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Sample records for transparent conducting oxide

  1. Transparent Conducting Oxide - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Transparent Conducting Oxide National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology <em>Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) have varying optical and electrical qualities. The optimal TCO for photovoltaic applications is one that maximizes both optical transparency and electrical conductivity as both of these attributes contribute to greater

  2. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  3. Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Controlling Surface Properties of Transparent Conducting Oxides

  4. High carrier concentration p-type transparent conducting oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Yanfa; Zhang, Shengbai

    2005-06-21

    A p-type transparent conducting oxide film is provided which is consisting essentially of, the transparent conducting oxide and a molecular doping source, the oxide and doping source grown under conditions sufficient to deliver the doping source intact onto the oxide.

  5. Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2010-05-04

    A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

  6. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Displays and Photovoltaic Cells | Argonne National Laboratory Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells Improved coating precision uses less material and reduces cost PDF icon

  7. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Displays and Photovoltaic Cells - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p align="center"> New <em>ALD reaction chamber containing 12-in x 12-in piece of plate glass</em></p> New ALD reaction

  8. High-performance, transparent conducting oxides based on cadmium stannate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wu, X.; Mulligan, W.P.; Webb, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    We discuss the modeling of thin films of transparent conducting oxides and we compare the predictions with the observed properties of cadmium stannate. Thin films of this material were deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The Drude free-carrier model is used to model the optical and electrical properties. The model demonstrates the need for high mobilities. The free-carrier absorbance in the visible spectrum is used as a comparative figure-of-merit for cadmium stannate and tin oxide. This shows that free-carrier absorbance is much less in cadmium stannate than in tin oxide. X-ray diffraction shows that annealed films consist of a single-phase spinel structure. The post-deposition annealing sequence is shown to be crucial to forming a single phase, which is vital for optimal optical and electrical properties. The films are typically high mobility (up to 65 cm{sup 2}V{sup -1}s{sup -1}) and have carrier concentrations as high as 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. Resistivities are as low as 1.3 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, the lowest values reported for cadmium stannate. Atomic force microscopy indicates that the root-mean-square surface roughness is approximately {+-}15A. Cadmium stannate etches readily in both hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acid, which is a commanding advantage over tin oxide. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Magnetic transparent conducting oxide film and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2004-07-13

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 .OMEGA..multidot.cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450.degree. C. in air. Films deposited on sapphire substrates exhibit a refractive index of about 1.7 and are relatively transparent in the wavelength region from 0.6 to 10.0 .mu.m. They are also magnetic. The electrical and spectroscopic properties of the oxides have been studied as a function of x=Co/(Co+Ni) ratio. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo.sub.2 O.sub.4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity. The influence of cation charge state and site occupancy in the spinel structure markedly affects calculated electron band structures and contributes to a reduction of p-type conductivity, the formation of polarons, and the reduction in population of mobile charge carriers that tend to limit transmission in the infrared.

  10. Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

    2009-04-14

    A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

  11. Magnetic Transparent Conducting Oxide Film And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2006-03-14

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 O·cm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450° C. in air. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn2+, Al3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo2O4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity.

  12. Magnetic Transparent Conducting Oxide Film And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA); Sharma, Shiv K. (Honolulu, HI)

    2006-03-14

    Cobalt-nickel oxide films of nominal 100 nm thickness, and resistivity as low as 0.06 Ocm have been deposited by spin-casting from both aqueous and organic precursor solutions followed by annealing at 450 C. in air. An increase in film resistivity was found upon substitution of other cations (e.g., Zn2+, Al3+) for Ni in the spinel structure. However, some improvement in the mechanical properties of the films resulted. On the other hand, addition of small amounts of Li decreased the resistivity. A combination of XRD, XPS, UV/Vis and Raman spectroscopy indicated that NiCo2O4 is the primary conducting component and that the conductivity reaches a maximum at this stoichiometry. When x<0.67, NiO forms leading to an increase in resistivity; when x>0.67, the oxide was all spinel but the increased Co content lowered the conductivity.

  13. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  14. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  15. Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, David L.; Nemeth, William; Grover, Sachit; Norman, Andrew; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Lee, Benjamin G.; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting oxide layers. High temperature silicon dioxide is grown on both surfaces of an n-type wafer to a thickness <50 Å, followed by deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and a patterned metal contacting layer. As deposited, the thin-film stack has a very high J0,contact, and a non-ohmic, high contact resistance. However, after a forming gas anneal, the passivation quality and the contact resistivity improve significantly. The contacts are characterized by measuring the recombination parameter of the contact (J0,contact) and the specificmore » contact resistivity (ρcontact) using a TLM pattern. The best ITO/SiO2 passivated contact in this study has J0,contact = 92.5 fA/cm2 and ρcontact = 11.5 mOhm-cm2. These values are placed in context with other passivating contacts using an analysis that determines the ultimate efficiency and the optimal area fraction for contacts for a given set of (J0,contact, ρcontact) values. The ITO/SiO2 contacts are found to have a higher J0,contact, but a similar ρcontact compared to the best reported passivated contacts.« less

  16. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

  17. Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sren; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

    2011-01-02

    Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

  18. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  19. Optical and electronic properties of delafossite CuBO{sub 2}p-type transparent conducting oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruttanapun, Chesta E-mail: krchesta@kmitl.ac.th

    2013-09-21

    CuBO{sub 2} delafossite was prepared by solid state reaction and calcined/sintered at 1005?C. The optical properties of this p-type transparent conducting oxide were investigated. Its crystal structure, morphology, composition, oxygen decomposition, and optical and electronic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-VIS-NIR) and fluorescence spectroscopies, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical conductivity measurements. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite possesses a hexagonal space group R3{sup }m. TGA indicated a weight loss of 10%, which was attributed to excess oxygen. The positive Seebeck coefficient confirmed p-type behavior. Emission at 355?nm indicated a direct band type transition, and the UV-VIS-NIR spectrum indicated an optical direct gap of 3.6?eV. Activation energies for carrier production and electrical conduction were 0.147 and 0.58?eV, respectively, indicating the thermal activation of carriers. CuBO{sub 2} delafossite is a p-type transparent conducting oxide with a wide band gap and may have potential in industrial p-type electrodes.

  20. High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

    2009-04-24

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

  1. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, Andr

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 ?cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.

  2. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, André

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 Ωcm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nmmore » (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.« less

  3. Colloidal infrared reflective and transparent conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buonsanti, Raffaella; Milliron, Delia J

    2015-02-24

    The present invention provides a method of preparing aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) injecting a precursor mixture of a zinc precursor, an aluminum precursor, an amine, and a fatty acid in a solution of a vicinal diol in a non-coordinating solvent, thereby resulting in a reaction mixture, (2) precipitating the nanocrystals from the reaction mixture, thereby resulting in a final precipitate, and (3) dissolving the final precipitate in an apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a dispersion. In an exemplary embodiment, the dispersion includes (1) nanocrystals that are well separated from each other, where the nanocrystals are coated with surfactants and (2) an apolar solvent where the nanocrystals are suspended in the apolar solvent. The present invention also provides a film. In an exemplary embodiment, the film includes (1) a substrate and (2) nanocrystals that are evenly distributed on the substrate.

  4. Why MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not a transparent conducting oxide?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Retuerto, M.; Calle, C. de la; Porcher, Florence

    2012-03-15

    The title compound has been synthesized by a citrate technique. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3-bar m, Z=8, with a=9.0008(1) A at 295 K. It exhibits a crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively, with a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08. MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows antiferromagnetic interactions below T{sub N} Almost-Equal-To 40 K, due to the statistical distribution of Mn ions over the two available sites. Unlike the related MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels, well known as transparent conducting oxides, MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is not transparent and shows a poor conductivity ({sigma}=0.38 S cm{sup -1} at 1123 K): the presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed valence states, localizes the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band. - Graphical Abstract: From NPD data the crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, shows a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08 and a certain In deficiency. The presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed oxidation states, localize the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band; the presence of localized Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions provides the characteristic brown color. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accurate structural determination from NPD data: inversion degree (8%), and In deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bond-valence indicates Mn{sup 2+}-Mn{sup 3+} ions; edge-sharing octahedra contain 90% In{sup 3+}+10% Mn{sup 3+} cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity several orders of magnitude lower than those of MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} or CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variability of Mn oxidation states cancels any electron-doping effect, emptying conduction band of mobile charge carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curie-Weiss behavior confirming the determined charge distribution.

  5. Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yu; Wang Lian; Yan He; Jin Shu; Marks, Tobin J.; Li Shuyou

    2006-07-31

    Double-layer transparent conducting oxide thin film structures containing In-doped CdO (CIO) and Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) layers were grown on glass by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and ion-assisted deposition (IAD), respectively, and used as anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). These films have a very low overall In content of 16 at. %. For 180-nm-thick CIO/ITO films, the sheet resistance is 5.6 {omega}/{open_square}, and the average optical transmittance is 87.1% in the 400-700 nm region. The overall figure of merit ({phi}=T{sup 10}/R{sub sheet}) of the double-layer CIO/ITO films is significantly greater than that of single-layer CIO, IAD-ITO, and commercial ITO films. CIO/ITO-based PLEDs exhibit comparable or superior device performance versus ITO-based control devices. CIO/ITO materials have a much lower sheet resistance than ITO, rendering them promising low In content electrode materials for large-area optoelectronic devices.

  6. Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites Nanomaterials for Applications Ranging From Photovoltaic Cells to Display Technologies Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Indium Tin Oxide, the most widely used commercial transparent conducting coating, has severe limitations such

  7. ALSO: Nuclear Transparency Minirobots Conduct Search & Rescue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALSO: Nuclear Transparency Minirobots Conduct Search & Rescue A QUARTERLY RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT JOURNAL VOLUME 2, NO. 1 PEACE IN AN EDGY WORLD Nonproliferation: Keeping Weapons of ...

  8. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunshah, Rointan (Los Angeles, CA); Nath, Prem (Troy, MI)

    1982-01-01

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

  9. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting | Department of Energy Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next-Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting Lead Performer: Carnegie Mellon University - Pittsburgh, PA Partners: Osram Sylvania - Danvers, MA DOE Total

  10. Thin transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-phase spinel-type structure, for a time sufficient to allow full crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer at that temperature; cooling the first and second substrates to room temperature; and separating the first and second substrates and layers from each other. The process can be conducted at temperatures less than 600.degree. C., allowing the use of inexpensive soda lime glass substrates.

  11. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells...

  12. Tuning optical properties of transparent conducting barium stannate by dimensional reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Yuwei; Zhang, Lijun; Ma, Yanming; Singh, David J.

    2015-01-30

    We report calculations of the electronic structure and optical properties of doped n-type perovskite BaSnO3 and layered perovskites. While doped BaSnO3 retains its transparency for energies below the valence to conduction band onset, the doped layered compounds exhibit below band edge optical conductivity due to transitions from the lowest conduction band. This gives absorption in the visible for Ba2SnO4. It is important to minimize this phase in transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. Ba3Sn2O7 and Ba4Sn3O10 have strong transitions only in the red and infrared, respectively. Thus, there may be opportunities for using these as wavelength filtering TCO.

  13. Single-walled carbon nanotube transparent conductive films fabricated by reductive dissolution and spray coating for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostfeld, Aminy E.; Arias, Ana Claudia; Catheline, Amlie; Ligsay, Kathleen; Kim, Kee-Chan; Fogden, Sin; Chen, Zhihua; Facchetti, Antonio

    2014-12-22

    Solutions of unbundled and unbroken single-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared using a reductive dissolution process. Transparent conductive films spray-coated from these solutions show a nearly twofold improvement in the ratio of electrical conductivity to optical absorptivity versus those deposited from conventional aqueous dispersions, due to substantial de-aggregation and sizable nanotube lengths. These transparent electrodes have been utilized to fabricate P3HT-PCBM organic solar cells achieving power conversion efficiencies up to 2.3%, comparable to those of solar cells using indium tin oxide transparent electrodes.

  14. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2015-07-28

    Thin film electronic devices (or stacks integrated with a substrate) that include a permeation barrier formed of a thin layer of metal that provides a light transmitting and electrically conductive layer, wherein the electrical conductive layer is formed on a surface of the substrate or device layer such as a transparent conducting material layer with pin holes or defects caused by manufacturing and the thin layer of metal is deposited on the conductive layer and formed from a self-healing metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block is formed in or adjacent to the thin film of metal at or proximate to the pin holes to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes.

  15. Deposition and post-processing techniques for transparent conductive films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christoforo, Mark Greyson; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto; Peumans, Peter

    2015-01-13

    In one embodiment, a method is provided for fabrication of a semitransparent conductive mesh. A first solution having conductive nanowires suspended therein and a second solution having nanoparticles suspended therein are sprayed toward a substrate, the spraying forming a mist. The mist is processed, while on the substrate, to provide a semitransparent conductive material in the form of a mesh having the conductive nanowires and nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are configured and arranged to direct light passing through the mesh. Connections between the nanowires provide conductivity through the mesh.

  16. High performance transparent conducting films of cadmium indate prepared by RF sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wu, X.; Mulligan, W.P.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are examining various spinel-structured thin films (e.g., Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) to develop higher-quality transparent conducting oxides (TCO) than more conventional materials such as indium tin oxide. Here, they report on cadmium indate (CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CIO), which is another member of this family. Thin films of CIO were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, from an oxide target, onto borosilicate glass substrates. The variables included the substrate temperature, sputtering gas composition, and pressure. Film properties were measured before and after heat treatment. Characterization involved Hall effect measurements, optical and infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and atomic-force microscopy. Film resistivities as low as 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega}cm were achieved for a film thickness of 0.55 {micro}m. The transmittance was 90% in the visible region of the spectrum, without correction for substrate losses and without an anti-reflection coating. The plasma resonance occurred at longer wavelengths than for other materials and this, with a bandgap of approximately 3.1 eV, presents a wide window for optical transmittance. The highest mobility was 54 cm{sup 2} V{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and the highest carrier concentration was 7.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}.

  17. High performance transparent conducting films of cadmium indate prepared by RF sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wu, X.; Mulligan, W.P.

    1996-04-01

    The authors are examining various spinel-structured thin films (e.g., Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}) to develop higher-quality transparent conducting oxides (TCO) than more conventional materials such as indium tin oxide. Here, the authors report on cadmium indate (CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CIO), which is another member of this family. Thin films of CIO were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering, from an oxide target, onto borosilicate glass substrates. The variables included the substrate temperature, sputtering gas composition, and pressure. Film properties were measured before and after heat treatment. Characterization involved Hall effect measurements, optical and infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and atomic-force microscopy. Film resistivities as low as 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega} cm were achieved for a film thickness of 0.55 {micro}m. The transmittance was 90% in the visible region of the spectrum, without correction for substrate losses and without an anti-reflection coating. The plasma resonance occurred at longer wavelengths than for other materials and this, with a bandgap of approximately 3.1 eV, presents a wide window for optical transmittance. The highest mobility was 54 cm{sup 2} V{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and the highest carrier concentration was 7.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}.

  18. Graphene oxide overprints for flexible and transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogala, M. Wlasny, I.; Kowalczyk, P. J.; Busiakiewicz, A.; Kozlowski, W.; Klusek, Z.; Sieradzki, Z.; Krucinska, I.; Puchalski, M.; Skrzetuska, E.

    2015-01-26

    The overprints produced in inkjet technology with graphene oxide dispersion are presented. The graphene oxide ink is developed to be fully compatible with standard industrial printers and polyester substrates. Post-printing chemical reduction procedure is proposed, which leads to the restoration of electrical conductivity without destroying the substrate. The presented results show the outstanding potential of graphene oxide for rapid and cost efficient commercial implementation to production of flexible electronics. Properties of graphene-based electrodes are characterized on the macro- and nano-scale. The observed nano-scale inhomogeneity of overprints' conductivity is found to be essential in the field of future industrial applications.

  19. Infrared-optical spectroscopy of transparent conducting perovskite (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongmin; Yu, Kwangnam; Jun Chang, Young; Choi, E. J.; Sohn, Egon; Hoon Kim, Kee

    2014-01-13

    We have performed optical transmission, reflection, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and Hall effect measurements on the electron-doped La{sub x}Ba{sub 1x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?0.04) transparent thin films. From the infrared Drude response and plasma frequency analysis we determine the effective mass of the conducting electron m*?=?0.35m{sub 0}. In the visible-UV region the optical band gap shifts to high energy in (La,Ba)SnO{sub 3} by 0.18?eV compared with undoped BaSnO{sub 3} which, in the context of the Burstein-Moss analysis, is consistent with the infrared-m*. m* of BaSnO{sub 3} is compared with other existing transparent conducting oxides (TCO), and implication on search for high-mobility TCO compounds is discussed.

  20. Growth of oriented vanadium pentaoxide nanostructures on transparent conducting substrates and their applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hongjiang; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    A novel, hydrothermal and hard-template-free method was developed for the first time to grow oriented, single-crystalline monoclinic VO{sub 2} (B) flower-like nanorod films on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The length and morphology of the nanorods can be tuned by changing the growth parameters, such as growth time and initial precursor concentration. The flower-like V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were obtained after post-calcination treatment of VO{sub 2} (B) films. The photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV and visible light. The prepared V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good photocatalytic performance (74.6% and 63% under UV and visible light for 210 min, respectively) and more practical application in industry. - Graphical abstract: Flower nanostructured vanadium oxide film was prepared by hydrothermal reaction for photocatalysis application. - Highlights: Monoclinic VO{sub 2} nanorod array and flower-like nanostructure were directly grown on FTO substrate by hydrothermal reaction. The growth mechanism was analyzed by FESEM at different time. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flower-like nanostructure film was obtained after calcining VO{sub 2} film. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good light activity and potential application in photocatalysis.

  1. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Anomalous Surface Conductivity in In2O3 Transparent Conductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anomalous Surface Conductivity in In 2 O 3 Transparent Conductors Scientists in the Center for Inverse Design observed a dramatic new property in the class of transparent-conducting contacts that may significantly and beneficially change the way in which they are used in solar cells, displays, and low-e windows. Reference: S. Lany, A. Zakutayev, T.O. Mason, J.F. Wager, K.R. Poeppelmeier, J.D. Perkins, J.J. Berry, D.S. Ginley, and A. Zunger, "Surface origin of high conductivities in undoped

  2. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  3. p-Type transparent conducting oxides and methods for preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahriari, Dean Y.; Barnabe, Antoine; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2005-12-27

    A facile, low temperature and low pressure method for the preparation of a wide range of phase pure ABO.sub.2 compositions.

  4. p-Type transparent conducting oxides and methods for preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahriari, Dean Y.; Barnabe, Antoine; Mason, Thomas O.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2011-05-31

    A facile, low temperature and low pressure method for the preparation of a wide range of phase pure ABO.sub.2 compositions.

  5. 15.07.10 RH P-type Transparent - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p -Type Transparent Conducting Oxide/n-Type Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Efficient and Stable Solar Water Oxidation Chen, L. et al. p -Type Transparent Conducting Oxide / n-Type Semiconductor Heterojunctions for Efficient and Stable Solar Water Oxidation. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015, DOI: 10.1021/ jacs . 5b03536 (2015). Scientific Achievement Efficient charge conduction from the light absorber to the water oxidation catalyst was realized with a transparent,

  6. Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

    2011-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

  7. Enhanced ionic conductivity in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Barriocanal, Javier; Rivera-Calzada, Alberto; Varela del Arco, Maria; Sefrioui, Z.; Iborra, Enrique; Leon, C.; Pennycook, Stephen J; Santamaria, J.

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices used to generate energy out of hydrogen. In a fuel cell, two conducting electrodes are separated by an electrolyte that is permeable to ions (either hydrogen or oxygen, depending on the fuel-cell category) but not to electrons. An electrode catalytic process yields the ionic species, which are transported through the electrolyte, while electrons blocked by the electrolyte pass through the external circuit. Polymeric membrane (PEMFC) or phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) operating at low temperatures are the preferred option for transportation because of their quite large efficiencies (50%), compared with gasoline combustion engines (25%). Other uses are also being considered, such as battery replacements for personal electronics and stationary or portable emergency power. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), operating at high temperatures, are a better option for stationary power generation because of their scalability. Here O{sup 2-} ions are the mobile species that travel at elevated temperatures (800-1000 C) through a solid electrolyte material to react with H{sup +} ions in the anode to produce water (Fig. 1). The high operating temperatures of solid oxide fuel cells are a major impediment to their widespread use in power generation. Thus, reducing this operating temperature is currently a major materials research goal, involving the search for novel electrolytes as well as active catalysts for electrode kinetics (oxygen reduction and hydrogen oxidation). Among oxide-ion conductors, those of anion-deficient fluorite structures such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), xY{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(1-x) ZrO{sub 2}, are extensively used as electrolytes in SOFCs. Doping with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is known to stabilize the cubic fluorite structure of ZrO{sub 2} and to supply the oxygen vacancies responsible for the ionic conduction. These materials are characterized by a large number of mobile oxygen vacancies, which are randomly distributed in the structure, and thus give rise to a completely disordered anion (oxygen) sublattice. Traditionally, the main strategy to reduce the operating temperature has been to search for novel electrolyte materials with larger oxide-ion conductivity values. Only recently has the use of artificial nanostructures appeared as a promising new direction for dramatically improved properties.

  8. U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leich, D., LLNL

    1998-07-27

    The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

  9. Preparation of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Honma, Yasunori; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2007-07-15

    Highly transparent and conductive B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films have been prepared by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation method that provided high-rate film depositions using sintered BZO pellets and fragments. The obtained electrical and optical properties of the deposited BZO thin films were considerably affected by the deposition conditions as well as the preparation method of the BZO pellets and fragments used. The lowest thin film resistivity was obtained with a B doping content [B/(B+Zn) atomic ratio] of approximately 1 at. %. A resistivity as low as 5x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and an average transmittance above about 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1300 nm were obtained in BZO films prepared with a thickness above approximately 400 nm at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. In addition, a low resistivity of 7.97x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and average transmittances above about 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained in a BZO film prepared at a substrate temperature of 100 deg. C and an O{sub 2} gas flow rate of 10 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The deposition rate of BZO films was typically 170 nm/min with a cathode plasma power of 4.5 kW.

  10. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  11. Investigation of fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna for terahertz communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, S. E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com Darak, Mayur Sudesh E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com Kumar, D. Sriram E-mail: darak.mayur@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, a fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent E-shaped patch antenna is designed and its radiation performance is analyzed in the 705 804 GHz band. As optically transparent antennas can be mounted on optical display, they facilitate the reduction of overall system size. The proposed antenna design is simulated using electromagnetic solver - Ansys HFSS and its characteristics such as impedance bandwidth, directivity, radiation efficiency and gain are observed. Results show that the fluorine-doped tin oxide based optically transparent patch antenna overcomes the conventional patch antenna limitations and thus the same can be used for solar cell antenna used in satellite systems.

  12. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.

  13. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dehydrogenation (Patent) | SciTech Connect Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation are described. Surprisingly, Pd and Au alloys of Pt have been discovered to be superior for oxidative dehydrogenation in microchannels. Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating

  14. See-through amorphous silicon solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal back reflectors for building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yang; OBrien, Paul G.; Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 ; Ozin, Geoffrey A. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca; Kherani, Nazir P. E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca

    2013-11-25

    Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.

  15. 15.02.10 RH Transparent Catalytic - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent Catalytic Nickel Oxide Protecting Films for Photoanodes Sun, K. et al. Stable solar-driven oxidation of water by semiconducting photoanodes protected by transparent catalytic nickel oxide films. PNAS 112 ( 12), 3612-3617, DOI: 10.1073/ pnas . 1423034112 (2015). Scientific Achievement Reactively sputtered NiOx layer provides a transparent, anti-reflective, conductive, chemically stable, inherently catalytic coating that stabilizes many efficient and technologically important

  16. NO.sub.x sensing devices having conductive oxide electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montgomery, Frederick C. (Oak Ridge, TN); West, David L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN)

    2010-03-16

    A NO.sub.x sensing device includes at least one pair of spaced electrodes, at least one of which is made of a conductive oxide, and an oxygen-ion conducting material in bridging electrical communication with the electrodes.

  17. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Payzant, Edward A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Speakman, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Greenblatt, Martha (Highland Park, NJ)

    2008-08-19

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  18. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs) for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub th}). A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (?3 eV) was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger V{sub th} shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  19. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  20. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  1. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  2. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  3. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  4. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  5. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a worldwide effort to harness the functionality of oxide materials for advanced electronic

  6. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki, E-mail: imdlhkkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering for Information and Electronics, Kyung-Hee University, 1 Seocheon-dong, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In [Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8?nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55??10{sup ?5} ? cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54??10{sup ?3} ?{sup ?1}, comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10?nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs.

  7. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides Print Wednesday, 29 August 2012 00:00 Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs)-narrow conducting channels at the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductor materials-are the bedrock of conventional electronics. The startling 2004 discovery that such 2DEGs could be engineered at the interface between two insulating transition-metal oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, initiated a

  8. Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO); Rose, Douglas H. (Golden, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having a substrate, a layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials.

  9. Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.; Coutts, T.J.; Sheldon, P.; Rose, D.H.

    1999-07-13

    A photovoltaic device is disclosed having a substrate, a layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials. 10 figs.

  10. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  11. Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

    2013-04-23

    Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

  12. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, Gene H. (Downers Grove, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  13. Stability Issues of Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.

    2008-12-01

    Study of stability issues of TCOs for thin-film PV, including degradation of optical, electrical, and structural properties of TCOs in damp heat and required encapsulation to prevent moisture egress.

  14. KAg11(VO4)4 as a Candidate p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and theory unveil a new asymmetry character in topological insulators: the in-plane orbital wavefunction of surface states switches from tangential (a) to radial (b) when the energy surface varies from above to below the Dirac point. Y. Cao, J.A. Waugh, X.-W. Zhang, J.-W. Luo, Q. Wang, T.J. Reber, S.K. Mo, Z. Xu, A. Yang, J. Schneeloch, G. Gu, M. Brahlek, N. Bansal, S. Oh, A. Zunger, and D.S. Dessau, Nature Physics 9, 499-504 (2013). Discovery of Asymmetry in the Surface States of Topological

  15. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cervantes, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2015-07-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  16. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  17. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yang, Bin; Perry, Steven T.; Mazanec, Terry; Arora, Ravi; Daly, Francis P.; Long, Richard; Yuschak, Thomas D.; Neagle, Paul W.; Glass, Amanda

    2011-08-16

    Methods of oxidative dehydrogenation are described. Surprisingly, Pd and Au alloys of Pt have been discovered to be superior for oxidative dehydrogenation in microchannels. Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating methodology are also described. An apparatus design that minimizes heat transfer to the apparatus' exterior is also described.

  18. A New Route to Nanoscale Conducting Channels in Insulating Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interacting, electrons could hold the key to engineering novel functionality into a new generation of all-oxide electronic devices. ARPES measurements of a 2DEG in SrTiO3 and...

  19. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  20. Light transmissive electrically conductive oxide electrode formed in the presence of a stabilizing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Nang T. (Cottage Grove, MN); Gilbert, James R. (Maplewood, MN)

    1992-08-04

    A light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide is doped with a stabilizing gas such as H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. The oxide is formed by sputtering a light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide precursor onto a substrate at a temperature from 20.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. Sputtering occurs in a gaseous mixture including a sputtering gas and the stabilizing gas.

  1. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce (Knoxville, TN); Ivanov, Ilia N. (Knoxville, TN); Puretzky, Alexander A. (Knoxville, TN); Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Bin (Knoxville, TN); Garrett, Matthew (Knoxville, TN); Zhao, Bin (Easley, SC)

    2011-04-12

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  2. Transparent conductive nano-composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

    2013-09-24

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

  3. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  4. Electronically conductive perovskite-based oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Schultz, Andrew M

    2015-04-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has a perovskite-based crystal structure and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The electronically conducting perovskite-based metal oxide has an empirical formula A.sub.xB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta., where A is at least a first element at the A-site, B is at least a second element at the B-site, and where 0.8conducting perovskite-based oxides include but are not limited to La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCoO.sub.3, La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xMnO.sub.3, LaCrO.sub.3, LaNiO.sub.3, La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xMn.sub.1-yCr.sub.yO.sub.3, SrFeO.sub.3, SrVO.sub.3, La-doped SrTiO.sub.3, Nb-doped SrTiO.sub.3, and SrTiO.sub.3-.delta..

  5. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January, 2005 assessment of Conduct of Operations program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

  6. Remote Monitoring Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Shmelev, V.M.; Roumiantsev, A.N.; Croessmann, C.D.; Horton, R.D.; Matter, J.C.; Czajkowski, A.F.; Sheely, K.B.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Remote Monitoring Transparency Program is to evaluate and demonstrate the use of remote monitoring technologies to advance nonproliferation and transparency efforts that are currently being developed by Russia and the US without compromising the national security of the participating parties. Under a lab-to-lab transparency contract between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Kurchatov Institute (KI RRC), the Kurchatov Institute will analyze technical and procedural aspects of the application of remote monitoring as a transparency measure to monitor inventories of direct-use HEU and plutonium (e.g., material recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons). A goal of this program is to assist a broad range of political and technical experts in learning more about remote monitoring technologies that could be used to implement nonproliferation, arms control, and other security and confidence building measures. Specifically, this program will: (1) begin integrating Russian technologies into remote monitoring systems; (2) develop remote monitoring procedures that will assist in the application of remote monitoring techniques to monitor inventories of HEU and Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons; and (3) conduct a workshop to review remote monitoring fundamentals, demonstrate an integrated US/Russian remote monitoring will have on the national security of participating countries.

  7. Conductive yttria-stabilized zirconia as an epitaxial template for oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caspers, C.; Mller, M.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Schneider, C. M.

    2014-05-07

    We report an in situ thermochemical treatment that significantly increases the macroscopic electrical conductivity of insulating yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (001) single-crystalline substrates. We demonstrate the high-quality surface crystalline structure of the resulting conductive cYSZ (001) by low- and high-energy electron diffraction. Soft- and hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal a sizable reduction of Zr cations to a metallic state and their homogeneous distribution within the cYSZ. We discuss the correlation between the microscopic chemical processes leading to the increased macroscopic metallicity. Finally, the heteroepitaxial growth of a functional magnetic oxide model system, ultrathin EuO on cYSZ (001), was demonstrated. cYSZ (001) thereby enables both high quality oxide heteroepitaxy and the advanced sample characterization by high electron-fluence characterization techniques.

  8. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Kong, Fanping (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  9. Black Conductive Titanium Oxide High-Capacity Materials for Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, W.

    2011-05-18

    Stoichiometric titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is one of the most widely studied transitionmetal oxides because of its many potential applications in photoelectrochemical systems, such as dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} electrodes for photovoltaic solar cells, and water-splitting catalysts for hydrogen generation, and in environmental purification for creating or degrading specific compounds. However, TiO{sub 2} has a wide bandgap and high electrical resistivity, which limits its use as an electrode. A set of non-stoichiometric titanium oxides called the Magneli phases, having a general formula of Ti{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} with n between 4 and 10, exhibits lower bandgaps and resistivities, with the highest electrical conductivities reported for Ti{sub 4}O{sub 7}. These phases have been formulated under different conditions, but in all reported cases the resulting oxides have minimum grain sizes on the order of micrometers, regardless of the size of the starting titanium compounds. In this method, nanoparticles of TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates are first coated with carbon using either wet or dry chemistry methods. During this process the size and shape of the nanoparticles are 'locked in.' Subsequently the carbon-coated nanoparticles are heated. This results in the transformation of the original TiO{sub 2} or hydrogen titanates to Magneli phases without coarsening, so that the original size and shape of the nanoparticles are maintained to a precise degree. People who work on batteries, fuel cells, ultracapacitors, electrosynthesis cells, electro-chemical devices, and soil remediation have applications that could benefit from using nanoscale Magneli phases of titanium oxide. Application of these electrode materials may not be limited to substitution for TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Combining the robustness and photosensitivity of TiO{sub 2} with higher electrical conductivity may result in a general electrode material.

  10. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, Julius (San Ramon, CA); Henesian, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  11. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon???® enabled solar cells.

  12. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  13. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  14. Proton conducting sodium alginate electrolyte laterally coupled low-voltage oxide-based transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Hui; Wan, Qing; Qiang Zhu, Li; Shi, Yi

    2014-03-31

    Solution-processed sodium alginate electrolyte film shows a high proton conductivity of ?5.5??10{sup ?3} S/cm and a high lateral electric-double-layer (EDL) capacitance of ?2.0??F/cm{sup 2} at room temperature with a relative humidity of 57%. Low-voltage in-plane-gate indium-zinc-oxide-based EDL transistors laterally gated by sodium alginate electrolytes are fabricated on glass substrates. The field-effect mobility, current ON/OFF ratio, and subthreshold swing of such EDL transistors are estimated to be 4.2 cm{sup 2} V{sup ?1} s{sup ?1}, 2.8??10{sup 6}, and 130?mV/decade, respectively. At last, a low-voltage driven resistor-load inverter is also demonstrated. Such in-plane-gate EDL transistors have potential applications in portable electronics and low-cost biosensors.

  15. Relationships between strength, electrical conductivity, and density for oxidized PGX graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, W.C.; Prince, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    The core of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) rests on massive graphite core support blocks; which, in turn, are supported by core support posts. PGX graphite was used for the core support blocks of the Fort St. Vrain HTGR (the only operating HTGR); and, evidently, is the leading candidate material for use in advanced HTGRs. Therefore, PGX was chosen for the initial tests on the use of eddy current techniques to monitor strength changes as a result of oxidation. The results of these initial tests showed that both compressive strength and electrical conductivity correlated very well with density. However, only a single log of PGX was used for the initial tests; therefore, it was necessary to determine if the correlations could be extended to other logs of PGX.

  16. Optoelectronic properties and interband transition of La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} transparent conducting films determined by variable temperature spectral transmittance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, S. M.; Shan, C.; Jiang, K.; Zhu, J. J.; Li, Y. W.; Hu, Z. G. Chu, J. H.

    2015-03-14

    Perovskite-structured Ba{sub 1?x}La{sub x}SnO{sub 3} (x?=?00.10) films have been directly grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by a sol-gel method. Optical properties and bandgap energy of the films have been investigated by transmittance spectra from 10?K to 450?K. It indicates that these films exhibit a high transmission of more than 80% in the visible region. With increasing temperature, there is a significant bandgap shrinkage of about 0.5?eV for lightly La doping (x???0.04) films. For heavily La doping concentration (x???0.06), the bandgap remains nearly stable with the temperature and La composition. This is due to the fact that the lattice expansion caused by La doping is close to the saturation for the film doped with x?=?0.06. Moreover, temperature dependent conductivity behavior shows a similar pattern, which suggests that the doping concentration of La-doped BaSnO{sub 3} (BLSO) films has a saturated state. The La introduction can modify the Sn 5s-O 2p antibonding state and the nonbonding O 2p orbital, which remarkably affect the electronic bandgap of the BLSO films.

  17. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); He, Qing (Bloomington, MN)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  18. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); He, Qing (Bloomington, MN)

    2003-04-29

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  19. Oriented conductive oxide electrodes on SiO2/Si and glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.

    2001-01-01

    A thin film structure is provided including a silicon substrate with a layer of silicon dioxide on a surface thereof, and a layer of cubic oxide material deposited upon the layer of silicon dioxide by ion-beam-assisted-deposition, said layer of cubic oxide material characterized as biaxially oriented. Preferably, the cubic oxide material is yttria-stabilized zirconia. Additional thin layers of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide are deposited upon the layer of yttria-stabilized zirconia. An intermediate layer of cerium oxide is employed between the yttria-stabilized zirconia layer and the lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide layer. Also, a layer of barium strontium titanium oxide can be upon the layer of biaxially oriented ruthenium oxide or lanthanum strontium cobalt oxide. Also, a method of forming such thin film structures, including a low temperature deposition of a layer of a biaxially oriented cubic oxide material upon the silicon dioxide surface of a silicon dioxide/silicon substrate is provided.

  20. UCSB researchers uncover fundamental limits on optical transparency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a wide range of optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and LCD touch screens. These materials can conduct electricity while being transparent to...

  1. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  2. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    Transparent and reflecting electrodes are important parts of the structure of amorphous silicon solar cells. We report improved methods for depositing zinc oxide, deposition of tin nitride as a potential reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between the a-Si and back metal electrodes. Highly conductive and transparent fluorine-doped zinc oxide was successfully produced on small areas by atmospheric pressure CVD from a less hazardous zinc precursor, zinc acetylacetonate. The optical properties measured for tin nitride showed that the back-reflection would be decreased if tin nitride were used instead of zinc oxide as a barrier layer over silver on aluminum. Niobium-doped titanium dioxide was produced with high enough electrical conductivity so that normal voltages and fill factors were obtained for a-Si cells made on it.

  3. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tour, James M.; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2015-09-08

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the gap region between the first electrical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  4. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  5. Direct transparent electrode patterning on layered GaN substrate by screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle ink for Eu-doped GaN red light-emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiwagi, Y. Yamamoto, M.; Saitoh, M.; Takahashi, M.; Ohno, T.; Nakamoto, M.; Koizumi, A.; Fujiwara, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Murahashi, K.; Ohtsuka, K.; Furuta, S.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent electrodes were formed on Eu-doped GaN-based red-light-emitting diode (GaN:Eu LED) substrates by the screen printing of indium tin oxide nanoparticle (ITO np) inks as a wet process. The ITO nps with a mean diameter of 25?nm were synthesized by the controlled thermolysis of a mixture of indium complexes and tin complexes. After the direct screen printing of ITO np inks on GaN:Eu LED substrates and sintering at 850?C for 10?min under atmospheric conditions, the resistivity of the ITO film was 5.2?m??cm. The fabricated LED up to 3?mm square surface emitted red light when the on-voltage was exceeded.

  6. Conductivity and optical band gaps of polyethylene oxide doped with Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapi, Sharanappa Raghu, S. Subramanya, K. Archana, K. Mini, V. Devendrappa, H.

    2014-04-24

    The conductivity and optical properties of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) films were studied. The polymer electrolyte films are prepared using solution casting technique. The material phase change was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Optical absorption study was conducted using UV- Vis. Spectroscopy in the wavelength range 1901100nm on pure and doped PEO films. The direct and indirect optical band gaps were found decreased from 5.814.51eV and 4.843.43eV respectively with increasing the Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The conductivity found to increases with increasing the dopant concentration due to strong hopping mechanism at room temperature.

  7. Flexible transparent conductors based on metal nanowire networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-04-01

    Few conductors are transparent and flexible. Metals have the best electrical conductivity, but they are opaque and stiff in bulk form. However, metals can be transparent and flexible when they are very thin or properly arranged on the nanoscale. This review focuses on the flexible transparent conductors based on percolating networks of metal. Specifically, we discuss the fabrication, the means to improve the electrical conductivity, the large stretchability and its mechanism, and the applications of these metal networks. We also suggest some criteria for evaluating flexible transparent conductors and propose some new research directions in this emerging field.

  8. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2005-10-18

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  9. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide buffer layer on a textured substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paranthaman, M. Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Christen, David K.

    2003-09-09

    An article with an improved buffer layer architecture includes a substrate having a textured metal surface, and an electrically conductive lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer on the surface of the substrate. The article can also include an epitaxial superconducting layer deposited on the epitaxial buffer layer. An epitaxial capping layer can be placed between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer. A method for preparing an epitaxial article includes providing a substrate with a metal surface and depositing on the metal surface a lanthanum metal oxide epitaxial buffer layer. The method can further include depositing a superconducting layer on the epitaxial buffer layer, and depositing an epitaxial capping layer between the epitaxial buffer layer and the superconducting layer.

  10. Fabrication of anatase precipitated glass-ceramics possessing high transparency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Toda, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi

    2009-04-13

    Transparent anatase precipitated glass-ceramics were fabricated using ZnO as a component. The particle size of precipitated anatase is several nanometers enough to possess high transparency. The preparation of the Bi-free transparent TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramic was attained by substitution of two different kinds of oxides for bismuth oxide. It is also noteworthy that we have demonstrated the crystallization of metastable anatase in the glass-ceramics as a main phase. The present bulk anatase glass-ceramics will open up an application field for a TiO{sub 2}-containing photocatalyst.

  11. Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Zhang, Jiaming; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Ewing, Rodney C.; Lian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Strain confinement in heterostructured films significantly affects ionic conductivity of the electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells based on a multi-layered design strategy. Nearly ideal tensile strain can be achieved by a dedicated manipulation of the lattice mismatch between adjacent layers and fine control of the layer thicknesses to minimize the formation of dislocations and thus to achieve optimized ionic conduction. This strategy was demonstrated by a model system of multilayered 8 mol%Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) with Gd2Zr2O7 (GZO) films, which were epitaxially grown on Al2O3 (0001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with the {111} planes of YSZ/GZO along the Al2O3 [0 1 ?1 0] direction. The tensile strain (3%) resulting from the lattice mismatch can be confined in individual YSZ layers with the formation of a coherent, dislocation-free interface upon the manipulation of the layer thickness below a critical value, e.g., down to 5 nm. The strained heterostructure displays a two order-of-magnitude increase in oxide-ion conductivity as compared with bulk YSZ, and a high ionic conductivity of 0.01 S cm?1 at 475 C can be achieved, five times greater than that of Gd-doped ceria/zirconia. The approach of strain confinement by fine control of lattice mismatch and layer thickness represents a promising strategy in developing advanced electrolytes enabling the miniaturization of solid-state ionic devices that can be operated at low temperatures below 500 C.

  12. Transparent conductor-Si pillars heterojunction photodetector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Ju-Hyung; Kim, Joondong; Park, Yun Chang

    2014-08-14

    We report a high-performing heterojunction photodetector by enhanced surface effects. Periodically, patterned Si substrates were used to enlarge the photo-reactive regions and yield proportionally improved photo-responses. An optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) was deposited on a Si substrate and spontaneously formed an ITO/Si heterojunction. Due to an electrical conductive ITO film, ITO/Si heterojunction device can be operated at zero-bias, which effectively suppresses the dark current, resulting in better performances than those by a positive or a negative bias operation. This zero-bias operating heterojunction device exhibits a short response time (? 22.5?ms) due to the physical reaction to the incident light. We revealed that the location of the space charge region (SCR) is crucial for a specific photon-wavelength response. The SCR space has the highest collection efficiency of the photo-generated carriers. The photo-response can be maximized when we design the photodetector by superposing the SCR space over a corresponding photon-absorption length. The surface enhanced Si pillar devices significantly improved the photo-responses ratios from that of a planar Si device. According to this design scheme, a high photo-response ratio of 5560% was achieved at a wavelength of 600?nm. This surfaced-enhanced heterojunction design scheme would be a promising approach for various photoelectric applications.

  13. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  14. Heteroepitaxial growth of highly conductive metal oxide RuO{sub 2} thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Tiwari, P.; Zheng, J.P.; Jow, T.R.

    1995-09-18

    Highly conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) has been epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The RuO{sub 2} film is ({ital h}00) oriented normal to the substrate surface. The heteroepitaxial growth of RuO{sub 2} on LaAlO{sub 3} is demonstrated by the strong in-plane orientation of thin films with respect to the major axes of the substrate. High crystallinity of RuO{sub 2} thin films is also determined from Rutherford backscattering channeling measurements. Electrical measurements on the RuO{sub 2} thin films demonstrate a quite low room-temperature resistivity of 35{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega} cm at deposition temperatures of above 500 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  16. Spatial dependence of polycrystalline FTOs conductance analyzed by conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peixoto, Alexandre Pessoa; Costa, J. C. da

    2014-05-15

    Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) is a highly transparent, electrically conductive polycrystalline material frequently used as an electrode in organic solar cells and optical-electronic devices [12]. In this work a spatial analysis of the conductive behavior of FTO was carried out by Conductive-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM). Rare highly oriented grains sample give us an opportunity to analyze the top portion of polycrystalline FTO and compare with the border one. It is shown that the current flow essentially takes place through the polycrystalline edge at grain boundaries.

  17. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA); Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Seeley, Zachary M. (Pullman, WA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-10-18

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a transparent ceramic preform includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, adding the suspension to a mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the suspension in the mold for forming a preform. The suspension includes a dispersant but does not include a gelling agent. In another embodiment, a method includes creating a mixture without a gelling agent, the mixture including: inorganic particles, a solvent, and a dispersant. The inorganic particles have a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm. The method also includes agitating the mixture, adding the mixture to a mold, and curing the mixture in the mold at a temperature of less than about 80.degree. C. for forming a preform. Other methods for forming a transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several embodiments.

  18. Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

    1985-06-01

    Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

  19. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  20. A new architecture as transparent electrodes for solar and IR applications based on photonic structures via soft lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Ping

    2011-05-15

    Transparent conducting electrodes with the combination of high optical transmission and good electrical conductivity are essential for solar energy harvesting and electric lighting devices. Currently, indium tin oxide (ITO) is used because ITO offers relatively high transparency (>80%) to visible light and low sheet resistance (R{sub s} = 10 ohms/square ({Omega}#2;/?)) for electrical conduction. However, ITO is costly due to limited indium reserves, and it is brittle. These disadvantages have motivated the search for other conducting electrodes with similar or better properties. There has been research on a variety of electrode structures involving carbon nanotube networks, graphene films, nanowire and nanopatterned meshes and grids. Due to their novel characteristics in light manipulation and collection, photonic crystal structures show promise for further improvement. Here, we report on a new architecture consisting of nanoscale high aspect ratio metallic photonic structures as transparent electrodes fabricated via a combination of processes. For (Au) and silver (Ag) structures, the visible light transmission can reach as high as 80%, and the sheet resistance of the structure can be as low as 3.2{Omega}#2;/?. The optical transparency of the high aspect ratio metal structures at visible wavelength range is comparable to that of ITO glass, while their sheet resistance is more than 3 times lower, which indicates a much higher electrical conductivity of the metal structures. Furthermore, the high aspect ratio metal structures have very high infrared (IR) reflection (90%) for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode, which can lead to the development of fabrication of metallic structures as IR filters for heat control applications. Investigations of interdigitated structures based on the high aspect ratio metal electrodes are ongoing to study the feasibility in smart window applications in light transmission modulation.

  1. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solar cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.

  2. Transparent electrodes in silicon heterojunction solar cells: Influence on contact passivation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Andrea; Sahli, Florent; Seif, Johannes Peter; Fanni, Lorenzo; de Nicolas Agut, Silvia Martin; Geissbuhler, Jonas; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand; Nicolay, Sylvain; Barraud, Loris; Niesen, Bjoern; et al

    2015-10-26

    Charge carrier collection in silicon heterojunction solar cells occurs via intrinsic/doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer stacks deposited on the crystalline silicon wafer surfaces. Usually, both the electron and hole collecting stacks are externally capped by an n-type transparent conductive oxide, which is primarily needed for carrier extraction. Earlier, it has been demonstrated that the mere presence of such oxides can affect the carrier recombination in the crystalline silicon absorber. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the impact of this phenomenon on both the electron and hole collecting sides, including its consequences for the operating voltages of silicon heterojunction solarmore » cells. As a result, we define guiding principles for improved passivating contact design for high-efficiency silicon solar cells.« less

  3. Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies and the NYC Example Measuring the Impact of Benchmarking & Transparency - Methodologies and the NYC Example ...

  4. Oxide

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-15

    Oxide is a modular framework for feature extraction and analysis of executable files. Oxide is useful in a variety of reverse engineering and categorization tasks relating to executable content.

  5. Surface-Plasmon Enhanced Transparent Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly III, T. H.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A. J.; Rowlen, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Random silver nanohole films were created through colloidal lithography techniques and metal vapor deposition. The transparent electrodes were characterized by uv-visible spectroscopy and incorporated into an organic solar cell. The test cells were evaluated for solar power-conversion efficiency and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra displayed evidence that a nanohole film with 92 nm diameter holes induces surface-plasmon-enhanced photoconversion. The nanohole silver films demonstrate a promising route to removing the indium tin oxide transparent electrode that is ubiquitous in organic optoelectronics.

  6. Building Energy Transparency Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transparency Report Building Energy Transparency Report This report discusses best practices in implementing benchmarking policies. It includes policy profiles from several cities and states. PDF icon Building Energy Transparency Report More Documents & Publications New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report Benchmarking and Disclosure: State and Local Policy Design Guide and Sample Policy Language Building Energy Rating and Disclosure Policies

  7. Large area controlled assembly of transparent conductive networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.

    2015-09-29

    A method of preparing a network comprises disposing a solution comprising particulate materials in a solvent onto a superhydrophobic surface comprising a plurality of superhydrophobic features and interfacial areas between the superhydrophobic features. The plurality of superhydrophobic features has a water contact angle of at least about 150.degree.. The method of preparing the network also comprises removing the solvent from the solution of the particulate materials, and forming a network of the particulate materials in the interfacial areas, the particulate materials receding to the interfacial areas as the solvent is removed.

  8. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  9. Compound transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard L.

    2012-12-11

    According to one embodiment, a method for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform includes forming a first suspension of oxide particles in a first solvent which includes a first dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the first suspension to a first mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the first suspension in the first mold until stable. The method also includes forming a second suspension of oxide particles in a second solvent which includes a second dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the second suspension to the stable first suspension in a second mold of a desired shape encompassing the first suspension and the second suspension, and uniformly curing the second suspension in the second mold until stable. Other methods for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several other embodiments. Structures are also disclosed.

  10. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, R.N.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-07-28

    A process is described for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  11. Preparation of transparent conductors ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath; Ginley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation by electrodeposition of metal oxide film and powder compounds for ferroelectric memory materials and ferrites wherein the metal oxide includes a plurality of metals. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath, providing soluble salts of the metals to this bath, electrically energizing the bath to thereby cause formation of a recoverable film of metal on the electrode, recovering the resultant film as a film or a powder, and recovering powder formed on the floor of the bath. The films and powders so produced are subsequently annealed to thereby produce metal oxide for use in electronic applications. The process can be employed to produce metal-doped metal oxide film and powder compounds for transparent conductors. The process for preparation of these metal-doped metal oxides follows that described above.

  12. Transparent self-cleaning dust shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Malay K.; Sims, Robert A.; Wilson, James D.

    2005-06-28

    A transparent electromagnetic shield to protect solar panels and the like from dust deposition. The shield is a panel of clear non-conducting (dielectric) material with embedded parallel electrodes. The panel is coated with a semiconducting film. Desirably the electrodes are transparent. The electrodes are connected to a single-phase AC signal or to a multi-phase AC signal that produces a travelling electromagnetic wave. The electromagnetic field produced by the electrodes lifts dust particles away from the shield and repels charged particles. Deposited dust particles are removed when the electrodes are activated, regardless of the resistivity of the dust. Electrostatic charges on the panel are discharged by the semiconducting film. When used in conjunction with photovoltaic cells, the power for the device may be obtained from the cells themselves. For other surfaces, such as windshields, optical windows and the like, the power must be derived from an external source. One embodiment of the invention employs monitoring and detection devices to determine when the level of obscuration of the screen by dust has reached a threshold level requiring activation of the dust removal feature.

  13. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  14. Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transparent Encapsulants | Department of Energy LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent Encapsulants Next-Generation LED Package Architectures Enabled by Thermally Conductive Transparent Encapsulants Lead Performer: Momentive Performance Materials Quartz, Inc. DOE Total Funding: $1,497,255 Cost Share: $512,700 Project Term: 10/1/2014 - 3/31/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This

  15. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a

  16. Transparency: it's not just for windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparency: it's not just for windows Los Alamos National Laboratory's database of environmental monitoring data is now directly viewable by the public. March 20, 2012...

  17. Electrode with transparent series resistance for uniform switching of optical modulation devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, D. Morgan (Camarillo, CA); Cunningham, Michael A. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Kobrin, Paul H. (Newbury Park, CA)

    2008-01-08

    Switching uniformity of an optical modulation device for controlling the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is improved by use of an electrode comprising an electrically resistive layer that is transparent to the radiation. The resistive layer is preferably an innerlayer of a wide-bandgap oxide sandwiched between layers of indium tin oxide or another transparent conductor, and may be of uniform thickness, or may be graded so as to provide further improvement in the switching uniformity. The electrode may be used with electrochromic and reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) smart window devices, as well as display devices based on various technologies.

  18. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  19. Temperature dependence of structural parameters in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}: single crystal X-ray studies from 295 to 900K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okudera, Hiroki [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, DE-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: h.okudera@fkf.mpg.de; Yoshiasa, Akira [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Masubuchi, Yuuji [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Higuchi, Mikio [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kikkawa, Shinichi [Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    Crystallographic space group, structural parameters and their thermal changes in oxide-ion-conducting Nd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} were investigated using high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments in the temperature range of 295=oxide ions which belong to SiO{sub 4} tetrahedron indicated high rigidity of the tetrahedron in the structure, indicating that they form sp3 hybrid orbitals and the ligand oxygens do not take part in oxide-ion conductivity. Virtually full occupation of the 6h Nd site and highly anisotropic displacements of oxide ion inside the hexagonal channel were maintained over the temperature range examined. This result confirms that oxide-ion transport inside the hexagonal channel is the dominant process of conduction in the title compound.

  20. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  1. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  2. Sandia Energy - New report offers best practice for transparent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    report offers best practice for transparent contract language of PV O&M agreements Home News News & Events Solar New report offers best practice for transparent contract language...

  3. Subtask 5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5: Functional nanostructured transparent electrode materials All papers by year Subtask 1 Subtask 2 Subtask 3 Subtask 4 Subtask 5 Jeon, K.-W. and Seo, D.-K. (2014) Concomitant...

  4. Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    “NEPA is, at its core, a transparency statute,” said Katie Scharf, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Deputy General Counsel, in opening a panel discussion on using information technology to...

  5. Transparency: it's not just for windows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparency: it's not just for windows Transparency: it's not just for windows Los Alamos National Laboratory's database of environmental monitoring data is now directly viewable by the public. March 20, 2012 Intellus environmental data The same environmental data used by LANL scientists can be viewed by anyone, anytime. Contact Environmental Communications & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email "The new system contains more than 9 million

  6. Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic coating

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic coating based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic coating based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles Optical surfaces such as mirrors and windows that are exposed to outdoor environmental conditions are susceptible to dust buildup and

  7. Comments on: New report offers best practice for transparent...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sandia-national-laboratories-report-offers-best-practice-for-transparent-contract-language-of-pv-om-agreements...

  8. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing, between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.

  9. Atomic-Layer-Deposited Transparent Electrodes for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Demaurex, Benedicte; Seif, Johannes P.; Smit, Sjoerd; Macco, Bart; Kessels, W. M.; Geissbuhler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-11-01

    We examine damage-free transparent-electrode deposition to fabricate high-efficiency amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells. Such solar cells usually feature sputtered transparent electrodes, the deposition of which may damage the layers underneath. Using atomic layer deposition, we insert thin protective films between the amorphous silicon layers and sputtered contacts and investigate their effect on device operation. We find that a 20-nm-thick protective layer suffices to preserve, unchanged, the amorphous silicon layers beneath. Insertion of such protective atomic-layer-deposited layers yields slightly higher internal voltages at low carrier injection levels. However, we identify the presence of a silicon oxide layer, formed during processing,more » between the amorphous silicon and the atomic-layer-deposited transparent electrode that acts as a barrier, impeding hole and electron collection.« less

  10. Transparent Conductors from Carbon Nanotubes LBL-Assembled with Polymer Dopant with ?-? Electron Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jian; Shim, Bong Sup; Di Prima, Matthew; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and other carbon-based coatings are being considered as replacements for indium tin oxide (ITO). The problems of transparent conductors (TCs) coatings from SWNT and similar materials include poor mechanical properties, high roughness, low temperature resilience, and fast loss of conductivity. The simultaneous realization of these desirable characteristics can be achieved using high structural control of layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition, which is demonstrated by the assembly of hydroethyl cellulose (HOCS) and sulfonated polyetheretherketone (SPEEK)-SWNTs. A new type of SWNT doping based on electron transfer from valence bands of nanotubes to unoccupied levels of SPEEK through ?-? interactions was identified for this system. It leads to a conductivity of 1.1 10? S/m at 66 wt % loadings of SWNT. This is better than other polymer/SWNT composites and translates into surface conductivity of 920 ?/? and transmittance of 86.7% at 550 nm. The prepared LBL films also revealed unusually high temperature resilience up to 500 C, and low roughness of 3.5 nm (ITO glass -2.4 nm). Tensile modulus, ultimate strength, and toughness of such coatings are 13 2 GPa, 366 35 MPa, and 8 3 kJ/m, respectively, and exceed corresponding parameters of all similar TCs. The cumulative figure of merit, ?TC, which included the critical failure strain relevant for flexible electronics, was ?TC = 0.022 and should be compared to ?TC = 0.006 for commercial ITO. Further optimization is possible using stratified nanoscale coatings and improved doping from the macromolecular LBL components.

  11. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  12. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1986-09-09

    This patent describes a drying process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing alkoxides to form alcogels, and subsequently removing the alcohol therefrom to form aerogels, the improvement comprising the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol for the alcohol in the alcogels, and drying the resulting gels at a supercritical temperature for the solvent, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced drying time period.

  13. Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieniawski, A.

    1993-09-01

    The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

  14. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  15. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Param H. (Milpitas, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  16. Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductors | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Diameter-Refined Metallic Carbon Nanotubes as Optically Tunable Transparent Conductors

  17. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  18. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

  19. NEPA Process Transparency and Openness (2009) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Process Transparency and Openness (2009) NEPA Process Transparency and Openness (2009) This memorandum describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) policy for posting online the categorical exclusion determinations made by DOE NEPA Compliance Officers. Download Document PDF icon NEPA Process Transparency and Openness More Documents & Publications DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness Implementation Guidance for the DOE Policy on Documentation and Online Posting of

  20. Transparent heat-spreader for optoelectronic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo

    2014-11-04

    An optoelectronic cooling system is equally applicable to an LED collimator or a photovoltaic solar concentrator. A transparent fluid conveys heat from the optoelectronic chip to a hollow cover over the system aperture. The cooling system can keep a solar concentrator chip at the same temperature as found for a one-sun flat-plate solar cell. Natural convection or forced circulation can operate to convey heat from the chip to the cover.

  1. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Jitendra P. (Bollingbrook, IL); Bosak, Andrea L. (Burnam, IL); McPheeters, Charles C. (Woodridge, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Woodridge, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically conductive material for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO.sub.2 formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO.sub.2 as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns.

  2. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  3. Radiation Heat Transfer in 3 Dimensions for Semi-Transparent Materials....

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-02

    The RAD3D software solves the critical heat transfer mechanisms that occur in production glass furnaces. The code includes state-of-the-art solution algorithms for efficient radiant interaction of the heating elements, furnace walls and internal furnace components. The code specifically solves the coupled radiative and conductive heating of semi-transparent materials such as glass to calculate the temperature distribution in the glass during processing.

  4. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms.

  5. Multifunctional oxides for integrated manufacturing of efficient graphene electrodes for organic electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kidambi, Piran R.; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan; Weijtens, Christ; Meyer, Jens

    2015-02-09

    Using multi-functional oxide films, we report on the development of an integration strategy for scalable manufacturing of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) for organic electronics. A number of fundamental and process challenges exists for efficient graphene-based TCEs, in particular, environmentally and thermally stable doping, interfacial band engineering for efficient charge injection/extraction, effective wetting, and process compatibility including masking and patterning. Here, we show that all of these challenges can be effectively addressed at once by coating graphene with a thin (>10?nm) metal oxide (MoO{sub 3} or WO{sub 3}) layer. We demonstrate graphene electrode patterning without the need for conventional lithography and thereby achieve organic light emitting diodes with efficiencies exceeding those of standard indium tin oxide reference devices.

  6. Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook Prepared for by the U.S. Department of Energy, this Handbook provides both a strategic planning framework and standard methodologies to determined the energy and non-energy benefits of benchmarking and transparency policies and programs that recently began to proliferate in jurisdiction across the United States. PDF

  7. Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparency | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparency Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparency May 18, 2011 - 4:42pm Addthis The OCIO established a Department-wide wiki, Powerpedia, in early 2010 to facilitate knowledge capture and collaboration, and to increase efficiency. Leveraging lessons learned from the intelligence community's Intellipedia effort, the Department established Powerpedia to increase transparency and connect people and information together. Built on

  8. Theoretical study on electromagnetically induced transparency in molecular

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aggregate models using quantum Liouville equation method (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Theoretical study on electromagnetically induced transparency in molecular aggregate models using quantum Liouville equation method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical study on electromagnetically induced transparency in molecular aggregate models using quantum Liouville equation method Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which is known as an efficient control method of

  9. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers « Prev Next » Title: Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a

  10. New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, this Report provides an understanding of both the approach and methodologies used to evaluate the New York City's benchmarking and transparency policy, Local Law 84, and the results of the application of those methodologies to the early period of the policy's implementation.

  11. Net Requirements Transparency Process for Slice/Block Customers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 2012 Net Requirements Transparency Process for SliceBlock Customers Description of Changes and a Response to Comments September 24, 2012 Background and Description of Changes:...

  12. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube...

  13. Transparent Gold as a Platform for Adsorbed ProteinSpectroelectrochem...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent Gold as a Platform for Adsorbed Protein Spectroelectrochemistry: Investigation of Cytochrome c and Azurin Authors: Ashur, I., Schulz, O., McIntosh, C. L., Pinkas, I.,...

  14. Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmarking and Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook Prepared for by the U.S. Department of Energy, this Handbook provides both a strategic planning ...

  15. New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New York City's benchmarking and transparency policy, Local Law 84, and the results of the application of those methodologies to the early period of the policy's implementation. ...

  16. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  17. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  18. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  19. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  20. Fluorogel elastomers with tunable transparency, elasticity, shape-memory,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and antifouling properties (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Accepted Manuscript: Fluorogel elastomers with tunable transparency, elasticity, shape-memory, and antifouling properties Title: Fluorogel elastomers with tunable transparency, elasticity, shape-memory, and antifouling properties In this study, omniphobic fluorogel elastomers were prepared by photocuring perfluorinated acrylates and a perfluoropolyether crosslinker. By tuning either the chemical composition or the temperature that

  1. Transparently wrap-gated semiconductor nanowire arrays for studies of gate-controlled photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nylund, Gustav; Storm, Kristian; Torstensson, Henrik; Wallentin, Jesper; Borgstrm, Magnus T.; Hessman, Dan; Samuelson, Lars

    2013-12-04

    We present a technique to measure gate-controlled photoluminescence (PL) on arrays of semiconductor nanowire (NW) capacitors using a transparent film of Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO) wrapping around the nanowires as the gate electrode. By tuning the wrap-gate voltage, it is possible to increase the PL peak intensity of an array of undoped InP NWs by more than an order of magnitude. The fine structure of the PL spectrum reveals three subpeaks whose relative peak intensities change with gate voltage. We interpret this as gate-controlled state-filling of luminescing quantum dot segments formed by zincblende stacking faults in the mainly wurtzite NW crystal structure.

  2. Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.; Odlaug, Christopher S.

    2011-07-17

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.

  3. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  4. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  5. Net Requirements Transparency Process for Slice/Block and Block...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 As part of its Net Requirements Transparency process, on July 31, 2013 BPA published the SliceBlock and Block customers' FY2012 and forecast FY2014 Total Retail Load (TRL) and...

  6. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  7. High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryMetallic structures that can be used as transparent electrodes or to enhance the performance of solar cells or LEDs.DescriptionEfforts to develop new energy sources and more energy efficient devices has lead to

  8. New York City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    City Benchmarking and Transparency Policy Impact Evaluation Report May 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by Navigant Consulting, Inc., Steven Winter Associates, Inc., and Newport Partners, LLC (This page intentionally left blank) i Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank and acknowledge several organizations and individuals for their contributions to this impact evaluation report. First, this evaluation of New York City's Benchmarking and Transparency policy would not have been

  9. Flexible, transparent thin film transistors raise hopes for flexible

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    screens | Argonne National Laboratory The thin-film transistor is flexible, transparent and performs just as well as commercial versions. Displayed is an array of transistors - each of which are just 10 atomic layers thick. Photo by Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory. Click to enlarge. The thin-film transistor is flexible, transparent and performs just as well as commercial versions. Displayed is an array of transistors - each of which are just 10 atomic layers thick. Photo by Mark

  10. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers « Prev Next » Title: Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science (PAGES). This site is a product of DOE's

  11. DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    October 2, 2009 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF D E P A R T M m ELEMENTS FROM: DANIEL B. PONE SUBJECT: NEPA Process Transparency and Openness President Obama's memorandum on "Transparency and Open Government," issued in the very first hours of his presidency on January 2 1,2009, announced his commitment to creating an unprecedented level of openness in Government. The President specifically called on executive agency heads to make information about agency operations and decisions available to

  12. Nanostructured Transparent Conductors Have Potential for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01

    Possible alternatives to transparent conductors show promise for enabling new processes and reducing costs.

  13. NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government, Environmental Law Institute, 2010.

  14. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  15. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  16. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  17. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung -Geun; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this study, we describe an oxide/oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr₀̣.₂Ti₀.₈O₃-LaNiO₃ where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, inmore » one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7 eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  18. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung-Guen; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-05

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  19. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad...

  20. Influence of growth temperature on electrical, optical, and plasmonic properties of aluminum:zinc oxide films grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dondapati, Hareesh; Santiago, Kevin; Pradhan, A. K.

    2013-10-14

    We have investigated the responsible mechanism for the observation of metallic conductivity at room temperature and metal-semiconductor transition (MST) at lower temperatures for aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films. AZO films were grown on glass substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering with varying substrate temperatures (T{sub s}). The films were found to be crystalline with the electrical resistivity close to 1.1 10{sup ?3} ? cm and transmittance more than 85% in the visible region. The saturated optical band gap of 3.76 eV was observed for the sample grown at T{sub s} of 400 C, however, a slight decrease in the bandgap was noticed above 400 C, which can be explained by BursteinMoss effect. Temperature dependent resistivity measurements of these highly conducting and transparent films showed a MST at ?110 K. The observed metal-like and metal-semiconductor transitions are explained by taking into account the Mott phase transition and localization effects due to defects. All AZO films demonstrate crossover in permittivity from positive to negative and low loss in the near-infrared region, illustrating its applications for plasmonic metamaterials, including waveguides for near infrared telecommunication region. Based on the results presented in this study, the low electrical resistivity and high optical transmittance of AZO films suggested a possibility for the application in the flexible electronic devices, such as transparent conducting oxide film on LEDs, solar cells, and touch panels.

  1. Superconductive ceramic oxide combination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, D.K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Mir, J.M.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes the combination of a superconductive ceramic oxide which degrades in conductivity upon contact of ambient air with its surface and, interposed between the ceramic oxide surface and ambient air in the amount of at least 1 mg per square meter of surface area of the superconductive ceramic oxide, a passivant polymer selected from the group consisting of a polyester ionomer and an alkyl cellulose.

  2. Thermal properties of the optically transparent pore-free nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Teweldebrhan, D.; Morales, J. R.; Garay, J. E.; Balandin, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The authors report results of investigation of thermal conductivity of nanocrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia. The optically transparent pore-free bulk samples were prepared via the spark plasma sintering process to ensure homogeneity. Thermal conductivity K was measured by two different techniques. It was found that the pore-free nanostructured bulk zirconia is an excellent thermal insulator with the room-temperature Kapprox1.7-2.0 W/m K. It was also shown that the 'phonon-hopping' model can accurately describe specifics of K dependence on temperature and the grain size. The obtained results are important for optimization of zirconia properties for specific applications in advanced electronics and coatings.

  3. Nano-honeycomb structured transparent electrode for enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiao-Bo; Qian, Min; Wang, Zhao-Kui E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2015-06-01

    A universal nano-sphere lithography method has been developed to fabricate nano-structured transparent electrode, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), for light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Perforated SiO{sub 2} film made from a monolayer colloidal crystal of polystyrene spheres and tetraethyl orthosilicate sol-gel is used as a template. Ordered nano-honeycomb pits on the ITO electrode surface are obtained by chemical etching. The proposed method can be utilized to form large-area nano-structured ITO electrode. More than two folds' enhancement in both current efficiency and power efficiency has been achieved in a red phosphorescent OLED which was fabricated on the nano-structured ITO substrate.

  4. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  5. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  6. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (?8 ?/?), high transmittance (?81% at 550?nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  7. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  8. A novel approach to Hugoniot measurements utilizing transparent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratanduono, D. E.; Eggert, J. H.; Akin, M. C.; Chau, R.; Holmes, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new absolute equation of state measurement technique is described and demonstrated measuring the shock state and the refractive index of MgO up to 226GPa. This technique utilizes steady shock waves and the high-pressure transparency of MgO under dynamic shock compression and release. Hugoniot measurements performed using this technique are consistent with the previous measurements. A linear dependence of the shocked refractive index and density is observed up to 226GPa, over a magnitude greater in pressure that previous studies. The transparency of MgO along the principal Hugoniot is higher than any other material reported to date. We observe a significant change in the refractive index of MgO as the Hugoniot elastic limit is exceeded due to the transition from uniaxial to hydrostatic strain. Measurements of the elastic-plastic two-wave structure in MgO indicate a nucleation time for plastic deformation.

  9. 2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radev, R

    2006-04-21

    During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

  10. Composition for forming an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Lewis, Linda A.

    2015-12-29

    A composition for producing an optically clear, well bonded superhydrophobic coating includes a plurality of hydrophobic particles comprising an average particle size of about 200 nm or less, a binder at a binder concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 0.5 wt. %, and a solvent. The hydrophobic particles may be present in the composition at a particle concentration of from about 0.1 wt. % to about 1 wt. %. An optically transparent, superhydrophobic surface includes a substrate, a plurality of hydrophobic particles having an average particle size of about 200 nm or less dispersed over the substrate, and a discontinuous binder layer bonding the hydrophobic particles to the substrate, where the hydrophobic particles and the binder layer form an optically transparent, superhydrophobic coating.

  11. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  12. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  13. High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent Electrodes Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Polymer-based photovoltaic devices have received intense interest in recent years because of their potential to provide low-cost solar energy conversion, flexibility, manufacturability, and light weight. However, the efficiency of organic solar

  14. Benchmarking & Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Transparency Policy and Program Impact Evaluation Handbook May 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by Navigant Consulting, Inc.and Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (This page intentionally left blank) Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank and acknowledge several organizations and individuals for their contributions to this impact evaluation handbook. Thanks are due to the following staff members of New York City's Offce of Long-term Planning and Sustainability and the Seattle

  15. Code of Conduct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About » Leadership, Governance » Ethics, Accountability, Contract » Code of Conduct Code of Conduct Helping employees recognize and resolve the ethics and compliance issues that may arise in their daily work. Contact Ethics and Compliance Group (505) 667-7506 Email Code of Conduct LANL is committed to operating in accordance with the highest standards of ethics and compliance and with its core values of service to our nation, ethical conduct and personal accountability, excellence in our

  16. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  17. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  18. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  19. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  20. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Matthew M. (Espanola, NM); Wilfong, Dennis H. (Brooksville, FL); Lomax, Ralph E. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  1. High conductance surge cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  2. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  3. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  4. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions....

  5. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees; Feinerman, Alan; Takoudis, Christos G.

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1??0.01?nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175300?C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3?? cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  6. Conductive fabric seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason; Mason, Brandon William; Kuhn, Michael Joseph; Rowe, Nathan Carl

    2015-10-13

    Disclosed are several examples of a system and method for detecting if an article is being tampered with. Included is a covering made of a substrate that is coated with a layer of an electrically conductive material that forms an electrically conductive surface having an electrical resistance. The covering is configured to at least partially encapsulate the article such that the article cannot be tampered with, without modifying the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A sensing device is affixed to the electrically conductive surface of the covering and the sensing device monitors the condition of the covering by producing a signal that is indicative of the electrical resistance of the electrically conductive surface of the covering. A measured electrical resistance that differs from a nominal electrical resistance is indicative of a covering that is being tampered with and an alert is communicated to an observer.

  7. DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness Under the new policy, each Program and Field Office (including the National Nuclear Security Administration and the Power Marketing Administrations) will document and post online all categorical exclusion determinations involving classes of actions listed in Appendix B of the Department's NEPA implementing procedures, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021. PDF icon DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and

  8. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State Laser (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium

  9. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-04-16

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

  10. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  11. ZIRCONIUM OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES PREPARED BY ANODIC OXIDATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Y. Y.; Bhuiyan, M.S.; Paranthaman, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Zirconium oxide is an advanced ceramic material highly useful for structural and electrical applications because of its high strength, fracture toughness, chemical and thermal stability, and biocompatibility. If highly-ordered porous zirconium oxide membranes can be successfully formed, this will expand its real-world applications, such as further enhancing solid-oxide fuel cell technology. Recent studies have achieved various morphologies of porous zirconium oxide via anodization, but they have yet to create a porous layer where nanoholes are formed in a highly ordered array. In this study, electrochemical methods were used for zirconium oxide synthesis due to its advantages over other coating techniques, and because the thickness and morphology of the ceramic fi lms can be easily tuned by the electrochemical parameters, such as electrolyte solutions and processing conditions, such as pH, voltage, and duration. The effects of additional steps such as pre-annealing and post-annealing were also examined. Results demonstrate the formation of anodic porous zirconium oxide with diverse morphologies, such as sponge-like layers, porous arrays with nanoholes ranging from 40 to 75 nm, and nanotube layers. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a cubic crystallographic structure in the zirconium oxide. It was noted that increased voltage improved the ability of the membrane to stay adhered to the zirconium substrate, whereas lower voltages caused a propensity for the oxide fi lm to fl ake off. Further studies are needed to defi ne the parameters windows that create these morphologies and to investigate other important characteristics such as ionic conductivity.

  12. Conductive open frameworks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2016-02-23

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  13. Conducting fiber compression tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeTeresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    The invention measures the resistance across a conductive fiber attached to a substrate place under a compressive load to determine the amount of compression needed to cause the fiber to fail.

  14. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  15. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Admin Chg 2, dated 12-3-14, supersedes Admin Chg 1.

  16. JLF Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JLF Conduct of Operations The Conduct of Operations is a set of procedures and guidelines that are put in place to ensure operational safety and security for users and staff. The Target Areas contain a variety of potentially hazardous ultra-violet, visible and infrared lasers. Due to the complexity and scale of the laser beam paths, some beams are not enclosed. Accordingly, reliance is placed on engineering and administrative controls, and the proper use of laser protective eyewear. Other

  17. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  18. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency in paraffin-coated vapor cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, M.; Hohensee, M.; Walsworth, R. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Phillips, D. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Antirelaxation coatings in atomic vapor cells allow ground-state coherent spin states to survive many collisions with the cell walls. This reduction in the ground-state decoherence rate gives rise to ultranarrow-bandwidth features in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectra, which can form the basis of, for example, long-time scale slow and stored light, sensitive magnetometers, and precise frequency standards. Here we study, both experimentally and theoretically, how Zeeman EIT contrast and width in paraffin-coated rubidium vapor cells are determined by cell and laser-beam geometry, laser intensity, and atomic density. Using a picture of Ramsey pulse sequences, where atoms alternately spend ''bright'' and ''dark'' time intervals inside and outside the laser beam, we explain the behavior of EIT features in coated cells, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

  20. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1986-04-08

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  1. Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-18

    A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

  2. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  3. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  4. Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Solar Cells | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Sorted Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Transparent Electrodes in Organic Solar Cells

  5. CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY Revision 1 10/31/07 Approved by: DOE Records Management Division, IM-23 PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY 1. GENERAL. A records inventory is compiling a descriptive list of each record series or system, including the location of the records and any other pertinent data. A records inventory is not a list of each document or each folder. 2. DEFINE THE RECORDS INVENTORY GOAL(S). The goals of a records inventory should be to: a. Gather

  6. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  7. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  8. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  9. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  10. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  11. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  12. Control of Test Conduct

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Garrett P. Beauregard Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald B. Karner Procedure ETA-GAC002 Revision 1 2 Table of Contents 1 Objective ..................................................................................................................... 3 2

  13. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Wednesday, 25 May 2011 00:00 Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has

  14. Size effects in the thermal conductivity of gallium oxide (?...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2Osub 3 grown via this technique (8.8 3.4 W msup -1 Ksup -1) and large mean free paths compared to typical gate dielectrics commonly used in GaN device contacts. By...

  15. Microchannel apparatus and methods of conducting catalyzed oxidative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of forming these catalysts via an electroless plating methodology are also ... 11469,847 DOE Contract Number: FC36-04GO14154 Resource Type: Patent Research Org: Velocys

  16. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  17. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  18. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  19. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  20. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi; Smith, James L.; Embury, John David

    1998-01-01

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  1. Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

    2000-02-15

    The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels.

  2. Chemical synthesis of chiral conducting polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Li, Wenguang

    2006-07-11

    An process of forming a chiral conducting polymer, e.g., polyaniline, is provided including reacting a monomer, e.g., an aniline monomer, in the presence of a chiral dopant acid to produce a first reaction mixture by addition of a solution including a first portion of an oxidizing agent, the first portion of oxidizing agent characterized as insufficient to allow complete reaction of the monomer, and further reacting the first reaction mixture in the presence of the chiral dopant acid by addition of a solution including a second portion of the oxidizing agent, the second portion of oxidizing agent characterized as insufficient to allow complete reaction of the monomer, and repeating the reaction by addition of further portions of the oxidizing agent until the monomer reaction is complete to produce a chiral conducting polymer, e.g., polyaniline. A preferred process includes addition of a catalyst during the reaction, the catalyst selected from among the group consisting of phenylene diamine, aniline oligomers and amino-capped aniline oligomers and metal salts. The processes of the present invention further provide a resultant polyaniline product having a chirality level defined by a molar ellipticity of from about 40.times.103 degree-cm2/decimole to about 700.times.103 degree-cm2/decimole. The processes of the present invention further provide a resultant polyaniline product having a nanofiber structure with a diameter of from about 30 nanometers to about 120 nanometers and from about 1 micron to about 5 microns in length.

  3. Chemical synthesis of chiral conducting polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-01-13

    An process of forming a chiral conducting polymer, e.g., polyaniline, is provided including reacting a monomer, e.g., an aniline monomer, in the presence of a chiral dopant acid to produce a first reaction mixture by addition of a solution including a first portion of an oxidizing agent, the first portion of oxidizing agent characterized as insufficient to allow complete reaction of the monomer, and further reacting the first reaction mixture in the presence of the chiral dopant acid by addition of a solution including a second portion of the oxidizing agent, the second portion of oxidizing agent characterized as insufficient to allow complete reaction of the monomer, and repeating the reaction by addition of further portions of the oxidizing agent until the monomer reaction is complete to produce a chiral conducting polymer, e.g., polyaniline. A preferred process includes addition of a catalyst during the reaction, the catalyst selected from among the group consisting of phenylene diamine, aniline oligomers and amino-capped aniline oligomers and metal salts.The processes of the present invention further provide a resultant polyaniline product having a chirality level defined by a molar ellipticity of from about 40.times.10.sup.3 degree-cm.sup.2/decimole to about 700.times.10.sup.3 degree-cm.sup.2/decimole. The processes of the present invention further provide a resultant polyaniline product having a nanofiber structure with a diameter of from about 30 nanometers to about 120 nanometers and from about 1 micron to about 5 microns in length.

  4. Conducting polymer ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z. (Latham, NY); Davey, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sealed ultracapacitor assembly is formed with first and second electrodes of first and second conducting polymers electrodeposited on porous carbon paper substrates, where the first and second electrodes each define first and second exterior surfaces and first and second opposing surfaces. First and second current collector plates are bonded to the first and second exterior surfaces, respectively. A porous membrane separates the first and second opposing surfaces, with a liquid electrolyte impregnating the insulating membrane. A gasket formed of a thermoplastic material surrounds the first and second electrodes and seals between the first and second current collector plates for containing the liquid electrolyte.

  5. Three-dimensional photonic crystal fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes : synthesis and optical and electrical properties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z.; Gao, S.; Li, W.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Xu, T.

    2011-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) schemes often encounter a pair of fundamentally opposing requirements on the thickness of semiconductor layer: a thicker PV semiconductor layer provides enhanced optical density, but inevitably increases the charge transport path length. An effective approach to solve this dilemma is to enhance the interface area between the terminal electrode, i.e., transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and the semiconductor layer. As such, we report a facile, template-assisted, and solution chemistry-based synthesis of 3-dimensional inverse opal fluorinated tin oxide (IO-FTO) electrodes. Synergistically, the photonic crystal structure possessed in the IO-FTO exhibits strong light trapping capability. Furthermore, the electrical properties of the IO-FTO electrodes are studied by Hall effect and sheet resistance measurement. Using atomic layer deposition method, an ultrathin TiO{sub 2} layer is coated on all surfaces of the IO-FTO electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry study indicates that the resulting TiO{sub 2}-coated IO-FTO shows excellent potentials as electrodes for electrolyte-based photoelectrochemical solar cells.

  6. Borehole Fluid Conductivity Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-03-15

    Dynamic wellbore electrical conductivity logs provide a valuable means to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersectin a wellbore, in order to study the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. To expedite the analysis of log data, a computer program called BORE II has been deveoloped that considers multiple inflow or outflow points along the wellbore, including the case of horizontal flow across the wellbore, BORE II calculates the evolution of fluid electrical conducivity (FEC) profilesmorein a wellbore or wellbore section, which may be pumped at a low rate, and compares model results to log data in a variety of ways. FEC variations may arise from inflow under natural-state conditions or due to tracer injected in a neighboring well (interference tests). BORE II has an interactive, graphical user interface and runs on a personal computer under the Windows operating system. BORE II is a modification and extension of older codes called BORE and BOREXT, which considered inflow points only. Finite difference solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with explicit time stepping; feed points treated as prescribed-mass sources or sinks; assume quadratic relationship between fluid electrical conductivity and ion consentration. Graphical user interface; interactive modification of model parameters and graphical display of model results and filed data in a variety of ways. Can examine horizontal flow or arbitarily complicated combination of upflow, downflow, and horizontal flow. Feed point flow rate and/or concentration may vary in time.less

  7. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  8. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  9. Normal Conducting CLIC Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Erk

    2006-01-03

    The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi-lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron-positron linear collider with a centre-of-mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super-conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30-40 MV/m to obtain centre-of-mass collision energies of 0.5-1 TeV, the CLIC study aims to use a normal-conducting system based on two-beam technology with gradients of 150 MV/m. It is generally accepted that this change in technology is not only necessary but the only viable choice for a cost-effective multi-TeV collider. The CLIC study group is studying the technology issues of such a machine, and is in particular developing state-of-the-art 30 GHz molybdenum-iris accelerating structures and power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The accelerating structure has a new geometry which includes fully-profiled RF surfaces optimised to minimize surface fields, and hybrid damping using both iris slots and radial waveguides. A newly-developed structure-optimisation procedure has been used to simultaneously balance surface fields, power flow, short and long-range transverse wakefields, RF-to-beam efficiency and the ratio of luminosity to input power. The slotted irises allow a simple structure fabrication by high-precision high-speed 3D milling of just four pieces, and an even easier bolted assembly in a vacuum chamber.

  10. Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

  11. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  12. Evidence for the onset of color transparency in ρ0 electroproduction off nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Hicks, K.; Holt, R. J.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalker, S. S.; et al

    2012-05-11

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive A(e,e'ρ0) process in 12C and 56Fe targets relative to 2H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced {rho}{sup 0}'s on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to ρA interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length (Ic), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared (Q2). Thus, while the transparency for both 12C and 56Fe showed no Ic dependence, a significant Q2 dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included themore » color transparency effects.« less

  13. Evidence for the onset of color transparency in ρ0 electroproduction off nuclei

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, L.; Hanretty, C.; Hicks, K.; Holt, R. J.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jawalker, S. S.; et al

    2012-05-11

    We have measured the nuclear transparency of the incoherent diffractive A(e,e'ρ0) process in 12C and 56Fe targets relative to 2H using a 5 GeV electron beam. The nuclear transparency, the ratio of the produced {rho}{sup 0}'s on a nucleus relative to deuterium, which is sensitive to ρA interaction, was studied as function of the coherence length (Ic), a lifetime of the hadronic fluctuation of the virtual photon, and the four-momentum transfer squared (Q2). Thus, while the transparency for both 12C and 56Fe showed no Ic dependence, a significant Q2 dependence was measured, which is consistent with calculations that included themore »color transparency effects.« less

  14. GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consistent with the Administration's commitment to transparency, DOE General Counsel Scott Blake Harris has decided that all future determinations as to the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund fee...

  15. New Database from NREL Makes Costs of Energy Technologies More Transparent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - News Releases | NREL New Database from NREL Makes Costs of Energy Technologies More Transparent July 16, 2012 A new web application collects cost and performance estimates for electric generation, advanced vehicles, and renewable fuel technologies and makes them available for utilities, policy makers, consumers, and academics. The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) app provides technology cost and performance estimates that can be used to benchmark company costs, model energy scenarios, and

  16. Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Material | Department of Energy Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica Material Low-Cost, Haziness-Free, Transparent Insulation Based On a Porous Silica Material Image of porous silica material in alcohol.<br /> Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of porous silica material in alcohol. Photo credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: VELUX Design and Development Company USA, Inc., Greenwood,

  17. The Role of Radiation Transport in the Thermal Response of Semi-Transparent

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Materials to Localized Laser Heating (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Role of Radiation Transport in the Thermal Response of Semi-Transparent Materials to Localized Laser Heating Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Role of Radiation Transport in the Thermal Response of Semi-Transparent Materials to Localized Laser Heating Authors: Colvin, J ; Shestakov, A ; Stolken, J ; Vignes, R Publication Date: 2010-02-02 OSTI Identifier: 1228025 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-423106 DOE

  18. Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings | Department of Energy Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings Low-Cost, Highly Transparent, Flexible, Low-Emission Coating Film to Enable Electrochromic Windows with Increased Energy Savings ITN Energy Systems is using low-cost, high volume roll-to-roll coating techniques to develop a new low-e film with high visible transmission and high infrared

  19. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  20. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  1. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  2. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  3. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  4. AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AP-XPS Measures MIEC Oxides in Action Print Oxide materials with mixed ionic-electronic conductivity (MIEC) can conduct both electrons and oxygen ions. MIEC oxides have broad applications, including use in solid-oxide fuel cells, high-temperature electrolysis for synthetic fuel production, and oxygen-separating membranes for chemical processes or NOx-free combustion; however, their surface activity under reaction conditions has been difficult, if not impossible, to ascertain, until recently. A

  5. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  6. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  7. Vacuum-ultraviolet photoreduction of graphene oxide: Electrical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vacuum-ultraviolet photoreduction of graphene oxide: Electrical conductivity of entirely reduced single sheets and reduced micro line patterns Citation Details In-Document Search...

  8. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  9. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bailie, Colin D.; Christoforo, M. Greyson; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bowring, Andrea R.; Unger, Eva L.; Nguyen, William H.; Burschka, Julian; Pellet, Norman; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Grätzel, Michael; et al

    2014-12-23

    A promising approach for upgrading the performance of an established low-bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductor on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar cells to achieve a semi-transparent device. We place the semi-transparent cell in a mechanically-stacked tandem configuration onto copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and low-quality multicrystalline silicon (Si) to achieve solid-state polycrystalline tandem solar cells with a net improvement in efficiency over the bottom cell alone. Furthermore, this work paves the way for integrating perovskites into a low-costmore » and high-efficiency (>25%) tandem cell.« less

  10. Spray-on anti-soiling coatings that exhibit high transparency and mechanical durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaeffer, Daniel A; Polyzos, Georgios; Smith, Barton; Lee, Dominic F; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2014-01-01

    A superhydrophobic (SH) surface has many characteristics, one of which is its self-cleaning, anti-soiling functionality, that are desirable across various industries. A transparent, self-cleaning surface utilizes the right combination of surface chemistry and roughness that force water droplets to form high water contact angles (CA). This in turn allows droplets to easily roll off and pick up dirt and debris across the surface. In theory this is simple but in practice this can be very difficult as superhydrophobicity and optical transparency are competitive. We have developed a simple, spray-on coating based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles that can easily be applied to surfaces whose application requires high transparency including, but not limited to, optical sensors, photovoltaics, sights, and lenses. In addition, these coatings exhibit practical mechanical and environmental durability that allow prolonged use of the coatings in harsh environments.

  11. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailie, Colin D.; Christoforo, M. Greyson; Mailoa, Jonathan P.; Bowring, Andrea R.; Unger, Eva L.; Nguyen, William H.; Burschka, Julian; Pellet, Norman; Lee, Jungwoo Z.; Grtzel, Michael; Noufi, Rommel; Buonassisi, Tonio; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D.

    2014-12-23

    A promising approach for upgrading the performance of an established low-bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductor on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar cells to achieve a semi-transparent device. We place the semi-transparent cell in a mechanically-stacked tandem configuration onto copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) and low-quality multicrystalline silicon (Si) to achieve solid-state polycrystalline tandem solar cells with a net improvement in efficiency over the bottom cell alone. Furthermore, this work paves the way for integrating perovskites into a low-cost and high-efficiency (>25%) tandem cell.

  12. Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-09-01

    Conventional silica sol-gel chemistry is limited for the production of transparent ultralow-density aerogels because (1) gelation is either slow or unachievable, and (2) even when gelation is achieved, the large pore sizes result in loss of transparency for aerogels <.020 g/cc. We have developed a two-step sol-gel process that circumvents the limitations of the conventional process and allows the formation of ultralow-density gels in a matter of hours. we have found that the gel time is dependent on the catalyst concentration. After supercritical extraction, the aerogels are transparent, uncracked tiles with densities as low as .003 g/cc. 6 figs., 11 refs.

  13. Performance of Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide, Transparent Ceramics and Bismuth-loaded Polymer Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Sturm, Benjamin; ONeal, S P; Seeley, Zachary; Drury, Owen; Haselhorst, L K; Rupert, B. L.; Sanner, Robert; Thelin, P; Fisher, S E; Hawrami, Rastgo; Shah, Kanai; Burger, Arnold; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Boatner, Lynn A

    2011-01-01

    Recently discovered scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy, single crystal SrI2(Eu), GYGAG(Ce) transparent ceramic and Bismuth-loaded plastics offer resolution and fabrication advantages compared to commercial scintillators, such as NaI(Tl) and standard PVT plastic. Energy resolution at 662 keV of 2.7% is obtained with SrI2(Eu), while 4.5% is obtained with GYGAG(Ce). A new transparent ceramic scintillator for radiographic imaging systems, GLO(Eu) offers high light yield of ~75,000 Ph/MeV, high stopping, and low radiation damage. Implementation of single crystal SrI2(Eu), Gd-based transparent ceramics, and Bi-loaded plastic scintillators can advance the state-of-the art in ionizing radiation detection systems.

  14. Performance of Europium-Doped Strontium Iodide, Transparent Ceramics and Bismuth-loaded Polymer Scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepy, N J; Payne, S A; Sturm, B W; O'Neal, S P; Seeley, Z M; Drury, O B; Haselhorst, L K; Rupert, B L; Sanner, R D; Thelin, P A; Fisher, S E; Hawrami, R; Shah, K S; Burger, A; Ramey, J O; Boatner, L A

    2011-08-30

    Recently discovered scintillators for gamma ray spectroscopy, single crystal SrI{sub 2}(Eu), GYGAG(Ce) transparent ceramic and Bismuth-loaded plastics, offer resolution and fabrication advantages compared to commercial scintillators, such as NaI(Tl) and standard PVT plastic. Energy resolution at 662 keV of 2.7% is obtained with SrI{sub 2}(Eu), while 4.5% is obtained with GYGAG(Ce). A new transparent ceramic scintillator for radiographic imaging systems, GLO(Eu) offers high light yield of 70,000 Photons/MeV, high stopping, and low radiation damage. Implementation of single crystal SrI{sub 2}(Eu), Gd-based transparent ceramics, and Bi-loaded plastic scintillators can advance the state-of-the art in ionizing radiation detection systems.

  15. Proposal for broader United States-Russian transparency of nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Percival, C.M.; Ingle, T.H.; Bieniawski, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    During the January 1994 Summit Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin agreed on the goal of ensuring the ``transparency and irreversibility`` of the nuclear arms reduction process. As a result, negotiations are presently underway between the United States Government and the Russian Federation to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium and highly enriched uranium removed from nuclear weapons. In December 1994 the United States presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing additional measures to provide broader transparency of nuclear arms reduction. The US Department of Energy is studying the implementation of these broader transparency measures at appropriate DOE facilities. The results of the studies include draft protocols for implementation, assessments of the implementation procedures and the impacts on the facilities and estimates of the cost to implement these measures at various facilities.

  16. Effects of Oxidation on Oxidation-Resistant Graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windes, William; Smith, Rebecca; Carroll, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades that exhibit oxidation resistance through the formation of protective oxides on the surface of the graphite material. In the unlikely event of an oxygen ingress accident, graphite components within the VHTR core region are anticipated to oxidize so long as the oxygen continues to enter the hot core region and the core temperatures remain above 400C. For the most serious air-ingress accident which persists over several hours or days the continued oxidation can result in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material during any air-ingress accident would mitigate the structural effects and keep the core intact. Previous air oxidation testing of nuclear-grade graphite doped with varying levels of boron-carbide (B4C) at a nominal 739C was conducted for a limited number of doped specimens demonstrating a dramatic reduction in oxidation rate for the boronated graphite grade. This report summarizes the conclusions from this small scoping study by determining the effects of oxidation on the mechanical strength resulting from oxidation of boronated and unboronated graphite to a 10% mass loss level. While the B4C additive did reduce mechanical strength loss during oxidation, adding B4C dopants to a level of 3.5% or more reduced the as-fabricated compressive strength nearly 50%. This effectively minimized any benefits realized from the protective film formed on the boronated grades. Future work to infuse different graphite grades with silicon- and boron-doped material as a post-machining conditioning step for nuclear components is discussed as a potential solution for these challenges in this report.

  17. Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

    2005-04-26

    An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

  18. Disorder-induced transparency in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with optical cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yongyou Dong, Guangda; Zou, Bingsuo

    2014-05-07

    Disorder influence on photon transmission behavior is theoretically studied in a one-dimensional waveguide side coupled with a series of optical cavities. For this sake, we propose a concept of disorder-induced transparency appearing on the low-transmission spectral background. Two kinds of disorders, namely, disorders of optical cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases in the waveguide side coupled with optical cavities are considered to show the disorder-induced transparency. They both can induce the optical transmission peaks on the low-transmission backgrounds. The statistical mean value of the transmission also increases with increasing the disorders of the cavity eigenfrequencies and relative phases.

  19. Optical properties of transparent glassceramics containing lithiummica nanocrystals: Crystallization effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khani, V.; Alizadeh, P.; Shakeri, M.S.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: Optical properties of transparent Li{sub 2}OMgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2}F glasses containing lithiummica nanocrystals are studied and crystallization condition has been evaluated and optimized to produce transparent glassceramics. Crystallization temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and crystalline phases were identified and quantified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological variations and UVvis absorption spectroscopy for comparative analysis of transparency. In order to investigate the optical properties of transparent glassceramics, optical band gap, Fermi energy level and Urbach energy are calculated. The results of the investigation illustrate that band gap is reduced with increases in crystallization time and temperature. Enhanced orderliness in the arrangement of atoms might be regarded as possible reasons for the above changes. - Highlights: The optimum temperature and time of crystallization were determined. Limica nanocrystals with size of <30 nm were formed using a two-step heat-treatment. Optical band gap and Fermi energy of nanocrystalline materials decreased with increasing of crystallization temperature and time. Urbach band tailing was decreased with increasing of crystallization condition. - Abstract: Optical properties of transparent Li{sub 2}OMgOAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}SiO{sub 2}F glasses containing lithiummica nanocrystals were studied. The crystallization condition of these glasses was evaluated and optimized to produce transparent glassceramics. Crystallization temperatures were determined by differential thermal analysis and crystalline phases were identified and quantified by X-ray diffraction. Scanning electron microscopy was used to detect morphological changes and UVvis absorption spectroscopy was used for comparative analysis of transparency. In order to investigate the optical properties of the transparent glassceramics, optical band gap, Fermi energy level and Urbach energy were calculated. The results of the investigation illustrate that the band gap is reduced with increases in crystallization time and temperature. Enhanced orderliness in the arrangement of atoms might be regarded as possible reasons for the above changes.

  20. Suspension chemistry and electrophoretic deposition of zirconia electrolyte on conducting and non-conducting substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Debasish; Basu, Rajendra N.

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Stable suspension of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) obtained in isopropanol medium. Suspension chemistry and process parameters for electrophoretic deposition optimized. Deposited film quality changed with iodine and water (dispersants) concentration. Dense YSZ film (?5 ?m) fabricated onto non-conducting porous NiO-YSZ anode substrate. - Abstract: Suspensions of 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) particulates in isopropanol medium are prepared using acetylacetone, iodine and water as dispersants. The effect of dispersants concentration on suspension stability, particle size distribution, electrical conductivity and pH of the suspensions are studied in detail to optimize the suspension chemistry. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been conducted to produce thin and dense YSZ electrolyte films. Deposition kinetics have been studied in depth and good quality films on conducting substrate are obtained at an applied voltage of 15 V for 3 min. YSZ films are also fabricated on non-conducting NiO-YSZ anode substrate using a steel plate on the reverse side of the substrate. Upon co-firing at 1400 C for 6 h a dense YSZ film of thickness ?5 ?m is obtained. Such a half cell (anode + electrolyte) can be used to fabricate a solid oxide fuel cell on applying a suitable cathode layer.

  1. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  2. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  3. Structural and optical properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered zinc aluminum oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh; Rao, T. Subba

    2014-10-15

    Highly transparent conductive Zinc Aluminum Oxide (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. The thin films were deposited at 200 C and post-deposition annealing from 15 to 90 min. XRD patterns of ZAO films exhibit only (0 0 2) diffraction peak, indicating that they have c-axis preferred orientation perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology of the films. The grain size obtained from SEM images of ZAO thin films are found to be in the range of 20 - 26 nm. The minimum resistivity of 1.74 10{sup ?4} ? cm and an average transmittance of 92% are obtained for the thin film post annealed for 30 min. The optical band gap of ZAO thin films increased from 3.49 to 3.60 eV with the increase of annealing time due to Burstein-Moss effect. The optical constants refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were also determined from the optical transmission spectra.

  4. Formation of graded vanadium oxide (VO compound) under strong gravitational field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2015-05-14

    Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397??10{sup 6?}G at 400?C for 24 h) on a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09?eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.

  5. Photoactive transparent nano-crystalline glass-ceramic for remazole red dye degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gad-Allah, Tarek A.; Margha, Fatma H.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Preparation and characterization of novel transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramic. ? Precipitation of photoactive phases by using controlled heat-treatment. ? Conservation of transparency along with photoactivity. ? Using the prepared nanocrystalline glass-ceramic in water purification. -- Abstract: Transparent glass ceramic material was prepared from alkali-borosilicate glass containing titania by proper heat treatment scheme. The prepared samples were characterized using differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UVvisible spectroscopy. The applied heat treatment program allowed the crystallization of nano-crystalline anatase, rutile, barium titanate, titanium borate and silicate phases while maintaining the transparency. The precipitated nano-crystalline anatase and rutile phases were responsible for the observed high photocatalytic activity of the prepared samples. Samples of 24.29 and 32.39 TiO{sub 2} wt% showed better efficiency for the decolorization of remazole red dye compared with commercial-TiO{sub 2} used in preparation of glass-ceramic. The reuse of prepared glass-ceramic photocatalyst with nearly same efficiency for different times was also proved.

  6. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A compilation of studies examining cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells is available on the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory website. The report, entitled Recent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Studies, provides a concise, portfolio-wide synopsis of cathode research conducted under the Office of Fossil Energy’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program.

  7. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  8. Thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fine, H.A.; Jury, S.H.; McElroy, D.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    The three-region approximate solution for coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer and an exact solution for uncoupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in a grey semitransparent medium bounded by infinite parallel isothermal plates are employed to establish the dependence of the apparent thermal conductivity of semitransparent materials on other material properties and boundary conditions. An application of the analyses which uses apparent thermal conductivity versus density data to predict the dependence of apparent thermal conductivity on temperature is demonstrated. The predictions for seven sets of R-11 fiberglass and rock wool insulations agree with published measured values to within the limits of experimental error (+- 3%). Agreement for three sets of R-19 fiberglass insulations was, however, not good.

  9. Sodium sulfur container with chromium/chromium oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Irvine, CA); Higley, Lin R. (Santa Ana, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A coating of chromium/chromium oxide is disclosed for coating the surfaces of electrically conducting components of a sodium sulfur battery. This chromium/chromium oxide coating is placed on the surfaces of the electrically conducting components of the battery which are in contact with molten polysulfide and sulfur reactants during battery operation.

  10. Electrical conductivity of pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teoh, H.; Metz, P.D.; Wilhelm, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Using ultrapure samples of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) of 485,000 or 150,000 average molecular weight solution cast in dimethylformamide, the dc conductivity (sigma) of pyrolyzed PAN (PANP) films has been studied for pyrolysis temperatures (T/ sub p/) of 280 to 435/sup 0/C. Conductivity measurements made during pyrolysis indicate the onset of a dramatic increase in sigma for T/sub p/ of 390 to 435/sup 0/C. Conductivities as high as 5 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ have been observed for T/sub p/ < 435/sup 0/C.

  11. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductivity Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.E.

    2003-01-06

    Equations by Marshall and by Millington and Quirk for calculating hydraulic conductivity from pore-size distribution data are dependent on an arbitrary choice of the exponent on the porosity term and a correct estimate of residual water. This study showed that a revised equation, based on the pore-interaction model of Marshall, accurately predicts hydraulic conductivity for glass beads and a loam soil from the pressure-water content relationships of these porous materials.

  12. Actuator device utilizing a conductive polymer gel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Douglas A.; Irvin, David J.

    2004-02-03

    A valve actuator based on a conductive polymer gel is disclosed. A nonconductive housing is provided having two separate chambers separated by a porous frit. The conductive polymer is held in one chamber and an electrolyte solution, used as a source of charged ions, is held in the second chamber. The ends of the housing a sealed with a flexible elastomer. The polymer gel is further provide with electrodes with which to apply an electrical potential across the gel in order to initiate an oxidation reaction which in turn drives anions across the porous frit and into the polymer gel, swelling the volume of the gel and simultaneously contracting the volume of the electrolyte solution. Because the two end chambers are sealed the flexible elastomer expands or contracts with the chamber volume change. By manipulating the potential across the gel the motion of the elastomer can be controlled to act as a "gate" to open or close a fluid channel and thereby control flow through that channel.

  13. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

  14. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  15. Health and safety considerations for U. S. monitors in the Russian transparency program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boggs, C. J.

    1998-10-22

    In 1993 the US and the Russian Federation signed an agreement allowing the US to purchase highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Russia over a 20-year period. This Highly Enriched Uranium Purchase Agreement permits the purchase of 500 metric tons of HEU from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons in the form of low-enriched uranium (LEU) for use as power reactor fuel in the US. Under the HEU Agreement, the US and Russia are cooperating in a ''Transparency Program'' to ensure that arms control and nonproliferation objectives are being met. The Transparency Program measures, which are a departure from traditional, intrusive measures of verification, include sending individuals from the US to Russia to monitor the processing of the HEU.

  16. Overview of transparency issues under the US-Russian highly enriched uranium purchase agreement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, A.J.; Dougherty, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The US has signed an Agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) derived from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons. The BEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium (LEU) in Russia and will be transported to the US to be used by fuel Fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the United States and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide confidence that the nonproliferation, physical protection, and material control and accounting requirements specified in the Agreement are met. This paper provides a background on the Agreement and subsequent on-going negotiations to develop transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved.

  17. Growth and optical properties of partially transparent Eu doped CaF{sub 2} ceramic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Manoranjan Sen, Shashwati Pitale, S. S. Goutam, U. K. Shinde, Seema Patra, G. D. Gadkari, S. C.

    2014-04-24

    Partially transparent ceramic of 2 at.% Eu doped CaF{sub 2} have been grown preferentially towards [111] direction. For this purpose, Eu doped CaF{sub 2} nanoparticles (size?12 nm) obtained by a low temperature solution growth method has been pressed at 1000C under vacuum. The preferentially grown ceramic shows 15% transparency within the visible range of spectrum. As confirmed by the X-ray diffraction result, the hot pressed ceramic exhibits reduced lattice volume than the nanopowder. It indicates Eu{sup 3+} as the dominant substituting ions at the Ca{sup 2+} sites of CaF{sub 2} lattice in the hot pressed ceramic material. It is corroborated by the photoluminescence results of hot pressed ceramic which shows strong red emission corresponding to Eu{sup 3+} sites. However, photoluminescence of nanopowder exhibits intense peak in the blue region of the spectrum which is characteristics of Eu2+ sites.

  18. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  19. New report offers best practice for transparent contract language of PV O&M

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agreements offers best practice for transparent contract language of PV O&M agreements - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery

  20. Fluorogel Elastomers with Tunable Transparency, Elasticity, ShapeMemory, and Antifouling Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Angewandte Chemie Polymeric Cels DOI: 10.1002/anie,201310385 Fluorogel Elastomers with Tunable Transparency, Elasticity, Shape- Memory, and Antifouling Properties** Xi Yao,* Stuart S. Dunn, Philseok Kim, Meredith Duffy, Jack Alvarenga, and Joanna Aizenberg* Abstract: Omniphobic fluorogel elastomers were prepared by photocuring perfluorinated acrylates and a perfluoropolyether crosslinker. By tuning either the chemical composition or the temperature that control the crystallinity of the resulting

  1. Improving Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Interconnection Process: Emergent Utility Practices and State Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 3, 2015 "Improving Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Interconnection Process: Emergent Utility Practices and State Requirements" Joslyn Sato, Hawaiian Electric Companies Michael Conway, Borrego Solar Systems, Inc. Kristen Ardani and Emerson Reiter, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2 Purpose of Today's Meeting * Learn how data reporting requirements for interconnection vary across States, how tracking and data reporting for interconnection requests is evolving

  2. Improving Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Interconnection Process: Emergent Utility Practices and State Requirements Transcript

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Transparency for the Distributed PV Page 1 of 21 Interconnection Process Emergent Utility Practices and State Requirements Kristen Adrani, Emerson Reiter, Joslyn Sato, Michael Conway Page 1 of 21 [Speaker: Kristen Ardani] Cover Slide: Thank you everyone for joining us for today's quarterly meeting of the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative, or the DGIC. My name is Kristen Ardani. I'm a solar analyst here at NREL and I'll be moderating today's discussion. The topic for today

  3. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  4. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  5. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan; Goyal, Amit; Barnett, Scott A.; Kim, Ilwon; Kroeger, Donald M.

    2004-08-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metal and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layers. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may be super conducting properties.

  6. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  7. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  8. Advanced materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Hafnium-Praseodymium-Indium Oxide System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.L.; Griffin, C.W.; Weber, W.J.

    1988-06-01

    The HfO/sub 2/-PrO/sub 1.83/-In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system has been studied at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop alternative, highly electrically conducting oxides as electrode and interconnection materials for solid oxide fuel cells. A coprecipitation process was developed for synthesizing single-phase, mixed oxide powders necessary to fabricate powders and dense oxides. A ternary phase diagram was developed, and the phases and structures were related to electrical transport properties. Two new phases, an orthorhombic PrInO/sub 3/ and a rhombohedral Hf/sub 2/In/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase, were identified. The highest electronic conductivity is related to the presence of a bcc, In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ solid solution (ss) containing HfO/sub 2/ and PrO/sub 1.83/. Compositions containing more than 35 mol % of the In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ss have electrical conductivities greater than 10/sup /minus/1/ (ohm-cm)/sup /minus/1/, and the two or three phase structures that contain this phase appear to exhibit mixed electronic-ionic conduction. The high electrical conductivities and structures similar to the Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/-stabilized ZrO/sub 2/(HfO/sub 2/) electrolyte give these oxides potential for use as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells. 21 refs.

  9. Composite mixed oxide ionic and electronic conductors for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Srikanth (Westborough, MA); Pal, Uday B. (Dover, MA); Karthikeyan, Annamalai (Quincy, MA); Hengdong, Cui (Allston, MA)

    2009-09-15

    A mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane includes a two-phase solid state ceramic composite, wherein the first phase comprises an oxygen ion conductor and the second phase comprises an n-type electronically conductive oxide, wherein the electronically conductive oxide is stable at an oxygen partial pressure as low as 10.sup.-20 atm and has an electronic conductivity of at least 1 S/cm. A hydrogen separation system and related methods using the mixed ionic and electronic conducting membrane are described.

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-19199 Unlimited Release Printed October...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intermediate layers, such as a transparent conductive oxide, encapsulant, and anti-reflective coatings between the glass and PV cell. Instead of attempting to replicate the...

  11. Unionmet Singapore Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Singapore Zip: 68805 Product: A manufacturer and recycler of indium - a raw material for CIGS PV and also for most transparent conducting oxides. References: Unionmet...

  12. Methodology for Improved Adhesion for Deposited Fluorinated Transparen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Methodology for Improved Adhesion for Deposited Fluorinated Transparent Conducting Oxide Films on a...

  13. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  14. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  15. Planning and Conducting Readiness Reviews

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    3006-2010 ________________________ Superseding DOE-STD-3006-2000 June 2000 DOE STANDARD PLANNING AND CONDUCTING READINESS REVIEWS U.S. Department of Energy AREA OPER Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. TS This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823.

  16. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  17. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  18. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  20. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-07

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  1. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  2. Conducting a school energy audit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONDUCTING A SCHOOL ENERGY AUDIT Brad Boyle (High School) TYPES OF AUDITS:  (1) School Energy Audit  (2) Home Energy Audit in a Multi-Person Home  (3) Personal Energy Audit I focused on the school energy audit. This could be done in conjunction with a personal energy auit. SOURCES  NEED Resources http://www.need.org/files/curriculum/guides/Energy SurveyStudent.pdf Colorado State Energy Audit www.ext.colostate.edu/energy/k12/audit- lesson.pdf Colorado Green Schools

  3. Surface and mechanical properties of transparent polycrystalline YAG fabricated by SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmero, P.; Bonelli, B.; Fantozzi, G.; Spina, G.; Bonnefont, G.; Montanaro, L.; Chevalier, J.

    2013-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ultrasonication as effective, un-polluting dispersion route for YAG powders. • Annealing in the 700–900 °C range to increase the transparency. • Oxygen vacancies more crucial on the transmittance than C contamination. • SPS reliable method for transparent and ultra-fine polycrystalline YAG. • Very high hardness (16.5–17 GPa) for the fully dense, fine materials. - Abstract: YAG powder was synthesised by reverse-strike co-precipitation, calcined at 1000 °C and dispersed by either ball-milling with α-alumina (BM{sub A}) or zirconia (BMz) spheres or by ultrasonication (US). All the dispersed powders were consolidated by SPS to nearly theoretical density, but only the US powder gave rise to a transparent material (transmittance of about 60% at 600 nm, 1 mm thickness), characterised by an ultra-fine microstructure (average size of 330 nm). In the BM materials, Raman spectroscopy allowed to evidence some phonon vibrational shifts due to secondary phases deriving from pollution by the milling media, not detectable by XRD because present in small amounts. The transmittance of the as-sintered US sample was further increased by annealing in air at 900 °C; this was assigned to the restoration of some oxygen vacancies created in the reducing environment of the SPS chamber, as evidenced by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Finally, US samples sintered in the 1250–1400 °C were submitted to a basic mechanical characterisation, showing a very good hardness, in spite of a moderate fracture toughness, especially for the fully dense and fine-grained materials sintered at 1300–1350 °C.

  4. The role of opacity and transparency in achieving strategic stability in South Asia.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajain, Arpit; Ashraf, Tariq Mahmud

    2005-08-01

    According to international relations theory, deterrence can be used as a tool to achieve stability between potentially hostile nations. India and Pakistan's long history of periodic crises raises the question of how they can achieve deterrence stability. 'Transparency' describes the flow of information between parties and plays a key role in establishing a deterrence relationship. This paper studies the balance needed between opacity and transparency in nuclear topics for the maintenance of deterrence stability between India and Pakistan. States with nuclear weapons are postulated to implement transparency in four categories: potential, capability, intent, and resolve. The study applies these categories to the nuclear components of the ongoing India-Pakistan Composite Dialogue Working Group for Peace and Security including CBMs. To focus our efforts, we defined four scenarios to characterize representative strategic/military/political conditions. The scenarios are combinations of these two sets of opposite poles: competition - cooperation; extremism - moderation (to be understood primarily in a religious/nationalistic sense). We describe each scenario in terms of select focal areas (nuclear doctrine, nuclear command and control, nuclear stockpile, nuclear delivery/defensive systems, and conventional force posture). The scenarios help frame the realm of possibilities, and have been described in terms of expected conditions for the focal areas. We then use the conditions in each scenario to prescribe a range of information-sharing actions that the two countries could take to increase stability. We also highlight the information that should not be shared. These actions can be political (e.g., declarations), procedural (e.g., advance notice of certain military activities), or technologically based (e.g., seismic monitoring of the nuclear test moratorium).

  5. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  6. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  7. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  8. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  9. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Suo, Zhigang E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  10. Transparent TiO2 nanotube array photoelectrodes prepared via two-step anodization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Jin Young; Zhu, Kai; Neale, Nathan R.; Frank, Arthur J.

    2014-04-04

    Two-step anodization of transparent TiO2 nanotube arrays has been demonstrated with aid of a Nb-doped TiO2 buffer layer deposited between the Ti layer and TCO substrate. Enhanced physical adhesion and electrochemical stability provided by the buffer layer has been found to be important for successful implementation of the two-step anodization process. As a result, with the proposed approach, the morphology and thickness of NT arrays could be controlled very precisely, which in turn, influenced their optical and photoelectrochemical properties.

  11. Electrolytic decontamination of conductive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, T.O.; Campbell, G.M.; Parker, J.L.; Getty, R.H.; Hergert, T.R.; Lindahl, K.A.; Peppers, L.G.

    1993-10-01

    Using the electrolytic method, the authors have demonstrated removal of Pu from contaminated conductive material. At EG&G Rocky Flats, they electrolytically decontaminated stainless steel. Results from this work show removal of fixed contamination, including the following geometries: planar, large radius, bolt holes, glove ports, and protruding studs. More specifically, fixed contamination was reduced from levels ranging > 1,000,000 counts per minute (cpm) down to levels ranging from 1,500 to < 250 cpm with the electrolytic method. More recently, the electrolytic work has continued at LANL as a joint project with EG&G. Impressively, electrolytic decontamination experiments on removal of Pu from oralloy coupons have shown decreases in swipable contamination that initially ranged from 500,000 to 1,500,000 disintegrations per minute (dpm) down to 0--2 dpm.

  12. Status of the United States-Russian Federation safeguards, transparency and irreversibility (STI) initiative for nuclear arms reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, A.F.; Bieniawski, A.J.; Percival, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    The US-Russian Federation initiative to provide safeguards, transparency, and irreversibility (STI) of nuclear arms reductions has been emphasized by several Presidential Joint Summit Statements as well as various agreements between the two parties. Beginning with the US and Russian Federation agreement in March, 1994, to host reciprocal inspections to confirm the stockpiles of plutonium removed from nuclear weapons, the US and Russia have been negotiating an STI regime to increase the transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reduction. In December, 1994, the US presented a paper to the Russian Federation proposing a regime of specific transparency measures to provide broader transparency and irreversibility of nuclear arms reductions. Presently the US considers STI to consist of the following measures: (1) agreement for cooperation (AFC); (2) stockpile data exchange agreement (SDEA); (3) mutual reciprocal inspections (MRI); (4) spot checks to confirm data exchanges (SC); and (5) limited Chain of Custody of Warheads Being Dismantled (LCC). The US and Russian have begun negotiations, which are in various stages of progress, on the first three of these measures. This paper will present a brief historical background of STI and discuss the transparency measures including the status of negotiation for each of the measures.

  13. Transparency and damage tolerance of patternable omniphobic lubricated surfaces based on inverse colloidal monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, N; Belisle, RA; Hatton, B; Wong, TS; Aizenberg, J

    2013-07-31

    A transparent coating that repels a wide variety of liquids, prevents staining, is capable of self-repair and is robust towards mechanical damage can have a broad technological impact, from solar cell coatings to self-cleaning optical devices. Here we employ colloidal templating to design transparent, nanoporous surface structures. A lubricant can be firmly locked into the structures and, owing to its fluidic nature, forms a defect-free, self-healing interface that eliminates the pinning of a second liquid applied to its surface, leading to efficient liquid repellency, prevention of adsorption of liquid-borne contaminants, and reduction of ice adhesion strength. We further show how this method can be applied to locally pattern the repellent character of the substrate, thus opening opportunities to spatially confine any simple or complex fluids. The coating is highly defect-tolerant due to its interconnected, honeycomb wall structure, and repellency prevails after the application of strong shear forces and mechanical damage. The regularity of the coating allows us to understand and predict the stability or failure of repellency as a function of lubricant layer thickness and defect distribution based on a simple geometric model.

  14. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  15. Study of transparent and nontransparent regimes of implosion in star wire arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Papp, D.; Altemara, S. D.; Chittenden, J. P.; Bland, S. N.; Jones, B.

    2010-10-15

    Star wire arrays were used to control the imploding plasma flows and study plasma interpenetration. These arrays consisted of linear 'rays' aligned azimuthally and extending from the vertical axis. Star arrays with two close located wires ('gates') instead of a single wire on the inner cylinder were studied for transparent and nontransparent regimes of propagation of imploding plasma through the gates. Nontransparent mode of collision is typical for regular star wire arrays and it was also observed in Al stars with gate wires of regular length and with the gate width of 0.3-2 mm. The cascade process of implosion in stars and trapping of imploding plasma in 1-2 mm gates were modeled with the three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. The intermediate semitransparent mode of collision was observed in Al stars with long Al 'gate' wires. A transparent mode was observed in Al stars with long stainless steel or W gate wires. Applications of wire arrays with controlled plasma flows are discussed.

  16. Structure and chemistry of sol-gel derived transparent silica aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-02-01

    Transparent silica aerogels are being studied because of their excellent thermal insulation properties for window glazing materials. The chemistry of the base catalyzed Si(OC/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 4/ sol-gel process to produce transparent aerogels is presented. The results of a factorial design set of experiments are discussed in which five process parameters are simultaneously varied. The goal of these experiments was to optimize the process conditions and to analyze the importance of various parameters in improving the properties of the aerogel. A novel technique of ambient temperature supercritical drying of alcogels is described. In this process, supercritical drying occurs at less than or equal to40/sup 0/C instead of at greater than or equal to270/sup 0/C and greater than or equal to1700 PSI (12 MPa), by substituting CO/sub 2/ for alcohol in the alcogel. The time of drying is reduced from 2 to 3 days to 8 to 10 hours. It is shown that light scattering, microstructural properties and other characteristics of aerogels produced by this process and by the high temperature supercritical drying are similar.

  17. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron...

  18. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:'...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of...

  19. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chafin, R.B.; Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using a catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  20. High ethylene to ethane processes for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chafin, Richard B. (Hurricane, WV); Warren, Barbara K. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01

    Oxidative coupling of lower alkane to higher hydrocarbon is conducted using catalyst comprising barium and/or strontium component and a metal oxide combustion promoter in the presence of vapor phase halogen component. High ethylene to ethane mole ratios in the product can be obtained over extended operating periods.

  1. Metal current collect protected by oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2004-05-25

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

  2. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  3. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Russell R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used.

  4. Method of electrode fabrication for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.R.

    1990-11-20

    A process for fabricating cermet electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells by sintering is disclosed. First, a porous metal electrode is fabricated on a solid oxide cell, such as a fuel cell by, for example, sintering, and is then infiltrated with a high volume fraction stabilized zirconia suspension. A second sintering step is used to sinter the infiltrated zirconia to a high density in order to more securely attach the electrode to the solid oxide electrolyte of the cell. High performance fuel electrodes can be obtained with this process. Further electrode performance enhancement may be achieved if stabilized zirconia doped with cerium oxide, chromium oxide, titanium oxide, and/or praseodymium oxide for electronic conduction is used. 5 figs.

  5. Conductive and robust nitride buffer layers on biaxially textured substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sankar, Sambasivan [Chicago, IL; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Barnett, Scott A [Evanston, IL; Kim, Ilwon [Skokie, IL; Kroeger, Donald M [Knoxville, TN

    2009-03-31

    The present invention relates to epitaxial, electrically conducting and mechanically robust, cubic nitride buffer layers deposited epitaxially on biaxially textured substrates such as metals and alloys. The invention comprises of a biaxially textured substrate with epitaxial layers of nitrides. The invention also discloses a method to form such epitaxial layers using a high rate deposition method as well as without the use of forming gases. The invention further comprises epitaxial layers of oxides on the biaxially textured nitride layer. In some embodiments the article further comprises electromagnetic devices which may have superconducting properties.

  6. Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Films | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Phase Discrimination through Oxidant Selection for Iron Oxide Ultrathin Films

  7. High-temperature electrically conductive ceramic composite and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, David E. (Knoxville, TN); Gooch, Jack G. (Seymour, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to a metal-oxide ceramic composition useful in induction heating applications for treating uranium and uranium alloys. The ceramic composition is electrically conductive at room temperature and is nonreactive with molten uranium. The composition is prepared from a particulate admixture of 20 to 50 vol. % niobium and zirconium oxide which may be stabilized with an addition of a further oxide such as magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, or yttria. The composition is prepared by blending the powders, pressing or casting the blend into the desired product configuration, and then sintering the casting or compact in an inert atmosphere. In the casting operation, calcium aluminate is preferably added to the admixture in place of a like quantity of zirconia for providing a cement to help maintain the integrity of the sintered product.

  8. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace078_muntean_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review

  9. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

  10. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  11. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  12. Atomic Physics Effects on Convergent, Child-Langmuir Ion Flow between Nearly Transparent Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santarius, John F.; Emmert, Gilbert A.

    2013-11-07

    Research during this project at the University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute (UW FTI) on ion and neutral flow through an arbitrary, monotonic potential difference created by nearly transparent electrodes accomplished the following: (1) developed and implemented an integral equation approach for atomic physics effects in helium plasmas; (2) extended the analysis to coupled integral equations that treat atomic and molecular deuterium ions and neutrals; (3) implemented the key deuterium and helium atomic and molecular cross sections; (4) added negative ion production and related cross sections; and (5) benchmarked the code against experimental results. The analysis and codes treat the species D0, D20, D+, D2+, D3+, D and, separately at present, He0 and He+. Extensions enhanced the analysis and related computer codes to include He++ ions plus planar and cylindrical geometries.

  13. Coordination Between the HEU Transparency Program and the Material Protection, Control and Accountability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, J.; Hernandez, J.; Dougherty, D.; Bieniawski, A.; Cahalane, P.; Mastal, E.

    2000-06-30

    DOE sponsored programs such as Material Protection Control and Accountability (MPC&A) and implementation of the Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program send US personnel into Russian nuclear facilities and receive Russian representatives from these programs. While there is overlap in the Russian nuclear facilities visited by these two programs, there had not been any formal mechanism to share information between them. Recently, an MPC&A/HEU Working Group was developed to facilitate the sharing of appropriate information and to address concerns expressed by Minatom and Russian facility personnel such as US visit scheduling conflicts. This paper discusses the goals of the Working Group and ways it has helped to allow the programs to work more efficiently with the Russian facilities.

  14. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2007-09-11

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  15. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2010-09-21

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  16. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2004-01-13

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  17. CRAD, NNSA- Conduct of Operations (OP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CRAD for Conduct of Operations (OP). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  18. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 10:17am ...

  19. Fabrication of glass microspheres with conducting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsholz, W.E.

    1982-09-30

    A method for making hollow glass microspheres with conducting surfaces by adding a conducting vapor to a region of the glass fabrication furnace. As droplets or particles of glass forming material pass through multiple zones of different temperature in a glass fabrication furnace, and are transformed into hollow glass microspheres, the microspheres pass through a region of conducting vapor, forming a conducting coating on the surface of the microspheres.

  20. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  1. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  2. The Workshop on Conductive Polymers: Final Report

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1985-10-01

    Reports are made by groups on: polyacetylene, polyphenylene, polyaniline, and related systems; molecular, crystallographic, and defect structures in conducting polymers; heterocyclic polymers; synthesis of new and improved conducting polymers; future applications possibilities for conducting polymers; and challenges for improved understanding of properties. (DLC)

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  5. Structural changes and conductance thresholds in metal-free intrinsic SiO{sub x} resistive random access memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehonic, Adnan E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Buckwell, Mark; Montesi, Luca; Garnett, Leon; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J. E-mail: t.kenyon@ucl.ac.uk; Fearn, Sarah; Chater, Richard; McPhail, David

    2015-03-28

    We present an investigation of structural changes in silicon-rich silicon oxide metal-insulator-metal resistive RAM devices. The observed unipolar switching, which is intrinsic to the bulk oxide material and does not involve movement of metal ions, correlates with changes in the structure of the oxide. We use atomic force microscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy to examine the structural changes occurring as a result of switching. We confirm that protrusions formed at the surface of samples during switching are bubbles, which are likely to be related to the outdiffusion of oxygen. This supports existing models for valence-change based resistive switching in oxides. In addition, we describe parallel linear and nonlinear conduction pathways and suggest that the conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, is a natural boundary between the high and low resistance states of our devices.

  6. Barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide free glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Peizhen Kathy; Mahapatra, Manoj Kumar

    2013-09-24

    A glass composition consisting essentially of about 10-45 mole percent of SrO; about 35-75 mole percent SiO.sub.2; one or more compounds from the group of compounds consisting of La.sub.2O.sub.3, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, B.sub.2O.sub.3, and Ni; the La.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 20 mole percent; the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 25 mole percent; the B.sub.2O.sub.3 less than about 15 mole percent; and the Ni less than about 5 mole percent. Preferably, the glass is substantially free of barium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesia, and alkali oxide. Preferably, the glass is used as a seal in a solid oxide fuel/electrolyzer cell (SOFC) stack. The SOFC stack comprises a plurality of SOFCs connected by one or more interconnect and manifold materials and sealed by the glass. Preferably, each SOFC comprises an anode, a cathode, and a solid electrolyte.

  7. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  8. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxides of Nitrogen Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oxides of Nitrogen Oxides of nitrogen, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and ozone have a lesser effect on the atmosphere than carbon dioxide and methane, but as you will see they are important contributors to the greenhouse

  9. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  10. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  11. Textured catalysts, methods of making textured catalysts, and methods of catalyzing reactions conducted in hydrothermal conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd [West Richland, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-12-30

    A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

  12. Bisfuel - Subtask 5

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Subtask 5 "Functional Nanostructured Transparent Electrode Materials" is to develop transparent (semi)conducting nanoporous metal oxide electrodes to host catalysts and reaction centers. Researchers of this subtask strive to develop high surface area electrodes that can bind and functionally integrate the artificial reaction center, water oxidation catalyst and proton reduction catalyst while maintaining transparency, high electrical conductivity, specifically-tuned semiconductor

  13. Improving Transparency in the Reporting of Safeguards Implementation: FY11 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, Christopher; Odlaug, Christopher S.; Wyse, Evan T.

    2011-09-30

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data and available for viewing at http://safeguardsportal.pnnl.gov.

  14. TRANSMISSION AND EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES IN SEMI-TRANSPARENT SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocharov, Leon; Usoskin, Ilya; Laitinen, Timo; Vainio, Rami

    2014-06-01

    While major solar energetic particle (SEP) events are associated with coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks in solar wind, accurate SEP measurements reveal that more than one component of energetic ions exist in the beginning of the events. Solar electromagnetic emissions, including nuclear gamma-rays, suggest that high-energy ions could also be accelerated by coronal shocks, and some of those particles could contribute to SEPs in interplanetary space. However, the CME-driven shock in solar wind is thought to shield any particle source beneath the shock because of the strong scattering required for the diffusive shock acceleration. In this Letter, we consider a shock model that allows energetic particles from the possible behind-shock source to appear in front of the shock simultaneously with SEPs accelerated by the shock itself. We model the energetic particle transport in directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field in a spherical shock expanding through the highly turbulent magnetic sector with an embedded quiet magnetic tube, which makes the shock semi-transparent for energetic particles. The model energy spectra and time profiles of energetic ions escaping far upstream of the shock are similar to the profiles observed during the first hour of some gradual SEP events.

  15. Towards more transparent and reproducible omics studies through a common metadata checklist and data publications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolker, Eugene; Ozdemir, Vural; Martens , Lennart; Hancock, William S.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Anderson, Nathaniel; Aynacioglu, Sukru; Baranova, Ancha; Campagna, Shawn R.; Chen, Rui; Choiniere, John; Dearth, Stephen P.; Feng, Wu-Chun; Ferguson, Lynnette; Fox, Geoffrey; Frishman, Dmitrij; Grossman, Robert; Heath, Allison; Higdon, Roger; Hutz, Mara; Janko, Imre; Jiang, Lihua; Joshi, Sanjay; Kel, Alexander; Kemnitz, Joseph W.; Kohane, Isaac; Kolker, Natali; Lancet, Doron; Lee, Elaine; Li, Weizhong; Lisitsa, Andrey; Llerena, Adrian; MacNealy-Koch, Courtney; Marhsall, Jean-Claude; Masuzzo, Paolo; May, Amanda; Mias, George; Monroe, Matthew E.; Montague, Elizabeth; Monney, Sean; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Noronha, Santosh; Omenn, Gilbert; Rajasimha, Harsha; Ramamoorthy, Preveen; Sheehan, Jerry; Smarr, Larry; Smith, Charles V.; Smith, Todd; Snyder, Michael; Rapole, Srikanth; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Stanberry, Larissa; Stewart, Elizabeth; Toppo, Stefano; Uetz, Peter; Verheggen, Kenneth; Voy, Brynn H.; Warnich, Louise; Wilhelm, Steven W.; Yandl, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Biological processes are fundamentally driven by complex interactions between biomolecules. Integrated high-throughput omics studies enable multifaceted views of cells, organisms, or their communities. With the advent of new post-genomics technologies omics studies are becoming increasingly prevalent yet the full impact of these studies can only be realized through data harmonization, sharing, meta-analysis, and integrated research,. These three essential steps require consistent generation, capture, and distribution of the metadata. To ensure transparency, facilitate data harmonization, and maximize reproducibility and usability of life sciences studies, we propose a simple common omics metadata checklist. The proposed checklist is built on the rich ontologies and standards already in use by the life sciences community. The checklist will serve as a common denominator to guide experimental design, capture important parameters, and be used as a standard format for stand-alone data publications. This omics metadata checklist and data publications will create efficient linkages between omics data and knowledge-based life sciences innovation and importantly, allow for appropriate attribution to data generators and infrastructure science builders in the post-genomics era. We ask that the life sciences community test the proposed omics metadata checklist and data publications and provide feedback for their use and improvement.

  16. A transparent Pyrex ?-reactor for combined in situ optical characterization and photocatalytic reactivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionigi, F.; Hansen, O.; Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Nanotech, Building 345 East, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby ; Nielsen, M. G.; Chorkendorff, I.; Vesborg, P. C. K.; Pedersen, T.

    2013-10-15

    A new Pyrex-based ?-reactor for photocatalytic and optical characterization experiments is presented. The reactor chamber and gas channels are microfabricated in a thin poly-silicon coated Pyrex chip that is sealed with a Pyrex lid by anodic bonding. The device is transparent to light in the UV-vis-near infrared range of wavelengths (photon energies between ?0.4 and ?4.1 eV). The absorbance of a photocatalytic film obtained with a light transmission measurement during a photocatalytic reaction is presented as a proof of concept of a photocatalytic reactivity measurement combined with in situ optical characterization. Diffuse reflectance measurements of highly scattering photocatalytic nanopowders in a sealed Pyrex ?-reactor are also possible using an integrating sphere as shown in this work. These experiments prove that a photocatalyst can be characterized with optical techniques after a photocatalytic reaction without removing the material from the reactor. The catalyst deposited in the cylindrical reactor chamber can be illuminated from both top and bottom sides and an example of application of top and bottom illumination is presented.

  17. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  18. Experimental investigation of the thermal conductivity of porous adsorbents. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secary, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal conductivities of Praseodymium-Cerium-Oxide (PCO) and Saran Carbon have been experimentally investigated using a steady-state heat transfer technique. The investigated substances are used as adsorbents in adsorption compressors being developed for spaceborne refrigeration applications. The objectives of the investigation were to determine the thermal conductivities and establish their temperature dependency. Data were collected for the PCO over a temperature range of 300 C to 600 C, and O (zero) C to 200 C for the Saran Carbon. The thermal conductivities were found to have a strong temperature dependency. In particular, the results for the PCO showed a temperature dependency indicative of some thermal radiation effects.

  19. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  20. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  1. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  2. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0conducting very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities.

  3. Cascade solar cell having conductive interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Peter G. (Menlo Park, CA); Saxena, Ram R. (Saratoga, CA)

    1982-10-26

    Direct ohmic contact between the cells in an epitaxially grown cascade solar cell is obtained by means of conductive interconnects formed through grooves etched intermittently in the upper cell. The base of the upper cell is directly connected by the conductive interconnects to the emitter of the bottom cell. The conductive interconnects preferably terminate on a ledge formed in the base of the upper cell.

  4. Method for enhancement of useful luminescence from vacancy defects in refractory oxides for tunable lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    Refractory oxide crystals suitable for use in tunable lasers and a method for preparing the same are provided. The crystals are characterized by high quantum efficiency, high thermal stability, good crystal transparency, and a high percentage of useful luminescence. The method for preparation of the crystals involves removing substantially all the hydrogen, thermochemically reducing the crystal's oxygen content to produce oxygen (anion) vacancy defects, and subsequently irradiating the crystal with electrons to inactivate trace H.sup.- ions so that an increased amount of short lived F.sup.+ luminescence is produced when the crystal is optically excited.

  5. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , Honcho Kawaguchi, 3320012 Saitama

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436?V, short-circuit current of 24.8?mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5?G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  6. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

    1992-04-28

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol. 2 figs.

  7. CRAD, Conduct of Operations Assessment Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The purpose of this assessment is to verify programmatic implementation of DOE O 5480.19, "Conduct of Operations Requirements of DOE Facilities"

  8. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities,...

  9. EPA -- Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act EPA -- Addressing Children's Health ...

  10. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    conductivity polyethylene fibers and sheets will be developed to replace metals and ceramics in heat-transfer devices. Project innovations include using massively parallel...

  11. Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Israel; Gottesfeld, Shimshon; Sabatani, Eyal

    1992-01-01

    A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventioonally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol.

  12. Ionic conductors for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Pullockaran, Jose D. (Hanover Park, IL); Myles, Kevin M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An electrolyte that operates at temperatures ranging from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. is provided. The electrolyte conducts charge ionically as well as electronically. The ionic conductors include molecular framework structures having planes or channels large enough to transport oxides or hydrated protons and having net-positive or net-negative charges. Representative molecular framework structures include substituted aluminum phosphates, orthosilicates, silicoaluminates, cordierites, apatites, sodalites, and hollandites.

  13. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  14. Liquid crystal-templated conducting organic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Hulvat, James F.

    2004-01-20

    A method of preparing a conductive polymeric film, includes providing a liquid crystal phase comprising a plurality of hydrophobic cores, the phase on a substrate, introducing a hydrophobic component to the phase, the component a conductive polymer precursor, and applying an electric potential across the liquid crystal phase, the potential sufficient to polymerize the said precursor.

  15. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  16. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  17. ADR Principles of Conduct | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Principles of Conduct ADR Principles of Conduct This document briefly discusses 7 principles that, if followed by all parties to a mediation, significantly enhance the probablity of finding a mutually agreed upon solution to almost any dispute. PDF icon OCPR-HQ-010 Final - ADR Principles of Conflct Resolution.pdf More Documents & Publications Mediation Process Employee Reminders Management Reminders

  18. Glass capable of ionic conduction and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, S.; Delbecq, C.J.; Volin, K.J.; Boehm, L.

    1984-02-21

    Sulfide glasses capable of conducting alkali metal ions are prepared from a nonmetal glass former such as GeS[sub 2], B[sub 2]S[sub 3] and SiS[sub 2] in mixture with a glass modifier such as Na[sub 2]S or another alkali metal sulfide. A molten mixture of the constituents is rapidly quenched to below the glass transition temperature by contact with a metal mold. The rapid quench is sufficient to prevent crystallization and permit solidification as an amorphous solid mixture. An oxygen-free atmosphere is maintained over the mixture to prevent oxidation. A new glass system of (1-X) Na[sub 2]O:XB[sub 2]S[sub 3] is disclosed. 4 figs.

  19. Glass capable of ionic conduction and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, S.; Boehm, L.; Volin, K.J.; Delbecq, C.J.

    1982-05-06

    Sulfide glasses capable of conducting alkali metal ions are prepared from a nonmetal glass former such as GeS/sub 2/, B/sub 2/S/sub 2/ and SiS/sub 2/ in mixture with a glass modifier such as Na/sub 2/S or another alkali metal sulfide. A molten mixture of the constituents is rapidly quenched to below the glass transition temperature by contact with a metal mold. The rapid quench is sufficient to prevent crystallization and permit solidification as an amorphous solid mixture. An oxygen-free atmosphere is maintained over the mixture to prevent oxidation. A new glass system of (1 - X) Na/sub 2/O:XB/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is disclosed.

  20. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures with conductance switching properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Kai; Nuraje, Nurxat; Zhang, Lingzhi; Matsui, Hiroshi; Yang, Nan Loh

    2015-03-03

    The present invention is directed to crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles comprising a conductive organic polymer; wherein the crystalline organic polymer nanoparticles have a size of from 10 nm to 200 nm and exhibits two current-voltage states: (1) a high resistance current-voltage state, and (2) a low resistance current-voltage state, wherein when a first positive threshold voltage (V.sub.th1) or higher positive voltage, or a second negative threshold voltage (V.sub.th2) or higher negative voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the low-resistance current-voltage state, and when a voltage less positive than the first positive threshold voltage or a voltage less negative than the second negative threshold voltage is applied to the nanoparticle, the nanoparticle exhibits the high-resistance current-voltage state. The present invention is also directed methods of manufacturing the nanoparticles using novel interfacial oxidative polymerization techniques.

  1. Glass capable of ionic conduction and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Boehm, Leah (Jerusalem, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO); Delbacq, Charles J. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1985-01-01

    Sulfide glasses capable of conducting alkali metal ions are prepared from a nonmetal glass former such as GeS.sub.2, B.sub.2 S.sub.3 and SiS.sub.2 in mixture with a glass modifier such as Na.sub.2 S or another alkali metal sulfide. A molten mixture of the constituents is rapidly quenched to below the glass transition temperature by contact with a metal mold. The rapid quench is sufficient to prevent crystallization and permit solidification as an amorphous solid mixture. An oxygen-free atmosphere is maintained over the mixture to prevent oxidation. A new glass system of (1-X) Na.sub.2 O:XB.sub.2 S.sub.3 is disclosed.

  2. Glass capable of ionic conduction and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Delbecq, Charles J. (Downers Grove, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO); Boehm, Leah (Jerusalem, IL)

    1984-01-01

    Sulfide glasses capable of conducting alkali metal ions are prepared from a nonmetal glass former such as GeS.sub.2, B.sub.2 S.sub.3 and SiS.sub.2 in mixture with a glass modifier such as Na.sub.2 S or another alkali metal sulfide. A molten mixture of the constituents is rapidly quenched to below the glass transition temperature by contact with a metal mold. The rapid quench is sufficient to prevent crystallization and permit solidification as an amorphous solid mixture. An oxygen-free atmosphere is maintained over the mixture to prevent oxidation. A new glass system of (1-X) Na.sub.2 O:XB.sub.2 S.sub.3 is disclosed.

  3. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  4. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  5. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular wires. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the rules of the game) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  6. Strong and Electrically Conductive Graphene Based Composite Fibers and Laminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Polyzos, Georgios; Cooper, Ryan C.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-04-28

    Graphene is an ideal candidate for lightweight, high-strength composite materials given its superior mechanical properties (specific strength of 130 GPa and stiffness of 1 TPa). To date, easily scalable graphene-like materials in a form of separated flakes (exfoliated graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide) have been investigated as candidates for large-scale applications such as material reinforcement. These graphene-like materials do not fully exhibit all the capabilities of graphene in composite materials. In this study, we show that macro (2 inch 2 inch) graphene laminates and fibers can be produced using large continuous sheets of single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. The resulting composite structures have potential to outperform the current state-of-the-art composite materials in both mechanical properties and electrical conductivities (>8 S/cm with only 0.13% volumetric graphene loading and 5 103 S/cm for pure graphene fibers) with estimated graphene contributions of >10 GPa in strength and 1 TPa in stiffness.

  7. Strong and Electrically Conductive Graphene Based Composite Fibers and Laminates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Polyzos, Georgios; Cooper, Ryan C.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-04-28

    Graphene is an ideal candidate for lightweight, high-strength composite materials given its superior mechanical properties (specific strength of 130 GPa and stiffness of 1 TPa). To date, easily scalable graphene-like materials in a form of separated flakes (exfoliated graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide) have been investigated as candidates for large-scale applications such as material reinforcement. These graphene-like materials do not fully exhibit all the capabilities of graphene in composite materials. In this study, we show that macro (2 inch × 2 inch) graphene laminates and fibers can be produced using large continuous sheets of single-layer graphene grown bymore » chemical vapor deposition. The resulting composite structures have potential to outperform the current state-of-the-art composite materials in both mechanical properties and electrical conductivities (>8 S/cm with only 0.13% volumetric graphene loading and 5 × 103 S/cm for pure graphene fibers) with estimated graphene contributions of >10 GPa in strength and 1 TPa in stiffness.« less

  8. Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    0%2A en Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility http:nnsa.energy.govfieldofficessavannah-river-field-officemixed-oxide-mox-fuel-fabrication-facility

  9. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative

  10. Deep Data Analysis of Conductive Phenomena on Complex Oxide Interfaces: Physics from Data Mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alex; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Jesse, Stephen; Baddorf, Arthur P; Chu, Ying Hao; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variability of electronic transport in BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) self-assembled heterostructures is explored using spatially resolved first order reversal curve (FORC) current voltage (IV) mapping. Multivariate statistical analysis of FORC-IV data classifies statistically significant behaviors and maps characteristic responses spatially. In particular, regions of grain, matrix, and grain boundary responses are clearly identified. K-means and Bayesian demixing analysis suggests the characteristic response be separated into four components, with hysteretic type behavior localized at the BFO-CFO tubular interfaces. The conditions under which Bayesian components allow direct physical interpretation are explored, and transport mechanisms at the grain boundaries and individual phases are analyzed. This approach conjoins multivariate statistical analysis with physics-based interpretation, actualizing a robust, universal, data driven approach to problem solving, which can be applied to exploration of local transport and other functional phenomena in other spatially inhomogeneous systems.

  11. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  12. Effect of ammonia plasma treatment on graphene oxide LB monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Gulbagh; Botcha, V. Divakar; Narayanam, Pavan K.; Sutar, D. S.; Talwar, S. S.; Major, S. S.; Srinivasa, R. S.

    2013-02-05

    Graphene oxide monolayer sheets were transferred on Si and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by Langmuir-Blodgett technique and were exposed to ammonia plasma at room temperature. The monolayer character of both graphene oxide and plasma treated graphene oxide sheets were ascertained by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy revealed that ammonia plasma treatment results in enhancement of graphitic carbon content along with the incorporation of nitrogen. The conductivity of graphene oxide monolayers, which was in the range of 10{sup -6}-10{sup -7} S/cm, increased to 10{sup -2}-10{sup -3} S/cm after the ammonia plasma treatment. These results indicate that the graphene oxide was simultaneously reduced and N-doped during ammonia plasma treatment, without affecting the morphological stability of sheets.

  13. Recent advances of lanthanum-based perovskite oxides for catalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-09-21

    There is a need to reduce the use of noble metal elements especially in the field of catalysis, where noble metals are ubiquitously applied. To this end, perovskite oxides, an important class of mixed oxide, have been attracting increasing attention for decades as potential replacements. Benefiting from the extraordinary tunability of their compositions and structures, perovskite oxides can be rationally tailored and equipped with targeted physical and chemical properties e.g. redox behavior, oxygen mobility, and ion conductivity for enhanced catalysis. Recently, the development of highly efficient perovskite oxide catalysts has been extensively studied. This review article summarizes the recent developmentmore » of lanthanum-based perovskite oxides as advanced catalysts for both energy conversion applications and traditional heterogeneous reactions.« less

  14. Temperature estimates from zircaloy oxidation kinetics and microstructures. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1982-10-01

    This report reviews state-of-the-art capability to determine peak zircaloy fuel rod cladding temperatures following an abnormal temperature excursion in a nuclear reactor, based on postirradiation metallographic analysis of zircaloy microstructural and oxidation characteristics. Results of a comprehensive literature search are presented to evaluate the suitability of available zircaloy microstructural and oxidation data for estimating anticipated reactor fuel rod cladding temperatures. Additional oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate low-temperature zircaloy oxidation characteristics for postirradiation estimation of cladding temperature by metallographic examination. Results of these experiments were used to calculate peak cladding temperatures of electrical heater rods and nuclear fuel rods that had been subjected to reactor temperature transients. Comparison of the calculated and measured peak cladding temperatures for these rods indicates that oxidation kinetics is a viable technique for estimating peak cladding temperatures over a broad temperature range. However, further improvement in zircaloy microstructure technology is necessary for precise estimation of peak cladding temperatures by microstructural examination.

  15. Degradation in Solid Oxide Cells During High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar Sohal

    2009-05-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has an ongoing project to generate hydrogen from steam using solid oxide electrolysis cells. One goal of that project is to address the technical and degradation issues associated with solid oxide electrolysis cells. This report covers a variety of these degradation issues, which were discussed during a workshop on Degradation in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Strategies for its Mitigation, held in Phoenix, AZ on October 27, 2008. Three major degradation issues related to solid oxide electrolysis cells discussed at the workshop are: Delamination of O2-electrode and bond layer on steam/O2-electrode side Contaminants (Ni, Cr, Si, etc.) on reaction sites (triple-phase boundary) Loss of electrical/ionic conductivity of electrolyte. This list is not all inclusive, but the workshop summary can be useful in providing a direction for future research related to the degradation of solid oxide electrolysis cells.

  16. Recent advances of lanthanum-based perovskite oxides for catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Pengfei; Dai, Sheng

    2015-09-21

    There is a need to reduce the use of noble metal elements especially in the field of catalysis, where noble metals are ubiquitously applied. To this end, perovskite oxides, an important class of mixed oxide, have been attracting increasing attention for decades as potential replacements. Benefiting from the extraordinary tunability of their compositions and structures, perovskite oxides can be rationally tailored and equipped with targeted physical and chemical properties e.g. redox behavior, oxygen mobility, and ion conductivity for enhanced catalysis. Recently, the development of highly efficient perovskite oxide catalysts has been extensively studied. This review article summarizes the recent development of lanthanum-based perovskite oxides as advanced catalysts for both energy conversion applications and traditional heterogeneous reactions.

  17. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly (Allentown, PA); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT); Ohrn, Ted R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Peterson, David (Uniontown, OH); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2009-04-07

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  18. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly (Allentown, PA); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT); Ohm, Ted R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Peterson, David (Uniontown, OH); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  19. Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentile, Charles A. (Plainsboro, NJ), Guttadora, Gregory L. (Highland Park, NJ), Parker, John J. (Medford, NJ)

    2006-02-07

    The Oxidative Tritium Decontamination System, OTDS, provides a method and apparatus for reduction of tritium surface contamination on various items. The OTDS employs ozone gas as oxidizing agent to convert elemental tritium to tritium oxide. Tritium oxide vapor and excess ozone gas is purged from the OTDS, for discharge to atmosphere or transport to further process. An effluent stream is subjected to a catalytic process for the decomposition of excess ozone to diatomic oxygen. One of two configurations of the OTDS is employed: dynamic apparatus equipped with agitation mechanism and large volumetric capacity for decontamination of light items, or static apparatus equipped with pressurization and evacuation capability for decontamination of heavier, delicate, and/or valuable items.

  20. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  1. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  2. Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Energy Storage | Department of Energy Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Sandia National Laboratory Logo Sandia National Lab (Sandia), through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program, is systematically

  3. Composition suitable for use as inert electrode having good electrical conductivity and mechanical properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Rapp, R.A.

    1984-06-12

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metals or metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. 8 figs.

  4. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  5. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  6. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  7. Reversible Solid Oxide Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean, Efficient, Reliable Power Reversible Solid Oxide Electrolysis Randy Petri Director Product Development & Federal Programs Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Hosted by: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado February 27th and 28th, 2014 FCE Acquires VPS * FuelCell Energy fully acquired the shares of Versa Power Systems on December 20, 2012. Prior to this, FuelCell Energy owned approximately 39% of Versa "We view solid oxide

  8. Highly Stable, Anion Conductive, Comb-Shaped Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, NW; Leng, YJ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  9. How the 2003 CBECS Was Conducted

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    to an establishment, is the basic unit of analysis for the CBECS because the building is the energy-consuming unit. The 2003 CBECS was the eighth survey conducted since...

  10. Domain wall conduction in multiaxial ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A.; Morozovska, A. N.; Svechnikov, S. V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2012-01-01

    The conductance of domain wall structures consisting of either stripes or cylindrical domains in multiaxial ferroelectric-semiconductors is analyzed. The effects of the flexoelectric coupling, domain size, wall tilt, and curvature on charge accumulation are analyzed using the Landau-Ginsburg Devonshire theory for polarization vector combined with the Poisson equation for charge distributions. The proximity and size effect of the electron and donor accumulation/depletion by thin stripe domains and cylindrical nanodomains are revealed. In contrast to thick domain stripes and wider cylindrical domains, in which the carrier accumulation (and so the static conductivity) sharply increases at the domain walls only, small nanodomains of radii less than 5-10 correlation lengths appeared conducting across the entire cross-section. Implications of such conductive nanosized channels may be promising for nanoelectronics.

  11. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, Thomas R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Chilko, Robert J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1986-01-01

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask.

  12. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A. (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  13. Low Temperature Proton Conductivity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Conductivity Low Temperature Proton Conductivity Presentation by Tom Zawodzinski to DOE's Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop held February 1-5, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon 06_zawodzinski_proton.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells for Transportation - FY 2001 Progress Report DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 2: MEAs, Components, and Integration Minutes of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Monday, May 18,

  14. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping The most conspicuous feature of boron carbides' electronic transport properties is their having both high carrier densities and large Seebeck coefficients. The magnitudes and temperature dependencies of

  15. Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conductivities and Seebeck Coefficients of Boron Carbides: ''Softening-Bipolaron'' Hopping × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public

  16. Exploring electrical conductivity anomalies across the martensite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transition in Fe{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} ferromagnetic shape memory alloys: Experiments and ab-initio calculations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Exploring electrical conductivity anomalies across the martensite transition in Fe{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} ferromagnetic shape memory alloys: Experiments and ab-initio calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exploring electrical conductivity anomalies across the martensite transition in Fe{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} ferromagnetic shape memory alloys:

  17. Laboratory Accreditation Program Conducted Assessment of WIPP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8, 2014 Laboratory Accreditation Program Conducted Assessment of WIPP The U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) recently conducted an assessment of the WIPP external dosimetry program. The external dosimetry program is responsible for measuring and tracking external dose received from ionizing radiation. The purpose of the assessment was to assure routine practices comply with required criteria set forth by DOELAP. The three main kinds of ionizing radiation are

  18. Method and apparatus for casting conductive and semi-conductive materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-08-13

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for casting conductive and semi-conductive materials. The apparatus includes a plurality of conductive members arranged to define a container-like area having a desired cross-sectional shape. A portion or all of the conductive or semi-conductive material which is to be cast is introduced into the container-like area. A means is provided for inducing the flow of an electrical current in each of the conductive members, which currents act collectively to induce a current flow in the material. The induced current flow through the conductive members is in a direction substantially opposite to the induced current flow in the material so that the material is repelled from the conductive members during the casting process.

  19. Nonlinear vs. bolometric radiation response and phonon thermal conductance in graphene-superconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vora, Heli; Nielsen, Bent; Du, Xu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is a promising candidate for building fast and ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors due to its weak electron-phonon coupling and low heat capacity. In order to realize a practical graphene-based bolometer, several important issues, including the nature of radiation response, coupling efficiency to the radiation and the thermal conductance need to be carefully studied. Addressing these issues, we present graphene-superconductor junctions as a viable option to achieve efficient and sensitive bolometers, with the superconductor contacts serving as hot electron barriers. For a graphene-superconductor device with highly transparent interfaces, the resistance readout in the presence of radio frequency radiation is dominated by non-linear response. On the other hand, a graphene-superconductor tunnel device shows dominantly bolometric response to radiation. For graphene devices fabricated on SiO{sub 2} substrates, we confirm recent theoretical predictions of T{sup 2} temperature dependence of phonon thermal conductance in the presence of disorder in the graphene channel at low temperatures.

  20. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  1. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  2. Nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with molybdenum oxide as contact

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-10-06

    Using a 10 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoO3-x) layer as a transparent and low barrier contact to p-CdTe, we demonstrate nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 11% under front side illumination. Annealing the as-deposited MoO3 film in N2 resulted in a reduction of the cell’s series resistance, from 9.97 Ω/cm2 to 7.69 Ω/cm2, and increase in efficiency from 9.9% to 11%. Under illumination from the back, the MoO3-x/Au side, the nanowire solar cells yielded Jsc of 21 mA/cm2 and efficiency of 8.67%. Our results demonstrate use of a thin layer transition metal oxide as a potentialmore » way for a transparent back contact to nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells. As a result, this work has implications toward enabling a novel superstrate structure nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cell on Al foil substrate by a low cost roll-to roll fabrication process.« less

  3. Nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with molybdenum oxide as contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dang, Hongmei; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-10-06

    Using a 10 nm thick molybdenum oxide (MoO3-x) layer as a transparent and low barrier contact to p-CdTe, we demonstrate nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells with a power conversion efficiency of 11% under front side illumination. Annealing the as-deposited MoO3 film in N2 resulted in a reduction of the cell’s series resistance, from 9.97 Ω/cm2 to 7.69 Ω/cm2, and increase in efficiency from 9.9% to 11%. Under illumination from the back, the MoO3-x/Au side, the nanowire solar cells yielded Jsc of 21 mA/cm2 and efficiency of 8.67%. Our results demonstrate use of a thin layer transition metal oxide as a potential way for a transparent back contact to nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells. As a result, this work has implications toward enabling a novel superstrate structure nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cell on Al foil substrate by a low cost roll-to roll fabrication process.

  4. Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Lithium-Titanium-Oxide Anodes Improve Battery Safety and Performance Technology available for licensing: Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with enhanced conductivity, voltage and energy density. Enhanced stability at lower cost Li4Ti5O12 spinel is a promising alternative to graphite electrodes with enhanced conductivity, voltage and energy density PDF icon LTO_anodes

  5. Innovative lithium-titanium-oxide anodes improve battery safety and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance (IN-98-069) - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Innovative lithium-titanium-oxide anodes improve battery safety and performance (IN-98-069) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Two orders of magnitude conductivity enhancement in Li4Ti5O12 with magnesium doping with no change in capacity or insertion potential.<br /> Two orders of magnitude conductivity

  6. Thermally conductive alumina/organic composites for photovoltaic concentrator cell isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.; Panitz, J.K.G.; Sharp, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrophoretically deposited styrene-acrylate films were studied. These yield marginally useful thermal conductivities of 0.1--0.2 watts/meter-Kelvin, but have useful dielectric strengths over 2500 volts for 40 micrometer thick coatings. Thin, 25 micrometer, coatings of anodically grown Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films were also investigated. These films have thermal conductivities of approximately 6--8 watts/meter-Kelvin. Although these Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films have greater thermal conductivity than the polymer films, they exhibit porosity which typically limits their dielectric strength to less than 1000 volts. In the current study we have determined that styrene-acrylate can be electrophoretically deposited in porous anodic aluminum oxide films to form an alumina-organic composite with improved electrical breakdown strengths as well as higher thermal conductivity than styrene-acrylate films. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  8. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity κ value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of κ of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to κ, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric powermore » factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.« less

  9. Highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3} thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radetinac, Aldin Mani, Arzhang; Ziegler, Jrgen; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Melnyk, Sergiy; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Zheng, Yuliang; Jakoby, Rolf

    2014-09-15

    We have measured the microwave resistance of highly conducting perovskite oxide SrMoO{sub 3} thin film coplanar waveguides. The epitaxial SrMoO{sub 3} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition and showed low mosaicity and smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness below 0.3?nm. Layer-by-layer growth could be achieved for film thicknesses up to 400?nm as monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We obtained a constant microwave resistivity of 29???cm between 0.1 and 20?GHz by refining the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that SrMoO{sub 3} is a viable candidate as a highly conducting electrode material for all-oxide microwave electronic devices.

  10. Calculated transport properties of CdO: thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, Lucas R.; Parker, David S.

    2015-10-01

    We present first principles calculations of the thermal and electronic transport properties of the oxide semiconductor CdO. In particular, we find from theory that the accepted thermal conductivity ? value of 0.7 Wm-1K-1 is approximately one order of magnitude too small; our calculations of ? of CdO are in good agreement with recent measurements. We also find that alloying of MgO with CdO is an effective means to reduce the lattice contribution to ?, despite MgO having a much larger thermal conductivity. We further consider the electronic structure of CdO in relation to thermoelectric performance, finding that large thermoelectric power factors may occur if the material can be heavily doped p-type. This work develops insight into the nature of thermal and electronic transport in an important oxide semiconductor.

  11. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  12. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  14. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  15. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Lisle, IL); Roche, Michael F. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  16. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1986-04-17

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

  17. Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

    1987-04-21

    A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

  18. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Jin Jung; Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui; Jung, Seunho; Kwon, Chanho

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  19. 2-D Finite Element Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-10-30

    AYER is a finite element program which implicitly solves the general two-dimensional equation of thermal conduction for plane or axisymmetric bodies. AYER takes into account the effects of time (transient problems), in-plane anisotropic thermal conductivity, a three-dimensional velocity distribution, and interface thermal contact resistance. Geometry and material distributions are arbitrary, and input is via subroutines provided by the user. As a result, boundary conditions, material properties, velocity distributions, and internal power generation may be mademore » functions of, e.g., time, temperature, location, and heat flux.« less

  20. Conducting polymer for high power ultracapacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shi, Steven Z. (Latham, NY); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the purposes of the present invention, as embodied and broadly described herein, the present invention is directed to an electrode having a conducting polymer active material for use in an ultracapacitor. The conducting polymer active material is electropolymerized onto a carbon paper substrate from a mixed solution of a dimer of (3,3' bithiophene) (BT) and a monomer that is selected from the group of thiophenes derived in the 3-position, having an aryl group attached to thiophene in the 3-position or having aryl and alkly groups independently attached to thiophene in the 3 and 4 positions.

  1. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  2. Lesson 6: Conduct a School Energy Audit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lesson 6: Conduct a School Energy Audit Adopted/Revised From National Energy Education Development Project, U.S. Department of Energy Grade Level 6-12 Objectives * Identify different ways in which energy is used in the school * Examine different ways energy use can be reduced in the school * Create a plan to reduce school energy use Overview Students conduct a school energy audit. Materials * One or more flicker checkers per class * One or more light meters per class * One or more power monitors

  3. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1992-04-21

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO[sub 3], YCrO[sub 3] or LaMnO[sub 3] particles, on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate, (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure between the doped particles, (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles as a contact. 7 figs.

  4. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper joints for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, R.; Tatkowski, Greg; Ruschman, M.; Golwala, S. R.; Kellaris, N.; Daal, M.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2015-09-01

    Joint thermal conductance testing has been undertaken for bolted copper to copper connections from 60 mK to 26 K. This testing was performed to validate an initial design basis for the SuperCDMS experiment, where a dilution refrigerator will be coupled to a cryostat via multiple bolted connections. Copper used during testing was either gold plated or passivated with citric acid to prevent surface oxidation. Results obtained are well fit by a power law regression of joint thermal conductance to temperature and match well with data collected during a literature review.

  5. Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, J.C.; Singh, P.

    1989-08-29

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure, optionally supported by a ceramic support, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO[sub 3] doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300 C to 1,550 C, without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material bonded to the air electrode, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO[sub 3]. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 4 figs.

  6. Method of bonding a conductive layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey C. (Richland Township, Allegheny County, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A dense, electronically conductive interconnection layer 26 is bonded onto a porous, tubular, electronically conductive air electrode structure 16, optionally supported by a ceramic support 22, by (A) providing an air electrode surface, (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface 24, without the use of pressure, particles of LaCrO.sub.3 doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Sr, Mg, Ca, Ba, Co, and mixtures thereof, where the particles have a deposit on their surface comprising calcium oxide and chromium oxide; (C) heating the particles with the oxide surface deposit in an oxidizing atmosphere at from 1,300.degree. C. to 1,550.degree. C., without the application of pressure, to provide a dense, sintered, interconnection material 26 bonded to the air electrode 16, where calcium and chromium from the surface deposit are incorporated into the structure of the LaCrO.sub.3. A solid electrolyte layer 18 can be applied to the uncovered portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode 20 can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell 10.

  7. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Anneli Munkholm (Lumileds Lighting) and Sean Brennan (SSRL) Illustration of the silicon positions near the Si-SiO2 interface for a 4° miscut projected onto the ( ) plane. The silicon atoms in the substrate are blue and those in the oxide are red. The small black spots represent the translated silicon positions in the absence of static disorder. The silicon atoms in the oxide have been randomly assigned a magnitude and direction based on the static disorder value at that position in the

  8. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E.; Lyons, James E.; Myers, Jr., Harry K.; Shaikh, Shahid N.

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  9. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  10. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z (n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  11. Molecular water oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratzel, Michael (St. Sulpice, CH); Munavalli, Shekhar (Bel Air, MD); Pern, Fu-Jann (Lakewood, CO); Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A dimeric composition of the formula: ##STR1## wherein L', L", L'", and L"" are each a bidentate ligand having at least one functional substituent, the ligand selected from bipyridine, phenanthroline, 2-phenylpyridine, bipyrimidine, and bipyrazyl and the functional substituent selected from carboxylic acid, ester, amide, halogenide, anhydride, acyl ketone, alkyl ketone, acid chloride, sulfonic acid, phosphonic acid, and nitro and nitroso groups. An electrochemical oxidation process for the production of the above functionally substituted bidentate ligand diaqua oxo-bridged ruthenium dimers and their use as water oxidation catalysts is described.

  12. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

  13. LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun ...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun | National Nuclear Security ... LLNL Conducts First Plutonium Shot Using the JASPER Gas Gun July 08, 2003 LLNL Conducts ...

  14. CRAD, NNSA - Conduct of Engineering (CE) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Conduct of Engineering (CE) CRAD, NNSA - Conduct of Engineering (CE) CRAD for Conduct of Engineering (CE). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to...

  15. Standard of Ethical Conduct of Employee | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standard of Ethical Conduct of Employee Standard of Ethical Conduct of Employee Principles of Ethical Conduct for Federal Employees Ethical Briefing Certification

  16. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film-Based Devices | Argonne National Laboratory Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers protected by amorphous TiAl oxide and devices incorporating TiAl. Offers high conductivity and protection against oxidation Low-cost process PDF icon copper_based_electrode

  17. Polaron absorption in amorphous tungsten oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, Lars; Azens, Andris; Niklasson, Gunnar A.

    2001-08-15

    Amorphous thin films of tungsten oxide were deposited by sputtering onto glass substrates covered by conductive indium--tin oxide. The density and stoichiometry were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Lithium ions were intercalated electrochemically into the films. The optical reflectance and transmittance were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 2.5 {mu}m, at a number of intercalation levels. The polaron absorption peak becomes more symmetric and shifts to higher energies until an intercalation level of 0.25 to 0.3 Li{sup +}/W, where a saturation occurs. The shape of the polaron peak is in very good agreement with the theory of Bryksin [Fiz. Tverd. Tela 24, 1110 (1982)]. Within this model, the shift of the absorption peak is interpreted as an increase in the Fermi level of the material as more Li ions are inserted. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  19. Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1990-07-09

    "To provide requirements and guidelines for Departmental Elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to use in developing directives, plans, and/or procedures relating to the conduct of operations at DOE facilities. The implementation of these requirements and guidelines should result in improved quality and uniformity of operations. Change 2, 10-23-2001. Canceled by DOE O 422.1.

  20. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.