkmann; V. Brisson; M. Britzger; A. F. Brooks; D. A. Brown; T. Bulik; H. J. Bulten; A. Buonanno; J. Burguet-Castell; D. Buskulic; C. Buy; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; E. Calloni; J. B. Camp; P. Campsie; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; B. Canuel; J. Cao; C. D. Capano; F. Carbognani; L. Carbone; S. Caride; S. Caudill; M. Cavaglia; F. Cavalier; R. Cavalieri; G. Cella; C. Cepeda; E. Cesarini; O. Chaibi; T. Chalermsongsak; P. Charlton; E. Chassande-Mottin; S. Chelkowski; W. Chen; X. Chen; Y. Chen; A. Chincarini; A. Chiummo; H. Cho; J. Chow; N. Christensen; S. S. Y. Chua; C. T. Y. Chung; S. Chung; G. Ciani; F. Clara; D. E. Clark; J. Clark; J. H. Clayton; F. Cleva; E. Coccia; P. -F. Cohadon; C. N. Colacino; J. Colas; A. Colla; M. Colombini; A. Conte; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. R. Corbitt; M. Cordier; N. Cornish; A. Corsi; C. A. Costa; M. Coughlin; J. -P. Coulon; P. Couvares; D. M. Coward; M. Cowart; D. C. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; T. D. Creighton; A. M. Cruise; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; E. Cuoco; R. M. Cutler; K. Dahl; S. L. Danilishin; R. Dannenberg; S. D'Antonio; K. Danzmann; V. Dattilo; B. Daudert; H. Daveloza; M. Davier; E. J. Daw; R. Day; T. Dayanga; R. De Rosa; D. DeBra; G. Debreczeni; W. Del Pozzo; M. del Prete; T. Dent; V. Dergachev; R. DeRosa; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; L. Di Fiore; A. Di Lieto; I. Di Palma; M. Di Paolo Emilio; A. Di Virgilio; M. Diaz; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; M. Drago; R. W. P. Drever; J. C. Driggers; Z. Du; J. -C. Dumas; S. Dwyer; T. Eberle; M. Edgar; M. Edwards; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; G. Endroczi; R. Engel; T. Etzel; K. Evans; M. Evans; T. Evans; M. Factourovich; V. Fafone; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; B. F. Farr; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; D. Feldbaum; F. Feroz; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. S. Finn; I. Fiori; R. P. Fisher; R. Flaminio; M. Flanigan; S. Foley; E. Forsi; L. A. Forte; N. Fotopoulos; J. -D. Fournier; J. Franc; S. Frasca; F. Frasconi; M. Frede; M. Frei; Z. Frei; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. T. Fricke; D. Friedrich; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; M. -K. Fujimoto; P. J. Fulda; M. Fyffe; J. Gair; M. Galimberti; L. Gammaitoni; J. Garcia; F. Garufi; M. E. Gaspar; G. Gemme; R. Geng; E. Genin; A. Gennai; L. A. Gergely; S. Ghosh; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; A. Giazotto; S. Gil; C. Gill; J. Gleason; E. Goetz; L. M. Goggin; G. Gonzalez; M. L. Gorodetsky; S. Gossler; R. Gouaty; C. Graef; P. B. Graff; M. Granata; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; N. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; C. Greverie; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; G. M. Guidi; C. Guido; R. Gupta; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; T. Ha; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; G. Hammond; J. Hanks; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. M. Harry; I. W. Harry; E. D. Harstad; M. T. Hartman; K. Haughian; K. Hayama; J. -F. Hayau; J. Heefner; A. Heidmann; M. C. Heintze; H. Heitmann; P. Hello; M. A. Hendry; I. S. Heng; A. W. Heptonstall; V. Herrera; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; D. Hoak; K. A. Hodge; K. Holt; M. Holtrop; T. Hong; S. Hooper; D. J. Hosken; J. Hough; E. J. Howell; B. Hughey; S. Husa; S. H. Huttner; T. Huynh-Dinh; D. R. Ingram; R. Inta; T. Isogai; A. Ivanov; K. Izumi; M. Jacobson; E. James; Y. J. Jang; P. Jaranowski; E. Jesse; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kandhasamy; G. Kang; J. B. Kanner; R. Kasturi; E. Katsavounidis; W. Katzman; H. Kaufer; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; D. Kelley; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; Z. Keresztes; A. Khalaidovski; F. Y. Khalili; E. A. Khazanov; B. Kim; C. Kim; H. Kim; K. Kim; N. Kim; Y. -M. Kim; P. J. King; D. L. Kinzel; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; S. Koranda; W. Z. Korth; I. Kowalska

    2012-04-25

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100--450 solar masses and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88 solar masses, for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc^3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  12. Realization of solid-state nanothermometer using Ge quantum-dot single-hole transistor in few-hole regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, I. H.; Lai, W. T.; Li, P. W.

    2014-06-16

    Semiconductor Ge quantum-dot (QD) thermometry has been demonstrated based on extraordinary temperature-dependent oscillatory differential conductance (G{sub D}) characteristics of Ge-QD single-hole transistors (SHTs) in the few-hole regime. Full-voltage width-at-half-minimum, V{sub 1/2}, of G{sub D} valleys appears to be fairly linear in the charge number (n) and temperature within the QD in a relationship of eV{sub 1/2}???(1???0.11n)?×?5.15k{sub B}T, providing the primary thermometric quantity. The depth of G{sub D} valley is also proportional to charging energy (E{sub C}) and 1/T via ?G{sub D}???E{sub C}/9.18k{sub B}T, providing another thermometric quantity. This experimental demonstration suggests our Ge-QD SHT offering effective building blocks for nanothermometers over a wide temperature range with a detection temperature as high as 155?K in a spatial resolution less than 10?nm and temperature accuracy of sub-kelvin.

  13. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  14. Nuclear transparency and effective kaon-nucleon cross section from the A(e,e?K+) reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

    We have determined the transparency of the nuclear medium to kaons from A(e,e[superscript ?]K+) measurements on [superscript 12]C, [superscript 63]Cu, and [superscript 197]Au targets. The measurements were performed at the ...

  15. Improving hole injection efficiency by manipulating the hole transport mechanism through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    -emitting diodes (LEDs) for elec- tron overflow suppression. However, a typical EBL also reduces the hole injection to be the key to enhancing the hole injection efficiency. InGaN/ GaN LEDs with the proposed p-type AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN EBL have demonstrated substantially higher optical output power and external quantum efficiency

  16. Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2011-10-15

    The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.

  17. The Revival of White Holes as Small Bangs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alon Retter; Shlomo Heller

    2011-07-17

    Black holes are extremely dense and compact objects from which light cannot escape. There is an overall consensus that black holes exist and many astronomical objects are identified with black holes. White holes were understood as the exact time reversal of black holes, therefore they should continuously throw away material. It is accepted, however, that a persistent ejection of mass leads to gravitational pressure, the formation of a black hole and thus to the "death of while holes". So far, no astronomical source has been successfully tagged a white hole. The only known white hole is the Big Bang which was instantaneous rather than continuous or long-lasting. We thus suggest that the emergence of a white hole, which we name a 'Small Bang', is spontaneous - all the matter is ejected at a single pulse. Unlike black holes, white holes cannot be continuously observed rather their effect can only be detected around the event itself. Gamma ray bursts are the most energetic explosions in the universe. Long gamma-ray bursts were connected with supernova eruptions. There is a new group of gamma-ray bursts, which are relatively close to Earth, but surprisingly lack any supernova emission. We propose identifying these bursts with white holes. White holes seem like the best explanation of gamma-ray bursts that appear in voids. We also predict the detection of rare gigantic gamma-ray bursts with energies much higher than typically observed.

  18. Graded Recombination Layers for Multijunction Photovoltaics Ghada I. Koleilat,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine functions in the interlayers. KEYWORDS: Multijunction photovoltaics, tandem solar cell, graded recombination layer, thermionic and tunneling transport, transparent conductive oxides Multijunction solar cells raise

  19. Holographic superconductor in the exact hairy black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung; Chanyong Park

    2011-09-13

    We study the charged black hole of hyperbolic horizon with scalar hair (charged Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli: CMTZ black hole) as a model of analytic hairy black hole for holographic superconductor. For this purpose, we investigate the second order phase transition between CMTZ and hyperbolic Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS (HRNAdS) black holes. However, this transition unlikely occur. As an analytic treatment for holographic superconductor, we develop superconductor in the bulk and superfluidity on the boundary using the CMTZ black hole below the critical temperature. The presence of charge destroys the condensates around the zero temperature, which is in accord with the thermodynamic analysis of the CMTZ black hole.

  20. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE DEEP MANTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF THE DEEP MANTLE Jakub Vel´imsk´y Department of Geophysics Faculty´imsk´y (CUP) Electrical conductivity of the deep mantle C2C Mari´ansk´e l´azne 2010 1 / 39 #12;Introduction Sensitivity of EMI data to 3-D conductivity in D" Conclusions J. Vel´imsk´y (CUP) Electrical conductivity

  1. Electrically charged black hole with scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian Martinez; Ricardo Troncoso

    2006-06-16

    An electrically charged black hole solution with scalar hair in four dimensions is presented. The self-interacting scalar field is real and it is minimally coupled to gravity and electromagnetism. The event horizon is a surface of negative constant curvature and the asymptotic region is locally an AdS spacetime. The asymptotic fall-off of the fields is slower than the standard one. The scalar field is regular everywhere except at the origin, and is supported by the presence of electric charge which is bounded from above by the AdS radius. In turn, the presence of the real scalar field smooths the electromagnetic potential everywhere. Regardless the value of the electric charge, the black hole is massless and has a fixed temperature. The entropy follows the usual area law. It is shown that there is a nonvanishing probability for the decay of the hairy black hole into a charged black hole without scalar field. Furthermore, it is found that an extremal black hole without scalar field is likely to undergo a spontaneous dressing up with a nontrivial scalar field, provided the electric charge is below a critical value.

  2. The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham Loeb

    2004-08-10

    The supermassive black holes observed at the centers of almost all present-day galaxies, had a profound impact on their environment. I highlight the principle of self-regulation, by which supermassive black holes grow until they release sufficient energy to unbind the gas that feeds them from their host galaxy. This principle explains several observed facts, including the correlation between the mass of a central black hole and the depth of the gravitational potential well of its host galaxy, and the abundance and clustering properties of bright quasars in the redshift interval of z~2-6. At lower redshifts, quasars might have limited the maximum mass of galaxies through the suppression of cooling flows in X-ray clusters. The seeds of supermassive black holes were likely planted in dwarf galaxies at redshifts z>10, through the collapse of massive or supermassive stars. The minimum seed mass can be identified observationally through the detection of gravitational waves from black hole binaries by Advanced LIGO or LISA. Aside from shaping their host galaxies, quasar outflows filled the intergalactic medium with magnetic fields and heavy elements. Beyond the reach of these outflows, the brightest quasars at z>6 have ionized exceedingly large volumes of gas (tens of comoving Mpc) prior to global reionization, and must have suppressed the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in these volumes before the same occurred through the rest of the universe.

  3. BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew, E-mail: wd11@leicester.ac.uk, E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)] [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.

  4. Perturbative String Thermodynamics near Black Hole Horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas G. Mertens; Henri Verschelde; Valentin I. Zakharov

    2015-07-01

    We provide further computations and ideas to the problem of near-Hagedorn string thermodynamics near (uncharged) black hole horizons, building upon our earlier work JHEP 1403 (2014) 086. The relevance of long strings to one-loop black hole thermodynamics is emphasized. We then provide an argument in favor of the absence of $\\alpha'$-corrections for the (quadratic) heterotic thermal scalar action in Rindler space. We also compute the large $k$ limit of the cigar orbifold partition functions (for both bosonic and type II superstrings) which allows a better comparison between the flat cones and the cigar cones. A discussion is made on the general McClain-Roth-O'Brien-Tan theorem and on the fact that different torus embeddings lead to different aspects of string thermodynamics. The black hole/string correspondence principle for the 2d black hole is discussed in terms of the thermal scalar. Finally, we present an argument to deal with arbitrary higher genus partition functions, suggesting the breakdown of string perturbation theory (in $g_s$) to compute thermodynamical quantities in black hole spacetimes.

  5. Black Hole Spin in AGN and GBHCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher S. Reynolds; Laura W. Brenneman; David Garofalo

    2004-10-05

    We discuss constraints on black hole spin and spin-related astrophysics as derived from X-ray spectroscopy. After a brief discussion about the robustness with which X-ray spectroscopy can be used to probe strong gravity, we summarize how these techniques can constrain black hole spin. In particular, we highlight XMM-Newton studies of the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15 and the stellar-mass black hole GX339-4. The broad X-ray iron line profile, together with reasonable and general astrophysical assumptions, allow a non-rotating black hole to be rejected in both of these sources. If we make the stronger assertion of no emission from within the innermost stable circular orbit, the MCG-6-30-15 data constrain the dimensionless spin parameter to be a>0.93. Furthermore, these XMM-Newton data are already providing evidence for exotic spin-related astrophysics in the central regions of this object. We conclude with a discussion of the impact that Constellation-X will have on the study of strong gravity and black hole spin.

  6. Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Mersini-Houghton; Adam Kelleher

    2009-06-08

    The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accretion of dark energy induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is too long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state $w[z]$ of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. In this talk I describe how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy, based on the work done with A.Kelleher.

  7. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 50, No. 3, March 2007, pp. 622625 Al-ZnO Thin Films as Transparent Conductive Oxides : Synthesis,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    , and low-tech applications, such as antistatic coatings, touch display panels, solar cells, flat panel displays, heaters, defrosters, and optical coatings. All these applications use the TCO as a simple passive

  8. Hole-transport material variation in fully vacuum deposited perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polander, Lauren E.; Pahner, Paul; Schwarze, Martin; Saalfrank, Matthias; Koerner, Christian; Leo, Karl

    2014-08-01

    This work addresses the effect of energy level alignment between the hole-transporting material and the active layer in vacuum deposited, planar-heterojunction CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub x?3}Cl{sub x} perovskite solar cells. Through a series of hole-transport materials, with conductivity values set using controlled p-doping of the layer, we correlate their ionization potentials with the open-circuit voltage of the device. With ionization potentials beyond 5.3 eV, a substantial decrease in both current density and voltage is observed, which highlights the delicate energetic balance between driving force for hole-extraction and maximizing the photovoltage. In contrast, when an optimal ionization potential match is found, the open-circuit voltage can be maximized, leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 10.9%. These values are obtained with hole-transport materials that differ from the commonly used Spiro-MeO-TAD and correspond to a 40% performance increase versus this reference.

  9. Neutrino Majorana Mass from Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yosuke Uehara

    2002-05-25

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the neutrino Majorana mass in TeV-scale gravity models. The black hole violates all non-gauged symmetries and can become the origin of lepton number violating processes. The fluctuation of higher-dimensional spacetime can result in the production of a black hole, which emits 2 neutrinos. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, this process is equivalent to the free propagation of a neutrino with the insertion of the black hole. From this fact, we derive the neutrino Majorana mass. The result is completely consistent with the recently observed evidence of neutrinoless double beta decay. And the obtained neutrino Majorana mass satisfies the constraint from the density of the neutrino dark matter, which affects the cosmic structure formation. Furthermore, we can explain the ultrahigh energy cosmic rays by the Z-burst scenario with it.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Black Hole Evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvi Piran; Andrew Strominger

    1993-04-28

    Black hole formation/evaporation in two-dimensional dilaton gravity can be described, in the limit where the number $N$ of matter fields becomes large, by a set of second-order partial differential equations. In this paper we solve these equations numerically. It is shown that, contrary to some previous suggestions, black holes evaporate completely a finite time after formation. A boundary condition is required to evolve the system beyond the naked singularity at the evaporation endpoint. It is argued that this may be naturally chosen so as to restore the system to the vacuum. The analysis also applies to the low-energy scattering of $S$-wave fermions by four-dimensional extremal, magnetic, dilatonic black holes.

  11. No Supermassive Black Hole in M33?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt; Laura Ferrarese; Charles L. Joseph

    2001-07-20

    We analyze optical long-slit spectroscopy of the nucleus of M33 obtained from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Rather than the steep rise expected within the radius of influence of a supermassive black hole, the velocity dispersion drops significantly within the inner parsec. Dynamical modelling yields an estimated upper limit of 3000 solar masses for the mass of a central compact object. This upper limit is however consistent within the uncertainties with the mass predicted by the M-sigma relation, which is between 2000 and 20,000 solar masses. We therefore can not conclude that the presence of a massive black hole in the nucleus of M33 would require a different formation mechanism from that of the black holes detected in galaxies with more luminous bulges.

  12. Interior of Black Holes and Information Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hikaru Kawai; Yuki Yokokura

    2015-09-28

    We analyze time evolution of a collapsing matter from a point of view that black holes evaporate by nature. We first consider a spherical thin shell that falls in the metric of an evaporating Schwarzschild black hole whose radius $a(t)$ decreases as $\\frac{da(t)}{dt}=-\\frac{2\\sigma(a(t))}{a(t)^2}$. The shell can never reach $a(t)$, but it approaches $a(t)+\\frac{2\\sigma(a(t))}{a(t)}$ in the time scale $\\sim a(t)$. Then the radiation from the hole is extremely weakened because of the large redshift caused by the shell. This time, however, the shell itself starts to radiate and exhausts energy. After that, the hole starts to radiate again. We can repeat this argument recursively because the motion of a shell in a spherically symmetric system is independent of the outside. In this way we can analyze a spherically symmetric collapsing matter with a general continuous distribution, and find that it evaporates without forming a trapped region. If the theory has considerably more species of matter fields, the trans-Planckian problems are avoided. There is a clear boundary at $r=a+\\frac{2\\sigma}{a}$ as the surface of the object. Although the matter distribution inside the object depends on the initial data, from the outside it looks almost the same as a conventional black hole. A strong angular pressure is induced by the Hawking radiation, because of which the matter loses energy when it collapses. We then discuss how the information of the matter is recovered in this picture. Next we consider a black hole that is adiabatically grown from a small one in the heat bath, and obtain the interior metric. We show that it is the self-consistent solution of $G_{\\mu\

  13. CHARYBDIS: A Black Hole Event Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Harris; P. Richardson; B. R. Webber

    2003-07-29

    CHARYBDIS is an event generator which simulates the production and decay of miniature black holes at hadronic colliders as might be possible in certain extra dimension models. It interfaces via the Les Houches accord to general purpose Monte Carlo programs like HERWIG and PYTHIA which then perform the parton evolution and hadronization. The event generator includes the extra-dimensional `grey-body' effects as well as the change in the temperature of the black hole as the decay progresses. Various options for modelling the Planck-scale terminal decay are provided.

  14. Virtual Black Holes in Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2011-01-24

    Optical space in electromagnetic metamaterials may be engineered to emulate various exotic space-time geometries. However, these metamaterial models are limited in many respects. It is believed that real physical space-time strongly fluctuates on the Planck scale. These fluctuations are usually described as virtual black holes. Static metamaterial models introduced so far do not exhibit similar behavior. Here we demonstrate that thermal fluctuations of optical space in hyperbolic metamaterials lead to creation of virtual electromagnetic black holes. This effect is very large if the dielectric component of the metamaterial exhibits critical opalescence.

  15. Vacuum polarization for lukewarm black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth Winstanley; Phil M. Young

    2007-12-20

    We compute the renormalized expectation value of the square of a quantum scalar field on a Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole in which the temperatures of the event and cosmological horizons are equal (`lukewarm' black hole). Our numerical calculations for a thermal state at the same temperature as the two horizons indicate that this renormalized expectation value is regular on both the event and cosmological horizons. We are able to show analytically, using an approximation for the field modes near the horizons, that this is indeed the case.

  16. Thermal Gravitational Waves from Primordial Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-05-19

    Thermal gravitational waves can be generated in various sources such as, in the cores of stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars due to the fermion collisions in the dense degenerate Fermi gas. Such high frequency thermal gravitational waves can also be produced during the collisions in a gamma ray burst or during the final stages of the evaporation of primordial black holes. Here we estimate the thermal gravitational waves from primordial black holes and estimate the integrated energy of the gravitational wave emission over the entire volume of the universe and over Hubble time. We also estimate the gravitational wave flux from gamma ray bursts and jets.

  17. Thermal stability of radiant black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2006-04-06

    Beginning with a brief sketch of the derivation of Hawking's theorem of horizon area increase, based on the Raychaudhuri equation, we go on to discuss the issue as to whether generic black holes, undergoing Hawking radiation, can ever remain in stable thermal equilibrium with that radiation. We derive a universal criterion for such a stability, which relates the black hole mass and microcanonical entropy, both of which are well-defined within the context of the Isolated Horizon, and in principle calculable within Loop Quantum Gravity. The criterion is argued to hold even when thermal fluctuations of electric charge are considered, within a {\\it grand} canonical ensemble.

  18. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Carlip

    2008-07-28

    We have known for more than thirty years that black holes behave as thermodynamic systems, radiating as black bodies with characteristic temperatures and entropies. This behavior is not only interesting in its own right; it could also, through a statistical mechanical description, cast light on some of the deep problems of quantizing gravity. In these lectures, I review what we currently know about black hole thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, suggest a rather speculative "universal" characterization of the underlying states, and describe some key open questions.

  19. Magnetized black hole as a gravitational lens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya

    2006-11-19

    We use the Ernst-Schwarzschild solution for a black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field to estimate corrections to the bending angle and time delay due-to presence of weak magnetic fields in galaxies and between galaxies, and also due-to influence of strong magnetic field near supermassive black holes. The magnetic field creates a kind of confinement in space, that leads to increasing of the bending angle and time delay for a ray of light propagating in the equatorial plane.

  20. Dynamics of galaxy cores and supermassive black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Merritt

    2006-05-02

    Recent work on the dynamical evolution of galactic nuclei containing supermassive black holes is reviewed. Topics include galaxy structural properties; collisionless and collisional equilibria; loss-cone dynamics; and dynamics of binary and multiple supermassive black holes.