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Sample records for transmission x-ray microscopy

  1. In situ Nanotomography and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Micron-sized Ge Particles in Battery Anodes Friday, August 29, 2014 Ge fig1 Figure 1. Schematic of the irreversible...

  2. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  3. In situ Nanotomography and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Micron-sized Ge Particles in Battery Anodes | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource In situ Nanotomography and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Micron-sized Ge Particles in Battery Anodes Friday, August 29, 2014 Ge fig1 Figure 1. Schematic of the irreversible deformation of the carbon/polymer binder matrix (blue) due to the large Ge (red/orange) volume changes during the first cycle. The deformation results in smaller particles becoming physically disconnected from the

  4. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-01-01

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  5. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  6. A Comparison of Image Quality Evaluation Techniques for Transmission X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolgert, Peter J; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    Beamline 6-2c at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) is capable of Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) at 30 nm resolution. Raw images from the microscope must undergo extensive image processing before publication. Since typical data sets normally contain thousands of images, it is necessary to automate the image processing workflow as much as possible, particularly for the aligning and averaging of similar images. Currently we align images using the 'phase correlation' algorithm, which calculates the relative offset of two images by multiplying them in the frequency domain. For images containing high frequency noise, this algorithm will align noise with noise, resulting in a blurry average. To remedy this we multiply the images by a Gaussian function in the frequency domain, so that the algorithm ignores the high frequency noise while properly aligning the features of interest (FOI). The shape of the Gaussian is manually tuned by the user until the resulting average image is sharpest. To automatically optimize this process, it is necessary for the computer to evaluate the quality of the average image by quantifying its sharpness. In our research we explored two image sharpness metrics, the variance method and the frequency threshold method. The variance method uses the variance of the image as an indicator of sharpness while the frequency threshold method sums up the power in a specific frequency band. These metrics were tested on a variety of test images, containing both real and artificial noise. To apply these sharpness metrics, we designed and built a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) called 'Blur Master.' We found that it is possible for blurry images to have a large variance if they contain high amounts of noise. On the other hand, we found the frequency method to be quite reliable, although it is necessary to manually choose suitable limits for the frequency band. Further research must be performed to design an algorithm which automatically selects these parameters.

  7. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid,...

  8. Measuring inside damage of individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jinyin; Bai, Lili; Zhao, Guanqi; Sun, Xuhui E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Jun E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Jian

    2014-06-16

    The electronic structure of individual multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been probed using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). Although transmission electron microscope (TEM) images show that the exterior of the MWCNTs are clean and straight; the inside structure of some of the MWCNTs is much less well ordered, as revealed by STXM. The amorphization of the interior tubes can be introduced in the growth or modification processes. Moreover, TEM measurement with high dose may also lead to the inside damage. Our results reveal that the structure of individual MWCNTs can be complex and suggest that electronic structure measurements are an important tool for characterizing carbon nanomaterials.

  9. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  10. Observation of coupled vortex gyrations by 70-ps-time and 20-nm-space- resolved full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsung; Yu, Young-Sang; Lee, Ki-Suk; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Bocklage, Lars; Vogel, Andreas; Bolte, Markus; Meier, Guido; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-09-01

    We employed time-and space-resolved full-field magnetic transmission soft x-ray microscopy to observe vortex-core gyrations in a pair of dipolar-coupled vortex-state Permalloy (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) disks. The 70 ps temporal and 20 nm spatial resolution of the microscope enabled us to simultaneously measure vortex gyrations in both disks and to resolve the phases and amplitudes of both vortex-core positions. We observed their correlation for a specific vortex-state configuration. This work provides a robust and direct method of studying vortex gyrations in dipolar-coupled vortex oscillators.

  11. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  12. Classification of Multiple Types of Organic Carbon Composition in Atmospheric Particles by Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilcoyne, Arthur L; Takahama, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Russell, L.M.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.

    2007-05-16

    A scanning transmission X-ray microscope at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is used to measure organic functional group abundance and morphology of atmospheric aerosols. We present a summary of spectra, sizes, and shapes observed in 595 particles that were collected and analyzed between 2000 and 2006. These particles ranged between 0.1 and 12 mm and represent aerosols found in a large range of geographical areas, altitudes, and times. They include samples from seven different field campaigns: PELTI, ACE-ASIA, DYCOMS II, Princeton, MILAGRO (urban), MILAGRO (C-130), and INTEX-B. At least 14 different classes of organic particles show different types of spectroscopic signatures. Different particle types are found within the same region while the same particle types are also found in different geographical domains. Particles chemically resembling black carbon, humic-like aerosols, pine ultisol, and secondary or processed aerosol have been identified from functional group abundance and comparison of spectra with those published in the literature.

  13. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae Prev Next Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence ...

  14. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

  15. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  16. X-ray microscopy at CNM | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray microscopy at CNM X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline 1 of 5 X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline Jörg Maser (left) and Robert Winarski, of Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials, X-Ray Microscopy Group, at the hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline on Advanced Photon Source (APS) Sector 26. The nanoprobe uses brilliant X-rays with photon energies from 3 to 30 keV to probe the properties of nanoscale materials with a spatial resolution of 30 nm. The system provides a combination of scanning-probe and full-field

  17. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  18. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  19. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  1. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  2. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  3. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  4. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  5. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  6. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  7. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Authors: Turner, Joshua J. ; Huang, Xiaojing ; Krupin, Oleg ; Seu, Keoki A. ; Parks, Daniel ; Kevan,...

  9. X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial...

  10. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  11. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  12. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes

  13. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  14. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with...

  15. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Work performed on ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys....

  16. X-ray transmission movies of spontaneous dynamic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Holmes, M.; Novak, A.; Oschwald, D.; Dolgonos, P.; Qualls, B.

    2014-11-15

    We describe a new x-ray radiographic imaging system which allows for continuous x-ray transmission imaging of spontaneous dynamic events. We demonstrate this method on thermal explosions in three plastic bonded formulations of the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. We describe the x-ray imaging system and triggering developed to enable the continuous imaging of a thermal explosion.

  17. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; et al

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore » microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  18. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope Control Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-08-05

    User Interface and control software or C++ to run on specifically equipped computer running Windows Operating Systems. Program performs specific control functions required to operate Interferometer controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at ALS beamlines 532 and 11.0.2. Graphical user interface facilitates control, display images and spectra.

  19. Magnetic imaging with full-field soft x-ray microscopies (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic imaging with full-field soft x-ray microscopies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic imaging with full-field soft x-ray microscopies Authors: Fischer, Peter ; ...

  20. Magnetic imaging with full-field soft x-ray microscopies (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic imaging with full-field soft x-ray microscopies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic imaging with full-field soft x-ray microscopies You are accessing a ...

  1. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the ...

  2. Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P.; Anderson, E. H.

    2009-06-05

    To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.

  3. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wail depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Mi-Young Im ', Lars Bocklage^, Guido Meier^ and Peter Fischer' '^ C e ir te r -f o rX ^ a y Optics, Lawrence Berkeley N ational Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA ^ Institut fiir A ngew andte Physik und Zentrum ftir M ikrostrukturforschung, U niversitat Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany Abstract F u ll-fie ld m a g n e tic tra n sm iss io n x -ra y m ic ro sc o p y at h ig h sp a tia l

  4. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore » using fewer photons. As a result, this can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  5. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: ... Title: Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: ...

  6. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods (see previous highlight, "Demonstration of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging"). Experimental diffraction data used as input to the difference map algorithm....

  7. Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamental length and times scales The magnetic properties of low dimensional solid state ...

  8. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers We ...

  9. X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and (c) technical R&D in collaborations with other groups on nano-focusing x-ray optics, image contrast mechanisms, phase-retrieval methodology, detectors and data...

  10. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and angles of x rays scattered from the sample rather than transmitted through it). Shapiro et al. have now chimed in with the first lensless imaging of a sample as complex as a...

  11. Gas cell for in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cell for in situ soft X-ray transmission-absorption spectroscopy of materials Previous ... Abstract: A simple gas cell design, constructed primarily from commercially available ...

  12. Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Co microdot magnetic arrays (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays We demonstrate the addition of depth resolution to the usual two-dimensional images in photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM), with application to a square array of circular magnetic

  13. Anti-contamination device for cryogenic soft X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Nelson, Johanna; Turner, Joshua; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Jacobsen, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Cryogenic microscopy allows one to view frozen hydrated biological and soft matter specimens with good structural preservation and a high degree of stability against radiation damage. We describe a liquid nitrogen-cooled anti-contamination device for cryogenic X-ray diffraction microscopy. The anti-contaminator greatly reduces the buildup of ice layers on the specimen due to condensation of residual water vapor in the experimental vacuum chamber. We show by coherent X-ray diffraction measurements that this leads to fivefold reduction of background scattering, which is important for far-field X-ray diffraction microscopy of biological specimens.

  14. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Kirz, Janos; Lima, Enju; Marchesini, Stefano; Miao, Huijie; Neiman, Aaron M.; Shapiro, David; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; et al

    2009-11-01

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 °C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  15. Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of a Frozen Hydrated Yeast Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Xiaojing; Nelson, Johanna; Lima, Enju; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Neiman, Aaron M.

    2009-11-06

    We report the first image of an intact, frozen hydrated eukaryotic cell using x-ray diffraction microscopy, or coherent x-ray diffraction imaging. By plunge freezing the specimen in liquid ethane and maintaining it below -170 deg. C, artifacts due to dehydration, ice crystallization, and radiation damage are greatly reduced. In this example, coherent diffraction data using 520 eV x rays were recorded and reconstructed to reveal a budding yeast cell at a resolution better than 25 nm. This demonstration represents an important step towards high resolution imaging of cells in their natural, hydrated state, without limitations imposed by x-ray optics.

  16. Magnetic imaging with full-field soft X-ray microscopies (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic imaging with full-field soft X-ray microscopies Citation Details ... Publication Date: 2013-04-06 OSTI Identifier: 1165116 Report Number(s): LBNL-6392E Journal ID: ISSN ...

  17. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the ?-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane and freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.

  18. High-resolution x-ray diffraction microscopy of specifically labeled yeast cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Shapiro, David; Kirz, Janos; Marchesini, Stephano; Neiman, Aaron M.; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-04-20

    X-ray diffraction microscopy complements other x-ray microscopy methods by being free of lens-imposed radiation dose and resolution limits, and it allows for high-resolution imaging of biological specimens too thick to be viewed by electron microscopy. We report here the highest resolution (11-13 nm) x-ray diffraction micrograph of biological specimens, and a demonstration of molecular-specific gold labeling at different depths within cells via through-focus propagation of the reconstructed wavefield. The lectin concanavalin A conjugated to colloidal gold particles was used to label the α-mannan sugar in the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were plunge-frozen in liquid ethane andmore » freeze-dried, after which they were imaged whole using x-ray diffraction microscopy at 750 eV photon energy.« less

  19. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    permalloy magnetic nanowires (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Authors: Im, Mi-Young ; Bocklage, Lars ; Meier, Guido ; Fischer, Peter Publication Date: 2011-10-27 OSTI Identifier: 1172969 Report Number(s): LBNL-5866E DOE Contract Number:

  20. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    algae (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae « Prev Next » Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science (PAGES). This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit

  1. Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to fundamental length and times scales (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamental length and times scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamental length and times scales The magnetic properties of low dimensional solid state matter is of the utmost interest both scientifically as well as technologically. In addition to

  2. Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Co microdot magnetic arrays (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is

  3. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Wednesday, 28 October 2015 00:00 Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and

  4. Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Viewing spin structures with soft x-ray microscopy The spin of the electron and its associated magnetic moment marks the basic unit for magnetic properties of matter. Magnetism, in particular ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism is described by a collective order of these spins, where the interaction between individual spins reflects a competition between exchange, anisotropy and

  5. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Wednesday, 31 August 2005 00:00 Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their

  6. Transmission type flat-panel X-ray source using ZnO nanowire field emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Daokun; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; Chen, Jun; Li, Ziping; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2015-12-14

    A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnO nanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnO nanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnO nanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-ray images with spatial resolution less than 25 μm were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.

  7. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and fluorescence microscopy of green algae Citation Details In-Document Search ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  8. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in...

  9. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  10. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  11. New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Zone Plate for Soft X-Ray Microscopy at 15-nm Spatial Resolution Print Analytical tools that combine spatial resolution with elemental and chemical identification at the nanometer scale along with large penetration depth are indispensable for the life and physical sciences. The XM-1 soft x-ray microscope at the ALS produces images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure magnetic and other properties as well. Now a new method for creating optical

  12. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding

  13. A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A single-shot transmissive spectrometer for hard x-ray free electron lasers We report hard x-ray single-shot spectral measurements of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The spectrometer is based on a 10 {mu}m thick cylindrically bent Si single crystal operating in the symmetric Bragg geometry

  14. WHOLE CELL TOMOGRAPHY/MOLECULAR BIOLOGY/STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: Affordable x-ray microscopy with nanoscale resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Blackborow, Paul; Horne, Stephen J.; Gelb, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Biological research spans 10 orders of magnitude from angstroms to meters. While electron microscopy can reveal structural details at most of these spatial length scales, transmission electron tomography only reliably reconstructs three-dimensional (3-D) volumes of cellular material with a spatial resolution between 1-5 nm from samples less than 500 nm thick1. Most biological cells are 2-30 times thicker than this threshold, which means that a cell must be cut into consecutive slices with each slice reconstructed individually in order to approximate the contextual information of the entire cell. Fortunately, due to a larger penetration depth2, X-ray computed tomography bypasses the need to physically section a cell and enables imaging of intact cells and tissues on the micrometer or larger scale with tens to hundreds of nanometer spatial resolution. While the technique of soft x-ray microscopy has been extensively developed in synchrotron facilities, advancements in laboratory x-ray source designs now increase its accessibility by supporting commercial systems suitable for a standard laboratory. In this paper, we highlight a new commercial compact cryogenic soft x-ray microscope designed for a standard laboratory setting and explore its capabilities for mesoscopic investigations of intact prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

  15. High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore » resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less

  16. Elimination of higher-order diffraction using zigzag transmission grating in soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zang, H. P.; Wang, C. K.; Gao, Y. L.; Zhou, W. M.; Kuang, L. Y.; Wei, L.; Fan, W.; Zhang, W. H.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Cao, L. F.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Jiang, G.; Zhu, X. L.; Xie, C. Q.; Zhao, Y. D.; Cui, M. Q.

    2012-03-12

    We present a realization of the sinusoidal transmission function using a series of zigzag-profiled strips where the transmission takes on the binary values 0 and 1 in a two-dimensional distribution. A zigzag transmission grating of 1000 line/mm has been fabricated and demonstrated on the soft x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. The axial single-order diffraction indicates that the zigzag transmission grating is adequate for spectroscopic application.

  17. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  18. 3D View Inside the Skeleton with X-ray Microscopy: Imaging Bone at the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale 3D View Inside the Skeleton with X-ray Microscopy: Imaging Bone at the Nanoscale Scientists studying osteoporosis and other skeletal diseases are interested in the 3D structure of bone and its responses to conditions such as weightlessness, radiation (of particular interest to astronauts) and vitamin D deficiency. The current gold standard, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), provides 3D images of trabeculae, the small interior struts of bone tissue, and electron microscopy can

  19. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 {mu}m, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu K{alpha}. At higher energies such as Ag K{alpha}, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection.

  20. Development of a model of an x-ray tube transmission source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goda, Joetta M; Ianakiev, Kiril D; Moss, Cal E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of an x-ray tube based source for transmission measurements of UF6 gas, we have developed a one-dimensional, spreadsheet-based model of the source. Starting with the spectrum produced by an x-ray tube we apply the linear attenuation coefficients for various notch filters, the aluminum pipe, and UF6 gas. This model allows calculation of the transmitted spectrum based on the type of filter, the thickness of the filter, the x-ray tube high voltage, the Al pipe thickness, and the UF6 gas pressure. The sensitivity of the magnitude of the transmission peak produced by the notch filter to any of these variables can be explored quickly and easily to narrow the choices for experimental measurements. To validate the spreadsheet based model, comparisons have been made to various experimental data.

  1. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M. R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C. -C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T. O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; et al

    2005-03-14

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done bymore » computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.« less

  2. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  3. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  4. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  5. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  6. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance

  7. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J.; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J.

    2015-02-24

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolutionmore » beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub–30-nm resolution structural images and ~90-nm–resolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context.« less

  8. An assessment of the resolution limitation due to radiation-damage in X-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Howells, M. R.; Beetz, T.; Chapman, H. N.; Cui, C.; Holton, J. M.; Jacobsen, C. J.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Marchesini, S.; Miao, H.; et al

    2008-11-17

    X-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) is a new form of x-ray imaging that is being practiced at several third-generation synchrotron-radiation x-ray facilities. Nine years have elapsed since the technique was first introduced and it has made rapid progress in demonstrating high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and promises few-nm resolution with much larger samples than can be imaged in the transmission electron microscope. Both life- and materials-science applications of XDM are intended, and it is expected that the principal limitation to resolution will be radiation damage for life science and the coherent power of available x-ray sources for material science. In this paper wemore » address the question of the role of radiation damage. We use a statistical analysis based on the so-called "dose fractionation theorem" of Hegerl and Hoppe to calculate the dose needed to make an image of a single life-science sample by XDM with a given resolution. We find that for simply-shaped objects the needed dose scales with the inverse fourth power of the resolution and present experimental evidence to support this finding. To determine the maximum tolerable dose we have assembled a number of data taken from the literature plus some measurements of our own which cover ranges of resolution that are not well covered otherwise. The conclusion of this study is that, based on the natural contrast between protein and water and "Rose-criterion" image quality, one should be able to image a frozen-hydrated biological sample using XDM at a resolution of about 10 nm.« less

  9. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  10. Analysis of soft x-ray/VUV transmission characteristics of Si and Al filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Aby; Modi, Mohammed H.; Singh, Amol; Gupta, R. K.; Lodha, G. S.

    2013-02-05

    Ultrathin filters of Al (1500A) and Si (1200A) should exhibit more than 65% transmission above their Labsorption edges in the soft x-ray/vacuum ultra violet region(Si L-edge: 124 A and Al L-edge: 170 A). However, the measured transmission characteristics of these filters showed {approx}40% transmission. The transmission measurements of these filters were carried at the reflectivity beamline of Indus-1 synchrotron source out over a large wavelength range of 120-360A. In order to understand the measured transmission performance a detailed model fitting is performed using the Paratt formalism. It is found that the oxidation of the surface region of the filters is responsible for the reduced transmission performance. Effects of higher harmonics of the toroidal grating monochromator are also considered in the data analysis.

  11. Hard x-ray transmission crystal spectrometer at the OMEGA-EP laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seely, J. F.; Szabo, C. I.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Henins, A.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E.

    2010-10-15

    The transmission crystal spectrometer (TCS) is approved for taking data at the OMEGA-EP laser facility since 2009 and will be available for the OMEGA target chamber in 2010. TCS utilizes a Cauchois type cylindrically bent transmission crystal geometry with a source to crystal distance of 600 mm. Spectral images are recorded by image plates in four positions, one IP on the Rowland circle and three others at 200, 400, and 600 mm beyond the Rowland circle. An earlier version of TCS was used at LULI on experiments that determined the x-ray source size from spectral line broadening on one IP positioned behind the Rowland circle. TCS has recorded numerous backlighter spectra at EP for point projection radiography and for source size measurements. Hard x-ray source size can be determined from the source broadening of both K shell emission lines and from K absorption edges in the bremsstrahlung continuum, the latter being a new way to measure the spatial extent of the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum.

  12. A soft x-ray transmission grating imaging-spectrometer for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, A S; Guymer, T M; Kline, J L; Morton, J; Taccetti, M; Lanier, N E; Bentley, C; Workman, J; Peterson, B; Mussack, K; Cowan, J; Prasad, R; Richardson, M; Burns, S; Kalantar, D H; Benedetti, L R; Bell, P; Bradley, D; Hsing, W; Stevenson, M

    2012-05-01

    A soft x-ray transmission grating spectrometer has been designed for use on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF); coupled to one of the NIF gated x-ray detectors (GXD) it records sixteen time-gated spectra between 250 and 1000eV with 100ps temporal resolution. The trade-off between spectral and spatial resolution leads to an optimized design for measurement of emission around the peak of a 100-300eV blackbody spectrum. Performance qualification results from the NIF, the Trident Laser Facility and VUV beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), evidence a <100{micro}m spatial resolution in combination with a source-size limited spectral resolution that is <10eV at photon energies of 300eV.

  13. Transmission X-ray scattering as a probe for complex liquid-surface structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fukuto, Masafumi; Yang, Lin; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Kuzmenko, Ivan

    2016-01-28

    The need for functional materials calls for increasing complexity in self-assembly systems. As a result, the ability to probe both local structure and heterogeneities, such as phase-coexistence and domain morphologies, has become increasingly important to controlling self-assembly processes, including those at liquid surfaces. The traditional X-ray scattering methods for liquid surfaces, such as specular reflectivity and grazing-incidence diffraction, are not well suited to spatially resolving lateral heterogeneities due to large illuminated footprint. A possible alternative approach is to use scanning transmission X-ray scattering to simultaneously probe local intermolecular structures and heterogeneous domain morphologies on liquid surfaces. To test the feasibilitymore » of this approach, transmission small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (TSAXS/TWAXS) studies of Langmuir films formed on water meniscus against a vertically immersed hydrophilic Si substrate were recently carried out. First-order diffraction rings were observed in TSAXS patterns from a monolayer of hexagonally packed gold nanoparticles and in TWAXS patterns from a monolayer of fluorinated fatty acids, both as a Langmuir monolayer on water meniscus and as a Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer on the substrate. The patterns taken at multiple spots have been analyzed to extract the shape of the meniscus surface and the ordered-monolayer coverage as a function of spot position. These results, together with continual improvement in the brightness and spot size of X-ray beams available at synchrotron facilities, support the possibility of using scanning-probe TSAXS/TWAXS to characterize heterogeneous structures at liquid surfaces.« less

  14. Spectroscopic infrared near-field microscopy and x-ray reflectivity studies of order and clustering in lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Generosi, J.; Margaritondo, G.; Sanghera, J. S.; Aggarwal, I. D.; Tolk, N. H.; Piston, D. W.; Castellano, A. Congiu; Cricenti, A.

    2006-12-04

    Lipid membranes were studied by infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy at several wavelengths and by x-ray reflectivity. Together with the x-ray data, the optical images indicate the formation of locally ordered multiple bilayers, and the topographical micrographs reveal the presence of islands at the surface, both critically important features for biotechnology and medical applications such as biosensors and gene therapy.

  15. X-ray photoemission electron microscopy for the study of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Stammler, T.; Padmore, H.; Terminello, L.J.; Jankowski, A.F.; Stohr, J.; Diaz, J.; Cossy-Gantner, A.

    1998-03-01

    Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) using X-rays is a novel combination of two established materials analysis techniques--PEEM using UV light, and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. This combination allows the study of elemental composition and bonding structure of the sample by NEXAFS spectroscopy with a high spatial resolution given by the microscope. A simple, two lens, 10 kV operation voltage PEEM has been used at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley to study various problems including materials of interest for the semiconductor industry. In the present paper the authors give a short overview over the method and the instrument which was used, and describe in detail a number of applications. These applications include the study of the different phases of titanium disilicide, various phases of boron nitride, and the analysis of small particles. A brief outlook is given on possible new fields of application of the PEEM technique, and the development of new PEEM instruments.

  16. Objective for EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth W.; Efthimion, Philip

    2016-05-03

    Disclosed is an imaging apparatus for EUV spectroscopy, EUV microscopy, EUV lithography, and x-ray imaging. This new imaging apparatus could, in particular, make significant contributions to EUV lithography at wavelengths in the range from 10 to 15 nm, which is presently being developed for the manufacturing of the next-generation integrated circuits. The disclosure provides a novel adjustable imaging apparatus that allows for the production of stigmatic images in x-ray imaging, EUV imaging, and EUVL. The imaging apparatus of the present invention incorporates additional properties compared to previously described objectives. The use of a pair of spherical reflectors containing a concave and convex arrangement has been applied to a EUV imaging system to allow for the image and optics to all be placed on the same side of a vacuum chamber. Additionally, the two spherical reflector segments previously described have been replaced by two full spheres or, more precisely, two spherical annuli, so that the total photon throughput is largely increased. Finally, the range of permissible Bragg angles and possible magnifications of the objective has been largely increased.

  17. Data preparation and evaluation techniques for x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Marchesini, Stefano; Shapiro, David; Turner, Joshua J.; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The post-experiment processing of X-ray Diffraction Microscopy data is often time-consuming and difficult. This is mostly due to the fact that even if a preliminary result has been reconstructed, there is no definitive answer as to whether or not a better result with more consistently retrieved phases can still be obtained. In addition, we show here that the first step in data analysis, the assembly of two-dimensional diffraction patterns from a large set of raw diffraction data, is crucial to obtaining reconstructions of highest possible consistency. We have developed software that automates this process and results in consistently accurate diffractionmore » patterns. We have furthermore derived some criteria of validity for a tool commonly used to assess the consistency of reconstructions, the phase retrieval transfer function, and suggest a modified version that has improved utility for judging reconstruction quality.« less

  18. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ioni Beam-scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Nelson; W Harris; J Lombardo; J Izzo Jr.; W Chiu; P Tanasini; M Cantoni; J Van herle; C Comninellis; et al.

    2011-12-31

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIB-SEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIB-SEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  19. Comparison of SOFC Cathode Microstructure Quantified using X-ray Nanotomography and Focused Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George J.; Harris, William H.; Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.; Tanasini, Pietro; Cantoni, Marco; Van herle, Jan; Comninellis, Christos; Andrews, Joy C.; Liu, Yijin; Pianetta, Piero; Chu, Yong

    2011-03-24

    X-ray nanotomography and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) have been applied to investigate the complex 3D microstructure of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrodes at spatial resolutions of 45 nm and below. The application of near edge differential absorption for x-ray nanotomography and energy selected backscatter detection for FIBSEM enable elemental mapping within the microstructure. Using these methods, non-destructive 3D x-ray imaging and FIBSEM serial sectioning have been applied to compare three-dimensional elemental mapping of the LSM, YSZ, and pore phases in the SOFC cathode microstructure. The microstructural characterization of an SOFC cathode is reported based on these measurements. The results presented demonstrate the viability of x-ray nanotomography as a quantitative characterization technique and provide key insights into the SOFC cathode microstructure.

  20. Determination of the polarization state of x rays with the help of anomalous transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, K. S. Uschmann, I.; Frster, E.; Marx, B.; Paulus, G. G.; Sthlker, T.

    2014-04-14

    Besides intensity and direction, the polarization of an electromagnetic wave provides characteristic information on the crossed medium. Here, we present two methods for the determination of the polarization state of x rays by polarizers based on anomalous transmission (Borrmann effect). Using a polarizer-analyzer setup, we have measured a polarization purity of less than 1.5??10{sup ?5}, three orders of magnitude better than obtained in earlier work. Using the analyzer crystal in multiple-beam case with slightly detuned azimuth, we show how the first three Stokes parameters can be determined with a single angular scan. Thus, polarization analyzers based on anomalous transmission make it possible to detect changes of the polarization in a range from degrees down to arcseconds.

  1. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  2. An angle-dependent estimation of CT x-ray spectrum from rotational transmission measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuan Samei, Ehsan; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Stierstorfer, Karl

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) performance as well as dose and image quality is directly affected by the x-ray spectrum. However, the current assessment approaches of the CT x-ray spectrum require costly measurement equipment and complicated operational procedures, and are often limited to the spectrum corresponding to the center of rotation. In order to address these limitations, the authors propose an angle-dependent estimation technique, where the incident spectra across a wide range of angular trajectories can be estimated accurately with only a single phantom and a single axial scan in the absence of the knowledge of the bowtie filter. Methods: The proposed technique uses a uniform cylindrical phantom, made of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and positioned in an off-centered geometry. The projection data acquired with an axial scan have a twofold purpose. First, they serve as a reflection of the transmission measurements across different angular trajectories. Second, they are used to reconstruct the cross sectional image of the phantom, which is then utilized to compute the intersection length of each transmission measurement. With each CT detector element recording a range of transmission measurements for a single angular trajectory, the spectrum is estimated for that trajectory. A data conditioning procedure is used to combine information from hundreds of collected transmission measurements to accelerate the estimation speed, to reduce noise, and to improve estimation stability. The proposed spectral estimation technique was validated experimentally using a clinical scanner (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare, Germany) with spectra provided by the manufacturer serving as the comparison standard. Results obtained with the proposed technique were compared against those obtained from a second conventional transmission measurement technique with two materials (i.e., Cu and Al). After validation, the proposed technique was applied to measure spectra from the clinical system across a range of angular trajectories [−15°, 15°] and spectrum settings (80, 100, 120, 140 kVp). Results: At 140 kVp, the proposed technique was comparable to the conventional technique in terms of the mean energy difference (MED, −0.29 keV) and the normalized root mean square difference (NRMSD, 0.84%) from the comparison standard compared to 0.64 keV and 1.56%, respectively, with the conventional technique. The average absolute MEDs and NRMSDs across kVp settings and angular trajectories were less than 0.61 keV and 3.41%, respectively, which indicates a high level of estimation accuracy and stability. Conclusions: An angle-dependent estimation technique of CT x-ray spectra from rotational transmission measurements was proposed. Compared with the conventional technique, the proposed method simplifies the measurement procedures and enables incident spectral estimation for a wide range of angular trajectories. The proposed technique is suitable for rigorous research objectives as well as routine clinical quality control procedures.

  3. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C.; Vis, R.D.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.; Bowen, D.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  4. Comparison of synchrotron x-ray microanalysis with electron and proton microscopy for individual particle analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssens, K.H.; van Langevelde, F.; Adams, F.C. ); Vis, R.D. ); Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L. ); Jones, K.W. ); Bowen, D.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the use of synchrotron/radiation induced x-ray fluorescences ({mu}-SRXRF) as implemented at two existing X-ray microprobes for the analysis of individual particles. As representative environmental particulates, National Institutes of Science and Technology (NIST) K227, K309, K441 and K961 glass microspheres were analyzed using two types of X-ray micro probes: the white light microprobe at beamline X26A of the monochromatic (15 keV) X-ray microprobe at station 7.6 of the SRS. For reference, the particles were also analyzed with microanalytical techniques more commonly employed for individual particles analysis such as EPMA and micro-PIXE.

  5. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY AND X-RAY DIFFRACTION ANALYSIS OF TANK 18 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, M.; O'Rourke, P.; Ajo, H.

    2012-03-08

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) Performance Assessment (PA) utilizes waste speciation in the waste release model used in the FTF fate and transport modeling. The waste release modeling associated with the residual plutonium in Tank 18 has been identified as a primary contributor to the Tank 18 dose uncertainty. In order to reduce the uncertainty related to plutonium in Tank 18, a better understanding of the plutonium speciation in the Tank 18 waste (including the oxidation state and stoichiometry) is desired. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilized Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to analyze Tank 18 samples to provide information on the speciation of plutonium in the waste material. XRD analysis of the Tank 18 samples did not identify any plutonium mineral phases in the samples. These indicates the crystalline mineral phases of plutonium are below the detection limits of the XRD method or that the plutonium phase(s) lack long range order and are present as amorphous or microcrystalline solids. SEM analysis of the Tank 18 samples did locate particles containing plutonium. The plutonium was found as small particles, usually <1 {micro}m but ranging up to several micrometers in diameter, associated with particles of an iron matrix and at low concentration in other elemental matrices. This suggests the plutonium has an affinity for the iron matrix. Qualitatively, the particles of plutonium found in the SEM analysis do not appear to account for all of the plutonium in the sample based on concentrations determined from the chemical analysis of the Tank 18 samples. This suggests that plutonium is also distributed throughout the solids in low concentrations.

  6. Variable magnification with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for synchrotron X-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jach, Terrence; Bakulin, Alex S.; Durbin, Stephen M.; Pedulla, Joseph; Macrander, Albert

    2006-05-01

    In this study, we describe the distinction between the operation of a short focal length x-ray microscope forming a real image with a laboratory source (convergent illumination) and with a highly collimated intense beam from a synchrotron light source (Kohler illumination).

  7. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Katherine Jungjohann & Yang Liu Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 cint.lanl.gov * Adjustable HT: 100-300 kV * EDAX EDS Detector * Gatan Tridiem GIF * ADF STEM Detector * HAADF STEM Detector * BF STEM Detector * 2.0 A resolution in TEM * 1.9 A resolution in STEM * High resolution videos using Gatan Ultrascan CCD camera * Simultaneous BF and HAADF STEM imaging * EDS and EELS mapping * Energy-filtered imaging Sample Preparation

  8. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-08-26

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view.

  9. High-resolution diffraction microscopy using the plane-wave field of a nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Kubo, Hideto; Furukawa, Hayato; Mimura, Hidekazu; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2009-08-01

    X-ray waves in the center of the beam waist of nearly diffraction limited focused x-ray beams can be considered to have amplitude and phase that are both almost uniform, i.e., they are x-ray plane waves. Here we report the results of an experimental demonstration of high-resolution diffraction microscopy using the x-ray plane wave of the synchrotron x-ray beam focused using Kirkpatrik-Baez mirrors. A silver nanocube with an edge length of {approx}100 nm is illuminated with the x-ray beam focused to a {approx}1 {mu}m spot at 12 keV. A high-contrast symmetric diffraction pattern of the nanocube is observed in the forward far field. An image of the nanocube is successfully reconstructed by an iterative phasing method and its half-period resolution is 3.0 nm. This method does not only dramatically improve the spatial resolution of x-ray microscopy but also is a key technology for realizing single-pulse diffractive imaging using x-ray free-electron lasers.

  10. Following Dynamic Processes by X-ray Tomographic Microscopy with Sub-second Temporal Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokso, R.; Marone, F.; Mikuljan, G.; Isenegger, A.; Haberthuer, D.; Schittny, J. C.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    Several non-destructive imaging techniques offer the possibility to observe rapid phenomena in real time, yet most of these techniques fail when it comes to bulky samples and micrometer precision in three dimensions. Therefore there is clearly a need to develop approaches that address such conditions. We identified the large potential that lies in synchrotron-based x-rays as a probe and developed a direct-space tomographic instrument suitable to provide sub-second temporal resolution with several-micrometers spatial resolution. Selected applications from the field of biology and material science are shown in order to demonstrate the unique capabilities in generating three-dimensional images with very high quality making image segmentation and analysis possible for samples that could, until now, only be studied in two dimensions due to the occurrence of rapid structural changes.

  11. Soft X-ray microscopy in the spectral region of 'carbon window' with the use of multilayer optics and a laser-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artyukov, I. A. Vinogradov, A. V.; Bugayev, Ye. A.; Devizenko, A. Yu.; Kondratenko, V. V.; Kasyanov, Yu. S.

    2009-11-15

    This paper reports on the fabrication and testing of multilayer mirrors for X-ray optical systems operating in the 'carbon window' region (at wavelengths from 4.5 to 5.0 nm) and the results of their application in soft X-ray imaging of the internal structure of organic objects. The developed approaches to the fabrication and control of graded Co/C multilayer coatings have made it possible to create an X-ray multimirror system with a maximum known entrance aperture and throughput. The use of the developed high-spatial-resolution X-ray optics can significantly extend the field of practical application of soft X-ray absorption microscopy based on compact laser-plasma sources.

  12. Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almaviva, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Franzini, I.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R. M.; Pelliccia, D.; Cedola, A.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2006-07-31

    An innovative route for deep-submicrometer spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy with tabletop x-ray source is proposed. A film of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as imaging detector in contact mode. We present here the x-ray images recorded on LiF films of a Fresnel zone plate with submicrometer gold structures and of an onion cataphyll. The images were read with an optical confocal microscope in fluorescence mode. The measured spatial resolution was about 250 nm, i.e., close to the resolution limit of the confocal microscope. The advantages and drawbacks, and the possible improvements, of this route are discussed.

  13. Mesoscopic structural phase progression in photo-excited VO2 revealed by time-resolved x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yi; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Pice; Zhang, Qingteng; Highland, Matthew J.; Jung, II Woong; Walko, Donald A.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Jaewoo, Jeong; Samant, Mahesh G.; et al

    2016-02-26

    Dynamical phase separation during a solid-solid phase transition poses a challenge for understanding the fundamental processes in correlated materials. Critical information underlying a phase transition, such as localized phase competition, is difficult to reveal by measurements that are spatially averaged over many phase seperated regions. The ability to simultanousely track the spatial and temporal evolution of such systems is essential to understanding mesoscopic processes during a phase transition. Using state-of- the-art time-resolved hard x-ray diffraction microscopy, we directly visualize the structural phase progression in a VO2 film upon photoexcitation. Following a homogenous in-plane optical excitation, the phase transformation is initiatedmore » at discrete sites and completed by the growth of one lattice structure into the other, instead of a simultaneous isotropic lattice symmetry change. The time-dependent x-ray diffraction spatial maps show that the in-plane phase progression in laser-superheated VO2 is via a displacive lattice transformation as a result of relaxation from an excited monoclinic phase into a rutile phase. The speed of the phase front progression is quantitatively measured, which is faster than the process driven by in-plane thermal diffusion but slower than the sound speed in VO2. Lastly, the direct visualization of localized structural changes in the time domain opens a new avenue to study mesoscopic processes in driven systems.« less

  14. X-Ray Diffraction > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction...

  15. X-Ray Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Reveals How Crystal Mechanics Drive Battery Performance Print Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries power most portable electronics and are becoming more widely used in large-scale applications like electric vehicles. Scientists have long observed that lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles are one of the best performing battery electrode materials, able to repeatedly charge and discharge in an extremely reversible manner, but the precise mechanism responsible for their performance has

  16. Scientific Achievement Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) method was developed to determine thickness and wrinkles in electron beam sensitive 2-dimensional (2D) MFI nanosheets....

  17. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  18. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  19. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiquian; Pan, Huilin; Zhou, Yongning; Northrup, Paul; Xiao, Jie; Bak, Seongmin; Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Qu, Deyang; Liu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg⁻¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li₂Sx intermediates (1 < x ≤ 8). It is reported that the long-chain polysulfides can be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.

  20. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiquian; Pan, Huilin; Zhou, Yongning; Northrup, Paul; Xiao, Jie; Bak, Seongmin; Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Qu, Deyang; Liu, Jun; Wu, Tianpin; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density LiS batteries (2600 W h kg?) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during chargedischarge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li?Sx intermediates (1 < x ? 8). It is reported that the long-chain polysulfides can be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called shuttle effect is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the LiS batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some LiS cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of LiS batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in LiS batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVvisible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in LiS cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in LiS battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of LiS batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the LiS cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the LiS reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding LiS chemistry and designing effective strategies for LiS batteries.

  1. Direct observation of the redistribution of sulfur and polysufides in Li-S batteries during first cycle by in situ X-Ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiquian; Pan, Huilin; Zhou, Yongning; Northrup, Paul; Xiao, Jie; Bak, Seongmin; Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Qu, Deyang; Liu, Jun; et al

    2015-03-25

    The demands on low cost and high energy density rechargeable batteries for both transportation and large-scale stationary energy storage are stimulating more and more research toward new battery systems. Since sulfur is an earth-abundant material with low cost, research on the high energy density Li–S batteries (2600 W h kg⁻¹) are getting more and more attention. The reactions between sulfur and lithium during charge–discharge cycling are quite complicated, going through multiple electron transfer process associated with chemical and electrochemical equilibrium between long- and short-chain polysulfide Li₂Sx intermediates (1 < x ≤ 8). It is reported that the long-chain polysulfides canmore » be dissolved into electrolyte with aprotic organic solvents and migrated to the Li anode side. This so-called “shuttle effect” is believed to be the main reason for capacity loss and low columbic efficiency of the Li–S batteries. In the past few years, a great deal of efforts have been made on how to overcome the problem of polysulfide dissolution through new sulfur electrode construction and cell designs, as well as the modification of the electrolyte. Although it has been reported by several publications that some Li–S cells can sustain more than a thousand cycles based on the thin film electrode configurations, the long-term cycling stability is still one of the major barriers for the real application of Li–S batteries. More in-depth studies on the fundamental understanding of the sulfur reaction mechanism and interactions among the different polysulfide species, the electrolyte and the electrodes are still greatly needed. Various in situ techniques have been developed and applied to study the mechanism of the sulfur chemistry in Li–S batteries during electrochemical cycling, such as transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The applications of these characterization techniques have demonstrated their power in probing the structure changes, morphology evolutions, and coordination of sulfur and polysulfides with the electrolyte in Li–S cells, providing complementary information to each other thus enhancing the understanding in Li–S battery systems. In this communication, in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy was combined with XAS to directly probe the morphology changes of Li–S batteries during first cycle. The morphology changes of the sulfur electrode and the redistribution of sulfur and polysulfides were monitored in real time through the XRF images, while the changes of the sulfur containing compounds were characterized through the XAS spectra simultaneously. In contrast to other studies using ex situ or single characterization technique as reported in the literatures, the in situ technique used in this work has the unique feature of probing the Li–S cell under operating conditions, as well as the combination of XRF imaging with spectroscopy data. By doing this, the morphology evolution and redistribution of specific sulfur particles during cycling can be tracked and identified at certain locations in a real time. In addition, this technique allows us to select the field-of-view (FOV) area from micrometer to centimeter size, providing the capability to study the Li–S reactions not just at the material level, but also at the electrode level. This is very important for both understanding Li–S chemistry and designing effective strategies for Li–S batteries.« less

  2. Investigation of defect clusters in ion-irradiated Ni and NiCo using diffuse X-ray scattering and electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olsen, Raina J.; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Beland, Laurent K.; Wang, Lumin M.; Bei, Hongbin; Specht, Eliot D.; Larson, Bennett C.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of defect clusters in Ni and Nimore » $$_{50}$$Co$$_{50}$$ (NiCo) irradiated at room temperature with 2–16 MeV Ni ions is studied using asymptotic diffuse X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of the scattering data provides separate size distributions for vacancy and interstitial type defect clusters, showing that both types of defect clusters have a smaller size and higher density in NiCo than in Ni. Diffuse scattering results show good quantitative agreement with TEM results for cluster sizes greater than 4 nm diameter, but find that the majority of vacancy clusters are under 2 nm in NiCo, which, if not detected, would lead to the conclusion that defect density was actually lower in the alloy. Interstitial dislocation loops and stacking fault tetrahedra are identified by TEM. Lastly comparison of diffuse scattering lineshapes to those calculated for dislocation loops and SFTs indicates that most of the vacancy clusters are SFTs.« less

  3. Investigation of defect clusters in ion-irradiated Ni and NiCo using diffuse X-ray scattering and electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Raina J.; Jin, Ke; Lu, Chenyang; Beland, Laurent K.; Wang, Lumin M.; Bei, Hongbin; Specht, Eliot D.; Larson, Bennett C.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of defect clusters in Ni and Ni$_{50}$Co$_{50}$ (NiCo) irradiated at room temperature with 2–16 MeV Ni ions is studied using asymptotic diffuse X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Analysis of the scattering data provides separate size distributions for vacancy and interstitial type defect clusters, showing that both types of defect clusters have a smaller size and higher density in NiCo than in Ni. Diffuse scattering results show good quantitative agreement with TEM results for cluster sizes greater than 4 nm diameter, but find that the majority of vacancy clusters are under 2 nm in NiCo, which, if not detected, would lead to the conclusion that defect density was actually lower in the alloy. Interstitial dislocation loops and stacking fault tetrahedra are identified by TEM. Lastly comparison of diffuse scattering lineshapes to those calculated for dislocation loops and SFTs indicates that most of the vacancy clusters are SFTs.

  4. Induced magnetic anisotropy in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials: A transmission x-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, R. Suzuki, K.; Yanai, T.; Kishimoto, H.; Kato, A.; Ohnuma, M.

    2015-05-07

    In order to better understand the origin of field-induced anisotropy (K{sub u}) in Si-free nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys, the lattice spacing of the bcc-Fe phase in nanocrystalline Fe{sub 94?x}Nb{sub 6}B{sub x} (x?=?10, 12, 14) alloys annealed under an applied magnetic field has been investigated by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry (t-XRD) with the diffraction vector parallel and perpendicular to the field direction. The saturation magnetostriction (?{sub s}) of nanocrystalline Fe{sub 94?x}Nb{sub 6}B{sub x} was found to increase linearly with the volume fraction of the residual amorphous phase and is well described by taking into account the volume-weighted average of two local ?{sub s} values for the bcc-Fe nanocrystallites (?5??2?ppm) and the residual amorphous matrix (+8??2?ppm). The lattice distortion required to produce the measured K{sub u} values (?100?J/m{sup 3}) was estimated via the inverse magnetostrictive effect using the measured ?{sub s} values and was compared to the lattice spacing estimations made by t-XRD. The lattice strain required to produce K{sub u} under the magnetoelastic model was not observed by the t-XRD experiments and so the findings of this study suggest that the origin of magnetic field induced K{sub u} cannot be explained through the magnetoelastic effect.

  5. Strain and lattice orientation distribution in SiN/Ge complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible light emitting microstructures by quick x-ray nano-diffraction microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chahine, G. A.; Schlli, T. U.; Zoellner, M. H.; Guha, S.; Reich, C.; Zaumseil, P.; Capellini, G.; Richard, M.-I.; Schroeder, T.

    2015-02-16

    This paper presents a study of the spatial distribution of strain and lattice orientation in CMOS-fabricated strained Ge microstripes using high resolution x-ray micro-diffraction. The recently developed model-free characterization tool, based on a quick scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy technique can image strain down to levels of 10{sup ?5} (?a/a) with a spatial resolution of ?0.5??m. Strain and lattice tilt are extracted using the strain and orientation calculation software package X-SOCS. The obtained results are compared with the biaxial strain distribution obtained by lattice parameter-sensitive ?-Raman and ?-photoluminescence measurements. The experimental data are interpreted with the help of finite element modeling of the strain relaxation dynamics in the investigated structures.

  6. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thfoin, I. Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Ross, B.; Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Morace, A.

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromtre PETAL Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  7. Confocal Microscopy on Light-emitting Nanostructures and X-ray Imaging Detectors Based on Color Centers in Lithium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonfigli, F.; Almaviva, S.; Montereali, R. M.

    2010-10-06

    Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) is a versatile and powerful optical instrument which is gaining a strong increase of interest for biological investigations and also for the characterization of materials, microstructures and devices. We exploit its capability for the characterization of light-emitting micro and nano-structures based on color centers in lithium fluoride. CLSM was successfully used as an advanced optical reading system to detect X-ray micro-radiographies of biological specimens stored in LiF imaging detectors.

  8. Direct comparison between X-ray nanotomography and scanning electron microscopy for the microstructure characterization of a solid oxide fuel cell anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quey, R.; Suhonen, H.; Laurencin, J.; Cloetens, P.; Bleuet, P.

    2013-04-15

    X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the microstructure of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) anode. A direct comparison between the results of both methods is conducted on the same region of the microstructure to assess the spatial resolution of the nano-CT microstructure, SEM being taken as a reference. A registration procedure is proposed to find out the position of the SEM image within the nano-CT volume. It involves a second SEM observation, which is taken along an orthogonal direction and gives an estimate reference SEM image position, which is then refined by an automated optimization procedure. This enables an unbiased comparison between the cell porosity morphologies provided by both methods. In the present experiment, nano-CT is shown to underestimate the number of pores smaller than 1 ?m and overestimate the size of the pores larger than 1.5 ?m. - Highlights: ? X-ray computed nanotomography (nano-CT) and SEM are used to characterize an SOFC anode. ? A methodology is proposed to compare the nano-CT and SEM data on the same region. ? The spatial resolution of the nano-CT data is assessed from that comparison.

  9. Response model for Kodak Biomax-MS film to x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; Yaakobi, B.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B. A.; Chandler, K. M.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Hammer, D. A.

    2006-10-15

    X-ray-sensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. Replacement film must be found as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a 'T-grain' class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF and a model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, scanning electron microscopy micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain-type film.

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    demonstrate for the first time a lensless x-ray imaging technique involving holographic principles and carried out in reflection (as opposed to transmission) geometry. The...

  11. In situ transmission electron microscopy analysis of conductive filament during solid electrolyte resistance switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Takashi; Arita, Masashi; Takahashi, Yasuo; Fujiwara, Ichiro

    2011-05-23

    An in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of a solid electrolyte, Cu-GeS, during resistance switching is reported. Real-time observations of the filament formation and disappearance process were performed in the TEM instrument and the conductive-filament-formation model was confirmed experimentally. Narrow conductive filaments were formed corresponding to resistance switching from high- to low-resistance states. When the resistance changed to high-resistance state, the filament disappeared. It was also confirmed by use of selected area diffractometry and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy that the conductive filament was made of nanocrystals composed mainly of Cu.

  12. Quantitation and localization of intracellular redox active metals by X-ray fluorescence microscopy in cortical neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout tissue

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; James, Simon A.; Altissimo, Matteo; Paterson, David; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Bush, Ashley I.; Cappai, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family includes APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2. These proteins contain metal binding sites for copper, zinc and iron and are known to have physiological roles in modulating the metal homeostasis in brain cells. Here we report the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to investigate the subcellular distribution patterns of the metal ions Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in individual neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout mice brains to further define their role in metal homeostasis. These studies add to the growing body of data that the APP familymore » of proteins are metalloproteins that have shared as well as distinct effects on metals. As we continue to delineate the cellular effects of the APP family of proteins it is important to consider how metals are involved in their actions.« less

  13. Quantitation and localization of intracellular redox active metals by X-ray fluorescence microscopy in cortical neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout tissue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; James, Simon A.; Altissimo, Matteo; Paterson, David; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Bush, Ashley I.; Cappai, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene family includes APP and the amyloid precursor-like proteins, APLP1 and APLP2. These proteins contain metal binding sites for copper, zinc and iron and are known to have physiological roles in modulating the metal homeostasis in brain cells. Here we report the application of X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to investigate the subcellular distribution patterns of the metal ions Cu, Zn, Fe, and Ca in individual neurons derived from APP and APLP2 knockout mice brains to further define their role in metal homeostasis. These studies add to the growing body of data that the APP family of proteins are metalloproteins that have shared as well as distinct effects on metals. As we continue to delineate the cellular effects of the APP family of proteins it is important to consider how metals are involved in their actions.

  14. Investigating the mesostructure of ordered porous silica nanocomposites by transmission electron microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullita, S.; Casula, M. F.; Piludu, M.; Falqui, A.; Carta, D.; Corrias, A.

    2014-10-21

    Nanocomposites made out of FeCo alloy nanocrystals supported onto pre-formed mesoporous ordered silica which features a cubic arrangement of pores (SBA-16) were investigated. Information on the effect of the nanocrystals on the mesostructure (i.e. pore arrangement symmetry, pore size, and shape) were deduced by a multitechnique approach including N2 physisorption, low angle X-ray diffraction, and Transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques are required, however, to gain direct evidence on key compositional and textural features of the nanocomposites. In particular, electron tomography and microtomy techniques make clear that the FeCo nanocrystals are located within the pores of the SBA-16 silica, and that the ordered mesostructure of the nanocomposite is retained throughout the observed specimen.

  15. In situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the interfacial reaction between Ni and Al during rapid heating in a nanocalorimeter Grapes, Michael D. Department of...

  16. In situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: In situ transmission electron microscopy investigation of the interfacial reaction between Ni and Al during rapid heating in a nanocalorimeter Title: In situ...

  17. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  18. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of aluminophosphates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulan, J.G.; Gronsky, R. ); Szostak, R. ); Sorby, K. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-04-01

    VPI-5 transforms to AlPO{sub 4}-8 under mild thermal treatment (100{degree}C, 18 hrs). HRTEM micrographs, oriented normal to the c axis, show extensive defect-free regions in VPI-5, while slip planes normal to the c axis are found in AlPO{sub 4}-8. Analysis of the HRTEM data, in conjunction with infrared and thermal analysis, adsorption studies and x-ray powder diffraction, has lead to a proposed structure for AlPO{sub 4}-8. Though the sheets containing the 18 member rings which define the pores in VPI-5 remain intact in AlPO{sub 4}-8, reduction in the porosity is attributed to blockages created by the movement of these sheets relative to each other. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Imaging and microanalysis of thin ionomer layers by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullen, David A; Koestner, Roland; Kukreja, Ratan; Minko, Sergiy; Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Tokarev, Alexander V; Guetaz, Laure; Meyer III, Harry M; Parish, Chad M; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Improved conditions for imaging and spectroscopic mapping of thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layers in fuel cell electrodes by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) have been investigated. These conditions are first identified on model systems of Nafion ionomer-coated nanostructured thin films and nanoporous Si. The optimized conditions are then applied in a quantitative study of the ionomer through-layer loading for two typical electrode catalyst coatings using electron energy loss and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope. The e-beam induced damage to the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer is quantified by following the fluorine mass loss with electron exposure and is then mitigated by a few orders of magnitude using cryogenic specimen cooling and a higher incident electron voltage. Multivariate statistical analysis is also applied to the analysis of spectrum images for data denoising and unbiased separation of independent components related to the catalyst, ionomer, and support.

  20. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  1. In Situ Observation of Water Dissociation with Lattice Incorporation at FeO Particle Edges Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xingyi; Lee, Junseok; Wang, Congjun; Matranga, Christopher; Aksoy, Funda; Liu, Zhi

    2011-03-15

    The dissociation of H2O and formation of adsorbed hydroxyl groups, on FeO particles grown on Au(111) were identified with in situ,: X:ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at water pressures ranging from 3 x 10-8 to 0.1 Torr. The facile dissociation of H2O takes place at FeO particle edges, and it was successfully observed in situ With atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The in situ STM studies show that adsorbed hydroxyl groups were formed exclusively along the edges of the FeO particles with the 0 atom becoming directly incorporated into the oxide crystalline lattice The STM results are consistent with coordinatively unsaturated ferrous (CUF) sites along the FeO particle edge causing the observed reactivity with H2O. Our results also directly illustrate how structural defects and under.-coordinated sites participate in chemical reactions.

  2. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks onmore » the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.« less

  3. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  4. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  5. In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy. Abstract not provided. Authors: Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh ; Liu, Yang Publication Date: 2015-02-01 OSTI Identifier: 1238312 Report Number(s): SAND2015-0858C 563495 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Proposed for presentation at the Advanced Electron Microscopy (AEM) Workshop held February 11-13, 2015 in San

  6. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory October 8-9, 2002 Organizers: John Miao & Keith Hodgson A workshop on "X-ray Imaging and Spectro-microscopy: the Present and the Future" was held on October 8-9, 2002. This workshop, organized by John Miao (SSRL) and Keith Hodgson (SSRL) provided a forum to discuss the scientific applications of a variety of imaging and spectro-microscopic techniques, including photoemission

  7. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  8. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy....

  9. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Monday, May 23, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference room 137-322 Professor Tom Vogt, NanoCenter & Department of Chemistry, University of South Carolina High-Angle-Annular-Dark-Field/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF/STEM) is a technique uniquely suited for detailed studies of the structure and composition of complex oxides. The HAADF detector collects electrons

  10. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  11. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  12. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  13. X-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  14. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  15. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  16. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  17. Studying localized corrosion using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chee, See Wee; Pratt, Sarah H.; Hattar, Khalid; Duquette, David; Ross, Frances M.; Hull, Robert

    2014-11-07

    Using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM), localized corrosion of Cu and Al thin films immersed in aqueous NaCl solutions was studied. We demonstrate that potentiostatic control can be used to initiate pitting and that local compositional changes, due to focused ion beam implantation of Au+ ions, can modify the corrosion susceptibility of Al films. Likewise, a discussion on strategies to control the onset of pitting is also presented.

  18. Studying localized corrosion using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chee, See Wee; Pratt, Sarah H.; Hattar, Khalid; Duquette, David; Ross, Frances M.; Hull, Robert

    2014-11-07

    Using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM), localized corrosion of Cu and Al thin films immersed in aqueous NaCl solutions was studied. We demonstrate that potentiostatic control can be used to initiate pitting and that local compositional changes, due to focused ion beam implantation of Au+ ions, can modify the corrosion susceptibility of Al films. Likewise, a discussion on strategies to control the onset of pitting is also presented.

  19. When will low-contrast features be visible in a STEM X-ray spectrum image?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parish, Chad M.

    2015-02-03

    When will a small or low-contrast feature, such as an embedded second-phase particle, be visible in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) X-ray map? This work illustrates a computationally inexpensive method to simulate X-ray maps and spectrum images (SIs), based upon the equations of X-ray generation and detection. To particularize the general procedure, an example of nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) containing nm-sized Y2Ti2O7 embedded precipitates in ferritic stainless steel matrix is chosen. The proposed model produces physically appearing simulated SI data sets, which can either be reduced to X-ray dot maps or analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis. Comparison to NFAmore » X-ray maps acquired using three different STEM instruments match the generated simulations quite well, despite the large number of simplifying assumptions used. A figure of merit of electron dose multiplied by X-ray collection solid angle is proposed to compare feature detectability from one data set (simulated or experimental) to another. The proposed method can scope experiments that are feasible under specific analysis conditions on a given microscope. As a result, future applications, such as spallation proton–neutron irradiations, core-shell nanoparticles, or dopants in polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells, are proposed.« less

  20. When will low-contrast features be visible in a STEM X-ray spectrum image?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parish, Chad M.

    2015-02-03

    When will a small or low-contrast feature, such as an embedded second-phase particle, be visible in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) X-ray map? This work illustrates a computationally inexpensive method to simulate X-ray maps and spectrum images (SIs), based upon the equations of X-ray generation and detection. To particularize the general procedure, an example of nanostructured ferritic alloy (NFA) containing nm-sized Y2Ti2O7 embedded precipitates in ferritic stainless steel matrix is chosen. The proposed model produces physically appearing simulated SI data sets, which can either be reduced to X-ray dot maps or analyzed via multivariate statistical analysis. Comparison to NFA X-ray maps acquired using three different STEM instruments match the generated simulations quite well, despite the large number of simplifying assumptions used. A figure of merit of electron dose multiplied by X-ray collection solid angle is proposed to compare feature detectability from one data set (simulated or experimental) to another. The proposed method can scope experiments that are feasible under specific analysis conditions on a given microscope. As a result, future applications, such as spallation proton–neutron irradiations, core-shell nanoparticles, or dopants in polycrystalline photovoltaic solar cells, are proposed.

  1. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  2. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm S.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  3. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic

  4. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle.more » Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.« less

  5. Mapping Metals Incorporation of a Whole Single Catalyst Particle Using Element Specific X-ray Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meirer, Florian; Morris, Darius T.; Kalirai, Sam; Liu, Yijin; Andrews, Joy C.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-02

    Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy has been used to determine the 3D structure of a whole individual fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) particle at high spatial resolution and in a fast, noninvasive manner, maintaining the full integrity of the particle. Using X-ray absorption mosaic imaging to combine multiple fields of view, computed tomography was performed to visualize the macropore structure of the catalyst and its availability for mass transport. We mapped the relative spatial distributions of Ni and Fe using multiple-energy tomography at the respective X-ray absorption K-edges and correlated these distributions with porosity and permeability of an equilibrated catalyst (E-cat) particle. Both metals were found to accumulate in outer layers of the particle, effectively decreasing porosity by clogging of pores and eventually restricting access into the FCC particle.

  6. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available.

  7. HSQ double patterning process for 12 nm resolution x-ray zone...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Soft x-ray zone plate microscopy is a powerful nano-analytic technique used for a wide ... GOLD; HYDROGEN; HYDROXYLATION; LENSES; MICROSCOPY; PLATES; PLATING; RESOLUTION; ...

  8. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  9. Structure of low-density nanoporous dielectrics revealed by low-vacuum electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S O; Toth, M; Baumann, T F; Hamza, A V; Ilavsky, J; Knowles, W R; Thiel, B L; Tileli, V; van Buuren, T; Wang, Y M; Willey, T M

    2006-06-05

    We use low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy to image directly the ligament and pore size and shape distributions of representative aerogels over a wide range of length scales ({approx} 10{sup 0}-10{sup 5} nm). The images are used for unambiguous, real-space interpretation of small-angle scattering data for these complex nanoporous systems.

  10. PROPX: An X-ray Manipulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    An interactive micro-computer program that performs some manipulations on an input x-ray spectrum is introduced and described. The program is used to calculate the effect of absorption of filters, transmission through fibers, responsivity of photocathodes, responsivity of absorptive detectors, folding of responses, plotting of cross sections, and calculation, as a function of electron temperature, of the response due to a bremsstrahlung spectrum. Fluorescence from the targets is not included. Two different x-ray libraries are offered, one covers the x-ray range 30--10,000 eV with 288 energy points, and the other covers the energy range 10 eV to 1 MeV with 250 energy points per decade. 7 refs.

  11. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  12. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  13. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells,...

  14. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the...

  15. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft X-Rays Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the...

  16. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast...

  17. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  18. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  19. Automated Chemical Analysis of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Using X-ray Spectromicroscopy at the Carbon K-Edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Henn, Tobias R.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Marry K.

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an automated data analysis method for atmospheric particles using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). This method is applied to complex internally mixed submicron particles containing organic and inorganic material. Several algorithms were developed to exploit NEXAFS spectral features in the energy range from 278-320 eV for quantitative mapping of the spatial distribution of elemental carbon, organic carbon, potassium, and non-carbonaceous elements in particles of mixed composition. This energy range encompasses the carbon K-edge and potassium L2 and L3 edges. STXM/NEXAFS maps of different chemical components were complemented with a subsequent analysis using elemental maps obtained by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). We demonstrate application of the automated mapping algorithms for data analysis and the statistical classification of particles.

  20. Simultaneous orientation and thickness mapping in transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Özdöl, V. Burak; Koch, Christoph T.

    2014-12-04

    In this paper we introduce an approach for simultaneous thickness and orientation mapping of crystalline samples by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local thickness and orientation values can be extracted from experimental dark-field (DF) image data acquired at different specimen tilts. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map thickness and crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a commercial semiconductor device, containing multiple 22 nm technology transistor structures. The performance and limitations of our method are discussed and comparedmore » to those of other techniques available.« less

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  2. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  3. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  4. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  5. Transmission electron microscopy of whiskers and hillocks formed on Al films deposited onto a glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saka, H.; Fujino, S.; Kuroda, K. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Tsujimoto, K.; Tsuji, S. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Shimotsuruma, Yamato, Kanagawa 242 (Japan); Takatsuji, H. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Ichimiyake, Yasu-gun, Shiga 520-23 (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    Whiskers and hillocks formed on an Al film deposited onto a glass substrate have been observed by means of a variety of transmission electron microscopy technique.

  6. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  7. X-ray Microscopy and Imaging: FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frequently Asked Questions How to get beamtime ? 80% and more of our beamtime is awarded to General Users through the General User Proposal system. So, in order to receive beamtime...

  8. 3D Imaging of Nickel Oxidation States using Full Field X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Nanotomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, George; Harris, William; Izzo, John; Grew, Kyle N.

    2012-01-20

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling of the nickel electrocatalyst phase in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode can lead to performance degradation and cell failure. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level is vital to future SOFC development. Transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) provides several key techniques for exploring oxidation states within SOFC electrode microstructure. Specifically, x-ray nanotomography and x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy have been applied to study samples of varying nickel (Ni) and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. The imaged samples are treated as mock SOFC anodes containing distinct regions of the materials in question. XANES spectra presented for the individual materials provide a basis for the further processing and analysis of mixed samples. Images of composite samples obtained are segmented, and the distinct nickel and nickel oxide phases are uniquely identified using full field XANES spectroscopy. Applications to SOFC analysis are discussed.

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  10. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  11. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  12. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  13. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  14. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  15. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Title: X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) The primary interactions of ...

  16. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S.

    2004-11-01

    A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

  17. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  18. A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF PRESOLAR HIBONITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zega, Thomas J.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Alexander, Conel M. O'D.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2011-04-01

    We report isotopic and microstructural data on five presolar hibonite grains (KH1, KH2, KH6, KH15, and KH21) identified in an acid residue of the Krymka LL3.1 ordinary chondrite. Isotopic measurements by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) verified a presolar circumstellar origin for the grains. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of the crystal structure and chemistry of the grains was enabled by in situ sectioning and lift-out with a focused-ion-beam scanning-electron microscope (FIB-SEM). Comparisons of isotopic compositions with models indicate that four of the five grains formed in low-mass stars that evolved through the red giant/asymptotic giant branches (RGBs/AGBs), whereas one grain formed in the ejecta of a Type II supernova. Selected-area electron-diffraction patterns show that all grains are single crystals of hibonite. Some grains contain minor structural perturbations (stacking faults) and small spreads in orientation that can be attributed to a combination of growth defects and mechanical processing by grain-grain collisions. The similar structure of the supernova grain to those from RGB/AGB stars indicates a similarity in the formation conditions. Radiation damage (e.g., point defects), if present, occurs below our detection limit. Of the five grains we studied, only one has the pure hibonite composition of CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}. All others contain minor amounts of Mg, Si, Ti, and Fe. The microstructural data are generally consistent with theoretical predictions, which constrain the circumstellar condensation temperature to a range of 1480-1743 K, assuming a corresponding total gas pressure between 1 x 10{sup -6} and 1 x 10{sup -3} atm. The TEM data were also used to develop a calibration for SIMS determination of Ti contents in oxide grains. Grains with extreme {sup 18}O depletions, indicating deep mixing has occurred in their parent AGB stars, are slightly Ti enriched compared with grains from stars without deep mixing, most likely reflecting differences in grain condensation conditions.

  19. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  20. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  1. Imaging individual lanthanum atoms in zeolite Y by scanning transmission electron microscopy: evidence of lanthanum pair sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Pinghong; Lu, Jing; Aydin, C.; Debefve, Louise M.; Browning, Nigel D.; Chen, Cong-Yan; Gates, Bruce C.

    2015-09-01

    Images of La-exchanged NaY zeolite obtained with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) show that about 80% of the La cations were present as site-isolated species, with the remainder in pair sites. The distance between La cations in the pair sites ranged from 1.44 to 3.84 , consistent with the presence of pairs of cations tilted at various angles with respect to the support surface. The actual distance between La cations in the pair sites is inferred to be approximately 3.84 , which is shorter than the distance between the nearest Al sites in the zeolite (4.31 ). The results therefore suggest the presence of dimeric structures of La cations bridged with OH groups, and the presence of such species has been inferred previously on the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (W. Grnert, U. Sauerlandt, R. Schlgl, H.G. Karge, J. Phys. Chem., 97 (1993) 1413).

  2. Electron Microscopy > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction Electron Microscopy Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscope Facility Electron...

  3. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  4. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  5. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  6. In-Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy for Battery Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L; Gu, Meng; Parent, Lucas; Xu, WU; Nasybulin, Eduard; Chen, Xilin; Unocic, Raymond R; Xu, Pinghong; Welch, David; Abellan, Patricia; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chongmin; Arslan, Ilke; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.

  7. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  8. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  9. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  10. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  11. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  12. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  15. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  16. SMB, X-ray Fluorescence Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam line 14-3b is a bending magnet side station dedicated to X-ray imaging and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biological, biomedical, materials, and geological samples. ...

  17. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  18. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  19. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  20. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  1. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  2. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  3. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  4. Compound refractive lenses as prefocusing optics for X-ray FEL radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heimann, Philip; MacDonald, Michael; Nagler, Bob; Lee, Hae Ja; Galtier, Eric; Arnold, Brice; Xing, Zhou

    2016-01-27

    The performance of X-ray free-electron laser beamlines may be limited by the angular aperture. Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) can be employed to prefocus the X-ray beam, thereby increasing the beamline transmission. A prefocusing CRL was implemented in the X-ray transport of the Matter under Extreme Conditions Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. A significant improvement in the beamline transmission was calculated over the 3–10 keV photon energy range. At 5 keV, the relative X-ray intensity was measured and a factor of four increase was seen in the beamline transmission. As a result, the X-ray focus was also determined bymore » the ablation imprint method.« less

  5. Response Model for Kodak Biomax-MS Film to X Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Yaakobi, B.; Anderson, D.; Schmitt, B.A.; Chandler, K.M.; Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Mitchell, M.D.; Hammer, D.A.

    2007-01-24

    X-raysensitive film is used for a variety of imaging and spectroscopic diagnostics for high-temperature plasmas. New film becomes available as older films are phased out of production. Biomax-MS is a T-grain class of film that is proposed as a replacement for Kodak DEF film. A model of its response to x rays is presented. Data from dimensional measurements of the film, x-ray transmission measurements, SEM micrograph images, and x-ray calibration are used to develop this sensitivity model of Biomax-MS film as a function of x-ray energy and angle of incidence. Relative response data provide a check of the applicability of this model to determine the x-ray flux from spectrum data. This detailed film characterization starts with simple mathematical models and extends them to T-grain type film.

  6. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

    2012-03-13

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

  7. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  8. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now, a Belgian-German-ALS collaboration has used high-resolution, time-resolved, magnetic x-ray microscopy to experimentally reveal the first step of the reversal process: the...

  9. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure. Scattering techniques are further classified as partially for fully coherent according to the extent of transverse coherence of the incident beam.

  10. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  11. X-ray small-angle scattering from sputtered CeO{sub 2}/C bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haviar, S.; Dubau, M.; Khalakhan, I.; Vorokhta, M.; Matolinova, I.; Matolin, V.; Vales, V.; Endres, J.; Holy, V.; Buljan, M.; Bernstorff, S.

    2013-01-14

    Surface and interface morphology of cerium oxide/carbon bilayers used as thin-film catalysts is studied by grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic-force microscopy, and the dependence of the structural parameters on the thicknesses of the constituting layers is investigated. The applicability of x-ray scattering and its advantages over standard analytical methods are discussed.

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  14. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  15. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  16. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  17. Coated x-ray filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-24

    A radiation filter for filtering radiation beams of wavelengths within a preselected range of wavelengths comprises a radiation transmissive substrate and an attenuating layer deposited on the substrate. The attenuating layer may be deposited by a sputtering process or a vacuum process. Beryllium may be used as the radiation transmissive substrate. In addition, a second radiation filter comprises an attenuating layer interposed between a pair of radiation transmissive layers. 4 figs.

  18. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  19. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  20. In situ transmission electron microscopy of individual carbon nanotetrahedron/nanoribbon structures in Joule heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Yusuke; Yoshida, Hideto; Takeda, Seiji; Kohno, Hideo

    2014-08-25

    Collapse of a carbon nanotube results in the formation of a nanoribbon, and a switching of the collapse direction yields a nanotetrahedron in the middle of a nanoribbon. Here, we report in-situ transmission electron microscopy observations of the behavior of carbon nanotetrahedron/nanoribbon structures during Joule heating to reveal their thermal stability. In addition, we propose that the observed process is related to the formation process of the structure.

  1. Comparison of preparation techniques for nuclear materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel; Madden, James W.; Miller, Brandon D; Cole, James I; Gan, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Preparation of highly radioactive and irradiated nuclear fuels and materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is conjoined with a set of unique challenges, including but not limited to personnel radiation exposure and contamination. The paper evaluates three specimen preparation techniques for preparation of irradiated materials and determines which technique yields to the most reliable characterization of radiation damage microstructure. Various specimen preparation artifacts associated with each technique are considered and ways of minimizing these artifacts are addressed.

  2. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  3. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluences (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Authors: Schreck, Simon ; Beye, Martin ; Sellberg, Jonas A. ; McQueen, Trevor ; Laksmono, Hartawan ; Kennedy, Brian ; Eckert, Sebastian ; Schlesinger, Daniel ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Ogasawara, Hirohito ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Segtnan,

  4. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  5. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  6. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  7. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  8. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  9. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  10. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution

  11. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  12. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  13. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  14. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the highest resolution-11 to 13 nanometers (billionths of a meter)-ever obtained with this method for biological specimens. Their success indicates that full 3-D tomography of whole cells at equivalent resolution should soon be possible. The National Center for X-Ray Tomography at ALS Beamline 2.1 images

  15. Studying The Kinetics Of Crystalline Silicon Nanoparticle Lithiation With In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Ryu, Ill; Lee, Seokwoo; Wang, Chong M.; Nix, William D.; Cui, Yi

    2012-11-27

    Silicon is an attractive high-capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries, but a comprehensive understanding of the massive ~300% volume change and fracture during lithiation/delithiation is necessary to reliably employ Si anodes. Here, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the lithiation of crystalline Si nanoparticles reveals that the reaction slows down as it progresses into the particle interior. Analysis suggests that this behavior is due to the influence of mechanical stress at the reaction front on the driving force for the reaction. These experiments give insight into the factors controlling the kinetics of this unique reaction.

  16. Visualizing non-equilibrium lithiation of spinel oxide via in situ transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Kai; Zhang, Sen; Li, Jing; Yu, Xiqian; Meng, Qingping; Zhu, Yizhou; Hu, Enyuan; Sun, Ke; Yun, Hongseok; Yang, Xiao -Qing; et al

    2016-05-09

    In this study, spinel transition metal oxides are an important class of materials that are being considered as electrodes for lithium-ion batteries, due to their low cost and high theoretical capacity. The lithiation of these compounds is known to undergo a two-step reaction, whereby intercalation and conversion occur in a sequential fashion. These two reactions are known to have distinct reaction dynamics, but it is unclear how the kinetics of these processes affect the overall electrochemical response. Here, we explore the lithiation of nanosized magnetite (Fe3O4) by employing a new strain-sensitive, bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy approach.

  17. Defects in paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO films studied by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovacs, Andras; Ney, A.; Duchamp, Martial; Ney, V.; Boothroyd, Chris; Galindo, Pedro L.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal

    2013-12-23

    We have studied planar defects in epitaxial Co:ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al2O3) and the Co:ZnO/Al2O3 interface structure at atomic resolution using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Comparing Co:ZnO samples deposited by pulsed laser deposition and reactive magnetron sputtering, both exhibit extrinsic stacking faults, incoherent interface structures, and compositional variations within the first 3-4 Co:ZnO layers at the interface.. In addition, we have measured the local strain which reveals the lattice distortion around the stacking faults.

  18. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-04-18

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  19. Characterization of aluminum oxide tunnel barriers by combining transport measurements and transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aref, T.; Averin, A.; Nguyend, H. Q.; Pekola, J. P.; Dijken, S. van; Yao, L. D.; Ferring, A.; Koberidze, M.; Nieminen, R. M.

    2014-08-21

    We present two approaches for studying the uniformity of a tunnel barrier. The first approach is based on measuring single-electron and two-electron tunneling in a hybrid single-electron transistor. Our measurements indicate that the effective area of a conduction channel is about one order of magnitude larger than predicted by theoretical calculations. With the second method, transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that variations in the barrier thickness are a plausible explanation for the larger effective area and an enhancement of higher order tunneling processes.

  20. Structural defects in GaN revealed by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna

    2014-09-08

    This paper reviews the various types of structural defects observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy in GaN heteroepitaxial layers grown on foreign substrates and homoepitaxial layers grown on bulk GaN substrates. The structural perfection of these layers is compared to the platelet self-standing crystals grown by High Nitrogen Pressure Solution. Defects in undoped and Mg doped GaN are discussed. Lastly, some models explaining the formation of inversion domains in heavily Mg doped layers that are possible defects responsible for the difficulties of p-doping in GaN are also reviewed.

  1. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  2. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be reconstructed by a single Fourier transform; this is known as Fourier transform holography. The problem of getting sufficiently coherent x-rays onto and off of the sample in a...

  4. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  5. X-ray image intensifier phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-12-01

    Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

  6. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography Authors: Chapman, H.N., Fromme, P., Barty, A., White, T.A., Kirian, R.A., Aquila, A., Hunter, M.S., Schulz, J., DePonte, D.P.,...

  7. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  8. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  9. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  10. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  11. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

  12. Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow...

  13. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  14. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  15. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  16. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy...

  17. Biological Applications and Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian G. Trewyn

    2006-05-01

    The research presented and discussed within involves the development of novel biological applications of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) and an investigation of mesoporous material by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mesoporous silica nanoparticles organically functionalized shown to undergo endocytosis in cancer cells and drug release from the pores was controlled intracellularly and intercellularly. Transmission electron microscopy investigations demonstrated the variety of morphologies produced in this field of mesoporous silica nanomaterial synthesis. A series of room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) containing mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials with various particle morphologies, including spheres, ellipsoids, rods, and tubes, were synthesized. By changing the RTIL template, the pore morphology was tuned from the MCM-41 type of hexagonal mesopores to rotational moire type of helical channels, and to wormhole-like porous structures. These materials were used as controlled release delivery nanodevices to deliver antibacterial ionic liquids against Escherichia coli K12. The involvement of a specific organosiloxane function group, covalently attached to the exterior of fluorescein doped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (FITC-MSN), on the degree and kinetics of endocytosis in cancer and plant cells was investigated. The kinetics of endocystosis of TEG coated FITC-MSN is significantly quicker than FITC-MSN as determined by flow cytometry experiments. The fluorescence confocal microscopy investigation showed the endocytosis of TEG coated-FITC MSN triethylene glycol grafted fluorescein doped MSN (TEG coated-FITC MSN) into both KeLa cells and Tobacco root protoplasts. Once the synthesis of a controlled-release delivery system based on MCM-41-type mesoporous silica nanorods capped by disulfide bonds with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was completed. The material was characterized by general methods and the dosage and kinetics of the antioxidant dependent release was measured. Finally, the biological interaction of the material was determined along with TEM measurements. An electron investigation proved that the pore openings of the MSN were indeed blocked by the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The biological interaction investigation demonstrated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-capped MSN endocytosis into HeLa cells. Not only does the material enter the cells through endocytosis, but it seems that fluorescein was released from the pores most probably caused by disulfide bond reducing molecules, antioxidants. In addition to endocytosis and release, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-capped MSN propelled the cells across a cuvette upon induction of a magnet force. Finally, an important aspect of materials characterization is transmission electron microscopy. A TEM investigation demonstrated that incorporating different functional groups during the synthesis (co-condensation) changed the particle and pore morphologies.

  18. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression ...

  19. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ... September 3, 2016 Title: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ...

  20. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko ...

  1. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ...

  2. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  3. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  4. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sprays X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ... More Documents & Publications X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of ...

  5. Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Biological Systems Title: Elemental and Chemically Specific X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of ...

  6. Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicros...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray transmissionmicroscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of magnetic microstructures with soft x-ray ...

  7. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient ...

  8. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  9. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  10. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  11. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue lens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Conley, Raymond; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Macrander, Albert; Maser, Jorg; Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth; Harder, Ross; et al

    2015-05-04

    We report on the fabrication and the characterization of a wedged multilayer Laue lens for x-ray nanofocusing. The lens was fabricated using a sputtering deposition technique, in which a specially designed mask was employed to introduce a thickness gradient in the lateral direction of the multilayer. X-ray characterization shows an efficiency of 27% and a focus size of 26 nm at 14.6 keV, in a good agreement with theoretical calculations. These results indicate that the desired wedging is achieved in the fabricated structure. We anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers andmoreenrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy.less

  12. X-ray tomographic image magnification process, system and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinney, John H.; Bonse, Ulrich K.; Johnson, Quintin C.; Nichols, Monte C.; Saroyan, Ralph A.; Massey, Warren N.; Nusshardt, Rudolph

    1993-01-01

    A computerized three-dimensional x-ray tomographic microscopy system is disclosed, comprising: a) source means for providing a source of parallel x-ray beams, b) staging means for staging and sequentially rotating a sample to be positioned in the path of the c) x-ray image magnifier means positioned in the path of the beams downstream from the sample, d) detecting means for detecting the beams after being passed through and magnified by the image magnifier means, and e) computing means for analyzing values received from the detecting means, and converting the values into three-dimensional representations. Also disclosed is a process for magnifying an x-ray image, and apparatus therefor.

  13. X-ray tomographic image magnification process, system and apparatus therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinney, J.H.; Bonse, U.K.; Johnson, Q.C.; Nichols, M.C.; Saroyan, R.A.; Massey, W.N.; Nusshardt, R.

    1993-09-14

    A computerized three-dimensional x-ray tomographic microscopy system is disclosed, comprising: (a) source means for providing a source of parallel x-ray beams, (b) staging means for staging and sequentially rotating a sample to be positioned in the path of the (c) x-ray image magnifier means positioned in the path of the beams downstream from the sample, (d) detecting means for detecting the beams after being passed through and magnified by the image magnifier means, and (e) computing means for analyzing values received from the detecting means, and converting the values into three-dimensional representations. Also disclosed is a process for magnifying an x-ray image, and apparatus therefor. 25 figures.

  14. Nucleation of diamond by pure carbon ion bombardment--a transmission electron microscopy study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, Y.; Liao, M.Y.; Wang, Z.G.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S.

    2005-08-08

    A cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study of a film deposited by a 1 keV mass-selected carbon ion beam onto silicon held at 800 deg. C is presented. Initially, a graphitic film with its basal planes perpendicular to the substrate is evolving. The precipitation of nanodiamond crystallites in upper layers is confirmed by HRTEM, selected area electron diffraction, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nucleation of diamond on graphitic edges as predicted by Lambrecht et al. [W. R. L. Lambrecht, C. H. Lee, B. Segall, J. C. Angus, Z. Li, and M. Sunkara, Nature, 364 607 (1993)] is experimentally confirmed. The results are discussed in terms of our recent subplantation-based diamond nucleation model.

  15. Rendering graphene supports hydrophilic with non-covalent aromatic functionalization for transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantelic, Radosav S., E-mail: pantelic@imbb.forth.gr [National Cancer Institute, 50 South Drive, Building 50, Room 4306, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Fu, Wangyang; Schoenenberger, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel CH-4056 (Switzerland); Stahlberg, Henning [Center for Cellular Imaging and NanoAnalytics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 26, WRO-1058, Basel CH-4058 (Switzerland)

    2014-03-31

    Amorphous carbon films have been routinely used to enhance the preparation of frozen-hydrated samples for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), either in retaining protein concentration, providing mechanical stability or dissipating sample charge. However, strong background signal from the amorphous carbon support obstructs that of the sample, and the insulating properties of thin amorphous carbon films preclude any efficiency in dispersing charge. Graphene addresses the limitations of amorphous carbon. Graphene is a crystalline material with virtually no phase or amplitude contrast and unparalleled, high electrical carrier mobility. However, the hydrophobic properties of graphene have prevented its routine application in Cryo-TEM. This Letter reports a method for rendering graphene TEM supports hydrophilica convenient approach maintaining graphene's structural and electrical properties based on non-covalent, aromatic functionalization.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum: effects of irradiation on material microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranwal, R. and Burke, M.G.

    2003-03-03

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the effects of irradiation on material microstructure. This work describes the results-to-date from TEM characterization of unirradiated and irradiated ODS molybdenum. The general microstructure of the unirradiated material consists of fine molybdenum grains (< 5 {micro}m average grain size) with numerous low angle boundaries and isolated dislocation networks. 'Ribbon'-like lanthanum oxides are aligned along the working direction of the product form and are frequently associated with grain boundaries, serving to inhibit grain boundary and dislocation movement. In addition to the 'ribbons', discrete lanthanum oxide particles have also been detected. After irradiation, the material is characterized by the presence of nonuniformly distributed large ({approx} 20 to 100 nm in diameter), multi-faceted voids, while the molybdenum grain size and oxide morphology appear to be unaffected by irradiation.

  17. Dynamics of soft Nanomaterials captured by transmission electron microscopy in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proetto, Maria T.; Rush, Anthony M.; Chien, Miao-Ping; Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Patterson, Joseph P.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Olson, Norman H.; Moore, Curtis E.; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Andolina, Christopher; Millstone, Jill; Howell, Stephen B.; Browning, Nigel D.; Evans, James E.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2014-01-14

    In this paper we present in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of soft, synthetic nanoparticles with a comparative analysis using conventional TEM methods. This comparison is made with the simple aim of describing what is an unprecedented example of in situ imaging by TEM. However, we contend the technique will quickly become essential in the characterization of analogous systems, especially where dynamics are of interest in the solvated state. In this case, particles were studied which were obtained from the direct polymerization of an oxaliplatin analog, designed for an ongoing program in novel chemotherapeutic delivery systems. The resulting nanoparticles provided sufficient contrast for facile imaging in situ, and point toward key design parameters that enable this new characterization approach for organic nanomaterials. We describe the preparation of the synthetic micellar nanoparticles to- gether with their characterization in liquid water.

  18. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigmentparticles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu Y. S.; Chen B.; Zhang F.; Berenguer F.; Bean R.; Kewish C.; Vila-Comamala J.; Rodenburg J.; Robinson I.

    2011-10-19

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.

  19. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  20. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  1. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  2. X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links: May 2005 Headlines TIP Article Press Release Walters Art Museum SSRL Home Page SLAC Home Page Stanford Home Page Tuesday, 31 May 2005 X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text (contact: Uwe Bergmann, bergmann@slac.stanford.edu) Archimedes Figure Image provided by Will Noel, The Walters Art Museum An early transcription of Archimedes' mathematical theories has been brought to light through the probing of high-intensity x-rays at SSRL's BL6-2. The text contains part of the Method of

  3. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich ; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  4. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  5. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  6. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grush, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  7. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  8. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  9. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  10. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  11. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  12. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor X-10 Graphite Reactor When President Roosevelt in December 1942 authorized the Manhattan Project, the Oak Ridge site in eastern Tennessee had already been obtained and plans laid for an air-cooled experimental pile, a pilot chemical separation plant, and support facilities. The X-10 Graphite Reactor, designed and built in ten months, went into operation on November 4, 1943. The X-10 used neutrons emitted in the fission of uranium-235 to convert

  13. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Help Table of Contents Basic Search Advanced Search - Term searching - PI Lookup - Institution Lookup - Research Area Code Lookup - Project Term Searching Search Tips - General - Case sensitivity - Drop-down menus - Wildcard operators - Phrase/adjacent term searching - Boolean Search Results - Results - Sorting - Using the check box - Project Records - Download Search Results - Printing Technical Requirements Basic Search Enter your search term (s) in the search box and your search will be

  14. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reconstructions were obtained from eight angular orientations of the cell at 1 rotation intervals. The good agreement between the independently recovered structures provides...

  15. X-ray ptychography, fluorescence microscopy combo sheds new light...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers win two R&D 100 Awards November 16, 2015 Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on...

  16. X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: Science and Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fields: Biology and Life Sciences Environmental Sciences Materials Science Nanoscience Optics and Fundamental Physics Our research often employs the following techniques: Coherent...

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    objects opaque to visible light, and tomographic techniques related to those used in CAT scans give access to three-dimensional images. The rub is that lenses that can focus x...

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    after passage through the cell. The phase information is represented as hue (see color map at left) and the magnitude as brightness. The labels indicate the nucleus (N),...

  19. Simultaneous cryo x-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attached therapeutic or diagnostic agents, help elucidate the roles of trace metals in cell development, and further the study of diseases where trace metal misregulation is...

  20. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  1. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  2. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  3. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  4. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H.; Downing, K.; Huang, X.; Kirz, J.; Marchesini, S.; Nelson, J.; Shapiro, D.; Steinbrener, J.; Stewart, A.; Jacobsen, C.

    2009-09-01

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore » using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  5. Defects in paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO films studied by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovcs, A.; Duchamp, M.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; Ney, A.; Ney, V.; Galindo, P. L.; Kaspar, T. C.; Chambers, S. A.

    2013-12-28

    We study planar defects in epitaxial Co:ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), as well as the Co:ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface, using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Co:ZnO samples that were deposited using pulsed laser deposition and reactive magnetron sputtering are both found to contain extrinsic stacking faults, incoherent interface structures, and compositional variations within the first 34 Co:ZnO layers next to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The stacking fault density is in the range of 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3}. We also measure the local lattice distortions around the stacking faults. It is shown that despite the relatively high density of planar defects, lattice distortions, and small compositional variation, the Co:ZnO films retain paramagnetic properties.

  6. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic electrolyte observed in situ via transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leenheer, Andrew Jay; Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh; Zavadil, Kevin Robert; Sullivan, John P.; Harris, Charles Thomas

    2015-03-18

    Electrodeposited metallic lithium is an ideal negative battery electrode, but nonuniform microstructure evolution during cycling leads to degradation and safety issues. A better understanding of the Li plating and stripping processes is needed to enable practical Li-metal batteries. Here we use a custom microfabricated, sealed liquid cell for in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to image the first few cycles of lithium electrodeposition/dissolution in liquid aprotic electrolyte at submicron resolution. Cycling at current densities from 1 to 25 mA/cm2 leads to variations in grain structure, with higher current densities giving a more needle-like, higher surface area deposit. The effectmore » of the electron beam was explored, and it was found that, even with minimal beam exposure, beam-induced surface film formation could alter the Li microstructure. The electrochemical dissolution was seen to initiate from isolated points on grains rather than uniformly across the Li surface, due to the stabilizing solid electrolyte interphase surface film. As a result, we discuss the implications for operando STEM liquid-cell imaging and Li-battery applications.« less

  8. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I.; Morris, Christopher L.

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  9. Sample holder for X-ray diffractometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hesch, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    A sample holder for use with X-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

  10. Aberration-corrected X-ray spectrum imaging and Fresnel contrast to differentiate nanoclusters and cavities in helium-irradiated alloy 14YWT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Michael K; Parish, Chad M

    2014-01-01

    Helium accumulation negatively impacts structural materials used in neutron-irradiated environments, such as fission and fusion reactors. Next-generation fission and fusion reactors will require structural materials, such as steels, resistant to large neutron doses yet see service temperatures in the range most affected by helium embrittlement. Previous work has indicated the difficulty of experimentally differentiating nanometer-sized helium bubbles from the Ti-Y-O rich nanoclustsers (NCs) in radiation-tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Because the NCs are expected to sequester helium away from grain boundaries and reduce embrittlement, experimental methods to study simultaneously the NC and bubble populations are needed. In this study, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results combining high-collection-efficiency X-ray spectrum images (SIs), multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA), and Fresnel-contrast bright-field STEM imaging have been used for such a purpose. Results indicate that Fresnel-contrast imaging, with careful attention to TEM-STEM reciprocity, differentiates bubbles from NCs, and MVSA of X-ray SIs unambiguously identifies NCs. Therefore, combined Fresnel-contrast STEM and X-ray SI is an effective STEM-based method to characterize helium-bearing NFAs.

  11. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  12. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of ...

  13. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322...

  14. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  15. Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

  16. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can be controlled by varying the properties of the optical control beam. Problems arise, however, when the probe pulse lies in the x-ray regime because x rays interact...

  17. X-ray Science Division (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD Groups XSD Safety and Training XSD Strategic Plan XSD Visitor Program XSD Intranet X-ray Science Division (XSD) XSD enables world-class research using x-rays by developing...

  18. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in...

  19. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray ...

  20. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray crystallographic ...

  1. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Abstract not provided. Authors: Fournier, K. B. 1 + ...

  2. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  3. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-24

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  4. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  5. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  6. High-performance soft x-ray spectromicroscopy beamline at SSRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue Chaofan; Wang Yong; Guo Zhi; Wu Yanqing; Zhen Xiangjun; Chen Min; Chen Jiahua; Xue Song; Tai Renzhong; Peng Zhongqi; Lu Qipeng

    2010-10-15

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is the first third-generation synchrotron facility in China and operated at an electron energy of 3.5 GeV. One of the seven beamlines in the first construction phase is devoted to soft x-ray spectromicroscopy and is equipped with an elliptically polarized undulator light source, a plane grating monochromator, and a scanning transmission x-ray microscope end station. Initial results reveal the high performance of this beamline, with an energy resolving power estimated to be over 10 000 at the argon L-edge and a spatial resolution better than 30 nm.

  7. Microscopy (XSD-MIC) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microdiffraction, fluorescence tomography, coherent diffraction, and synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM) This website is intended to provide useful...

  8. High efficiency replicated x-ray optics and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M.; Hoffman, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Replicated x-ray optics are fabricated by sputter deposition of reflecting layers on a super-polished reusable mandrel. The reflecting layers are strengthened by a supporting multilayer that results in stronger stress-relieved reflecting surfaces that do not deform during separation from the mandrel. The supporting multilayer enhances the ability to part the replica from the mandrel without degradation in surface roughness. The reflecting surfaces are comparable in smoothness to the mandrel surface. An outer layer is electrodeposited on the supporting multilayer. A parting layer may be deposited directly on the mandrel before the reflecting surface to facilitate removal of the layered, tubular optic device from the mandrel without deformation. The inner reflecting surface of the shell can be a single layer grazing reflection mirror or a resonant multilayer mirror. The resulting optics can be used in a wide variety of applications, including lithography, microscopy, radiography, tomography, and crystallography.

  9. On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelz, Philipp M.; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Johnson, Ian; Holler, Mirko; Menzel, Andreas; Thibault, Pierre

    2014-12-22

    With the increasing importance of nanotechnology, the need for reliable real-time imaging of mesoscopic objects with nanometer resolution is rising. For X-ray ptychography, a scanning microscopy technique that provides nanometric resolution on extended fields of view, and the settling time of the scanning system is one of the bottlenecks for fast imaging. Here, we demonstrate that ptychographic on-the-fly scans, i.e., collecting diffraction patterns while the sample is scanned with constant velocity, can be modelled as a state mixture of the probing radiation and allow for reliable image recovery. Characteristics of the probe modes are discussed for various scan parameters, and the application to significantly reducing the scanning time is considered.

  10. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  11. Multimodality hard-x-ray imaging of a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Hanfei; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Lauer, Kenneth R.; Huang, Xiaojing; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Yusuf, Mohammed; Robinson, Ian K.; Kalbfleisch, Sebastian; Li, Li; et al

    2016-02-05

    Here, we developed a scanning hard x-ray microscope using a new class of x-ray nano-focusing optic called a multilayer Laue lens and imaged a chromosome with nanoscale spatial resolution. The combination of the hard x-ray's superior penetration power, high sensitivity to elemental composition, high spatial-resolution and quantitative analysis creates a unique tool with capabilities that other microscopy techniques cannot provide. Using this microscope, we simultaneously obtained absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast images of Pt-stained human chromosome samples. The high spatial-resolution of the microscope and its multi-modality imaging capabilities enabled us to observe the internal ultra-structures of a thick chromosome without sectioningmore » it.« less

  12. Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, T.; Padmore, H.; Ade, H.; Hitchcock, A.P.; Rightor, E.G.; Tonner, B.P.

    1996-08-01

    Several third generation synchrotron radiation facilities are now operational and the high brightness of these photon sources offers new opportunities for x-ray microscopy. Well developed synchrotron radiation spectroscopy techniques are being applied in new instruments capable of imaging the surface of a material with a spatial resolution smaller than one micron. There are two aspects to this. One is to further the field of surface science by exploring the effects of spatial variations across a surface on a scale not previously accessible to x-ray measurements. The other is to open up new analytical techniques in materials science using x-rays, on a spatial scale comparable to that of the processes or devices to be studied. The development of the spectromicroscopy program at the Advanced Light Source will employ a variety of instruments, some are already operational. Their development and use will be discussed, and recent results will be presented to illustrate their capabilities.

  13. Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-29

    The Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector software requires a digital x-ray image of a pipe as input to the program, such as the image in Attachment A Figure 1. The image may be in a variety of software formats such as bitmap, jpeg, tiff, DICOM or DICONDE. The software allows the user to interactively select a region of interest from the image for analysis. This software is used to analyze digital x-ray images of pipes tomore » evaluate loss of wall thickness. The software specifically provides tools to analyze the image in (a) the pipe walls, (b) between the pipe walls. Traditional software uses only the information at the pipe wall while this new software also evaluates the image between the pipewalls. This makes the inspection process faster, more thorough, more efficient, and reduces expensive reshots. Attachment A Figure 2 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user around an anomaly in the pipe wall. This area is automatically analyzed by the external pipe wall tool with the result shown in Attachment A Figure 3. The edges of the pipe wall are detected and highlighted in yellow and areas where the wall thickness in less the the minimum wall threshold are shown in red. These measurements are typically made manually in other software programs, which lead to errors and inconsistency because the location of the edges are estimated by the user. Attachment A Figure 4 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user between the pipe walls. As can be seen there are intensity anomalies that correspond to wall defects. However, this information is not used directly by other software programs. In order to fully investigate these anomalies, the pipe would be reinspected in a different orientation to attempt to obtain a view of the anomaly in the pipe wall rather than the interior of the pipe. The pipe may need to be x-rayed a number of times to obtain the correct orientation. This is very costly and time consuming. The new software can perform the analysis directly on the intensity information in the original image. Figures 5 through 9 in Attachment A show wall defects in red for various percents of wall thickness loss. For example, Figure 5 show defects (in red) where the wall thickness is 95% or less than the nominal wall thickness (or a 5% or greater wall thickness loss). Wall thicknesses can be given in absolute terms as well.« less

  14. Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-28

    The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,more » we assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.« less

  15. Subject: Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance Statement: This lesson learned involves an Ames Laboratory x-ray system. Prior to starting x- ray experiments checking the operability of safety interlocks and x-ray shutter systems will decrease the likelihood of an unplanned exposure incident. Discussion: At the end of a sample run the shutter for an x-ray system at the Ames Laboratory did not close automatically as expected. The researcher followed the approved safety procedures and did not access

  16. Real-time Studies of Shocked Polycrystalline Materials with Single-Pulse X-ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dane V. Morgan

    2011-05-25

    Characteristic K-α x-rays used for single-pulse XRD are conventionally produced by a 37-stage high-voltage Marx pulse generator coupled to a vacuum needle-and-washer x-ray diode via coaxial transmission line. A large field-of-view x-ray image plate detection system typically enables observation of several Debye-Scherrer rings. Recently, we have developed a fiber-optic reducer, coupled to a CCD camera, to obtain low-noise, large field-of-view images. The direct beam spot is produced by bremsstrahlung radiation attenuated by a twomillimeter tungsten beam stop. Determination of the direct beam position is necessary to perform the ring integration.

  17. ISMabs: A COMPREHENSIVE X-RAY ABSORPTION MODEL FOR THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatuzz, E.; Mendoza, C.; García, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Gorczyca, T. W. E-mail: claudio@ivic.gob.ve E-mail: timothy.r.kallman@nasa.gov

    2015-02-10

    We present an X-ray absorption model for the interstellar medium, to be referred to as ISMabs, that takes into account both neutral and ionized species of cosmically abundant elements, and includes the most accurate atomic data available. Using high-resolution spectra from eight X-ray binaries obtained with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer, we proceed to benchmark the atomic data in the model particularly in the neon K-edge region. Compared with previous photoabsorption models, which solely rely on neutral species, the inclusion of ions leads to improved spectral fits. Fit parameters comprise the column densities of abundant contributors that allow direct estimates of the ionization states. ISMabs is provided in the appropriate format to be implemented in widely used X-ray spectral fitting packages such as XSPEC, ISIS, and SHERPA.

  18. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  19. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for minitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

  20. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  1. Scanning Tranmission X-ray Microscopic Analysis of Purifed Melanosomes of the Mouse Iris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson,M.; Haraszti, T.; Peterson, G.; Wirick, S.; Jacobsen, C.; John, S.; Grunze, M.

    2006-01-01

    Melanosomes are specialized intracellular membrane bound organelles that produce and store melanin pigment. The composition of melanin and distribution of melanosomes determine the color of many mammalian tissues, including the hair, skin, and iris. However, the presence of melanosomes within a tissue carries potentially detrimental risks related to the cytotoxic indole-quinone intermediates produced during melanin synthesis. In order to study melanosomal molecules, including melanin and melanin-related intermediates, we have refined methods allowing spectromicroscopic analysis of purified melanosomes using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. Here, we present for the first time absorption data for melanosomes at the carbon absorption edge ranging from 284 to 290 eV. High-resolution images of melanosomes at discrete energies demonstrate that fully melanized mature melanosomes are internally non-homogeneous, suggesting the presence of an organized internal sub-structure. Spectra of purified melanosomes are complex, partially described by a predominating absorption band at 288.4 eV with additional contributions from several minor bands. Differences in these spectra were detectable between samples from two strains of inbred mice known to harbor genetically determined melanosomal differences, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, and are likely to represent signatures arising from biologically relevant and tractable phenomena.

  2. Gray scale x-ray mask

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Gonzales, Marcela

    2006-03-07

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

  3. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  4. Quantitative Phase Composition of TiO2-Coated Nanoporous-Au Monoliths by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy and Correlations to Catalytic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Wichmann, Andre; Wittstock, Arne; Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Ye, Jianchao; Willey, Trevor M.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; van Buuren, Tony; Biener, Juergen; Baumer, Marcus; et al

    2014-02-03

    Porous titania/metal composite materials have many potential applications in the fields of green catalysis, energy harvesting, and storage in which both the overall morphology of the nanoporous host material and the crystallographic phase of the titania (TiO 2) guest determine the material’s performance. New insights into the structure–function relationships of these materials were obtained by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy that, for example, provides quantitative crystallographic phase composition from ultrathin, nanostructured titania films, including sensitivity to amorphous components. We demonstrate that crystallographic phase, morphology, and catalytic activity of TiO 2-functionalized nanoporous gold (np-Au) can be controlled by amore » simple annealing procedure (T < 1300 K). The material was prepared by atomic layer deposition of ~2 nm thick TiO2 on millimeter-sized samples of np-Au (40–50 nm mean ligament size) and catalytically investigated with respect to aerobic CO oxidation. Moreover, the annealing-induced changes in catalytic activity are correlated with concurrent morphology and phase changes as provided by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy.« less

  5. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M.; Rosen, Mordecai D.

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  6. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  7. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  8. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Seppala, Lynn G.

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  9. Structural evolution and strain induced mixing in Cu–Co composites studied by transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmaier, A.; Aboulfadl, H.; Pfaff, M.; Mücklich, F.; Motz, C.

    2015-02-15

    A Cu–Co composite material is chosen as a model system to study structural evolution and phase formations during severe plastic deformation. The evolving microstructures as a function of the applied strain were characterized at the micro-, nano-, and atomic scale-levels by combining scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy including energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The amount of intermixing between the two phases at different strains was examined at the atomic scale using atom probe tomography as complimentary method. It is shown that Co particles are dissolved in the Cu matrix during severe plastic deformation to a remarkable extent and their size, number, and volume fraction were quantitatively determined during the deformation process. From the results, it can be concluded that supersaturated solid solutions up to 26 at.% Co in a fcc Cu–26 at.% Co alloy are obtained during deformation. However, the distribution of Co was found to be inhomogeneous even at the highest degree of investigated strain. - Highlights: • Structural evolution in a deformed Cu–Co composite is studied on all length scales. • Amount of intermixing is examined by atom-probe tomography. • Supersaturated solid solutions up to 26 at.% Co in Cu are observed.

  10. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  11. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald; He, Fei; Lau, Yue-Ying

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  12. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  13. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  14. 14.05.14 RH Synchrotron X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Throughput Synchrotron X-Ray Experimentation for Combinatorial Phase Matching Gregoire, J. M. et al. High-throughput synchrotron X-ray diffraction for combinatorial phase mapping. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 21, 1262-1268, DOI: 10.1107/s1600577514016488 (2014). Scientific Achievement Development of new synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence methods for rapid characterization of material libraries. Significance & impact First demonstration of prototype facility capable of

  15. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems. Resonant scattering with x-rays allow elemental specificity with magnetic contrast, and coherent light leads to speckle in the scattered pattern due to interference from waves exiting the sample.

  16. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  17. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  18. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc ... Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESUNIVERSITY Country of Publication: United ...

  19. XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids October 22-23, 2011 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA More information...

  20. X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marchesini, Stefano

    2015-03-16

    X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of 50 nm colloidal gold particles, recorded at a wavelength of 2.1 nm.

  1. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Rock Lab Analysis Core Analysis Cuttings Analysis Isotopic...

  2. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme...

  3. Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline...

  4. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances...

  5. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray absorption spectroscopy while...

  6. Stimulated X-Ray Emission for Spectroscopy | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room 108A Speaker: Clemens Weninger, Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems Program Description The recent advance of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs)...

  7. Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Authors: Fromme, P., and Spence, J. C. H. Title: Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein structure determination Source: Current Opinion in ...

  8. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the microscopic world, can have unwanted consequences for the materials they probe. Radiation damage due to x-ray absorption is, for instance, an unwanted consequence of using...

  9. Staff Research Physicist (X-Ray Spectroscopy) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of X-ray spectrometers for high energy density plasma at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, California). In...

  10. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - X-ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diagnostics Diagnostic acronym Diangostic Port location Built and commisioned by Description of function Published references ARIANE Active Readout in a Neutron Environment (gated x-ray imager) 90-89 (but uses DIM) LLNL ARIANE is a gated x-ray detector measuring x-ray output at yields up to ~1E16 neutrons from TCC. ARIANE uses gated MCP technology adapted to operate in this neutron regime by moving the detector to a position just outside of the target chamber wall. ARIANE is typically used

  11. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in ...

  12. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: ...

  13. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray Beamlines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable ...

  14. Normal incidence x-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, M.J.; Romig, A.D. Jr.

    1987-08-05

    An x-ray mirror for both electron column instruments and micro x-ray fluorescence instruments for making chemical, microanalysis comprises a non-planar mirror having, for example, a spherical reflecting surface for x-rays comprised of a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on a substrate and whose layers have a thickness which is a multiple of the wavelength being reflected. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2nm. 4 figs.

  15. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; Stone, Gary F.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  16. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  17. Advances in X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recent advances in high-speed X-ray imaging has shown several distinct behaviors of commercial fuel injectors that cannot be seen with more conventional techniques.

  18. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  19. Electron Microscopy Center Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Center Capabilities ACAT: Argonne Chromatic Aberration-corrected TEM This FEI Titan 80-300 ST has a CEOS Cc/Cs corrector on the imaging side of the column to correct both spherical and chromatic aberrations. The Cc/Cs corrector also provides greatly-improved resolution and signal for energy filtered imaging and EELS. FEI Tecnai F20ST TEM/STEM This premier analytical transmission electron microscope (AEM) has specialized accessories that include an energy-dispersive x-ray

  20. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A.; Rosen, Mordecai D.; Strauss, Moshe

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  1. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using an environmental cell with silicon nitride membrane windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Watanabe, Yoshio; Oji, Hiroshi; Cui, Yi-Tao; Son, Jin-Young

    2015-06-21

    We applied hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to a sample under ambient pressure conditions using an environmental cell with an approximately 24 nm-thick SiN{sub x} membrane window. As a model chemical substance, europium (II) iodide (EuI{sub 2}) sealed in the cell with argon gas was investigated with HAXPES to identify the chemical species present inside the cell. The optical and morphological properties of the sample within the cell were measured with optical and fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. We confirmed the effectiveness of the gas barrier properties of the cell with the SiN{sub x} window and demonstrated its applicability to various other optical and electron measurements as well as HAXPES.

  2. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy for imaging local modulation of strain field in a hetero interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Suhyun Jung, Younheum; Kim, Joong Jung; Lee, Sunyoung; Lee, Haebum; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2014-10-13

    We present an innovative method for characterizing the strain field in three dimensions in a hetero interface. Largely defocused probe scanning transmission electron microscopy (LDP-STEM) was employed for imaging the inhomogeneous strain field in a germanium (Ge) layer deposited on a silicon (Si) substrate. In the LDP-STEM image, Ge-atomic columns that are relaxed or strained to the Si substrate in the Si/Ge hetero interface were observed to be distinguishable, allowing for the qualitative characterization of the coherency of the crystal growth. Our results revealed that the strain field is locally modulated along the in-plane direction in the Si/Ge hetero interface.

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and...

  4. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  5. Soft x-ray submicron imaging detector based on point defects in LiF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Flora, F.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Lai, A.; Marolo, T.; Montereali, R.M.; Murra, D.; Faenov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Nichelatti, E.; Tomassetti, G.; Reale, A.; Reale, L.; Ritucci, A.; Limongi, T.; Palladino, L.; Francucci, M.; Martellucci, S.

    2005-11-15

    The use of lithium fluoride (LiF) crystals and films as imaging detectors for EUV and soft-x-ray radiation is discussed. The EUV or soft-x-ray radiation can generate stable color centers, emitting in the visible spectral range an intense fluorescence from the exposed areas. The high dynamic response of the material to the received dose and the atomic scale of the color centers make this detector extremely interesting for imaging at a spatial resolution which can be much smaller than the light wavelength. Experimental results of contact microscopy imaging of test meshes demonstrate a resolution of the order of 400 nm. This high spatial resolution has been obtained in a wide field of view, up to several mm{sup 2}. Images obtained on different biological samples, as well as an investigation of a soft x-ray laser beam are presented. The behavior of the generated color centers density as a function of the deposited x-ray dose and the advantages of this new diagnostic technique for both coherent and noncoherent EUV sources, compared with CCDs detectors, photographic films, and photoresists are discussed.

  6. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  7. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  8. Magnetic properties and transmission electron microscopy studies of Ni nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanocages and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Chunnian; Zhao Naiqin Shi Chunsheng; Li Jiajun; Li Haipeng

    2008-08-04

    Three types of carbon nanomaterials, including bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes with Ni encapsulated and hollow and Ni catalytic particles filled carbon nanocages, have been prepared by methane catalytic decomposition at a relatively low temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that fascinating fullerene-like Ni-C (graphitic) core-shell nanostructures predominated. Detailed examination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that the walls of bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes with quasi-cone catalytic particles encapsulated consisted of oblique graphene planes with respect to the tube axis. The Ni particles encapsulated in the carbon nanocages were larger than that encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, but the diameters of the cores of hollow carbon nanocages were less than that of Ni particles encapsulated in carbon nanotubes, suggesting that the sizes of catalyst particles played an important role during carbon nanomaterial growth. The magnetic properties of the carbon nanomaterials were measured, which showed relatively large coercive force (H{sub c} = 138.4 O{sub e}) and good ferromagnetism (M{sub r}/M{sub s} = 0.325)

  9. Kinetics of liquid-mediated crystallization of amorphous Ge from multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santala, M. K.; Raoux, S.; Campbell, G. H.

    2015-12-24

    The kinetics of laser-induced, liquid-mediated crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films were studied using multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM), a nanosecond-scale photo-emission transmission electron microscopy technique. In these experiments, high temperature gradients are established in thin amorphous Ge films with a 12-ns laser pulse with a Gaussian spatial profile. The hottest region at the center of the laser spot crystallizes in ~100 ns and becomes nano-crystalline. Over the next several hundred nanoseconds crystallization continues radially outward from the nano-crystalline region forming elongated grains, some many microns long. The growth rate during the formation of these radial grains is measured with time-resolved imaging experiments. Crystal growth rates exceed 10 m/s, which are consistent with crystallization mediated by a very thin, undercooled transient liquid layer, rather than a purely solid-state transformation mechanism. The kinetics of this growth mode have been studied in detail under steady-state conditions, but here we provide a detailed study of liquid-mediated growth in high temperature gradients. Unexpectedly, the propagation rate of the crystallization front was observed to remain constant during this growth mode even when passing through large local temperature gradients, in stark contrast to other similar studies that suggested the growth rate changed dramatically. As a result, the high throughput of multi-frame DTEM provides gives a more complete picture of the role of temperature and temperature gradient on laser crystallization than previous DTEM experiments.

  10. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  11. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  12. Gas mixing system for imaging of nanomaterials under dynamic environments by environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akatay, M. Cem; Zvinevich, Yury; Ribeiro, Fabio H. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov; Baumann, Philipp; Stach, Eric A. E-mail: estach@bnl.gov

    2014-03-15

    A gas mixing manifold system that is capable of delivering a stable pressure stream of a desired composition of gases into an environmental transmission electron microscope has been developed. The system is designed to provide a stable imaging environment upon changes of either the composition of the gas mixture or upon switching from one gas to another. The design of the system is described and the response of the pressure inside the microscope, the sample temperature, and sample drift in response to flow and composition changes of the system are reported.

  13. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  14. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  15. Continuous Flow Cryostat for X-Ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, T.-C.; Linden, Peter J. E. M. van der; Glatzel, Pieter; Lapras, Christophe; Krzyzowski, Michael

    2010-06-23

    A continuous Helium flow cryostat was designed and built by Cryovac GMbH to specifications given by ESRF beamline ID26. The beamline has constructed a high energy resolution X-ray emission spectrometer using multiple spherically bent analyser crystals, together with the sample and detector on a vertical Rowland circle. The double shrouded cryostat has a low profile designed to fit into the spectrometer setup, the lowest detector position allows for a Bragg angle of 85 degrees with a 1 meter diameter Rowland circle. The cryostat has a temperature range of 5 to 300 Kelvin on the sample holder which is cooled by static Helium exchange gas. The cryostat has triple windows for beam entrance, transmission and fluorescence; the latter offers an opening angle of 80 degrees horizontally and 50 degrees vertically. The cryostat can be configured to work in two different operation modes: translation or rotation. The translation mode offers a displacement of 50 mm to accommodate multiple samples on the sample holder. The rotation mode is used for polarisation studies on single crystals.We show recent results obtained on Chromium containing molecular complexes; data collection was done at a temperature of 10 Kelvin to avoid radiation damage.

  16. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and its effects on elemental distributions in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in x-ray fluorescence microanalysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jin, Qiaoling; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Deng, Junjing; Mak, Rachel; Moonier, Nena; et al

    2015-02-23

    Rapidly-frozen hydrated (cryopreserved) specimens combined with cryo-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy provide an ideal approach for investigating elemental distributions in biological cells and tissues. However, because cryopreservation does not deactivate potentially infectious agents associated with Risk Group 2 biological materials, one must be concerned with contamination of expensive and complicated cryogenic x-ray microscopes when working with such materials. We employed ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to decontaminate previously cryopreserved cells under liquid nitrogen, and then investigated its effects on elemental distributions under both frozen hydrated and freeze dried states with x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We show that the contents and distributions of most biologicallymore » important elements remain nearly unchanged when compared with non-ultraviolet-irradiated counterparts, even after multiple cycles of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and cryogenic x-ray imaging. This provides a potential pathway for rendering Risk Group 2 biological materials safe for handling in multiuser cryogenic x-ray microscopes without affecting the fidelity of the results.« less

  17. Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and its effects on elemental distributions in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in x-ray fluorescence microanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Qiaoling; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Ward, Jesse; Deng, Junjing; Mak, Rachel; Moonier, Nena; Jacobsen, Chris; Brody, James P.

    2015-02-23

    Rapidly-frozen hydrated (cryopreserved) specimens combined with cryo-scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy provide an ideal approach for investigating elemental distributions in biological cells and tissues. However, because cryopreservation does not deactivate potentially infectious agents associated with Risk Group 2 biological materials, one must be concerned with contamination of expensive and complicated cryogenic x-ray microscopes when working with such materials. We employed ultraviolet germicidal irradiation to decontaminate previously cryopreserved cells under liquid nitrogen, and then investigated its effects on elemental distributions under both frozen hydrated and freeze dried states with x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We show that the contents and distributions of most biologically important elements remain nearly unchanged when compared with non-ultraviolet-irradiated counterparts, even after multiple cycles of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and cryogenic x-ray imaging. This provides a potential pathway for rendering Risk Group 2 biological materials safe for handling in multiuser cryogenic x-ray microscopes without affecting the fidelity of the results.

  18. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  19. "A Novel Objective for EUV Microscopy and EUV Lithography" Inventors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Novel Objective for EUV Microscopy and EUV Lithography" Inventors ..--.. Manfred Bitter, Kenneth Hill, Philip Efthimion. This invention is a new x-ray scheme for stigmatic...

  20. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25

    This report summarizes a 2011 workshop that addressed the potential role of rapid, time-resolved electron microscopy measurements in accelerating the solution of important scientific and technical problems. A series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Academy of Science workshops have highlighted the critical role advanced research tools play in addressing scientific challenges relevant to biology, sustainable energy, and technologies that will fuel economic development without degrading our environment. Among the specific capability needs for advancing science and technology are tools that extract more detailed information in realistic environments (in situ or operando) at extreme conditions (pressure and temperature) and as a function of time (dynamic and time-dependent). One of the DOE workshops, Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next Generation Instrumentation and Beyond, specifically addressed the importance of electron-based characterization methods for a wide range of energy-relevant Grand Scientific Challenges. Boosted by the electron optical advancement in the last decade, a diversity of in situ capabilities already is available in many laboratories. The obvious remaining major capability gap in electron microscopy is in the ability to make these direct in situ observations over a broad spectrum of fast (µs) to ultrafast (picosecond [ps] and faster) temporal regimes. In an effort to address current capability gaps, EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, organized an Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Workshop, held June 14-15, 2011, with the primary goal to identify the scientific needs that could be met by creating a facility capable of a strongly improved time resolution with integrated in situ capabilities. The workshop brought together more than 40 leading scientists involved in applying and/or advancing electron microscopy to address important scientific problems of relevance to DOE’s research mission. This workshop built on previous workshops and included three breakout sessions identifying scientific challenges in biology, biogeochemistry, catalysis, and materials science frontier areas of fundamental science that underpin energy and environmental science that would significantly benefit from ultrafast transmission electron microscopy (UTEM). In addition, the current status of time-resolved electron microscopy was examined, and the technologies that will enable future advances in spatio-temporal resolution were identified in a fourth breakout session.

  1. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  2. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  3. Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object by use of an X-ray beam having a polychromatic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parham, Christopher; Zhong, Zhong; Pisano, Etta; Connor, Dean; Chapman, Leroy D.

    2010-06-22

    Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using an X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include detecting an image of an object. The method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a single monochromator crystal in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a second X-ray beam having a predetermined energy level is produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beam for transmission of the second X-ray beam through the object and emission from the object as a transmitted X-ray beam. The transmitted X-ray beam can be directed at an angle of incidence upon a crystal analyzer. Further, an image of the object can be detected from a beam diffracted from the analyzer crystal.

  4. Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using multi-beam imaging from an X-ray beam having a polychromatic distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parham, Christopher A; Zhong, Zhong; Pisano, Etta; Connor, Jr., Dean M

    2015-03-03

    Systems and methods for detecting an image of an object using a multi-beam imaging system from an x-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution are disclosed. According to one aspect, a method can include generating a first X-ray beam having a polychromatic energy distribution. Further, the method can include positioning a plurality of monochromator crystals in a predetermined position to directly intercept the first X-ray beam such that a plurality of second X-ray beams having predetermined energy levels are produced. Further, an object can be positioned in the path of the second X-ray beams for transmission of the second X-ray beams through the object and emission from the object as transmitted X-ray beams. The transmitted X-ray beams can each be directed at an angle of incidence upon one or more crystal analyzers. Further, an image of the object can be detected from the beams diffracted from the analyzer crystals.

  5. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a diffraction pattern rather than the total transmission. A specialized two-dimensional imaging detector measures all the scattered x-rays and gives researchers much more...

  6. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffraction pattern rather than the total transmission. A specialized two-dimensional imaging detector measures all the scattered x-rays and gives researchers much more...

  7. Characterization of X-ray generator beam profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Parmeter, John Ethan; Thompson, Kyle Richard

    2013-07-01

    T to compute the radiography properties of various materials, the flux profiles of X-ray sources must be characterized. This report describes the characterization of X-ray beam profiles from a Kimtron industrial 450 kVp radiography system with a Comet MXC-45 HP/11 bipolar oil-cooled X-ray tube. The empirical method described here uses a detector response function to derive photon flux profiles based on data collected with a small cadmium telluride detector. The flux profiles are then reduced to a simple parametric form that enables computation of beam profiles for arbitrary accelerator energies.

  8. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  9. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  10. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  11. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  12. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy study of carbon deposited on the NiO/MgO solid solution catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.H.; Ruckenstein, E.

    1999-05-15

    The carbon deposition due to the CH{sub 4} decomposition at 790 C over NiO/MgO catalysts was investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. While no deposits could be detected over the catalysts with a NiO content smaller than 9.1 wt%, they were detected over the catalysts with NiO contents of 23 and 50 wt%. The carbon deposits are composed of platelets located at distances of about 0.34 nm, corresponding to the graphitic carbon. Various structures of the deposited carbon were observed: (a) carbon consisting of platelets parallel to the surface of the particle, which covers a catalyst particle, (b) nanotubes composed of platelets parallel to their axis, and (c) carbon vortexes consisting of platelets parallel to their axis.

  13. Optimal experimental design for the detection of light atoms from high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonnissen, J.; De Backer, A.; Martinez, G. T.; Van Aert, S.; Dekker, A. J. den; Rosenauer, A.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-08-11

    We report an innovative method to explore the optimal experimental settings to detect light atoms from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images. Since light elements play a key role in many technologically important materials, such as lithium-battery devices or hydrogen storage applications, much effort has been made to optimize the STEM technique in order to detect light elements. Therefore, classical performance criteria, such as contrast or signal-to-noise ratio, are often discussed hereby aiming at improvements of the direct visual interpretability. However, when images are interpreted quantitatively, one needs an alternative criterion, which we derive based on statistical detection theory. Using realistic simulations of technologically important materials, we demonstrate the benefits of the proposed method and compare the results with existing approaches.

  14. Hot-stage transmission electron microscopy study of (Na, K)NbO{sub 3} based lead-free piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shengbo; Xu, Zhengkui; Kwok, K. W.; Chan, Helen L. W.

    2014-07-28

    Hierarchical nanodomains assembled into micron-sized stripe domains, which is believed to be associated with outstanding piezoelectric properties, were observed at room temperature in a typical lead free piezoceramics, (Na{sub 0.52}K{sub 0.48−x})(Nb{sub 0.95−x}Ta{sub 0.05})-xLiSbO{sub 3}, with finely tuned polymorphic phase boundaries (x = 0.0465) by transmission electron microscopy. The evolution of domain morphology and crystal structure under heating and cooling cycles in the ceramic was investigated by in-situ hot stage study. It is found that the nanodomains are irreversibly transformed into micron-sized rectangular domains during heating and cooling cycles, which lead to the thermal instability of piezoelectric properties of the materials.

  15. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designingmore » new nanostructured materials is discussed.« less

  16. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  17. Real-time observation of morphological transformations in II-VI semiconducting nanobelts via environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Rahul; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Krook, Nadia M.; Liu, Wenjing; Berger, Jacob; Stach, Eric A.; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2015-05-01

    It has been observed that wurtzite II–VI semiconducting nanobelts transform into single-crystal, periodically branched nanostructures upon heating. The mechanism of this novel transformation has been elucidated by heating II–VI nanobelts in an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres while observing their structural changes with high spatial resolution. The interplay of surface reconstruction of high-energy surfaces of the wurtzite phase and environment-dependent anisotropic chemical etching of certain crystal surfaces in the branching mechanism of nanobelts has been observed. Understanding of structural and chemical transformations of materials via in situ microscopy techniques and their role in designing new nanostructured materials is discussed.

  18. X-ray driven reaction front dynamics at calcite-water interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laanait, Nouamane; Callagon, Erika Blanca R.; Zhang, Zhan; Sturchio, Neil C.; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul

    2015-09-18

    The interface of minerals with aqueous solutions is central to geochemical reactivity, hosting processes that span multiple spatiotemporal scales. Understanding such processes requires spatially and temporally resolved observations, and experimental controls that precisely manipulate the interfacial thermodynamic state. Using the intense radiation fields of a focused synchrotron X-ray beam, we drove dissolution at the calcite-aqueous interface and simultaneously probed the dynamics of the propagating reaction fronts using surface X-ray microscopy. Evolving surface structures are controlled by the time-dependent solution composition as characterized by a kinetic reaction model. At extreme disequilibria, the onset of reaction front instabilities was observed with velocitiesmore » of >30 nanometers per second. As a result, these instabilities are identified as a signature of transport-limited dissolution of calcite under extreme disequilibrium.« less

  19. X-ray Driven Reaction Front Dynamics at Mineral-Aqueous Interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laanait, Nouamane; Callagon, Erika Blanca R; Zhang, Zhan; Sturchio, N. C.; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The interface of minerals with aqueous solutions is central to geochemical reactivity, hosting processes that span multiple spatiotemporal scales. Understanding such processes requires spatially and temporally resolved observations, and experimental controls that precisely manipulate the interfacial thermodynamic state. Using the intense radiation fields of a focused synchrotron X-ray beam, we drove dissolution at the calcite-aqueous interface and simultaneously probed the dynamics of the propagating reaction fronts using surface X-ray microscopy. Evolving surface structures are controlled by the time-dependent solution composition as characterized by a kinetic reaction model. At extreme disequilibria, the onset of reaction front instabilities was observed with velocitiesmore » of >30 nanometers per second. These instabilities are identified as a signature of transport-limited dissolution of calcite under extreme disequilibrium.« less

  20. MICROANALYSIS OF NY/NJ HARBOR SEDIMENTS USING SYNCHROTRON X-RAY BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JONES,K.W.FENG,H.LANZIROTTI,A.MARINKOVIC,N.ET AL.

    2003-12-31

    Sediments found in the New York/New Jersey Harbor are widely contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds of anthropogenic origin. As a result, the environmental health of the Harbor has deteriorated and the efficient operation of the Port compromised by difficulties in disposing of sediments resulting from maintenance and improvements of navigational channels. Knowledge of the properties of the sediments on a micro-scale is useful in understanding the transport of contaminants through the environment, for developing effective methods for sediment decontamination, and for subsequent beneficial use of the cleaned sediments. We have investigated several properties of these sediments using synchrotron radiation techniques. These include computed microtomography using absorption and fluorescence contrast mechanisms, x-ray microscopy, microbeam x-ray fluorescence, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for measurements of microstructure, distribution of metals on individual sediment particles, and chemical forms of the contaminants on a micrometer scale. Typical results obtained with these techniques are presented.

  1. Kinetics of liquid-mediated crystallization of amorphous Ge from multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Santala, M. K.; Raoux, S.; Campbell, G. H.

    2015-12-24

    The kinetics of laser-induced, liquid-mediated crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films were studied using multi-frame dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM), a nanosecond-scale photo-emission transmission electron microscopy technique. In these experiments, high temperature gradients are established in thin amorphous Ge films with a 12-ns laser pulse with a Gaussian spatial profile. The hottest region at the center of the laser spot crystallizes in ~100 ns and becomes nano-crystalline. Over the next several hundred nanoseconds crystallization continues radially outward from the nano-crystalline region forming elongated grains, some many microns long. The growth rate during the formation of these radial grains is measuredmore » with time-resolved imaging experiments. Crystal growth rates exceed 10 m/s, which are consistent with crystallization mediated by a very thin, undercooled transient liquid layer, rather than a purely solid-state transformation mechanism. The kinetics of this growth mode have been studied in detail under steady-state conditions, but here we provide a detailed study of liquid-mediated growth in high temperature gradients. Unexpectedly, the propagation rate of the crystallization front was observed to remain constant during this growth mode even when passing through large local temperature gradients, in stark contrast to other similar studies that suggested the growth rate changed dramatically. As a result, the high throughput of multi-frame DTEM provides gives a more complete picture of the role of temperature and temperature gradient on laser crystallization than previous DTEM experiments.« less

  2. Note: Sample chamber for in situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of battery materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelliccione, CJ; Timofeeva, EV; Katsoudas, JP; Segre, CU

    2014-12-01

    In situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) provides element-specific characterization of both crystalline and amorphous phases and enables direct correlations between electrochemical performance and structural characteristics of cathode and anode materials. In situ XAS measurements are very demanding to the design of the experimental setup. We have developed a sample chamber that provides electrical connectivity and inert atmosphere for operating electrochemical cells and also accounts for x-ray interactions with the chamber and cell materials. The design of the sample chamber for in situ measurements is presented along with example XAS spectra from anode materials in operating pouch cells at the Zn and Sn K-edges measured in fluorescence and transmission modes, respectively. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  3. A novel solution to the gated x-ray detector gain droop problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J. A. Archuleta, T. N.

    2014-11-15

    Microchannel plate (MCP), microstrip transmission line based, gated x-ray detectors used at the premier ICF laser facilities have a drop in gain as a function of mircostrip length that can be greater than 50% over 40 mm. These losses are due to ohmic losses in a microstrip coating that is less than the optimum electrical skin depth. The electrical skin depth for a copper transmission line at 3 GHz is 1.2 μm while the standard microstrip coating thickness is roughly half a single skin depth. Simply increasing the copper coating thickness would begin filling the MCP pores and limit the number of secondary electrons created in the MCP. The current coating thickness represents a compromise between gain and ohmic loss. We suggest a novel solution to the loss problem by overcoating the copper transmission line with five electrical skin depths (∼6 μm) of Beryllium. Beryllium is reasonably transparent to x-rays above 800 eV and would improve the carrier current on the transmission line. The net result should be an optically flat photocathode response with almost no measurable loss in voltage along the transmission line.

  4. Study of x-ray radiant characteristics and thermal radiation redistribution in CH foam filling cylindrical cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang Wanli; Zhu Tuo; Song Tianming; Zhang Wenhai; Zhao Yang; Xiong Gang; Zhang Jiyan; Yang Jiamin

    2011-04-15

    Experiments are presented, which demonstrate the properties of x-ray radiation and redistribution of radiant thermal energy in high Z cylindrical cavities filled with low Z CH foam. Time integrated spectra records were obtained by a calibrated space-resolved transmission grating spectrometer. The x-ray radiation became weaker in intensity and was changed to a softer near-Planckian radiation light after a 1500 {mu}m long transport in the foam filling cavity. The experimental redistribution of the radiant thermal energy was plotted and compared to the numerical results of a simplified model. Good agreements have been achieved.

  5. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Techniques (Wiley, 2002). 14. Als-Nielsen, J. & McMorrow, D. Elements of Modern X-ray Physics 2nd Ed. 207-237 (Wiley, 2011). 15. Kubby, J. A. (Ed) Adaptive Optics for ...

  6. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: X-ray Adaptive Optics, San Diego, CA, United States, Aug 14 - Aug 14, 2012 ...

  7. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Talin, Albert Alec; Losey, Matthew W.; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  8. X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals Authors: Hunter, M.S., DePonte, D.P., Shapiro, D.A., Kirian, R.A., Wang, X., Starodub, D., Marchesini, S., Weierstall, U.,...

  9. Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron materials Friday, September 14, 2012 - 1:00pm SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Jun-Sik Lee Seminar One of the...

  10. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Lning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely...

  11. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    attoseconds pulse, 1 nm coherent X-ray radiation using a 60 A electron beam out of the linac and 200 nm laser seed. Both the final wavelength and the radiation pulse length in the ...

  12. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscop...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure...

  13. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You Presentation given at DEER ...

  14. X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials June 22, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imaging and data analysis techniques offer new approach to probing material properties In a new...

  15. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vice versa. At the ALS, researchers were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray...

  16. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the...

  17. Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER Citation Details ... Ion-temperature (Ti) And Rotation-velocity (v) Profiles in ITER Imaging x-ray crystal ...

  18. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the XMLD signal across the Ni L2,3 edges was determined by rotating the orientation of x-ray polarization E and external magnetic field H relative to the crystalline axes. ...

  19. Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction large-grains The theme of the Nanomechanics and Nanometallurgy of Boundaries project at Sandia National Labs is to ...

  20. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals ...

  1. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1995-01-01

    An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

  2. X-ray mask and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2004-10-26

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which is a contact lithographic mask which can provide an x-ray exposure dose which is adjustable from point-to-point. The tool is useful in the preparation of LIGA plating molds made from PMMA, or similar materials. In particular the tool is useful for providing an ability to apply a graded, or "stepped" x-ray exposure dose across a photosensitive substrate. By controlling the x-ray radiation dose from point-to-point, it is possible to control the development process for removing exposed portions of the substrate; adjusting it such that each of these portions develops at a more or less uniformly rate regardless of feature size or feature density distribution.

  3. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  4. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1995-05-23

    Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

  5. Effect of a synchrotron X-ray microtomography imaging experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of a synchrotron X-ray microtomography imaging experiment on the amino acid content of a CM chondrite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of a synchrotron ...

  6. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many ?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability we??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDD??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detector??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  7. Dose optimization in cardiac x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; McMillan, Catherine; Cowen, Arnold R.; Davies, Andrew G.

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to optimize x-ray image quality to dose ratios in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. This study examined independently the effects of peak x-ray tube voltage (kVp), copper (Cu), and gadolinium (Gd) x-ray beam filtration on the image quality to radiation dose balance for adult patient sizes.Methods: Image sequences of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms representing two adult patient sizes were captured using a modern flat panel detector based x-ray imaging system. Tin and copper test details were used to simulate iodine-based contrast medium and stents/guide wires respectively, which are used in clinical procedures. Noise measurement for a flat field image and test detail contrast were used to calculate the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose measurements were obtained to calculate the figure of merit (FOM), CNR{sup 2}/dose. This FOM determined the dose efficiency of x-ray spectra investigated. Images were captured with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.9 mm Cu filtration and with a range of gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S) filtration.Results: Optimum x-ray spectra were the same for the tin and copper test details. Lower peak tube voltages were generally favored. For the 20 cm phantom, using 2 Lanex Fast Back Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screens as x-ray filtration at 65 kVp provided the highest FOM considering ESD and effective dose. Considering ESD, this FOM was only marginally larger than that from using 0.4 mm Cu at 65 kVp. For the 30 cm phantom, using 0.25 mm copper filtration at 80 kVp was most optimal; considering effective dose the FOM was highest with no filtration at 65 kVp.Conclusions: These settings, adjusted for x-ray tube loading limits and clinically acceptable image quality, should provide a useful option for optimizing patient dose to image quality in cardiac x-ray imaging. The same optimal x-ray beam spectra were found for both the tin and copper details, suggesting that iodine contrast based imaging and visualization of interventional devices could potentially be optimized for dose using similar x-ray beam spectra.

  8. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biological systems from a limited number of crystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Authors: Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin ; Zeldin, Oliver B. ; Lyubimov, Artem Y. ; Hattne, Johan Search SciTech Connect for

  9. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  10. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  11. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    involving shallow core levels (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: Wray, L. Andrew ; Yang, Wanli ; Eisaki, Hiroshi ; Hussain, Zahid ; Chuang, Yi-De Publication Date: 2012-11-19 OSTI Identifier: 1101794 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  12. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Falcone, Roger

    2010-01-08

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  13. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  14. New focusing multilayer structures for X-ray plasma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibishkin, M S; Luchin, V I; Salashchenko, N N; Chernov, V V; Chkhalo, N I; Kazakov, E D; Shevelko, A P

    2008-02-28

    New focusing short-period multilayer structures are developed which opens up wide possibilities for X-ray and VUV spectroscopy. Multilayer structures are deposited on a flat surface of a mica crystal which is then bent to a small-radius cylinder. The use of this structure in a von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray laser plasma diagnostics is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  15. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  16. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  17. Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Techniques | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to

  18. 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Lichterman , M. F. et al. Direct Observation of the Energetics at a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Energy Environ. Sci ., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01014D (2015). Scientific Achievement We demonstrated that the operando XPS technique, applied to a semiconductor/liquid junction, can directly measure the positions of the electronic states of the

  19. Self-cleaning rotating anode X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, Arvydas P.

    1989-01-01

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising an evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof.

  20. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  1. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  2. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  3. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  4. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab

  5. Self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, A.P.

    1987-06-02

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising and evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof. 2 figs.

  6. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Turman, Bobby N. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaye, Ronald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  7. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print Wednesday, 31 October 2012 00:00 The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film

  8. Frontiers in imaging magnetism with polarized x-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fischer, Peter

    2015-01-08

    Although magnetic imaging with polarized x-rays is a rather young scientific discipline, the various types of established x-ray microscopes have already taken an important role in state-of-the-art characterization of the properties and behavior of spin textures in advanced materials. The opportunities ahead will be to obtain in a unique way indispensable multidimensional information of the structure, dynamics and composition of scientifically interesting and technologically relevant magnetic materials.

  9. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning

  10. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Authors: Harpham, M. R. ; Nguyen, S. C. ; Hou, Z. ; Grossman, J. C. ; Harris, C. B. ; Mara, M. W. ; Stickrath, A. B. ; Kanai, Y. ;

  11. A New Scheme for Stigmatic X-ray Imaging with Large Magnification...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    F; Beiersdorfer, P; Wang, E; Sanchez del Rio, M; Caughey, T A 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY X-ray Imaging X-ray Imaging This paper describes a new x-ray scheme for...

  12. Evaluation of partial coherence correction in X-ray ptychography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Parks, Daniel; Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Kevan, Stephen D.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2015-02-23

    Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CDI) and X-ray ptychography both heavily rely on the high degree of spatial coherence of the X-ray illumination for sufficient experimental data quality for reconstruction convergence. Nevertheless, the majority of the available synchrotron undulator sources have a limited degree of partial coherence, leading to reduced data quality and a lower speckle contrast in the coherent diffraction patterns. It is still an open question whether experimentalists should compromise the coherence properties of an X-ray source in exchange for a higher flux density at a sample, especially when some materials of scientific interest are relatively weak scatterers. Amoreprevious study has suggested that in CDI, the best strategy for the study of strong phase objects is to maintain a high degree of coherence of the illuminating X-rays because of the broadening of solution space resulting from the strong phase structures. In this article, we demonstrate the first systematic analysis of the effectiveness of partial coherence correction in ptychography as a function of the coherence properties, degree of complexity of illumination (degree of phase diversity of the probe) and sample phase complexity. We have also performed analysis of how well ptychographic algorithms refine X-ray probe and complex coherence functions when those variables are unknown at the start of reconstructions, for noise-free simulated data, in the case of both real-valued and highly-complex objects.less

  13. X-rays from a microsecond X-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appartaim, R. K.

    2013-08-28

    The characteristics of x-rays emitted by X-pinches driven by discharging a current of ∼320 kA with a quarter period of 1 μs in crossed 25 μm wires have been investigated. The x-ray emissions are studied using filtered silicon photodiodes, diamond radiation detectors, and pinhole cameras. The results show that predominantly x-rays from the microsecond X-pinch tend to be emitted in two distinct sets of bursts. The first is predominantly “soft,” i.e., with photon energy hν < 5 keV, followed by a second set of bursts beginning up to 100 ns following the initial bursts, and usually consisting of higher photon energies. Our results show, however, that the x-ray emissions do not contain a significant component with hν > 10 keV as might be expected from electron beam activity within the plasma or from the X-pinch diode. High-resolution images obtained with the observed x-rays suggest a well-defined small source of soft x-rays that demonstrates the potential of the microsecond X-pinch.

  14. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA)more » laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.« less

  15. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Martin J.; Romig, Jr., Alton D.

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  16. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  17. Transmission

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ~ Transmission ,... ,...vc- "' ""'\ S I r;. Dr. Jerry Pell, CCM Principal NEP A Document Manager Permitting, Siting, and Analysis (OE-20) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability U.S. Department of Energy 1 000 Independence A venue SW Washington, D.C. 20585-0001 Subject: Champlain Hudson Power Express Project Submittal of Amendment Application Dear Dr. Pell: February 28, 2012 On January 25, 2010, Transmission Developers, Inc. ("TDI") submitted on behalf of

  18. Directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography of grain boundary oxidation in a Ni-Al binary alloy exposed to high-temperature water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2013-10-30

    Intergranular oxidation of a Ni-4Al alloy exposed to hydrogenated, high-temperature water was characterized using directly correlated transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. These combined analyses revealed that discrete, well-separated oxides (NiAl2O4) precipitated along grain boundaries in the metal. Aluminum was depleted from the grain boundary between oxides and also from one side of the boundary as a result of grain boundary migration. The discrete oxide morphology, disconnected from the continuous surface oxidation, suggests intergranular solid-state internal oxidation of Al. Keywords: oxidation; grain boundaries; nickel alloys; atom probe tomography; transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  19. Towards three-dimensional and attosecond x-ray imaging at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray wavelength appears desirable to achieve maximal spatial resolution in x-ray diffraction experiments, longer wavelengths turns out to enable the identification of...

  20. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    source for patterned X-ray production Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production Techniques for ...